Transcription

Note

Abstract

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A Voyage to New South Wales

According to previous advertisements, Tenders were received for Transports to carry Convicts to Botany Bay on the Coast of New South Wales & taken up the 12th of Sep.r 1786 in 5 Vessels measuring about 300 Tons more than advertised for: The Berwick Store Ship about that time was taken into Dock at Deptford. it being intended that she should be fitted as a Man of War for this Expedition. The Grantham Packet was purchased into the service to be employed as a Tender, but on examination was found very rotten & totally unfit for the Voyage, in consequence of which, the Supply Navy Transport was ordered to Deptford & fitted in lieu of the Grantham. Three Ships measuring 990 tons were also taken up as Store Ships & stowed under the direction of Cap.n Tier Agent for Transports in the River. The 25th of October the Berwick Storeship was Commissioned & named the Sirius, Cap.n Phillip (the intended Governor of the

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New Colony.) was appointed to the Command of her: The Supply was also commission'd & the command of her given to Lieu.t H.L. Ball. The 28th the Sirius having a few hands began rigging &c from which to the 8th of December we were employed getting ready for Sea, which was much retarded by bad weather & unavoidable delays in being furnish'd with some part of the Stores. The Provisions with which we were supplied were of the best quality, Wheat, Sugar, Essence of Malt, Mustard seed & other articles usually supplied in long Voyages we were also furnish'd with, & an unlimited Order for Officers Stores.

Tuesday. Dec.r 5. Capn Hunter came on board & on the same day, the Officers had directions from Capn Phillip to receive his Orders for carrying
on the duty; the 9th. we sailed down the River & Moored the same afternoon in Long Reach, just off Purfleet, We rec.d our Guns, Powder &c. here & were ready with a Pilot on board the 15th to proceed at the shortest notice. The 15th two of the Transports passed us bound to the Port where their proportion of Convicts were to be embarked, the three Store Ships also passed bound to the Mother bank, the place of Rendezvous, the 21st another of the Transports pass'd; there now remained only two at Gallions (Alexander & Lady Penryhne) both of which were to take in their proportion of Convicts from the Hulk at Woolwich & from Newgate & the Sirius detained at Long Reach to escort them.

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1786
Dec.r
Some alterations were found necessary to be made to the securities already fitted in those ships from the representation of the Officer commanding the party of Marines on board the Alexander, it was also judged necessary to make some alterations in the handcuffs. On the 27th. these Ships were again reported ready but were detained as no Orders had been yet given to discharge any Convicts from the Hulks to these Transports.

The Board of Longitude furnished the following Instruments for the use of the Voyage & new Colony, An Astronomical Quadrant of one foot Radius. A 31/2 feet treble object Glass achromatic telescope by Dolland with a wire Micrometer for measuring diff.ce of R[t]. Ascension & Declination, also a Micrometer with oblique wires & a Quadrant fixed to it with a moveable short Telescope to take the distance of any object (nearly) from bright fixed stars. A Night Glass. An Astronomical Clock. A Journeyman Clock. An Alarum Clock. An Old Sextant by Ramsden. A portable Barometer & two Thermometers. These Instruments Captain Phillip gave a receipt for, promising to return them to the Board (the dangers of the Sea & other unavoidable acccident excepted) at his return or a receipt from such Officer as may supercede him in the Command. Lieu.t Dawes of the Marines a Voluntier for the Botany Bay detachment having been introduced to Dr. Maskelyne the Astronomer Royal, he was acknowledged a proper person to make such observations on shore as might be judged of use.

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1786 . . 1787
Dec.r . . Jan.y
The 24th. The Supply anchored in Long Reach
By Order of the King in Council the Admiralty were to appoint a second Captain to the Sirius, with the Rank of Post Captain & pay of a 6th Rate with 4 servants, with full Power to Command Her in absence of the Principal Captain, but nevertheless subject to his Control & Orders: In consequence of this Cap.n John Hunter was appointed 2nd Cap.n of the Sirius (bearing date 15th Dec.r).

In the beginnning of January. A ship of 350 Tons was taken up the first Tonnage being found very insufficient.

January. 4th. Orders were received at Woolwich for the Convicts to be embarked on board the Alexander but some of them being in a deplorable situation from disease could not be received. A part of the women Convicts were put on board the Lady Penryhne, these ships were still detained, not having their full proportion of Convicts on board.

13th. The Supply sailed for the Nore. The 18th. We received Orders to proceed to Portsmouth with the Alexander & Lady Penryhne as soon as they joined us: These Orders were pleasing to us, & particularly so; as the situation of the Sirius with respect to her being kept in constant readiness for Sea while lying off Purfleet was render'd very precarious being subject in light winds & calm thick weather (which we had much of) to have Vessels driving on board us every Tide; We had several foul

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1787.
January.
of us, one of which carried away the Spritsail yard, which was the only
damage we received from them; The Supply had her Bowsprit carried away by a large ship falling on board her. & which was the cause of her being ordered to the Nore.

The 19th. It was discover'd that some of the Convicts on board the Alexander had got their handcuffs off, what they could promise themselves from such an attempt appears strange, as it would have been impossible for any of them to have effected their escape, with the Guard & precautions used on board that ship had they all been loose in the place of their confinement; They were handcuff'd two together or had chains on, those that were handcuffed were never seperated but obliged to move together upon all occasions.
Between decks, in which these People were confined was guarded by a strong Bulk head abaft with loop holes & filled w nails; Marine Centinels at the hatchway, where a ladder was put down occasionally & when down particularly attended by those Centinels: A Guard Boat also was constantly attending those ships after sunset while at Gallions. The 21st. An Officer was sent from the Sirius to the Alexander (whose Mast heads we could see over the land) to order a signal by which we might be informed when the remainder of the Convicts were embarking & also a signal to let us know when the Alexander was going to get under weigh; the intention of these signals was that the Sirius might

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1787.
Jan.y Feb.y
be unmoored ready to join them as they came down.

25th. Orders were receiv'd to proceed to Portsmouth with [ye] Alexander & Lady Penryhne without waiting for them to compleat their number of Convicts, the wind setting in at East prevented those ships from joining us immediately as order'd; the Lady Penryhne joined us the 28th & went on to Gravesend having occasion to stop there, the 29th the Alexander passed us & proceeded to Gravesend where they had likewise occasion to stop.

Tuesday. 30th. We sailed from Long Reach & passed the Alexander & Lady Penryhne, they not being ready were order'd to follow us to the Nore as soon as possible, in the afternoon we moored at the Nore in 12f.m water, Nore light NWbW. Minster Church sw. Here the Supply joined us from the Little Nore.

February. 1st. The Transports joined us; the Complement of women Convicts had been compleated (104) while at Gravesend.

2nd. The weather was so very unsettled & thick that we could not move till 11 AM when it clearing away with a breeze at WSW, sailed immediately, the Supply Armed Tender, Alexander & Lady Penryhne Transports in Company, it soon falling Calm we Anchor'd between the E.t buoy of the Oaze & W. buoy of the Mouse at the entrance of the Nubb Channel in 9f.m water. The 3rd at 7 AM weigh'd & made sail with the wind at SW & run through the Queen's Channel as soon as the Tide flowed sufficiently. It blowing very strong & it being

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1787
Feb.y
impossible to get into the Downes before night, we Anchored in Margate Road. Sunday. 4th. At 5 AM weigh'd & made sail; at 11 Anchored in the Downes, the wind setting in at SW, Moored the ship. The 5th the wind at SE made the Signal & Unmoored; the Lady Penryhne got under sail & passing near us ask'd permission to go out & Bring too off the Foreland, which was granted on account of her heavy sailing, at 11 AM. we weigh'd with the Supply & Alexander but the wind coming to the So.ward & the flood tide made, we were obliged to Anchor again in the Downes, the Lady Penryhne did not return on our coming to an Anchor altho' near enough to see the Signal plainly.
The 6th, the wind being fix'd at SW.t & the weather having a bad appearance Moored the ship & made every preparation to ride out a Gale of wind which came as expected & blew very strong all the 7th. Sunday. 11th. It again blew a Gale of wind at SSW, the Bt B.r anchor came home, the ship did not bring up 'till both Anchors were ahead; we had a cable & half on the Bt B.r at the time, which gave us reason to suppose that our Anchors were not sufficient for the ship or she would not have started with such a scope of Cable when most of the marchant ships held fast. Tuesday. 13th. The Gale abated & the wind came to WNW, Hove up the S.l B.r & got every thing ready to proceed whenever the wind should favour us: The 15th The wind back'd to the sw & by Noon blew a hard Gale of Wind

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1787
Feb.y
from that Q.r we were again under the necessity of giving the Ship a large scope of Cable & striking every thing close down; several Ships drove this day & the Houghton E.t Indiaman very near us, which obliged us to veer away 2 Cables & let go the S.l Bower to check the ship from [indecipherable word] on board her on the weather side, the Houghton took the first opportunity of the tide making strong to windward to heave both her Anchors up & give us a clear birth.
Saturday 17th Moderate weather, at day light unmoored & got every ready for sailing the moment the wind should favour us; Sunday 18th. Wind at NW moderate breeze weigh'd & made sail but the wind coming to WSW Anchored again. 19th Mod.r Breeze at NW, at 4 AM weigh'd & stood out of the Downes. H.M. armed Tender Supply & Alexander Transport in C.o At 11 the tide being done & falling Calm, anchored off Dungeness, the Lighthouse W1/2S 3 or 4 Miles.
By the mean of 23 good observations taken in the Downes I make the Latitude of the S.o Foreland 51.12'N0. 20th. At 3 PM the tides making to the Wr.ward weigh'd with a light breeze at NW which increased & veered to the N.oward as the evening came on, at 6 passed Dungeness & at day light saw Beachy Head NEbN 6 miles: At Noon Lat. Obs. 50.321/2' Beachy Head NE. 4 leagues. 21st P.M. wind variable with thick weather AM at 9 saw the Isle of Wight the weather clear'd up with a mod.r breeze at NE. Thursday 22nd. At 2 PM Anchored at the Mother bank & Moored immediately; found

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1787
Feb.y . March:
the Scarborough & Lady Penryhne Transports & the 3 Store Ships lying here. Friday. 23rd. The Prince of Wales Transport arrived.
While we lay in the Downes we found it necessary that some alteration should be made in the Hawse peices as the Cables had formerly work'd on the Spar deck with the Windlass & now on the Gun Deck with a Messenger, The shipwrights came on board to make those necessary alterations. The 24th. A party of Marines embarked on board, as did those belonging to the Supply; & that part of the Detachment for the Scarborough Transport.
Friday. March 2nd: 210 Convicts arrived at Portsmouth in Waggons under a Guard of Light Horse, but it blowing a Gale of wind at SW. they could not be taken off to the Transports, they were carried on board the Gorgon lying in Blockhouse Hole, under charge of the Guard ships Boats: Sunday morn.g it became moderate, they were taken to the Motherbank in Sailing Lighters belonging to the Dock Yard & put on board the Alexander & Scarborough Transports. The 8th.
We received 3 Anchors in lieu of the Bowers & Spare Anchor which we had before found very insufficient to ride the Ship in a Gale of wind: the 9th Camp Equipage for 660 Tents were rec.d & distributed to the different Ships. The 15th. the Friendship Transport arrived from Plymouth & the Charlotte the next day both which had taken their proportion of Men & Women Convicts at Plymouth.

The greater part of the Convicts on board the Alexander having been

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1787
March - April.
embarked near 8 months & being rather sickly it was judged necessary that she should be smoked & whitewash'd; for this purpose two deck'd Lighters were furnish'd from the Dock Yard to receive such of the Convicts as it was necessary to remove while it was doing. The 23rd the Essex Hulk was order'd to be fitted to receive those Convicts, but the Alexander being well clean'd, whitewash'd, smoked & spunged with Oil of Tar & the sick recovering fast it was not judged necessary to use a Hulk or even to keep both Lighters, one of which was returned & the other kept for the their being whitewash'd, which number was so trifling that this Lighter was also returned as soon as most of the Alexander's sick had recover'd.

The 24th. Our Complement of Seamen was filled up with Volunteers from the Guard ships.

April. 7. Lord Hood hoisted his Flag on b.d the Triumph in Portsmouth Harbour, saluted d.o with 13 Guns. About this time we were supplied with two Cw.t of Portable Soup in addition to the proportion allowed the Ship (50lb) which altogether was but a small allowance for such a voyage, but small as it was even that was not allowed by the Sick & Hurt Board until an order for that purpose was obtained from the Admiralty. Fresh Beef was supplied for the Convicts & Wine allowed for such of the Sick as the Surgeon might judge necessary. An

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1787.
April. May
additional proportion of Vinegar was allowed to all the Ships & a quantity of Oil of Tar. May 3rd. Two Men Convicts 36 Women w 2 Children arrived at Portsmouth & were immediately embarked.

May. 7th. Captain Phillip arrived at Portsmouth, He brought with him a Timekeeper made by Mr Kendal & a Sextant; both furnish'd by the Board of Longitude for the use of the Voyage. The Timekeeper was sent by an Officer to the Royal Academy at Portsmouth & left in charge of Mr Bayley the Head Master. The 10th We were paid 2 months advance & the signal made to prepare for sailing. The 11th. Waiting only for a wind to carry the ships to sea, an Officer was sent to bring on board the Timekeeper the rate of its going determined by Mr Bayley the 3 days which He had it, lost 1",38 pr day.
The precautions necessary to prevent the Timekeeper from being let down were order'd by Capt Phillip who with Cap.n Hunter or Mr Dawes were always to be present at the winding it at Noon & it was order'd to be the duty of the Lieutenant who brought 12 O'clock to see it done & the Officer who releived him was not to take charge of the deck 'till he was informed that it was done, the Centinel at the Cabin door was also order'd to plant himself inside the Cabin on hearing the Bell ring at Noon & not to go out to be releived until he was told or saw that the Timekeeper was wound up by one of the Officers: The management of the Timekeeper for keeping the Longitude by it was given to

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1787.
 May.
Lieu.t Dawes of the Marines.
Saturday. 12th. His Majesty's Ship Hyaena, Capn DeCourcy joined us at the Motherbank being order'd under our Command & to accompany us a certain distance. AM. Unmoored & weigh'd with a breeze at SE, working to the E.t ward to get round St. Helens before night but the wind failing us toward the evening & the eastern tide done we were obliged to Anchor at Spithead: The Convoy anchor'd as they could between the Motherbank & Spithead.

Sunday. 13th. At 4 AM wind at SE, Weigh'd & made Sail to the W.t ward within the Isle of Wight, In C.o His Maj Ship Hyaena, Armed Tender Supply w.h 6 Transports & 3 Store Ships under Convoy : At 9 were through the Needles, St Catharines open & bearing S1/2E. At Noon S.t Albans Head N25 W.t dis.t 6 Miles.

Botany Bay Establishment

Governor. His Ex.y Arthur Phillip Esq.r
Surveyor of Lands: Augustus Alt
Lieu.t Governor. Rob.t Ross Esq.r
Chaplain. Rev.d Johnson
Judge Advocate. David Collins
Commissary. Andrew Miller
Surgeon General. John White
Provost Martial
D.o Assistants{Wm. Balmain
Parson's Clerk
D.o Assistants{D. Considen
Judge Advocates Clerk
D.o Assistants{Ths. Arundale

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               H:M:S: Sirius, Establishment, Officers & Men

Captain. Arthur Phillip Esq. 1 Pursers Steward 1
2nd Captain. John Hunter Esq. 1 Sailmaker 1
{Wm. Bradley   D.o Mate 1
Lieutenants
{Phillip G. King
3 Coxswain 1
{George W. Maxwell   Boatswains Mates 3
Master Micah Morton 1 Gunners Mates. 2
L.t Marines. W.m Dawes 1 Q.r Gunners 4
Surgeon. George B. Worgan 1 Carpenters Mates 3
Purser. John Palmer 1 . . . . . Crew 6
Boatswain. Thomas Brooks 1 Quarter Masters 6
Gunner . Peter Ross 1  61
Carpenter. Charles Parker 1 Seamen 75
Masters Mates 3 Widows Men 3
Midshipmen 9 Marines, Non-comiss.d}  
Surgeons Mates 2 & Private . . . } 28
Captains Clerk 1 Complement = 160
Master at Arms 1    
Corporal 1Women 
Armourer1 Boatswains Wife1
D.o Mate1 Seamans Wife1
Cook1  2
D.o Mate1   

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                  His Maj. Armed Tender, Supply, Establishment

Commander.
Master
Surgeon Boatswain
Gunner
Carpenter
                   

Contracted Transports, Lieu.t Shortland Agent

[Table not reproduced : see original journal]

Proportion of Men for these Ships were, 6 men & a Boy to the 100 Tons.

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Establishment Marines Botany Bay

[Table not reproduced : see original journal]

Passengers

Lieu.t Watts of the Navy : To take Command of the Lady Penryhne when discharged.
Zac.y Clark: Clerk & agent to the Contractor in England for the Voyage.
Altree & Smith Volunteers on Speculation.
Mrs. Johnson Parsons wife. Broughton Surgeon [indecipherable symbol] servant.

Convicts

Men 561.     Women 192.       Children 13.       = 766

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Distribution of the Marines & Convicts

[Table not reproduced : see original journal]

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1787
May.
The 14th. At Noon Lat:d Obs. 49:581/2' N & Longitude by the Timekeeper 3:42'W.t Start p.t bore NEbN 5 Leag.s: Spoke the Convoy to enquire if they had left any one behind, found that the 3rd Mate of the Charlotte the Provost Martial & 5 of the Crew of the Fishburne were left behind. The 15th at Noon, were off Plymouth Sound, in the evening saw a Frigate standing towards us but being little wind she did not get near enough to speak to us; Nothing material happen'd till the 21.st on which day the Hyaena partd. Company for England; during the time she was with us she performed every service that a Ship could do, to admiration & had the heaviest sailing ship of the Convoy in tow a great part of the time.
This same day the Irons were order'd to be taken off the Convicts, except any whose ill behaviour made it necessary by way of punishment to have them kept on: This lenient step towards making those unhappy wretches comfortable was very ill receiv'd on board the Scarborouogh, two of the Convicts belonging to her being brought on board the Sirius the same evening for Mutinous behaviour, they were severely punished & sent on board the P.r of Wales Transport heavily iron'd. Since leaving Spithead we had only a day or two unpleasant pleasure & thought ourselves very fortunate in getting so soon & well clear of the Land; Lat:e 47:50'N Long.e 12:14'W when the Hyaena parted Company. Friday. 26th. Lat.d 42:24'N Long.e by [sun] [indecipherable word] 11:30'W Var.n 20:30'W had the wind

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1787..
May.
from the NE quarter which run us the length of Madeira.
Tuesday. 29th. The Supply ahead made the Signal for seeing Land which was at first supposed to be Porto Sancto, but as we came in with it, found it to be the Deserters & the weather so thick that the Island of Madeira could not be seen as we passed.

The Deserters are generally spoken of as the third, after the Island of Madeira & Porto Sancto & as a barren rock; there are 3 Island Deserters, two of considerable height & 3 Miles extent, the other a small one, lies nearer Madeira, there is a passage between these Islands, as also between them & Madeira which is 6 or 7 leagues to the N.o & W.t of them; the N.o most Deserter we observ'd in Latitude 32:27'N.o Longitude by Timekeeper 16:35'W Variation 18.W.t The 31st. Made the Salvages bearing SWbS. we found the situation of this Island very different from what is laid down in the Chart: By a good mer.n Observation we made the Latitude of this Island 30:12'N.o & Longitude by Timekeeper 15:56'W, this Island has some high land on it & when it bore W.t a high round hill was over the middle of the Island: By calculation from angles taken & a Base by the Ships run I make the length of this Island 1,8 Mile in a N70W direction true bearing. We saw 4 rocks to the NW of it which can only be spoken of as rocks above water tho' they are some height; I have seen them in passing to the W.t ward when the large Island could not be seen through the Haze, we passed to the E.t ward at about 4 leagues.

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1787
June
The NE wind left us the day before we made the Salvages in Latitude 32:19'N.o Longitude 16:30'W & hauled round to the W.t & SW which winds continued to the 2nd of June when it again favour'd us & at 5 AM. Saw the Island of Teneriffe bearing SWbS, the weather being hazey the peak did not shew itself.
The 3rd. at 7 PM Anchor'd & Moored in Santa Cruz road with the Supply & Convoy in 13f.m E.t p.t of the Bay (La Rocquet p.t & by some taken for P. de Nago) N. 78E. Franciscan Church with a very remarkable white steeple S.73W. The Fort to the
S.o ward of the Town SW, Peak WSW. Off shore about 1/2 a Mile, we found the ground all round us a sandy bottom, yet we used the precaution of buoying up the Cables. In making Teneriffe to the SW of you & the weather hazey you will not see the Peak, but fall in with Punta de Nago a very high land making in a steep bluff, off which are several high ragged rocks, which shew themselves as you come well in with the land: We steer'd close in with this point & run from it WSW [p] Compass 12 Miles as near as we could estimate; As we sailed along the land we shut in Punta de Nago w Antekara p.t & Antekara p.t with La Rocquet p.t before we got into the Anchoring ground. Antekara p.t is just opening with La Rocquet when NEbN by Compass; La Rocquet p.t from our Anchoring birth in the road makes in a ragged Bluff with a little Sugar loaf top'd Rock just open without it: I would recommend Anchoring so far in as to shut the other points in for clear ground.

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1787
June.
Before we Anchor'd the Master of the Port accompanied by several Officers came on board to make the necessary enquiries. Next day Cap.t Phillip with the Officers of the Squadron & Garrison waited on the Governor, who return'd the Visit two days after on board the Sirius. This Island has a very ragged appearance & at first sight be supposed to be incapable of producing any thing, there are many spots well cultivated in the Island & very productive besides the Vineyards. The Season was very unfavorable for us to get supplies of Fruit, Grapes not ripe, Oranges, Lemons &c. very scarce as was every kind of Fruit except Figs. We were tolerably supplied with Fresh Beef, Poultry & wine very good.
The Road of Santa Cruz is on the SE side the Island & is open to the S.o & SE winds which makes it very dangerous to lay there in the winter season when those winds prevail; We had the breeze fresh from the sea in the day & off the Land early in the evening while we lay there. There is a Stone Pier run out for the purpose of shiping or landing goods & is the only safe landing place near the Town. To the S.o ward of the Pier there are some windmills which shew very conspicuous coming in from the Sea: The water for shipping is convey'd to the Pier, were we filled in the Boat with a Hose: this water comes from the same rivulet that supplies the Town, to which it is brought a considerable distance along the Rocks in spouts open at

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1787
June.
the top on an easy descent, just allowing the water a free passage: they are led across several deep Gullies & every where supported with posts to prevent their being carried away by the great torrents that rush down in the rainy season. The Latitude observed on board the Sirius was 28:30'Nr & the Longitude by Timekeeper 16:16'W. The Peak we estimated to be in 28:18'N.o & 16:31'W.

The Country above the City of Santa Cruz rises more gradual than any of this part of the Coast, which is cheifly very high ragged Mountains; In the part that we anchored in, the Peak shew'd itself between two of the highest Hills & was by us supposed to be a part of one of them 'till a very clear morning convinced us of its being the Peak it bore WSW by Compass. There are two small Batteries near the Pier & some others scatter'd along the Coast, by which the Road is secured. They are making great progress in their Silk & woolen manufactories, many poor are supported by subscription & employed in these Houses of Industry: The Silk is entirely the produce of the Islands. The wool is imported from Europe which they mix with that of the Canary Islands, They also make tape, coarse cloths from Flax imported from Holland cheifly.
The 7th of June, Being the Festival of Corpus Christi, the Boats belonging to the Transports were order'd not to land, that this

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1787
June.
Religious Ceremony might not be interrrupted by the Enormities which English Seamen are too apt to commit in foreign Ports. This Festival is kept on the Thursday next after Trinity Sunday; [indecipherable word]The Religious observance of carrying the Host is on this day kept with great pomp & solemnity in all Roman Catholic Countries & is announced early in the morning by ringing the Bells of all the Convents, Monasteries & Churches in the Town.
Several of the Officers of our Squadron went on shore to see the procession, which assemble at 10 O'clock at a particular Church, where after having performed Mass, the Host, or consecrated wafer (which on certain festivals & other occasions they offer up as a Host or sacrifice for the Sins of Mankind) inclosed in a glass case, is taken down from a little recess over the Altar & deliver'd to the Priest who is to carry it through the whole of the procession; A Canopy is held over it by four other Priests & the congregation having arranged themselves in the order in which they are to parade the Town, the Military Guard, Officers of state & the Dignitaries of the Church lead the procession in great solemnity out of the Church at which instant the Guns begin firing from the Forts, Martial Musick playing &c. Those people who did not attend Mass, appear at their windows & Doors, even the Sick are brought to the window & if any principal person, the Procession stops opposite to the House of the sick, holding up the Host, say

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1787
June.
a few prayers & proceed; when they have paraded the Streets of the Town, they return to the Church & having placed the Host from whence it was taken, they all repair to their respective Houses & pass the remainder of the day chearfully. It is required of every person passing thro' the street at the time the Host is going by, that they kneel & uncover their head, the latter of which is always expected from a Foreigner.
Sunday. 10th. Sailed from Santa Cruz & after being becalm'd two days between Teneriffe & Grand Canaria, had the wind from NW to NE. During these two days we had the Peak clear several times. The peak is by some said to be a Volcano & frequently to issue stones &c; An Officer who had resided in Santa Cruz a considerable time, informed me that nothing but smoke had come from it for several years & that at very distant intervals; the perpendicular height is computed by Dr. Heberden at 15396 feet; it is not safe at all seasons to ascend the Peak the best time is in the Months of July & August; the snow at the foot being then mostly dissolved: No one belonging to our Squadron went to it: the oblique height is reckon'd at 15 miles: The officer beforementioned also informed me that Oratavia, situated on the W. side of the Island was originally a great place of Trade & principal sea Port, but from an Earthquake in 1704 the Port was fill'd up & the Anchoring ground left was scarcely such as would afford security for

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1787
June.
one ship: The Town of Oratavia now stands on the spot where the ships formerly Anchored; the ships that go there are now obliged to keep in constant readiness to clear the land if the wind should come on shore there not being any shelter. The Island of Teneriffe is reckon'd 50 Miles in length & 25 broad; As we sailed to the
S.o ward along the Island, the Town of Candelaria shew'd open'd to us, it is near the sea & by strangers may be mistaken for Santa Cruz if they fall in to the S.o ward in making the Island; It is not so large or is there a Church in it so conspicuous as that of S.t Franciscan in Santa Cruz. It may also be known by the bearings of the Peak if you see it; the peak over the S.o part of Santa Cruz is WSW & over Candelaria West by Compass, the land about & to the S.o ward of Candelaria is not so ragged as it is all about & to the N.o ward of Santa Cruz. The Marquis of Branceforte Brigadier in the Spanish Service is the present Governor, An Italian, & very much esteem'd for his great Benevolence & many other excellent Virtues.
June. 15th. At Noon cross'd the Tropic of Cancer & had the Sun in the Zenith at nearly the same instant, Thermometer then at 74; the NE Trade seem'd to be fix'd.
17th.. A large ship pass'd us to the No. ward, but not near enough to distinguish what she was.
18th. In the evening drawing near the Isle of Sal, shorten'd

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1787
June.
sail & kept the Supply ahead. AM. soon after day light saw the Island of Sal bearing SWbS, pass'd along the East side of it: 19th At 2 PM. Saw the Island of Bona Vista, at 4. the S.o end of it bore due West 6 or 7 Mile; we pass'd along the E.t side of it within a mile & half of the reef: Brot too in the evening not having run for the night to the Isle of May. In falling in with these Islands (the weather is generally hazey) Sal may be known from Bona Vista by the high Sugar Loaf Hill on the N.o end of it, which being situated toward that end of the Island remains fixed as you run along the East side, whereas in Bona Vista the highest land forms a similar Sugar Loaf & being towards the middle of the Island, travels along the other land as you pass it.
We saw the Reef off this Island break very furiously & sailed along the E.t side of it within 11/2 Mile of the breakers. They appear to run from the land off the white sandhills & when the highest Sugar Loaf bears w1/2s you are nearly abreast the N.o part of them, they extend some Miles along the Coast apparently at the distance of 3 Miles from the shore: People who have fallen in with this reef differ as to the situation of it; some place it off the NE & others off the SE part of the Island: The bearing beforementioned of the high sugar loaf w1/2s appear'd to us in a line with the N.o part of the breakers; several ships have narrowly escaped being wreck'd upon this Reef, some

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1787
June
from mistaking the Island & others from supposing it did not lay so far from the shore. The N.o end of Sal is in the Latitude 16:50'N & the S.o end 16:40'N. Longitude by Timekeeper 23:02'W. Variation Obs.d 11:30'W. S.o end of Bona Vista by good observation on board the Sirius 15:59'N.o & 23:02'W by the Timekeeper. The 19th. at day light saw the Isle of May, the S. end NWbW 4 miles (at 4 PM the S.o end of Bona Vista bore N.78W pr Compass 6 mile, from which we ran swbs. 37 mile & then brought too with our Head off shore, after making Sail & running 2 mile wbs saw the Isle of May as beforementioned).
In passing the Isle of May you may run close along the E.t side of it & steer over west or w1/2s pr Compass for St. Iago which course carried us in with that Island about 2 leagues to windward port praya Bay. The latitude of the S.o end of May reduced back from the next Noon is 15:09'N & 23:07' W; at 10 AM saw the Island of S.t Iago, in running along the coast of it to Port Praya, there is the appearance of a Bay, but it cannot be mistaken for Port Praya when the direction of the Coast is attended to, the land from the E.t point of Praya Bay to the N.o ward lays nearly NNE & the whole land which opens to the W.ward of this point wbs or w1/2s pr Compass: About Noon were standing in for Port Praya Bay, when on hauling round the reef off the E.t point of the Bay, just within it & had the Fort open, were taken aback, the Convoy in a

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[page 27

1787
June
cluster round us, no true wind blowing, but catspaws from every point of the Compass & a heavy swell setting in upon the shore, which circumstances altogether render'd our getting in with the Convoy very hazardous from the danger of falling on board each other in such a swell as well that of being near the E.tern Reef, it was therefore judged most safe to endeavor to get the Convoy from the land into the true wind, which was done in about 2 Hours & we again proceeded with a fresh breeze at East.
Standing in for the E.t point of Praya Bay, the W. p.t will shew itself as will the W. end of the Island; As you draw near the E.tern reef Quail Island will shew itself as will the Fort which stands on a high rock & is on with Quail Island when bearing N.o by Compass on which bearing a high round hill will partly be over both. There are reefs which generally shew off both points of the Bay. It is generally recommended to keep close in with the Land, 'till you open the Reef of the W. point of the Bay & then haul close round the E.tern Reef Bring the Flagstaff NW or NW1/2N, the E.t point EbS & the outer point swbw from 10 to 7 fathom water. It is not safe to lay in this Bay during the winter months; so early as August Capt Wallis had very bad weather: Observed the Lat.e of Port Praya on board the Sirius 14:54'.N.o Longitude by the Timekeeper 23:40'W;
23.rd In Latitude 9:48'N Longitude 23:00'W lost the NE Trade

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1787
June.
& had frequent Squalls, variable winds with heavy rain Thunder & Light'ning: & by the 25th it seem'd to have quite blown itself out; the wind varying NE to SE, S.o, W. & frequently NW; then variable winds continued to the 28th when it fix'd between the S.o & SW., then in Lat: 7:29'No Longitude 21:41'W.
29th. AM. Saw a large ship to windward who bore down to us & hoisted Portuguese Colours, found her to be a ship from Lisbon bound to the Coast of Brasil.
30th. PM after dark, a Devil Fish was hooked, as he lay on the surface of the water, before he could be hoisted in 3 very large sucking Fish were soon on him one of which was struck & got in & was the largest I ever saw; it was 2Ft.:9In long. It being dark when this Monster was got in, he was kept on the quarter deck all night, but was dead as soon as out of the water from having had several Harpoons &c. stuck in him: In the morning 2 sucking fish 7 inches long & quite white were taken from within him out at his mouth perfectly alive; when this Fish was open'd there was not any thing found in his Stomach or Intestines or had he any teeth: He had 5 Gills of each side evenly & oppositely placed, within which those white sucking fish had fixed themselves; the belly of this Fish white, the back dark brown & much resembling a large skate; He had two horns projecting from the upper part of the head just over his eyes.

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1787
June: July.
                      Dimensions Large Sucking Fish

[Table not reproduced : see original journal]

Some of the people eat of this Fish but it was not thought good. From the 29th to the 1st of July had the winds cheifly from the sw with frequent squalls, heavy rains &c which obliged us to keep on to the E.t ward. July. 2nd. PM. The wind came to S.o. Tack'd & stood to the Wt. ward, we found by the Timekeeper a very strong Easterly current for some days past; The Portuguese ship which had sailed in Company till now, parted, not being able even to keep up with our heavy sailing Convoy.
July. 5th. The wind again coming to the ssw & sw obliged us to stand to the E.t ward. From this prospect of our making a tedious passage, the Crews, Marines & Convicts on board the Transports were put to an allowance of 3 pints of water pr. day. The 6th. AM. Saw a sloop standing to the W.t ward; the 7th. the wind again coming to the S.o ward we stood to the W.t ward: we had been forced so far to the E.t ward as 18:22'W. when between the parallel of 91/2 & 51/2N. by variable winds, before we got

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1787.
July.
what might any way be called the SE Trade which this day came on at S.o & SbE: In the evening spoke the sloop, from London bound to Falkland Islands, 12 weeks from England & 5 from the Isle of May; they had been 3 weeks between the parallels of 9 & 5N with S.o & SW winds.
Sunday. 8th. Saw a large ship coming down before the wind she hoisted Portuguese Colours & pass'd to the E.t ward without passing near enough to speak her.
11th. An Albacore was struck, that weigh'd 80 lb. & several smaller We examined this & several others Albacores & Bonetta's & in both found the white appendage to the Heart (which is generally allowed to be the reason for the Albacore having that name) exactly the same & not the Heart as supposed by Seamen in general; it is closely connected to the Heart which is considerably large & of a dull reddish colour.
12th. The Master of the Lady Penryhne Transport brought on board three of his people who had been guilty of Mutiny in refusing to steer the Ship as directed by the Master, by which means she was very far to leeward out of her station: they were kept on board the Sirius & three men sent in lieu to assist in working that Ship.
15th. At 5 PM. Crossed the Equinoctial Line in Longitude 26 West, Variation of the Compass 5:50'W: Being now much favoured by having the SE trade well to the
E.t ward & a prospect of

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1787.
July. August.
making a quicker passage than could be supposed when the allowance of water was reduced, it was this day increas'd to 2 quarts p day.
27th. Observed the Supply & one of the Transports heave to suddenly & half an hour afterwards make sail, the Supply informed us that the Alexander had lost a man overboard.
28th. PM. Blew strong from the ESE & continued to the 29th AM when we again had the usual moderate weather & the wind from E.t to NE. This day we changed the variation from W.t to E.t Latitude at the time the observation giving E.t variation was taken, 18:30'S. Long.e 32 W. Variation 0:01'Et.
August. 2nd. Spoke a portuguese Brig bound to Rio Janeiro.
3rd. at 3 PM. saw Cape Frio, W.t pr Compass 12 leagues; The NE winds which had favoured since the 29th. Ul.t did not fail us until we got under the Land to the W.t ward of Cape Frio which we did by midnight, when it became light & variable & as usual in these Climates alternately inclining from the Land & sea. By the preceding Meridian Observation we make the Cape in 23:00'S.o & by the Timekeeper 41:44'W. The Cape as we take it is the outer point of the Island making in a saddle & which lies to the S.o ward a short distance off the p.t on the Mainland which the portuguese call the Cape, the Coast to the N.o ward lies NNW & round Cape Frio it lays nearly E.t & W.t more than 20 leagues to Rio Janeiro, the land bold all the way, but

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1787.
August.
the bottom is not all clear in many parts near the shore; It is recommended to keep to the S.o ward till you are past a large bight formed by the Cape Island & the land to the NW, into which there is often so strong a set as to make it dangerous, At Noon Lat.de observed 23:14'S.o Cape Frio NEbE1/2 E 12 leagues; W.t ern Extreme W3/4N, about 5 leagues from the Land abreast of us & saw the Land about the Harbour distinctly.
4th. In the evening Light airs from the land, we lay too all the night endeavoring as the wind varied to keep her head to the W.twd. we had from 42 to 47f.m water, oaze with shells & one cast 47f.m fine sand, very black, our distance from the shore as near as we could estimate was 4 leagues; At Noon. Latitude Obs. 23:17'S.o Sugar Loaf at the entrance of Rio Janeiro NWbW1/2W pr Compass 8 or 9 leagues.
Sunday. 5th. The False Sugar Loaf WNW1/2W 4 or 5 leagues, had 36f.m sand & shells, Brot too for the night about 5 miles from the land, sounded every hour 34, 33, 34f.m sand & shells, At day light found that we had drifted considerably to the E.t ward & scarce any in shore to the N.o ward, from which the soundings appear to run regular from the shore. Monday 6th. At 9 PM Anchored with the Convoy about 5 mile without the entrance of Rio Janeiro in 13f.m water, found the sounding regular, when anchored, the Island Raze SbW1/2W. Sugar Loaf NW1/2N. the 2 payas in one NEbE & Corkavado w1/2s by Compass. The Harbour is easily found when the land is sufficiently clear

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1787.
August.
to see the making of it: As you sail to the W.t ward you will see a Sugar Loaf hill sloping to the W.t ward & trenching away to the E.t ward, this piece of land lies a small distance to the E.t ward of the entrance; the land to the W.t ward is very remarkable & that near the W.t ern extremity is a very high overhanging Mountain (called Corkavada) & is about 2 leagues to the W.t ward of the entrance: If the weather is clear you will see, lying without it, Rodondo an Island round at top & may be seen a great distance in clear weather, It is SbW 7 Miles from the entrance of Rio Janeiro.
We pass'd Cape Frio at the distance of 6 Miles & steerd wbs by Compass, run 12 leagues & shorten'd Sail, this course rather carried us off the shore than in with it: when you have run this distance or before, you will see two Islands (Maricas) off which the ground is foul & very unsafe to Anchor near, these Islands are the first you meet with on the Coast between Cape Frio & Rio Janeiro, some of the land you pass has much the appearance of an Island, but is not. As you proceed to the W. t ward & after seeing Rodondo, you will see another Island close to it (Raze) which altho' not seen so soon as Rodondo it lays to the E.t ward of it. It is generally recommen.d to steer for those Islands, particularly if going in with Rio Janeiro after dark; By preserving sight of one of them you may Anchor in a good Road within those Islands in

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1787.
August.
in 13f.m clear sandy bottom, bringing Raze S.o or SbW of you & not more than 2 Miles from it, you will then be about 5 miles from the Harbour & in a situation that will enable you in case of bad weather coming on, to lead out to sea if the
wind should be such as would not admit of running for the Harbour which lies from Raze N1/2E 6 or 7 miles. There are several Islands lying without the Harbour between all of which are passages & between Raze & Rodondo a very good one of 2 miles steep too on both sides; & between Rodondo & a rock just off it is a passage for small Vessels: There is also a passage between Paya & Maya Islands on the E.t side the Bay & usually left on the starboard hand; the Sugar loaf is just on the opening between these Islands when bearing NWbW1/2W or WNW & if under a necessity a Ship may with safety run right thro' in for the Sugar Loaf; but unless press'd it would be imprudent.
As you generally have Sea & Land breezes, the best Pilotage is to run well in with Rodondo & Raze & having open'd the Harbour steer for it. You have good Anchoring ground & regular soundings within the Island Raze.
Monday 6: At day light, an officer was sent into the Harbour to the Viceroy to inform him who we were & the occasion of our calling at this Port: at 11. he returned, the Viceroy very readily consented to our being supplied with every necessary for the use of the Convoy & Convicts &c....

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1787
August.
Tuesday. 7th. At 1 PM. the sea breeze set in, weigh'd & stood in for the Harbour, the Master of the Port came on board. It being little wind we did not get off the E.t p.t of the entrance on which stands Santa Cruz Fort till past 5, we saluted that Fort with 13 Guns which was immediately returned with an equal number, at 7. Came too in 17f.m with the Supply & Convoy off the City of S.t Sebastians.
As you steer in for the Harbour, the water shoals gradually to 7 & 6f.m just without & nearly opposite the East p.t of the entrance when it deepens suddenly to 18 & 20 & keeps from 20, 18 to 16 as you Sail up to S.t Sebastians: Ships generally go higher up & haul round the Island of Cobras which lies just off the NE end of the Town; is well Fortified & has Stores Houses on it for the use of heavying down & refitting Ships. If necessity should require it a Ship may pass between the Sugar Loaf & the Island that lays just without it (Catumduba) as likewise to the
W.t ward of Square Island which lies on the entrance & is a Fortified Rock, this Channel is very narrow having a reef runnning from the Wt point of the Island & all foundl ground; It is most adviseable in all cases when it can be done to use the direct passage from the Island Raze into the Harbor, for safety, propriety & expedition
Wednesday 8th. Captain Phillip accompanied by the Officers of the Squadron & Garrison paid respects to the Viceroy, they were

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1787.
August.
receiv'd with much kindness. The Viceroy contrary to the usual custom, order'd that all the English Officers might be permitted to go wherever they thought proper without being subject to those restrictions complained of by Cap.n Cook in his first voyage & others who have visited Rio Janeiro.
9th: Capn Phillip & Mr Dawes went to look at a room which had been granted for the purpose of making the necessary Observations for the Timekeeper &c., but it not being thought proper for the purpose, Capn Phillip obtained leave from the Viceroy to make use of an Island (Enradas) lying to the NE of the Town, which spot being approved, a Tent was erected on the 11th & on the 12th the Instruments landed & fixed under the direction of M.r Dawes.
The 13th the Timekeeper was sent to the Tent & all boats belonging to the Transports strictly forbid landing on that Island.
17th: The Portuguese Astronomers who are employed determining the situation of the principal places along the Coast & in the Country visited our Observatory.

Town of S.t Sebastian by them is in22:54':13".S.o43:19'W.t.
" " " " "Our Timekeeper. 22:54:1042:44
" " " " "[sun] & [moon] on b.d Sirius43:46 WB.
Cape Frio by them ...22:56:00 41:44
D.o the S.o point of the Cape Island by us 23: 0: 0 41:44 Timekeeper
" " " " " " [sun] & [moon] Sirius 42:40 WB.

21st: Being the Birth day of the Prince of Brazil, the Portuguese

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1787.
August.
Flag was hoisted on board the Sirius. On this day it is the custom for all the Military to pay respects to the Viceroy & a general salute from all the Forts; Cap.n Phillip with the English Officers paid the compliment of observing this custom & by a Royal Salute from the Sirius when their Forts saluted. The very kind behaviour of the Vicveroy & the great attention we received from the Officers in general, was quite sufficient to make every English Officer in that Port, rejoice at having an opportunity of shewing respect to him & them. The Guard Boat attended our Squadron, apparently as matter of form, the Transports boats were even permitted to land in any part of the Harbour or Bay without being followed or in the smallest degree restricted by them. Water is well supplied & brought to the wharf fronting the Palace in pipes & led though spouts to the boat from which you fill with a hose: Fresh Beef & every refreshment to be found in the climate we were here supplied with, the yams I think exceed those of any other country I have ever seen, Oranges astonishingly plenty & so very cheap that the people in the Guard boat would frequently amuse themselves with throwing some hundreds to the Convicts in the different Transports from their Boat.
The Health of the Convicts which was very little impaired during this part of the voyage was soon perfectly establish'd by being amply provided with fresh Provisions, Vegetables & very

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1787.
August.
frequently fruit was given them, 14 only died since leaving England the greater part of which was embarked in the River & such objects as could not have been supposed would have lived, had they remained in England.
We have proofs already of the great neglect in fitting the Ship, Decks & upper works so leaky as to make it necessary to employ Caulkers on board, the skirting boards over the Copper were so badly secured as to have been washed off on both sides; while the Ship was on the heel to fix other skirting boards, we took the opportunity of driving 2 bolts & 2 spike nails of the white composition 12 inches below the wale & laid them over with Copper, to try if the copper would make any impression on this Composition.
31st. M.r Morton, Master of the Sirius was Invalided, having receiv'd a hurt on the passage from Teneriffe which render'd him for a time incapable of duty, this was a real loss to the ship He being an attentive, active & experienced man & well qualified for the station. M.r Seally & Mr Rotton two of the Master's Mates were also invalided their Health being in so bad a state as to make it necessary & there being an English Ship bound to London they had a good opportunity of returning to England. Mr Kelty a Master in the Navy & serving as mate on board one of the Store Ships was appointed Master of the Sirius.

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1787.
September.
1st: Being ready for sea, the Astronomical Instruments were got on board; the rate of the Timekeeper was determined by 12 days Observations, losing 2",28 pr day
2: Captain Phillip with the Officers took leave of the Viceroy & on the 4th. at day light weigh'd & made sail with a light breeze from the N.o ward; at 7 & before we were the length of Santa Cruz, that Fort saluted us with 21 Guns which last & great mark of respect was immediately returned with the same number from the Sirius, this was no doubt a return to the Compliment which we paid them on the Prince of Brazil's Birth day. When we were without the Harbour the Master of the Port left us. Plants of almost every kind the Country produced were procured for Capt Phillip, amongst which were the Cochineal, Coffee Jalup, Citron, Tobacco, Cocoa, Oranges of different sorts, Limes sweet Lemons, Bananas, Guavas; & seeds of those that were not so easily removed in Trees or Plants.
Soon after we left the Harbour we saw 2 Sail, Tack'd & stood toward them; the Supply spoke the nearest, a Portuguese ship from Oporto bound to Rio Janeiro sailed in June, had no other news than that of the Viceroy being superceded in the Government of the Brazil & that the arrival of the new Viceroy might be daily expected.
5th: At 4 PM. Took our departure from the Sugar Loaf at the entrance of Rio Janeiro. bearing NW1/2W pr Compass 5 or 6 leagues.

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1787.
September.
                 Bearings &c. taken going in & out, by Compass.

Maricas just opening of the E.t most Payas
False Sugar Loaf on w the W.n most Marica Island WNW1/4W.
True Sugar Loaf, d.o Marica Islands in one NEbN
Islands Raza & Rodondo in one WSW3/4W
Raze just open to the S.o ward of Rodondo WSW
Corkavado is between Rodondo & Raze when Rodondo is WNW1/2W
Corkavado coming on with Rodondo NWbW1/2W
E1/2S.
Rodondo half way between the Sugar Loaf & Island off it SSW.

To the 6th. we had light variable breezes, when it fixed at E.t & NE with a fresh gale which carried us into 26S.o & 39W; then changed to SW in a very hard squall with heavy rain, Thunder & Light'ning at 2 AM the 8th from which time until the 20th had favorable winds, frequently shifting from No, NW to SW & S.o & sometimes blowing strong.
20th: In Lat: 32 S.o..25 W. had the wind from SE to E.t on the 23rd NNE & N.o from which point it blew strong several hours & suddenly shifted to the SW after we had got further to the S.o ward. From the 23rd we had the wind alternately NW & SW, with short intervals of light breezes from the SE if we got any thing to the N.o ward, which we lost again by keeping more to the S.oward, a convincing proof I think that keeping to the S.o ward is the best chance of making a passage to the E.t ward.

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1787.
October.
Monday. 1st: At 8 AM pass'd the Meridian of Greenwich in Latitude 34:40'S.o.
6th. AM. The Alexander making the signal to speak us, Brot too for her Boat; the Master of her & one of the Marine Officers came on board; We found that some part of the Crew of that ship had leagued themselves with the Convicts to furnish them with materials to endeavor to effect an escape at the Cape of Good Hope & that one of them had already furnish'd them with an Iron Crow for the purpose; However impossible it might be for them to execute any Plan of that nature, it was judged proper by Captain Phillip that the ringleader & 3 others of the Crew should be removed on board the Sirius, which was immediately done & 4 Seamen sent in lieu to the Alexander to assist in working her: The Convict who endeavor'd to escape at Teneriffe was the projector of the Plan, he was then very heavily Iron'd & now stapled down to the deck, one of the Convicts whose life was in danger on board the Alexander having given information of their plan, was removed to the Scarborough. Saturday. 13th. PM. The Supply was order'd a head during the night, it being then intended to run in for the Land all night but the wind increasing & coming dead upon the shore, it was thought best to bring too 'til day light, when we again made sail & at sunrise saw the Cape of Good Hope SEbE 10 leag.s... the wind favoring us we anchored & Moored in Table Bay with

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1787
October.
the Supply & Convoy the same evening: Green point N45W Lions Rump S.85W Wharf. S.32W. Roben Island N81/2W to N2W: in 6 f.m water BtBr. to the NE, small Bower to the SW 1 Mile from the Cape Town.
An Officer was sent to the Governor, who assured us that we should be supplied with every thing wanting as far as it could be done; but that the opinion of the Council must be had before he could answer the whole of our demand. The Governor assured the Officer that our salute should be returned Gun for Gun by the Fort, this was required in consequence of its having been customary here for the Governor to order an Indiaman in the Bay to take up salutes. At sunrise saluted the Fort w. 13 guns which was answer'd by the same number from the Fort.
16th: Capn Phillip accompanied by the Officers paid respects to the Governor, who shortly after returned the compliment at the House where Capn Phillip lived & invited all the English Officers to dine with him the next day.
17th: Eight of the Main deck Guns were struck down in the Hold & the deck clear'd for the reception of Cattle, for which purpose stalls, &c. were built fore & aft the deck just leaving room to work the Cables.
In consequence of Cap.n Phillip having written to the Governor to say that if He had not an immediate answer concerning the Supplies for us, that he must take such steps as would enable

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1787.
October: November.
enable us to proceed without them, an order was given the 23rd to supply all our demands; All the Staves, Hoops &c. were now collected from the different Ships in addition to those of the Sirius, that as much Water, Flour, Spirits & every article for the people & Cattle might be taken as could possibly be stowed.
25th: A Danish Indiaman arrived from China, she left 2 French Kings Ships at Macao that had been on discoveries out round Cape Horn, among the Islands & had then returned from the N.o ward as far as they could penetrate.
28th: The women Convicts on b.d the Friendship were removed on board the Charlotte, P.re of Wales & Lady Penryhne & those cabins which they occupied were fitted for sheep.
November. 1st. Arrived the Ranger East India Packet from England: Sailed in August, brought an account of our having a Fleet of Observation ready, under the Command of Commodore Leveson Gower & that affairs in Europe were in a very unsettled state occasioned by dissentions in Holland; the 6th this Packet sailed for Bengal.
Saturday. 10th. The Cattle & every thing being on board, Unmoored & dropt farther out into the Bay as did most of the Convoy
13th: At 2 PM weigh'd & made sail, Supply & Convoy in C.o with a fresh Gale from the S.o ward: At 6 spoke the Kent of London 4 months from England had been Whaling in St Helena Bay. As we ran out to the N.o ward of Roban Island, we passed

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1787
November:
the shoal part of it in 7f.m, the Borrowdale at the same time 1/2 a Cable's length within us; While we lay in Table Bay Fresh Provisions, Loaves & Vegetables were supplied every day to the Seamen, Marines & Convicts.
The quantity of Cattle &c. taken on board the Sirius, was that of the Governors, there only being a Bull, a Bull Calf 3 Cows & 2 Rams on board her of the Publick Stock, the other part of which was on board the Fishburne, Borrowdale & Friendship & was only 40 Sheep, 1 Ram 26 Sows, 2 Boars & 4 Goats. The Lady Penryhne had on board 1 Stallion 3 Mares & their Colts & were all again w. foal. The Golden Grove was appropriated to the use of other Individuals.
The following is an account of a Malay who just before our arrival, had thrown the whole Cape Town into the utmost confusion by running a Muck.
This horrible desperado was a Native of Batavia & a person of some consequence among his Countrymen, but was banished to the Cape of Good Hope for some Crime which he had committed, & because the Governor would not permit him to return to Batavia he became exasperated with revenge & in order to enable himself to put it into execution, He worked himself up into a phrensy by taking smoking Opium; then armed himself with a variety of weapons, rush'd forth in the dusk of the evening, Killed or wounded every Man

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1787
November.
who was unfortunate enough to fall in his way; He stabbed the Centinel at the Gate of the Company's Gardens & taking his Post waited in expectation of seeing the Governor come out, who narrowly escaped the fate intended for him by its falling on another person who accidentally came that way. On being pursued he fled with incredible swiftness to the Table Mountain where he remained two days, still raging from the effects of Opium & defeated every person who was sent to take him alive; for two days none dare stir from within doors, neither Master nor Slave, for the Governor had given an Order, as the most likely manner of destroying him should he appear in the Town; That whatever Malay was seen was to be killed by the Soldiers.
On the evening of the second day he was taken alive on the Table Mountain; doing much injury in resisting those who took him. He was taken immediately to the place of Execution, where he suffer'd a lingering & horrid death. He was broken alive on the Wheel, His Head & Limbs were sever'd from his body & distributed in different parts of the Country.
He killed 14 Inhabitants & double that number badly wounded. It was remark'd that his madness fell only on Men; Women passed him unhurt & it was as extraordinary as unfortunate that, amongst those which his rage destroyed, were some of the most deserving & promising young Men in the Town. This madness is called at Batavia running a Muck, & has

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1787
November.
happened there several times, but was the first Instance ever known at the Cape.
The Government of the Cape is vested in a Governor & Council together with a Court of Justice: The Members of the Council are, the Governor, Lieut Governor, Commanding Officer of the Troops & four Counsellours of the Council, with these all regulations for the management of the Colony Originate; & from them all Orders & Decrees Issue; The Council of Justice is composed of the Fiscal & 12 Members. The Fiscal, who is the first Officer of Justice is Independent, He hears all causes & prescribes all punishments. He has People under his directions, who constantly patrole the streets armed, for the apprehending all disorderly persons; Every 14 days Offences are tried. The Punishments inflicted here, are Breaking upon the Cross, upon the Wheel impalements, flogging to that degree that Death is frequently the effects of its severity; Over the door of a small wooden House, wherein are kept the Instruments of Execution, is the following Inscription, in Latin
("Happy is the Man whom other Mens misfortunes make wary.)"
In this Town are two Churches, One for the Calvinists the other for the followers of Martin Luther; in the former is a neat & handsome Organ; the Women sit in Chairs in the body of the Church, the men in pews round the sides. Marriage Ceremonies are performed on Sunday only & the parties dress'd in Black.

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[page 47]

1787
November
13th At 7 PM. Took our Departure from the Lions Rump bearing S39E 6 leagues, the wind continuing at S.o and SbE obliged us to stand on to the westward; the rate of the Timekeeper by Observations during our stay in Table Bay was determined at losing 3",17 p.r day.
It is generally recommended to Ships sailing from Table Bay, to go out to the
N.o ward of Robin Island, as there is frequently a strong set down upon the rocks which lie off the SE. side of it & being very liable to get be-calmed under the high land on the S.o side of Table Bay, it is thought dangerous to attempt that passage unless the wind is well to the N.o ward of East.
Going into Table Bay, it is best to keep well to the S.o ward to prevent being driven down on those rocks: You may haul close round Green Point in 7, 6 or 5f.m water: after you pass Green Point, if the wind should be from SE, you must be cautious not to stand very far over on the NE side of the Bay, there being a great deal of foul ground & shoal water on that shore. There is much foul ground in the Bay, which may easily be avoided, unless a great number of Ships are in the Bay, You must pass the outermost Fort before you have clear ground, and

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1787
November
when the Sugar Loaf is half way between that & the New Fort, you may anchor in any depth under 12f.m clear ground. The berth I would chuse for a large Ship, is, the Sugar Loaf directly over the New Fort in 8 or 9f.m water. There is good anchorage under Robin Island, should you be going in the N.o passage & baulked by a shift of wind &c:
Thursday. 15. The wind coming to the westward of South at 9 AM Tack'd & stood to the E.t ward, but in a few hours it backing again to SbE & SSE obliged us again to stand to the westward. Went to an allowance of 2 quarts of water p.r day each Man. This day, Captain Phillip made known his intentions of proceeding to Botany Bay in the Supply when we were to the eastward of the Cape of Good Hope & that one of the Lieutenants of the Sirius should go with him, this was proposed to me & immediately accepted, but Cap.t Hunter objecting to the First Lieutenant being taken out of the Ship, Cap.t Phillip order'd the 2nd. Lieu.t to be ready to accompany him.
Monday. 19th. Being Calm all day, the luggage of Captain Phillip &c. was put on board the Supply as were eleven Artificers belonging to the Sirius, that every thing might be ready when the Governor should leave the Sirius: We received 9 Men from the Supply.
20th: Officers & Ships Companies put to an allowance of three

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[page 49]

1787.
November.
pints of water p day; AM. At 8 after being Calm & breeze sprung up at NNE which at last enabled us to steer to the E.t ward, after having been carried into the Longitude of 101/2E by S.o & SE winds without having it once in our power to stand to the
E.t ward more than 2 hours, a great number of whales, several close alongside the Ship.
Sunday. 25th. AM. Made those Ships Signals that were to proceed ahead; at 11, Capt Phillip, L.t King, & L.t Dawes of the marines belonging to the Sirius went on board the Supply, to which Ship the Timekeeper was removed from the Sirius. Major Ross with the Adjutant went on board the Scarborough Transport which Ship with the Friendship was to proceed under the Command of L.t Shortland Agent of Transports in the Alexander
At Noon, They all parted Company leaving the Sirius to follow with the heavy sailing Ships (3 Transports & 3 Store Ships) Latitude 38:47S.o Long.e [indecipherable word] 25:53'E.t Timekeeper 22:36' E.t Next day at Noon the Supply was in sight from the Mast H.d bearing SEbE & the Agents Division SE 6 mile: Finding that we had been carried considerably to the N.o ward, we alter'd the Course to the S.o ward & in the afternoon the Supply & Agents Division were out of sight.
Saturday. December 8th: Lat: 40:21'S.o Long.e 53:07' E.t had 32:12'W. Variation which was the greatest we had: The 13th Cross'd the Meridian of Kergulans Land in Latitude 40:58'.S. & the 16th about

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[page 50]

1787. 1788
December...January
Noon, that of S.t Pauls in Latitude 41:08', between the Cape of Good Hope & these Islands we kept the parallels of 39, 40 & 41 as we approached: from an Idea of preserving clear weather by not running near either of those Islands, in this we were very successful, not having any Fogs & very little thick weather & continued fair wind, shifting frequently from SSW to W, NW & N.o & sometimes blowing strong for a few hours, in general a steady fresh Gale.
Wednesday. 19th. The wine being out, our allowance was order'd a Quart of Grog & a Quart of water p. day.
Sunday. 23rd: Saw a Sea Otter, he followed the ship a considerable time: the haze round the Horizon this afternoon had much the appearance of Land being near. AM a great number of Whales were seen about the Ship.
31st: Expecting to have Strong winds as we approach'd the Land, Bent a new Foresail, Fore & Main Top Sails,, which was not done a day too soon, the New Year came in with a Hard Gale at WNW, which lasted only a few Hours: In the space of half an hour while the Squalls were violent, the Barometer rose & fell 8 times, from 29.36 to 29.63.
Friday. Jan.y 4th] Jan.y 5th. Having had several very good sets of Observations of the [sun] & [moon] & supposing they would be the last before seeing the Land, at 4 PM. Made sig.l for the Convoy to come our stern & observe the Longitude in by Observation;

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1788.
January.
135:30' East the Longitude at Noon was shewn to them. This night a luminous appearance or substance was seen, & very different from what I ever heard of being noticed by any one: they resemble lights floating on the surface of the water & disappear when turn'd as the sea washed over them, they keep the same appearance when close alongside as at a distance; several of them passed close to us as the Ship run through them; & were seen on the surface more than a mile ahead; we endeavor'd without success to get some of them, they immediately got the name of Pursers Lanthorns.
Sunday. 6. At 11 PM. The Aurora Australis was very bright, with many beautiful red streamers which appear'd to run from about 45 of Al.t to the clouds that were in that part of the Horizon, it was seen very faint some nights before.
Tuesday. 8th. At 1/2 p.t 1 PM. Saw Van Diemans Land, we were only 8 weeks from the Cape of Good Hope & since the 23rd of November on which day we regained the meridian of that Cape after having been forced 9 to the W.ward, we had scarce an hour foul wind; but even this good fortune was not enough to preserve the Cattle on board the Sirius, which were so badly provided for as to be nearly starved, three of the Cows calved on the passage the whole of which died, the Cows having scarce sufficient to keep themselves alive, could not support the young; One of the Cows big with calf also died before we made the Land; thus

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1788
January. 8th.
At 2. PM. Saw the Mewstone N36E by Compass 4 or 5 leagues We were in Latitude 44:04'S.o & stood in NE: at 4 passed the Mewstone about 6 mile to the
S.o ward of it; at 5 Saw the Eddystone to the E.t ward of Swilly, the whole space between those Rocks appear'd from the Mast Head to be full of broken water & some tops of rocks shewing themselves above the Surface; we stood on for the South Cape & pass'd it at 2 or 3 Mile distance; we now steer'd ENE & pass'd to the N.o ward of Swilly at 9 or 10 Miles distance. We made the Mewstone within 5 Miles as laid down by Captain Cook. By the mean result of all the Observations taken on b.d the Sirius by Captain Hunter & Myself we reduce the p.t of this land, as follows

[Table not reproduced - see original journal]

The p.t of the SW Cape we were at a loss to determine, but concluded it must be that which makes like the Ramhead of Plymouth & particularly so from the situation of the Mewstone.
Between the SW & S.o Capes we saw many Islands, High rocks & the appearance of Harbors from the double landma[rks] behind the Coast & the Islands lying off it: One particularly when the Mewstone bore N14E by Compass, seem'd to be

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1788.
January.
formed by low land to the W.ward making in a bluff & has the appearance of an Island with a very remarkable rock just open of it bearing N.o; as we passed along the same appearance of a Harbour continued altho' the bearings of the Mewstone & Rock beforementioned had been alter'd some points; as we got to the E.tward of it, the low bluff Island appear'd to be very near or a part of the W.t side of the Harbour which it form'd & 2 small Islands were seen lying off, what might be term'd the entrance of the Bay which from the double lands seem'd to branch off in two arms, one to the NE & the other NW.
We much lamented it not being in our power to determine this, or ascertain the situation of the points of land with each other by keeping close in shore, which one could have done as we had the wind, but having a Convoy of heavy sailing Ships with us it would have been dangerous.
This appearance of a Harbour which we so particularly noticed lies to the W.tward of the peak'd Hill & appears to be formed on the E.t side by the land under a remarkable ragged high hill to the W.tward of the Peak, when that Hill bears from NNE to N.o & when it bears NW the whole appearance of the Bay is shut in by a point projecting from the land to the Westward.
The land in general is moderately high, the Coast rocky & apparently steep too; the Country in land from the SW Cape appears barren, we did not see a Tree between it & the land about the S.o Cape, the top part of which & all the

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[page 54]

1788.
January.
land to the E.tward is coverd with Trees thick together, some growing a considerable height before they Branch. The Coast about the S.o Cape is a dark rock & towards the pitch of it, has a large notch, which shews when you are to the W.tward of it; there appears just to the E.tward of this point another projecting point cover'd with trees, but the land between falling rather to the N.oward, I set down the first as the S.o Cape of Van Dieman[s] Land, a little to the W.tward of which is a very remarkable white patch in the rocks near the Sea.
The Peak'd Hill is also a good mark for knowing the S.o Cape, but I do not know a better, than, that there are not any high trees on the Hills to the W.tward of it that we could see.
The wind continued Wterly all day very fresh & fell little wind in the evening at 10 It was variable mostly between the N.o & E.t We had luckily got to the E.tward of Swilly when the W.terly wind left us & being well in with the Main Land were enabled to carry the Convoy clear to the E.tward of all danger from the Rocks of Swilly & the Eddystone, both of which we saw the next morning at day light, both in one bearing WSW 4 or 5 leagues.
As we pass'd along the shore after dark, Fires were seen to the E.tward of & about the S.o Cape & between the S.o & SW Capes. We saw Snow on the high peak'd Hill as we passed.
Wednesday. 9th. At 7 AM The wind changed in a hard Squall with

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1788
January.
Thunder & Light'ning & blew strong some hours from the W.tward
Thursday. 10th. The weather clear'd up with a fine breeze at W.t we had a very heavy cross swell: AM The weather very squally & unsettled, wind frequently shifting, NNW & WSW: Latitude at Noon 43:38'S.o Longitude 149:31' E.t
11th. At 1/2 p 7 PM. The wind shifted in a very heavy squall in which the Golden Grove split her Top sails & the P.re of Wales carried away her Mainyard; this Squall was violent & came on with remarkable loud Thunder & strong light'ning w very heavy rain, it lasted half an hour, the weather then became clear w a moderate breeze of wind from NW to SW, at 7 AM It suddenly came on to blow strong & near Noon was mod.t & clear settled weather again. Lat.d 42:19'S.o..13027'E.t
Saturday. 12th. PM Mod.t & clear weather, at 11 it was Calm & in less than 1/2 an hour, it suddenly blew strong from the SW with severe light'ning. AM near Noon it fell little wind with fine serene clear weather. Lat.d 41:17'S.o..150:43'E.t
Sunday. 13th. The wind coming to the W.t & N.o obliged us to stand off to the E.tward, the weather moderate till 10 PM then Blowing hard & very squally from the NW. AM Continued to blow strong with frequent Squalls. Lat.d 40:00'S.o Long. 151:22' E.t
Monday. 14th:PM at 4 It became moderate the wind shifted to SW with clear weather. AM Light Breezes & clear weather at Noon Latitude 38:10'.S. Longitude 151:09' E.t

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1788
January.
Tuesday.15: Clear weather. At 1 PM. Had several good Observations of the [sun] and [moon] the mean of which gave 152:48'E. & of those taken by Capn Hunter 152:44'E.t which was 11/2 degree to the E.tward of account since leaving Van Diemans Land We suppose this occasioned by a strong set from between the Schouten Islands & Pt Hicks from which we had a great Sea & think it probable that there may be either a streight or a deep Gulf: Wind NE & N.o Latitude 37:39'S.o Long.e 151:47'E.t
Wednesday. 16th: Hazey weather with a fresh Gale at N.o with which we stood off & on the shore endeavoring to preserve a moderate distance from the shore, not thinking it safe to go near with the Convoy 'till well to the N.oward. AM. Fair weather w. a moderate breeze at NNW. 37:39'S.o 151:29'E.t at Noon
Thursday. 17th: Light variable winds & calm with frequent heavy rains Thunder & Light'ning: At Noon Clear W.r with variable light airs. 37:19'S.o 151:45'E.t [a]

Friday. 18th: PM. at 6. A breeze sprung up from SE. AM. At 8 hauled in to endeavor to make the land before night. 35:48'S.o..151:36'E
Saturday. 19th. Fresh Breezes from the SE at 7. PM. Brot too, not having made the Land. AM. Mod.t & clear at day light saw the Land bearing WbN, at 10. were abreast of some remarkable white sand hills, having much the appearance of white cliffs At Noon, were in 34:30'.S.o Saw red point (so named by Capn Cook) with a small Island on with it W1/2N 4 leagues, the round

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[page 57]

1788.
January.
Hill mention'd by Cap.n Cook as like the crown of a Hat bore WbN, the N.oern extreme of land N.o 10 leag.s a very remarkable clump of Trees like those on Portsdown were seen at Noon NbW... Red point may very readily be known by Capn Cooks remarks viz. the round hill a little to the N.owd of it; but it is necessary to observe that there are two Islands near it & that the Land to the N.oward of the red land forming the point, is very white.
Sunday. 20th: At 2 PM. Saw the white cliffs mention'd by Cap.n Cook to be 10 miles to the S.oward of Botany Bay; I do not altogether think it a certain mark for knowing when you are near Botany Bay, there being many white Sand Hills that shew like Cliffs coming up the Coast; the land from these White Cliffs to the N.oward is tolerably even.
At 4. Saw the entrance of Botany Bay, appearing in the middle of land that shew'd like an Island lying a small distance from the shore, We saw the neck of land by which it is joined to the other land when 8 or 9 miles to the S.oward of the entrance of Botany Bay, it has a sandy beach, the shore cover'd with wood, in the sandy beach is the appearance of a Gully or opening.
The land about the entrance of Botany Bay appears in hummocks & Rocky; & with a Glass pt Solander, the S.o point of the Bay may be seen like a perpendicular notch cut in the rocks near the middle of the land, like an Island.

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1788
January.
Those cliffs 10 miles to the S.oward of Botany Bay make in 5 cliffs as you come near abreast of them & the Portsdown clump of Trees is on the N.omost of them when bearing W.t soon after which, that clump loses its remarkable appearance.
At Sun Set, the entrance of Botany Bay bore N.19W 7 or 8 Mile shorten'd Sail & made the Signal for the Convoy to pass in succession within hail, they were order'd to be very attentive during the night & to keep their Stations strictly when we made sail in the morning: AM. At day light made sail for the Bay with a mod.t breeze at SE & when within about 2 miles of the S.o Head saw the Supply in the Bay & soon after the 3 Transports that had been dispatch'd under the Command of the Agent.
The Master of the Supply came on board as we approach'd the entrance, He informed us that they had only been arrived two days & the Agent one day before us & the heavy ships; at 8. Anchored with the Convoy in Botany Bay & moored immediately.
                p.t Solander SSE }
                Cape Banks ESE} in 8 f.m water.
We found that the Governor had without much difficulty met some of the Natives on the N.o side of the Bay & after convincing them of his good intentions, they receiv'd some trifling presents from him which they handed to each other without much concern. They were quite naked & had

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1788.
January.
much the appearance of being well disposed toward us. We saw 8 of them setting on the rocks as we came into the Bay, they called to us, some of them walked along the Shore & others kept setting on the rocks: The Boats met with Natives in every part of the Bay but no women had yet been seen.
Captain Hunter went on board the Supply to the Governor & with him visited the South Shore taking a Guard of Marines with them. Near the place the Governor landed at, we saw several of the Natives in small parties of two, three & five together, frequently advancing & again retreating; The Governor advanced by himself & laid down some presents for them then retired, one of the Natives immediately advanced, picked it up & handed it to the others apparently pleas'd, by Noon we saw that our People & the Natives were mixed together, the Boat Crews amused themselves with dressing the Natives w paper & other whimsical things to entertain them, with which they were pleas'd for the moment.
Monday. 21. PM. An Officer & party of Men were sent from the Sirius to clear away to a run of water on the S.o side of the Bay: The Natives were well pleas'd with our People until they began clearing the Ground at which they were displeased & wanted them to be gone; At sun set when the Boats left the shore, several of the Natives came down to the water side & then went to their Huts. Mr King returned

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[page 60]

1788
January.
having been up an inlet on the S.o side 5 miles; He found the Country something better than what it was round the Bay but not any water; Mr King seeing some Natives on a point of land, he backed the Boat to them to endeavor to have some intercourse with them, One of the Natives threw a Spear at which all the rest seem'd much displeas'd, after which they came close to the Boat & were quite friendly; they expressed a wish to know whether the People in our Boat were Men or Women & made themselves understood by bringing some of their women down, pointing to themselves, our people & the women alternately, who as the Men were entirely naked, they were immediately satisfied in this particular by one person in the Boat which served to convince them all were the same.
The Natives that appear'd on the N.o side the Bay express'd the same wish of knowing whether our People were Men or Women, after being satisfied on that head, one of them ran in amongst the Bushes, made himself a Belt of Grass & came dancing out with it round his waist with leaves hung over it; they were much inclin'd to steal any kind of Cloth or covering & did steal some bags which were sent on shore for Hay. AM. At day light the Governor, Captain Hunter, the Master of the Sirius & Supply went in the Long boat & 2 Cutters, to look into Port Jackson, not

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[page 61]

1788
January.
finding any situation at Botany Bay fit for settling & particularly from Ships in the Bay being so much exposed to the Sea in bad weather as to render their situation very dangerous. Mr King & Mr Dawes were again sent up the Inlet to determine as near as they could the extent of it.
Major Ross attended the operations on shore & as our settling here was not yet determined on; it was not judged proper to land any of the Convicts but the necessary works were carried on by the Marines & Seamen. Two of the Seamen on the N.o shore straggling into the woods without Arms or any thing to protect themselves sailor like, met with some Natives, Men, Women & Children who very very friendly, met them without fear & eagerly accepted of a Jacket which one of the Sailors gave them, they were all entirely naked.
22nd: Clearing the Ground on the S.o side the Bay it appear'd worse the lower we went down & in digging a sawpit, the whole depth of it was little else but sand, & swamps all round. Some Dogs were seen with the Natives that came amongst us.
When the Sein was hauled this evening, several of the Natives were by & when they saw the quantity of Fish brought on shore at once were much astonished which they expressed by a loud & long shout, they took some of the Fish, (which the Officer permitted) & ran away directly; Some of the Officers going to that part of the Wood, to which they retreated occasioned

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[page 62]

1788
January.
them to stop & make signs that they did not like to be followed, on which they were left to themselves to walk off with their Fish: We met with more success with the Sein than before; in a Cove round the point just within Bare Island; In this Cove we found better water & easier to be got at than any place we had yet tried.
     Mr King & M.r Dawes returned after having been by their account about 12 Miles up the W.tern Inlet without being able to determine how much further it run.
AM. None of the Natives appear'd on the S.o side, but a great number on the N.o shore, they struck the Fish as the Sein was hauled ashore with their Spears & ran off with them sensible that what they had done was wrong.
23rd: PM. A Black man was landed among the working Party with whom the Natives were much pleas'd & seem'd astonished that he did not understand them, they wished him to stay with them & followed the Boat that he was in as far as they could, as the Boat left the shore they retired apparently as well satisfied as if the Man of their own Complexion had remained with them.
A great number of rats were seen & a flying Squirrel: The Natives we met with here were of the middle size, men wore their beards long, their hair much clotted with dirt, they appear a straight well limbed people & very active; The weapons

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1788
January.
they had with them were either a Spear, a Lance for striking Fish or a Club; Most of those we had seen, have lost one of their fore teeth, apparently drawn or punch'd out, & altho' few were seen with the Bone or Stick across the nose as mentioned by Capn Cook; they had most of them the Hole through the nose. They all expressed great curiousity as to our Sex having our [indecipherable word] beards shaved & being clothed they could not tell what to take us for.
24th: P.M. The Governor with the Boats return'd from the N.oward, having discover'd Port Jackson to be an exceeding fine Harbour with many Coves all forming Inner Harbours, the Soil far preferable to that at Botany Bay & in some parts a good Soil & well supplied with water. These discoveries at once determined the Governor to remove the Ships as soon as possible & proceed himself in the Supply immediately, for which purpose a proportion of Convicts & Guard of Marines were order'd to go with the Supply.
AM. At Day light, Two strange sail appear'd in the Offing which prevented the Governor proceeding in the Supply, He wishing to know what they were first: The wind blowing strong off the land, they lost ground every tack & were too far out for a Boat to venture to them; we perceived their Colours to be French at their nearest approach.

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1788.
January.
Friday. 25th. The Transports were reported ready to proceed with the Sirius, The French Ships were out of sight at 6 O'Clock. We received the Timekeeper from the Supply where it had unfortunately been let down on the passage to this place.
AM. The Supply got under sail with 2 Long boats, at 6 the signal was made for the Convoy to get under weigh which most of them did, the flood tide ran so strong that they fell to leeward on which the signal was made to Anchor. The Supply after having made several Tacks in the entrance of the Bay, finding the Tide too strong, Bore away & came in again. At 9 she weigh'd, at 10 made the signal & weigh'd with the Convoy, but coming on very thick & the Golden Grove having parted her Cable, at Noon, made the signal & anchor'd again; The Supply clear without the Heads.
Saturday. 26th: PM. The weather too thick to move the Convoy. AM. At day light Fine weather with a moderate breeze at SE: The French Ships standing in for the Bay, An Officer was sent on board of them, found them to be the Boussole & Astrolabe, French Kings Ships on Discoveries; Had been to the N.oward, & called at Kamschatka & China: last from the Navigators Islands.
As soon as the tide made out of the Bay, weigh'd with the Convoy: At Noon, working out of the Bay.
Sunday. 27th: At 1 PM. were clear of the Bay & steer'd for Port

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1788.
January.
Jackson, At 3. Seeing that all the Convoy were out, made Sail & at 4, were within the Heads of Port Jackson, up which Harbour we ran about 5 Miles & Anchored at the entrance of the Cove in which the Supply was lying & where the Marines & Convicts that came in here were encamped; the Convoy all anchored in & off the Cove before dark.
The entrance of Port Jackson is about 10 miles to the N.oward of Botany Bay & is some dis.ce within the N.o extreme of land in sight when without the Bay, the best mark to know when you draw near it coming from the S.oward, is, some remarkable sandhills over a sandy Bay 2 or 3 miles to the S.oward of the S.o Head, the shore from this Bay to the S.o Head is High rocky cliffs.
Monday. 28th: All the Carpenters & Artificers belonging to the Sirius & Convicts were employed clearing away the Ground round the encampment. AM. Went with Cap Hunter, the Master & one of the Mids about surveying the Harbour: On a point of land in the lower part of the Harbour, between Middle Head & Bradley point we saw several of the Natives on the upperpart of the rocks who made a great noise & waved to us to come on shore, there being a great surf we could not land at the Point we wished, which they observing, pointed to the best place to land & came down unarm'd to meet us, we of course landed

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1788.
January.
unarm'd, taking care that arms were ready for us at a moments notice; Having some angles to measure from this point, two of the Officers went to the outer p.t of the rocks for that purpose, the others remained with the Natives who were all much disposed to good humour & pleased with us:
On our landing we observed some women at the place the Men came down from, they would not come near us, but peep'd from behind the rocks & trees; when the Boats put off, the Men began dancing & laughing & when we were far enough off to bring the place the Women were at in sight, they held their arms extended over their heads, got on their legs & danced 'till we were some distance, then followed us upon the rocks as far as the Boats went along that shore:
In course of the forenoon we went to a Cove within the Inner S.o Head (Camp Cove) where we were cordially received by 3 Men, who left their women sitting in a Canoe at the other end of the beach, we made a fire on shore & dined in the Boats, while our people were cooking the dinner, the natives were amongst them playing, looking at the Boat, manner of Cooking &c. & were without any weapons the whole time, they laid their Spears down on the sand between the women & the place they met us at; when we left them & rowing towards the point where the women were they got out of the Canoes & ran into the woods, the Men followed us along the shore.

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1788.
January.
Tuesday. 29th: Landing'd on a point forming the NW or Middle Branch to which we were followed by several of the Natives along the rocks, having only their sticks which they use in throwing the Lance, with them, A Man followed at some distance with a bundle of Lances; they pointed with their sticks to the best landing place & met us in the most chearful manner, shouting & dancing, the women kept at a distance near the Man with the Spears, this mark of attention to the women in shewing us, that altho' they met us unarmed, that they had Arms ready to protect them, increas'd my favourable opinion of them very much; some of these people having peices of tape & other things tied about them, we conclude them to be some of those people whom the Governor had met here before, these people mixed with ours & all hands danced together.
From here we went to Grotto point, Moored the Boats for the night & made a Tent Fore & Aft the Longboat, in which we all slept.
AM. Went over to Shell Cove & left this Branch, taking it as reported by those who examined it when the Boats first came into this Harbour; as we left this branch we met several Canoes with one Man in each of them, they had so much confidence in us as to come close alongside our Boats. After fixing the place of the Rock & extent of the shoal water round it we went into the North Arm. As we were going in to the

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1788
January.
first Cove on the E.t side called Spring Cove; we were joined by 3 Canoes with one Man in each, they hauled their Canoes up & met us on the beach leaving their Spears in the Canoes, we were soon joined by a dozen of them & found three amongst them with trinkets &c. hanging about them, that had been given to them a week before by the Governor on his first visit to this place:
Our people & these mixed together & were quite sociable, dancing & otherwise amusing them, One of our people combed their hair with which they were much pleased; several women appear'd at a distance, but we could not prevail on the Men to bring them near us;
We had here an opportunity of examining their Canoes & Weapons, the Canoe is made of the bark taken off a large Tree of the length they want to make the Canoe, which is gather'd up at each end & secured by a lashing of strong Vine which runs amongst the underbrush, one was secured by small line, they fix spreaders in the inside, the paddles are about 2 feet long in shape like a pudding stirrer, these they use one in each hand & go along very fast setting with their legs under them & their bodies erect & altho' they do not use outriggers I have seen them paddle through a large Surf without oversetting or taking in more water than if rowing in smooth water; from their construction they are apt to leak when any weight is in them, the Man nearest that part of the Canoe

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1788
January
where the water lies, heaves it out behind him with a peice of wood in the hollow of his hand still keeping his body erect as when rowing, they are by far the worst Canoes I ever saw or heard of; I have seen some so small as 8 feet long & others twice that length; In these Canoes they will stand up to strike fish at which they seem expert.
The lances which they had here with them, were, One sort about 12 feet in length with 4 barbed prongs made of bone & fastened on to the prong by a stiff Gum, these 4 prongs are secured to the stick & spread equally, about a foot in length; A smaller one of the same kind & one with a single stick barbed at & above the point, the long spears are indented at the end, for to receive a peg which is fixed on a stick 2 or 3 feet long & which they apply to throw the lance any considerable distance, the other end of this stick has a sharp, hard shell fixed on it which serves for opening shell fish, getting them off the rocks & various other purposes.
The Governor's plan with respect to the Natives, was, if possible to cultivate an acquaintance with them without their having an Idea of our great superiority over them, that their Confidence & Friendship might be more firmly fixed: we could not persuade any of them to go away in the Boat with us.
Having occasion to measure another Base line we landed at the upper part the N.o arm for that purpose, while we were about it 2 of the Natives came down seem'd pleas'd to meet

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1788
January.
us & much astonish'd at what we were doing, there people pass'd on to the place where our fire was & mixed with our people, they were neither of them armed; soon after & as we were going along the beach a Man & a very old Woman met us, they stoped with us a short time & then walk'd on to the place our People were at; this was the first Woman that came among us, she appear'd feeble with Old Age, very dark & ugly, we could not from her judge what the Younger Ones might be, but we had now some hopes that by the Old Woman coming to us, that the others who we saw on the beach close by the woods would allow us an interview as we approach'd them they ran away & as soon as we retired they shew'd themselves again & had a party of very stout Armed Men near them, we used many entreaties without effect, the Ladies still kept their distance.
When we had done what we had to do, we returned to the Boat leaving two of the Officers on shore with the people who were cooking, that nothing improper might be done by them as we had now many of the Natives assembled about us & armed & several more coming along the beach, 2 Muskets were handed to our people on shore & the other Arms kept ready in the Long boat, these people all came among us & laid their Lances down on the beach, the Old Woman made herself very comfortable & was with us

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1788
January.
from our first meeting with her, she & her Companions express'd a wish to know whether we were Men or Women. These people wanted every thing from us that they saw us make use of or that we had about us, we did not give them any thing in hopes of bringing the women among us by keeping what articles we had to give them & signified to the Men that we would give all to the women if they would come from the woods where they were sitting looking at us.
30th: PM: This scheme at last succeeded, for as we left the beach to dine in the Boats, which lay close too, the women came, having a party of Armed Men with them who had each a Green bough in their his hand which they waved as they advanced, the came near us & sat down amongst our other visitors, the party of Arm'd Men stood by them & never laid down their Spears.
We made signs to them, that if they would stay, we would bring them ashore some things which we shew'd to them, We took every precaution to prevent improprieties being committed by ordering the people out of the Small Boat & Captain Hunter w the 3 Officers went in her from the Longboat to go on shore, leaving the Musquets in the Longboat loaded in case their might be occasion to use them, as we approach'd the shore the women retired on which we immediately put back to the Longboat making the same Signs as we had done before; An Old Man then called to the Women & the greatest

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1788
January
part of them returned & came to the Old Man who walked close down to the water side as we approach'd: The Armed Men w the boughs posted themselves together just by & every one of the Men now took up their Spears & kept them poised ready for throwing standing close to the edge of the beach & rocks, when the boat landed, the Old Man came to the side of her & wanted the things which we had held out to the Women to take to them; which we refused & signified to them that we must give the things to the Women ourselves:
The Old Man finding us determined, spoke to the women & one of them came in to the water to the side of the Boat, we ornamented this naked Beauty with Strings of Beads & buttons, round her neck, arms & wrists she appear'd rather frighten'd altho' she affected a laugh & seem'd pleas'd with her presents, when she retired several of the other women came to the side of the Boat, attended by the Old Man, we ornamented these the same as the first; some came without fear, others trembling & laughing hesitating before they would come & some just near enough to reach the things; two of them could not be persuaded to come within 2 or 3 yards of the Boat, to those we threw some things & gave the Old Man some for them, the whole of this time the Men who kept their lances ready were silent & attentive to what was doing, two Men were placed on a seperate rock we supposed to keep a look out upon the Long boat. After

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1788.
January
having disposed of our trifling presents we went off to the Long boat, as soon as we put off the Men held their Spears carelessly & began shouting, laughing & dancing; we counted 72 besides Women & Children this was more than twice the number ever yet seen together before; either in this Harbour or Botany Bay.
The Men we met with here were in general stout & well limbed the women excepting the very old Woman, were young & in general shorter than the Men, very straight limbed & well featured their voice a pleasing softness, they were all entirely naked old & young: The Men had their beards long & very bushy their hair hangs upo about their heads clotted with dirt & Vermin some of them had the teeth of some Animal & peices of bone stuck in their hair with gum, they are so dirty that it is hard to tell the real colour of their hides, which I think is nearly black, their noses somewhat flat & all those that we noticed had a hole bored, through which they sometimes put a stick or small bone but of all this party only one wore it;
Most of these men had lost one of the fore teeth & their skins are much scar'd - not like those commonly seen from wounds, this as well the loss of a particular tooth is a Custom observed amongst them, that we cannot yet learn the reason for, they walk very upright & very much with their hands behind them; Most of the Spears this party had, were a single hard sharp pointed stick secured as the others with gum to a long & light stick 12 or 16 feet in length

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1788.
January: February.
& a single barbed spear; the former they threw at a mark tolerable exact 60 yards, they use a throwing stick which is about 3 feet long with a kind of peg secured on one end which they apply to the end of the spear, keeping hold of the other end of the throwing stick steady the spear & direct it with the fore finger & thumb, this stick being applied increases its velocity very much: several of these Men were mark'd with streaks of red & white particularly the armed party that came from the woods with the women: we saw two Huts a little from one part of the beach, but their residence we find cheifly under the shelving rocks; The afternoon being far gone we left these people earlier than we should have otherwise done, that we might Sound about the lower part of the Harbour as we returned to the Ships.
Saturday 2nd Febry: We did not meet with any Natives again till this day, at day light saw several Canoes in the Cove we were surveying, they all fled some out of the Cove & others up to a Cove. (Lane Cove) We could not by any means get these People near us, Having occasion to go to the bottom of the inner Cove where several of them had gone w their Canoes, they thought we were following them & push'd up a Creek to avoid us.
Sunday. 3. PM. In a Cove to the NW 3 Miles above the Ship we saw several Natives, some sitting round a fire, others

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1788
February.
were just landing with their Canoes, the moment they perceiv'd us, they ran off in great confusion & hurry not taking time to make the Canoes fast or haul them ashore, these people had a dog with them: We found Muscles on the Fire, others in their Canoes & some dropt between both; their fright was so great that they went off without taking their fishing lines, Spears or any thing with them, these we suppose to be of the number who fled up the Harbour when we arrived, we left string of beads, Cards, peices of Cloth &c. about their Fire & in the Canoes & were very particular not to move any one of their things.
AM. As we proceeded up the Harbour, the Natives all fled in their canoes as far & as fast as they could; About 4 Mile higher than where the Ship lay, the Country was open & improved the farther we went up & in most places not any underwood, Grass very long.
Monday. 4th. PM. Followed many openings to the NW & pass'd a narrow Channel into a wide space which would not be in our power to survey before night & there being assembled up here an astonishing number of the Natives all arm'd, with Flats on which the Boats might ground in this channel & put us much in their power, not having any people but the Boats Crews with us & being 8 Miles from the Ship, Capt.n Hunter thought that taking the necessary precautions would employ too many of our people for us to go on with

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1788
February.
the plan we were prosecuting; we therefore returned & moored the Boats for the night at Dawes Island.
AM. Went into the SW Branch, found it terminate in snug Coves, surrounded with Mangroves, rather shoal water.
Tuesday. 5th. PM: Returned to the ship: At day light having a Guard of Marines, proceeded to the upper part of the Harbour again, passed several natives in the Coves as we went up & some on shore near the place where we left the beads & other things, who followed along the rocks calling to us, we landed to cook our Breakfast on the opposite shore to them (Breakfast p.t)
We made signs to them to come over & waved green boughs, soon after which 7 of them came over in two Canoes & landed near our Boats, they left their Spears in the Canoes & came to us; we tied beads &c. about them & left them our fire to dress their Muscles which they went about as soon as our Boats put off.
At Noon, we were far enough to see the termination of the Harbour as far as Navigable for ships, being all Flats above us with narrow passages that we supposed might run a considerable distance but very shoal. As we returned to the ship we saw Natives in almost every part of the Harbour in small parties. In one of the Coves we found a peice of a Cake which appear'd to be made of the Wild Fig. We saw them cheifly in small parties & to appearance have not any fixed habitation, moving about the Harbor as

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1788
February
they find will afford them the best means of subsistence. In the North Arm, I suppose them to be a people inhabiting that part of the Harbour, this I judge from the number of Women & Children that were with them & the appearance of their being governed by a cheif, from the attention they paid to the Old Man at our interview with the Women, The party of Arm'd Men being selected & painted on the foreheads & breast & their being with the women when they first appear'd shews that they were for their protection & favors my opinion. We did not see any thing of the kind in any other part of the Harbour or notice that one Man held himself superior to any other.
Wednesday. 6th: The survey of the Harbour was finish'd in as accurate a manner as the time would admit of, yet in a place so very extensive it is possible for rocks to be hidden & holes of deep water near the bluff lands to be, without our being able to get exactly on them; The entrance of the Harbour is about 10 Miles to the N.oward of Botany Bay, the best mark to know when you draw near it coming from the S.oward is some remarkable Sand Hills over a Sandy Bay these Sand Hills are near 3 Mile to the S.oward of the entrance, & from the point of this sandy Bay, the shore is all rocky Cliffs to the Inner S.o Head; as you approach the entrance from the S.oward, the Heads have an unfavorable

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1788
February.
appearance; As you sail into the opening between the Outer Heads which is near 2 Miles across, steep too on both sides, you will see on the S.o shore a point off which is a small reef made by the fallen rocks & breaks as far out as any danger can be; (& a steep Rocky Head to the WNW called Middle Cape as it seperates the Branches.) As you pass this point or Inner So Head the Harbour opens to the SW in which reach of the Harbor & more than 1/3 over from a sandy Cove on the S.o shore formed by a remarkable green point, is a Rock which dries at 1/2 ebb & a flat round it of considerable extent, there is a bar of clear flat sand all the way from this rock to the Inner S.o Head with 31/2 fathom at low water, it is not very broad & when past it you have deep water between the rock & the S.o shore, the marks for which channel are the Inner N.o & S.o Heads on. The marks for the Rock are the outer p.t of the N.o Head just on with the inner S.o Head & the Green point on with a remarkable gully seen over the Land to be close to the Outer S.o Head. In passing to the W.tward of the rock you will go over a flat which extends from the shoal of the rock over to the next point above the middle Cape there is 4 & 41/2 f.m on it & shoals gradually to 3 towards the shoal which a little dis.e above the rock you may cross in 3 f.m. As soon as past the p.t above Middle Cape you have deep water & may Anchor or work from Shore to Shore; there is no danger afterward that we could discover. As you sail thro' this reach of

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1788
February.
of the Harbour which lays SWbS by Compass you will see 2 Islands which before you get the length of, the Harbour will open W. or W1/4S of you round a projecting point & a white rocky small Island shew itself right in the Stream of the Harbour you may pass on either side of it & about 1/2 a mile higher up is the Cove where the Settlement is fixed, off both points of which is a small ledge which dries at low water the greater part of it, the shore round both sides of the Cove is steep too. With a leading wind I would recommend steering in for the land of the Mididle Cape which lays nearly WNW by Compass from the inner S.o Head & keep that shore on board 'til above the rock; The N.o arm has good clear ground & depth of water: The Harbour is Navigable for Ships 12 Miles E.t and W.t & the branches extend 6 miles N.o & S.o. It is one continuation of Harbour within Harbour formed by snug Coves with good depth of water & fresh water in many of them; Those Coves above where the ships lay were surrounded by Mangroves & had mud flats at the bottom, those below had sandy beaches most of them. The Entrance is in Latitude 33:50'.S.o. Longitude 151:26'E.t The Flag Staff at the settlement 33:51':3/4S.o & 151:20'E.t Variation of the Compass 10:30'E.t Flows full & change 1/4 pt 8 & rises from 5 to 8 feet much influenced by the winds.
We found Fish plenty altho' the Harbour is full of sharks, there is a great quantity of shell fish in the Coves that have

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1788.
February.
mud flats at the bottom, Oysters very large; We found Wild Spinage, Samphire & other leaves of Bushes which we used as vegetables. An Island near a mile below the settlement was granted for the use of the Sirius to make a Garden of.
Thursday. 7th. PM. The Light'ning which had been frequent & very severe since our arrival was particularly so this evening, a Tree was struck & shiver'd near the encampment 6 Sheep, 1 Lamb & 1 Hog that were near the Tree were killed by the same light'ning & others much scorched, the Centinel on post near the Tree was knock'd down & lost his sight; The Thunder Squalls for the last 3 nights were excessive severe.
AM. Being the morning appointed for reading the Governors Commission &c. all the Officers attended; at the Hour appointed the Convicts were collected & the Marines formed under arms, the Commission was then read by the Judge Advocate, & the other publick authorities by which the settlement was to be govern'd; besides the Civil Law according to the method used in England, another Court for the Trial of Capital Crimes was establish'd by Act of Parliament, this Court is called a Court of Criminal Judicature to be composed of the Judge Advocate & six Officers of His Majesty's Forces by Sea & Land, the Majority of whose Opinions to be the sentence if not touching Life or Limb, in which case five of the seven must concur in Opinion before sentence

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1788.
February.
Sentence can be given. The Governor has the right of approving all sentences & mitigating punishments & of granting Pardon.
Friday. 8th. AM. Two Natives came to the Camp, the Governor gave a Hatchet & several other things but could not persuade them to stay. A Kanguroo was killed which was the first we had brought in.
Saturday. 9th. PM: The Captain of the Astrolabe came round from Botany Bay to pay respects to Governor Phillip & to leave the French Commodores dispatches for Europe to go by our Transports. We found that they had been obliged to fire on the Natives at Botany Bay to keep them quiet: We also learnt from them that they had lately suffer'd much loss at the Navigators Islands, from some offence having been given to the Natives they took the opportunity of their Longboat being aground to close on them with clubs while others threw stones & forced them from the shore to 2 small Boats which they luckily had with them or all must have fallen, they fired & killed many of the Natives but were obliged to retreat with the loss of the Captain of the Astrolabe 7 other Officers & 4 of their People & many others badly wounded, they broke the Boat to peices in their Savage Frenzy.
Monday. 11th: A Criminal Court of Judicature was held on 3 Convicts, whose Sentence was immediately put in execution after being read to them.

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1788.
February.
Tuesday 12th. A Boat belonging to the Sirius being up the Harbour found 4 Convict Women straggling about the Rocks one of whom made her escape into the Woods & no doubt perish'd.
Wednesday. 13th. Several Kanguroo were seen & a Bird resembling the Ostrich.
Thursday. 14th. Twenty of the Natives came to the Governors Farm. On seeing the Sheep they exclaimed Kanguroo, they would not come nearer the Camp: In the morning the Supply sailed for Norfok Island, with Lieut King, a Masters Mate, Surgeons Mate & 4 Artificers belonging to the Sirius; 9 Men & 6 Women Convicts. Mr King had some Sheep, Hogs, Poultry, Seed & Plants, with tools & implements & clearing & Cultivating the Ground.
Friday. 15th. The Governor went with 3 Boats Marin'd & Arm'd up the Harbour, taking the 1st Lieu.t & Master with him; we were some distance up the Harbour before any of the Natives were seen, the first party of them were 8 sitting under a hollow rock round a fire, one of the men stood up & spoke to us, the rest did not appear to be the least disturbed as they neither moved nor spoke; we stoped at a Neck of land to Breakfast, we were soon met there by a Native arm'd, He laid down his Spear as soon as he join'd us; & had more curiousity than any we had before met with, he examin'd every thing very attentively & went into all our Boats from one to the other

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1788.
February.
in the Long boat he sat down & with the help of one of the People he contrived to manage an Oar, though very awkwardly: The Governor gave this Man a hatchet & a looking glass which went when he looked into, he looked immediately behind the Glass to see if any person was there, & then pointed to the Glass & the shadows which he saw in the water signifying they were similar: Another man joined us soon after & a third was laying off in a Canoe; wanting to see him get out of the Canoe we enticedly him on shore, he had a stone slung by way of an Anchor which he let go just as the Canoe took the ground, he stept one leg out of the Canoe keeping the weight of his body in its center 'till he had foot hold of the shore to remove it to that leg, in this manner he landed without any risk of oversetting the Canoe. We next proceeded up to the beginning of the Flats, where we landed & went 2 or 3 Miles into the Country, found the Trees a considerable distance apart & the Soil in general good Grass very long & no underwood.
16th: At 1 PM. returned to the Boats & after Dinner went in the smallest boat over the Flats past a Mangrove Island & followed a Creek some distance to the W.tward when it branched away to the NW & SW which last we followed 4 miles as near as we could judge, the lake or drain is very shoal & where we stop'd was entirely fill'd up with fallen trees from both sides, the water falling fast we had barely time to get down

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1788
February. 16.
Boats, which when we join'd returned to the Ship. A Marine was missing in the woods.
AM. In a Cove where our People were hauling the Sein, the Natives Men & Women joined them & assisted for which they had some Fish given them & were very thankful.
Sunday. 17th: AM. The Marine that lost himself, came in, He met with several of the Natives who were all very friendly they wanted his Musquet but did not offer to take it by force when he refused to let them have it; He saw a great number of Kanguroo, One of which he killed & brought to the Camp with him. Three people belonging to the French Ships came over from Botany Bay, they met with but few of the Natives; we found that the Natives at Botany Bay had been endeavoring to steal several things from them which obliged them to fire on them once or twice.
Monday. 18th: Several of the Natives appear'd on the points of land near where the Ship lay, the fishing boat coming past them put ashore & gave them some fish which they eagerly accepted.
Tuesday. 19. Governor Phillip removed from the Ship & took up his Residence on shore.
AM. Several of the Natives came down the Harbour & kept in a Bay near the Ship; 7 of them in 4 Canoes passed thro' the Cove between the Sirius & Transports & went close past one

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1788.
February.
our boats with great confidence; One of them landed on the East point of Sydney Cove to meet some of our people who were there from this they went to our Garden Island & found means to steal two Iron shovels & a pick axe, the pick axe the Gardners obliged them to bring back & lay it themselves in the very spot they had taken it from, the Shovels the escaped with, but not without their skin being well pepper'd with small shot.
Wednesday. 20th: Several Canoes pass'd the Ship in which were women & Children, they stayed all night on a point close to the Ship & then went down the Harbour.
Thursday. 21st: Having had a great deal of dry, Hot weather it was observed that several of the Streams of fresh water had stoped & others run very slow. Some of the Officers of the Boussole came from Botany Bay to visit the Governor, they inform us that the Natives are exceedingly troublesome there & that wherever they meet an unarmed Man they attack him,
Saturday. 23. A General Muster of the Convicts discover'd that 9 men & 1 woman were still missing, the woman is the same that ran into the woods the 12th when our Boat took her 3 Companions straggling; this afternoon the left arm & hand of a white man or woman floated past the ship, had the appearance of having been a considerable time in the Water.
Monday. 25th: Our fishing boat met with a great number of Canoes in the Cove where they went to haul the Sein, in

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1788
February
several of f which were women fishing who felt no kind of interruption from our Boat being amongst them.
Tuesday. 26th: Cap Hunter went to Botany Bay in the Longboat to visit the French Officers.
27th: Three Convicts were condemn'd to Death by a Criminal Court for stealing provisions from the Store: The allowance to the Convicts had been this day increas'd & were receiving such addition at the time the Theft was Committed; One of them was Executed the same afternoon & the others repreiv'd 24 Hours.
Thursday 28th: The weather was such that our Boat could not get out of Botany Bay, Captain Hunter walked over with some of the French Officers. At 6 in the evening the Criminals who had been repreiv'd were taken to the place of Execution, they were pardon'd on condition of being banished from the Settlement.
29th: The same Criminal Court met again to try the rest of the Criminals, one was admitted King's Evidence, 2 condemn'd to Death & 1 acquitted for stealing wine from the Contractor, Another was sentenced to Death for stealing provisions from one of the other Convicts; At 4. Their sentences were read to them & they were taken to the place of Execution where instead of meeting the Fate they deserved, they received an extraordinary mark of the Governors lenity, He pardon'd them on condition of their being banish'd from the Settlement & one

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1788.
February: March.
He reserved to be the Common Executioner.
Saturday. 1 March. The Long boat returned from Botany Bay, the French Ships had launch'd their Boats which they had built in lieu of those destroyed at Navigators Isles & proposed sailing in a few days.
Sunday. 2nd. At day light the Governor with his Cutter, accompanied by the 1st Lieu.t of the Sirius in her Long boat & the Master in one of the Transports Long boat with a party of Marines in addition to the Boats Crews, for the purpose of examining Broken Bay victualled for 7 days, the Long boat in which the Master was, proved so very heavy & unhandy that we waited in Spring Cove 'til she came up with us & clear'd her, the Governor took the Master into his Boat & sent back that Longboat, We were met in this Cove by several of the Natives, A Woman who was fishing in a Canoe, landed with very little persuasion she was excessively Ugly & very big with child, there being many women fishing in their Canoes about the Cove, the Governor did not give any things to the Men; None of the other Women came ashore but all came alongside our Boats with their Canoes, the Men kept on the beach: the generality of this party of women were Old, ugly & ill shaped. The Governor here exchanged a Straw Hat for a spear, which when he was taking to our Boat, another of them took hold of it, on which the Man who had the Hat ran to him & explained

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1788.
March.
that it had been exchanged, he let it go & seem pleased.
At 8. Went out of Port Jackson, when off the Harbour, the Heads of Broken Bay are within the N.o extreme of Land; the S.o Head is 15 Miles to the N.oward of the No Head of Port Jackson, round which head the Coast forms a deep bight & has a Cove or bend where a Boat may shelter from this the beach runs about 3 Miles to the N.oward to a reef of rocks which break some distance out & round which is a bight with a long sandy beach on which close round this reef of rocks a boat may land if caught upon the shore & not able to reach either of the Harbours: all round this bight the Natives appear'd on the high land, from this there did not appear to be any shelter for Boats in any of the Sandy Bays; as we passed the sandy bay next the S.o Head of Broken Bay, we were met by 3 Canoes having one Man & 5 Women in them, they came alongside of our Boats quite familiarly: The Governor push'd over to the N.o shore in the Cutter.
The tide set so strong to the S.oward, that it was with difficulty the Long boat could get round the S.o Head. As the evening closed we lost sight of the Cutter & as we approached the N.o shore of Broken Bay we made Signals by flashing of Powder & saw lights immediately after on the N.o shore to which we rowed & found to be the Natives lights, we then hauled off & fired a Musquet which was immediately answer'd & we soon saw the Cutter & at 9 at Night Moored the Boats in a Cove

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1788.
March.
on the N.o side of the Bay off which the Surf broke violently: When the Cutter first landed, they were met by a great number of the Natives, Men, Women & Children, the Men were all armed with Spears, Clubs, Stone Hatchets & Wooden Swords, they were all very friendly & when the Long boat landed were without arms, we passed the night in this Cove on board the Boats every body.
Monday. 3rd: At day light went into the N.o branch of the Harbour which has a shoal & narrow entrance just within which we stoped, found the Natives familiar, they had several Huts here which were merely small sticks placed against each other & cover'd over with bark; In these Huts were several Women Old & young, they were much terrified at first, but soon were composed & familiar on having presents made them: they had several Cray fish about these Huts.
As we proceeded up this branch after passing a very shoal flat & two or three Coves, we found set out so strong that we could not pull ahead through between two projecting points, on which we landed in a Cove adjacent; Here we were met by several Natives, Men & Women who all came freely about us. All the Women we met with in this Bay two only excepted had lost two joints of the little finger on the left hand, which custom like others we are at a loss to account for: It was supposed by some to be the pledge on the Marriage Ceremony, or on their having Children, I cannot agree in that opinion as one of the exceptions was

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1788.
March
an Old who had had Children & the other a young woman who had not. The others who had all been subject to this Custom were of both descriptions, Old & Young. This was not observed at Port Jackson as a custom among them but noticed in some & supposed to have been done by accident. We found most of the women had the Hole bored through the Nose the same as the Men. When the Tide had slacken'd we pushed up & found several small inlets between Mangroves, on one of which Islands we stop'd & pitch'd the Tents; had very hard rain all the morning
Tuesday. 4th. PM While the Tents & Clothes were drying, some of the Natives landed & were easily kept at a proper distance from the Clothes; A Crab was caught & proved very good.
AM. At day light proceeded up, found it to be an extensive & very shoal peice of water, too much so for the Boats to go over the flats without the risk of being left dry on the Ebb tide. We found Natives all the way up. Not being able to determine the extent of this peice of water, we returned to the Cove in which we first stoped: where we found a Straw Hat & some strings of beads which favours the opinion of their not having any fixed residence as nothing of that kind had been given them here & several were both at Port Jackson & at Botany Bay; After staying a short time here we went over to the S.o side of the Bay into the SW arm off which is an

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1788
March
Island, We moored the Boats about 3 Miles up this Branch, had heavy rain, Thunder & Light'ning all night.
Wednesday. 5th AM: Followed the sw. arm up to the head found several Coves & good depth of water all the way up which I suppose to be about 7 Miles, we left two openings to the S.oward without looking into them & left this Arm without examining a large opening to the NW out of it about a mile & half above the Island: We went into the S.o Arm were caught suddenly by a thunder squall & had much difficulty in getting in:
In a Cove just within the entrance we were met by an Old Man & Boy. He had a stone in his hand which he laid down as he came towards us, he shew'd us the best landing place, brought us a stick of Fire & some Water signifying to us that the rain was very cold, we gave them fish & the Governor exchanged some things for Spears, this Man was but little scar'd about the body.
Thursday. 6. PM. Continuing to rain we secured every thing for the night, the Old Man was with us till the evening.
AM. Went up this Arm, saw several of the Natives in every Cove, the Old Man & boy followed us round to one of the Coves & shew'd us water; We stop'd in a Cove on the E.t side about 3 Miles up, several women in Canoes were fishing two of them came ashore the one an Old & Ugly, the other a young woman tall & was the handsomest woman I have seen amongst

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1788
March.
them, she was very big with Child, her fingers were complete as were those of the Old Woman. One of the Women made a fishing hook while we were by her, from the inside of what is commonly called the pearl oyster shell, by rubbing it down on the rocks until thin enough & then cut it circular with another, shape the hook with a sharp point rather bent in & not bearded or barbed, in this Cove we met with a kernel which they prepare & give their Children, I have seen them eat it themselves, they are a kind of nut growing in bunches somewhat like a pine top & are poisonous without being properly prepared the method of doing which we did not learn from them. Hard rain the greatest part of these 24 Hours.
Friday. 7. Were at the upper part of the S.o Arm, found in every part of it, very good depth of water except a Flat at the entrance from the Et point 2/3 of the way over, between which & the W.tern shore is a Channel with 3 f.m. at low water & that depth close to the rocks, the Land on the E.t side of this Arm is in general good & clear, on the W.t side all Rocks & thick woods.
AM Left the S.oern Arm & went again into the SW Arm to look into that opening to the NW, found but few of the Natives in it: We landed on an Island about 2 miles up this branch, on which we secured every thing for the night got a great quantity of Mullet in the Sein from which we called it Mullet Island, there is long flat to the SE & a reef

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1788.
March.
of rocks, round which is the bay for hauling th Sein, we found some Huts on the Island, but only 3 Natives came to us this evening.
Saturday. 8. AM. Several of the Natives came to us, painted very whimsically with pipe Clay & red Ochre both which is plenty on the Island, the pipe clay just under the Sand on the beach round the rocks. We followed this branch up to the NW some distance, found openings to the N.oward & NW & on the W.t side of this opening to the NW, there appear'd to be an Island with passages round it on both sides, but we only examined that opening to the NW above Mullet Island which was found to be very shoal, that to the N.oward not having more than 6 feet water across the entrance just within the points forming it prevented our looking farther into it: About Noon having finished our superficial examination which was much hinder'd by constant heavy rains, we returned to a Cove at the Outer part of the S.o Arm to be ready to go out of the Bay.
Sunday. 9th. PM. The Old Man & Boy came to us as before, with several more of the Natives, they had many things given to them but that did not keep them from stealing, after dark the Old Man took an Iron spade & was going off with it, he was seen from the Longboat, pursued & brought back with it by one of the people on shore: The Governor chastised him for it, which so enraged him that he run off & very soon

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1788.
March
returned with his party all with their Spears ready to throw when a Musquet was fired which made them stop & a second Musquet drove them away for the night.
AM. At day light, the Old Man & his Companions came to us just the same as if nothing had happen'd & without Arms: About 6 O'Clock we left Broken Bay & got into Spring Cove in Port Jackson at 11.
Monday. 10th. PM. Landed in a Cove above Spring Cove & in Camp Cove, in which last we saw several of the Natives who ran away all but two, those stayed on the beach & one of them shew'd us the marks on his body where he had been beat & also cut on the Shoulder by the people who landed here from two Boats, He made signs to us that the barbed spear had been jab'd several times into his shoulder: about 6. returned to the Ship.
An Emew had been shot while we were away & proved very good eating. Some of the Convicts straggling into the woods met with several of the Natives, a quarrel ensued, who were the agressors is hard to say, but the Convicts were some of them wounded & one since dead. One of the Seamen belonging to the Lady Penryhne Transport, who had been missing some days, was found in the woods by a man employed shooting for the Governor. He had been stript of all his clothes, not able to stand & scarce sensible.
Tuesday. 11th. Were informed by the Man empd to get Greens for the

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1788.
March.
sick, that the French Ships were sailed from Botany Bay
Thursday. 13th. The Governor met the Officers on the subject of Grants of Land, they were informed that it was not in his authority to do it: peices of Ground for Gardens & for feeding their stock He allowed for present use but not as Grants of Land.
Sunday. 16th: Some of the Natives came to a place where a party of the Convicts had been left to cut rushes & finding them unarmed wanted to steal their tools, being opposed they threw their Spears at the Convicts which they very wisely picked up & broke to peices, when they had thrown all their Spears & saw them all broken to peices, they threw a few stones & ran away, one of the Convicts was wounded.
Monday. 17th: A Man employed shooting for the Governor, had been [5] days absent. He reported on his return that he had been taken a considerable distance into the Country by the Natives, that he had killed a Kanguroo which they took from him, broiled it & eat it all together.
Wednesday. 19th. The Supply arrived from Norfolk Island having left Mr King with the People & stores there & the Jolly Boat belonging to the Sirius: On their passage to Norfolk Island they discovered an Island in Latitude 31:36' South & Longitude 159 E.t Lieu.t Ball named it Lord Howes Island, they arrived off Norfolk Island & landed on the NE side of it the 2nd Ins.t, A surge of the Sea washed one of their

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1788
March
People from a rock where he was standing & was drown'd, it was supposed he had been drawn under a shelving rock as they could not see any thing of the body. They could not find any place on this side the Island where the provisions & stores could be landed; On the 6th. they were landed on the S.o side the Island where there is a small Gully through a reef which dries at half tide that will just admit a Boat & is very dangerous when any swell is on the shore. They had much bad weather during the passage & the prevailing wind SE, they found part of the bones of a very large whale above high water mark.
Pidgeons & other Birds they found plenty upon the Island, the Supply called at Lord Howes Island on her return & got several Turtle, the soil on the Island appear'd good & there were found a great quantity of Ground Birds which were very good & easily taken.
Thursday. 20th: Captain Meridith up the Harbour met several of the Natives on the land opposite to Dawes Island, they were very familiar & had many things from him, but after he left them, droping his boat along the shore, a spear was thrown that passed near him, He levell'd his Musquet which they perceiving got behind the Trees, He fired a Ball among them on which they shouted but did not all run away. A Convict who had been out to gather Greens with another Convict return'd, having met with a party of the

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1788
March.
Natives who beat him severely with their throwing sticks & then let him go, the other escaped through a thick brush which the Natives don't like to get into. An Eagle was shot measuring 7 feet from wing to wing, the feathers black & white: A very beautiful Bird was shot by one of the Officers that seem'd to partake of two species, the head & upper part of the body the Parrot, the lower part & feet that of the pigeon.
Sunday. 23. An Officer was sent to Botany Bay for the purpose of seeing if any ship was there & how the Natives were disposed: He did not see any vessel there, met a great number of Natives who were all friendly. A shark was caught this day 13 feet long & 61/2 round after his jaws were taken out they passed over the largest man in the Ship without touching, the liver gave us 26 gallons of oil, he had 4 hooks cut from within him besides that which caught him.
Monday. 24th. Lieut Dawes of the Marines, a Corporal & 8 priv.ts were lent from the Sirius to do duty on shore the Battalion being weaken'd by sickness.
Tuesday. 25th: The people employed making Bricks, were met by some of the Natives who threw stones at them & ran away. This day, the Scarborough, Lady Penryhne & Charlotte Transports were discharged being clear, these ships by contract are allowed 2 months pay from their being clear'd on account of their having a Voyage to China to perform as also an additional

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1788
March.
sum on the Ton to the other Transports on account of their being discharged & not kept in pay till their return to England.
Thursday. 27th: Several canoes passed down the Harbour, one of which stop'd to fish between the Ship & the shore w 2 women in her, they remained 'til near sunset but would not come to the Ship.
Saturday. 29th. Several Men, Women & Children were fishing abreast the Ship where they kept all day & landed on a point of land near us in the evening.
Sunday. 30. Natives as yesterday, on our boat going towards them they paddled to the shore & ran into the woods & came out again as soon as our boat left them, We did not interrupt them again, they staid to the 2nd April & then went two Coves higher up this party consisted of 17 Canoes with 30 people in them: Some of our Officers were on shore on at point which they passed near, one Canoe landed & had some baize given them the other Canoes all lay off; The Surgeon wounded & brought down a Crow in their sight & endeavor'd to get the Canoes to land by waving the wounded Bird to them, finding that they would not land the Surgeon threw the Bird toward to them, which having recover'd itself flew away & joined some others that were in a Tree close by, this uncommon circumstance which could not appear to them short of our having power to give & take life, astonished them so much, that they

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1788.
March: April
remained quite silent some time & then all joined in a loud exclamation of wonder.
Thursday. 3rd. Another party came up the Harbour & occupied the Caves &c. which the former had left, [Out] boat went to them with peices of cloth &c.; the Women all ran into the Woods, the men remained & met our boat; they had several things given them among which was a shirt one of them put it on, this new skin he seem'd much pleas'd with, but appear'd to be deprived of the use of his limbs while within it, they could not be prevailed on to come to the Ship.
Friday. 4th: Natives as yesterday & the former party fishing higher up in sight of the Ship.
Sunday 6th: Some of the officers went to Botany Bay, No Ship there, they found that the Inscription which had been painted on board & fixed on a Tree near the place the French Abb who died was buried while those Ships were at Botany Bay, was torn down by the Natives, the inscription was not so much defaced but that it was copied by one of the Gentlemen & the same order'd by Governor Phillip to be engraved on a peice of Copper & nailed in the place the other had been taken from.
Thursday. 10th: The Governor & party being in that part of the Harbour round Middle Cape, found an entrance round a long sandy point into a very extensive peice
   

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1788
April
of water which branched away in three directions & good depth of water after having pass'd over the flat at the entrance.
Sunday 13th. The Governor went down the Harbour to visit the Coves in the lower part of it, He crossed the neck from the N.o Cove & found at the end of the beach at the back of it a peice of stagnate brackish water.
Monday. 14th: Cap Hunter traced the N.omost branches of the Middle Harbour, to endeavour to know if they had any communication with that peice of water found yesterday: the N.omost branch was found to end in a flat, dry at low water & about 2 miles above it a large run of fresh water. This day two Natives landed on the p.t of the Cove where the Observatory is fixed, but could not be persuaded to go into Camp.
Tuesday. 15th: The Governor & party were landed in the N.o Cove, for the purpose of going some distance into the Country & to examine that peice of stagnate water beforementioned.
Wednesday. 16th: A Boat went to the N.o Cove to bring this party back should they return: while the Boat was laying there we walked across the neck, where some Canoes were just landing which they did with ease altho' a very great surf was running, they met us & walked over with us to the place where our Boat was laying, they staid with us half an hour, several women appear'd at a distance but would not come to us.

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1788
April
Thursday. 17th: Lieut Ball with some of the Governor's party crossed the Branches of Middle Harbour & returned to the N.o shore opposite to Sydney Cove; they left the Governor at the N.omost branch leading to a large run of water up which they meant to go the next day. Mr Ball found all the Country he crossed to be a jumble of rocks & thick woods, except one small spot about a mile to the NW of the place he came to.
Friday. 18th: Went up the N.o Branch of the Middle Harbor to meet the party which we did just below the Flats. The Governor had traced the run of water some miles found the Country in general Rocks & Woods; the peice of water near the Sea they found to be a stagnate pool into which the sea breaks over the shore in bad weather.
Saturday. 19th: Some Canoes landed on Garden Island, had some things given to them & went away immediately.
Sunday. 20th. Some Officers went to Botany Bay & a boat was sent without the Heads of the Harbour, from a report having been made to the Governor that distant Guns had been heard: The Officers & Boat returned in the evening, nothing at Botany Bay, or to be seen in the Offing.
Monday. 21st: Captain Hunter with the Officers who had before assisted him, went with two boats to survey the branches of the Middle Harbour.

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1788.
April
Tuesday. 22nd: On a point where we landed, found the earth thrown up in the manner of a Grave, which we turned up & found the ashes of some deceased person & by the burnt wood laying near it we suppose it to have been consumed on that spot, the ashes appear'd to be heap'd together on the surface of the ground & cover'd with earth, some peices of bones were found not quite consumed but too much so to know what part of the body they belonged to; from a greater quantity of the ashes at one end than at the other, I suppose the body to have been laid at length before the fire is applied to the Pile & conclude that they dispose of the dead in the same manner. Saw very few of the Natives.
Wednesday. 23rd: Examined all the N.omost branch & Moored the boats below the flats leading up to the large run of Water, pass'd several of the Natives on & fishing off the Middle Cape.
Thursday. 24th: As the tide flowed we went over the flats in the small boat, found many winding reaches with holes of 2 & 3 fathom water in some of them: As we went up we saw one Old Man setting upon the rocks by his Canoe, at about 1/2 flood we got nearly up to the fresh water in the boat: When we returned we found the Old Man with our people, they entertained him with dancing, combing his hair & beard & shew'd him how to smoke a pipe, two or three whiffs perfectly satisfied that part of his curiousity & set him coughing.

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1788
April.
We gave him roasted Oysters which he eat as fast as he could get them & on giving him a bunch of them roasted he open'd them with his thumb as easy as we could with a knife, He got into the Long boat & examined every part of her attentively. All the Natives in this part of the Harbour, except the Old Man were very shy & would not come near us we did not find any Huts, they were in Caves formed by shelving rocks at the outer part they make a fire which serves both for roasting their Fish & giving them heat during the night.
Friday. 25th: A Boat was sent to the upper part of the Harbor to attend the Governor who with a party of Officers & Marines had been landed there the 22nd. to make an excursion to the W.tward. Some Officers who had been at Botany Bay return'd In going there they crossed from the upper part of the SW arm to the NW branch of Botany Bay which they found but a very short distance across a swamp, they met several of the Natives, all very friendly; One party which they met at the close of the evening shew'd them a Hut, making signs for them to sleep there, they also brought them Fire & Water & came to visit them in the morning. This night 5 Sheep were killed by some Animal.
Sunday. 27th. Officers visited Botany Bay, no ship there, they met the Natives in great numbers along the shore of the upper part of the Bay where they slept near a large party

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1788
April.
of them: the Natives were very friendly, gave the Officers Fish & remain'd the night near them & parted in the morning very friendly: there were many Women & Children amongst them.
Monday. 28th. The Marines who were with the Governor return'd, a small boat was detained up the Harbour to examine a lake which run to the W.t ward above the Flats. The Governor had been several miles into the Country all of which was found to be a clear open Country & good Soil. They found a channel up the lake to a large run of water, where there was a kind of slate found in great quantities.
Tuesday. 29th: The Carpenter was employed fixing new skirting boards under the Whales & while the ship was on the Heel for that purpose, the white Composition Bolts & Nails which had been driven for experiment at Rio Janeiro were examined and found to be very much decay'd being eaten into by [indecipherable word] Copper: some of the Iron Bolts in the Butts were also examined & found but little touched.
Wednesday. 30th. At one haul of the Sein we caught Fish enough to serve the Ships Company, Hospital, Battalion & great part of the Convicts.
Friday. 2nd. May: AM. A Convict was executed for robbing a Tent & some other Convicts who had been guilty of Theft, were flogged at the Tree while the other was hanging over their heads, to endeavor if possible to strike these abandon'd

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1788
May.
wretches with Terror.
Sunday. 4th: Some of the Officers sailing in one of the Boats, met with several of the Natives who they mixed with & were very sociable, the Natives gave them Fish & they shaved the Natives in return which they appear'd much pleased with, Several Women peeping behind the trees came forward at times & were order'd back by the Men.
Monday. 5th: A party of Seamen from the Sirius were employed Hutting the Women Convicts. The Lady Penryhne Transport sailed for China.
Tuesday. 6th: The Scarborough Transport sailed for China & the Supply for Lord Howes Island.
Thursday. 8th. The Charlotte Transport sailed for China.
Friday. 9th. An Officer went up the Harbour with proper people to examine the slate up the creek above the flats, it was found to be a kind of rock & slate together & not fit to work into slate for covering a House or other use.
Saturday. 10th: Many Natives, Men & Women about our fishing boat: A shark followed this boat on her coming up the Harbour, he got hold of the blade of one of the Oars & when shook from that he went to the rudder & did not quit it till he was struck with the Tiller: The fish caught for several days past has been very trifling which we suppose to be occasioned by the cold weather.

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1788
May.
Sunday. 11th. Officers at Botany Bay, no Ship there, they painted on some conspicuous rocks near the entrance that the Settlement was made at Port Jackson: they met with a great number of the Natives & very friendly; during the night the Natives kept a continual noise & appear'd to keep a good look out; 3 Emews were seen between Port Jackson & Botany Bay but not within shot. A Boat down the Harbour met with several of the Natives who appear'd to be very hungry, they had not any fish with them & eat the Salt Meat which our people gave them.
Monday. 11th: A party went up the Harbour to the lake or creeking running to the NW above the flats, we went about 3 Miles up; to a very fine run of water, the Country on both sides pleasant & the ground apparently fit for opening with far less trouble than any in the other parts of the Harbour & the Soil good; a little above the part where the fresh water meets the tide is the place supposed would produce slate, but had been found on examination not fit for working: We tried it as Coal without success: found a great number of Cranes & other Birds about & above the flats, all very shy.
Thursday. 15th: Some of the Officers shooting up the Middle Harbour, on their return landed in a Cove where they saw some Natives to whom they gave the Birds they had.

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1788.
May.
Sunday. 18. A party visited some of the Coves down the Harbour where some of the Natives were seen, they were all friendly, they seem'd to be very badly off for food not having any Fish, at another Cove where we landed an Old Woman with a Child remained with the Men who met us, they had two fires under a very large hollow rock, we did not find any fish with these people, they were most of them chewing a root much like fern; we passed close to two Men on a rock who were so intent upon fishing that they did not notice us, nor did they strike a fish the whole of the time that we were near them.
Monday. 19th. Several Natives were seen on a point of land just above the Ship: About Noon 4 Canoes with Men & Women in them passed up the Harbour.
Thursday. 22. A Black Swan was kill'd which measured 6 feet 3 inches from Wing to wing, all black except just the tip of the wings which were white. Two of the Convalescent Convicts were sent out to get greens for the Hospital, they were met by a party of the Natives about a mile from the Camp, the Natives attack'd them, first by throwing stones which they were returning when they used their spears. One of the Convicts escaped with a barbed spear broke in him entering at the small of the back & was obliged to be cut out, he reported that the other Convict was killed

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1788.
May.
and that the Natives had stript him & taken the body away with them.
Friday. 23rd. Some Canoes landed at Major Ross Garden up the Harbour, they stole a Jacket & several other things which were afterwards found in one of the Canoes by some of the Convicts who followed them along the shore to the next Cove where they landed & we have reason to suppose that one of the Natives was murder'd by them but the proof could not be got, they were dismiss'd without coming before a Criminal Court. Lieu.t Dawes was this day discharged from the Sirius to the Battalion.
Saturday. 24th: Went to the South Head, observed the Latitude 33:50':43".So & Captain Hunter 33:51':07"S.o Saw several Women fishing in Canoes without the Head, they noticed us immediately & made a great noise, we threw them a handkercheif over the precipice which we saw them take up & throw by in one end of the Canoe. Two Canoes came alongside the Sirius with little persuasion, but the Natives would not come on board, they had fish, bread, beef & pork given to them all of which they eat with an eagerness that convinced us they must have been very hungry, they remainded alongside our boat some time & were shaved, which seem'd to please them much, they afterwards landed abreast of the Ship & stay'd there all day.

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1788
May.
A Calf at the Governors Farm was found wounded by a Spear.
Sunday. 25th: A Hat, Shirt & peice of a Jacket were found in the woods & known to have belonged to the Convict who was reported by his wounded Companion to have been stript & killed, the hat & jacket had marks of Spears having passed through them.
The Supply returned from Lord Howe Island, they were very unfortunate in not getting any Turtle & losing one of her Anchors there. The Scarborough, Charlotte & Lady Penryhne Transports were all at Lord Howe Island while the Supply was there, the Scarborough & Charlotte sailed from thence together & the Penryhne by herself.
Tuesday. 27th. A Kanguroo was killed which weigh'd 140 Lbs. the largest yet met with; His length from head to tail 7Ft: 3in: of the Tail 3f.t 4in: circumference of the tail at the rump 17 inches, fore legs 1 foot, hind legs 2f.t 7 inches.
Wednesday. 28th. Went to the N.o Head to observe the Latitude but it blew too hard to make an accurate Observation; we landed in Spring Cove & found it an easy walk to the N.o Head; the land about the N.o head is sandy ground between the top of the rocks, cover'd with a variety of brush wood & shrubs some of which have very pretty blossoms; On our return to Spring Cove, we observed a Cave in which there

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1788
May.
was a man & a little girl, they were so intent upon the motions of our people on the beach, that they did not see us until we were close upon them, the Man was not the least alarm'd but the child was exceedingly terrified & clung round the Old Man endeavouring to hide herself from us, the Girls fingers were complete, we gave the Man several Birds which were shot, he just pluck'd a few of the feathers broiled & eat the birds, bones, guts & all except a part of the head & the feet.
A Kanguroo was killed, that was found to have a Spear broken in him, a proof that the Natives seek other food besides fish.
Friday 30th. Observed the Latitude at the S.o Head 33:50':42"S. & Capn Hunter 33:51':09".S: saw several of the Natives on the high land, they were gathering a kind of fruit which they soaked in water & suck'd. On our return to the Cove where we landed we found a Native in a tree gathering a fruit of the size of a small pine & of a beautiful pale yellow, he got it by fixing a four pronged Spear over the stalk & twisting them off, it had a sweet taste; we found two children, a Boy & a Girl near the tree in which the Man was, the children did not appear frighten'd when we took hold of them, the Girls fingers were complete as were the boy's teeth, When the Man had got a good quantity of this spungy fruit He, with the Children walked along the beach & sat

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1788.
May.
down by the side of a pool of fresh water, to which place we followed him, they eat or rather sucked the whole of what they had gather'd frequently dipping them in the water; they then returned to the place where we first met with them, they eagerly accepted of a Gull which we gave them. On our return to the Sirius, we found that some of the Natives had been alongside & examined the outside of the Ship with great attention particularly the figure, they appear'd to be the same that visited the Ship some days before, as they had been shaved, they landed at the Observatory p.t stoped a short time & went up the Harbour. Capn Campbell going to the SW arm with Boats to bring down rushes for thatching his House, on landing at the place where two Convicts had been left with a tent for the purpose of cutting those rushes, he found the Tent but not the Men, finding some blood near the Tent the followed it to the Mangrove bushes where they found both Men dead & laying at some distance from each other; One of them had 3 Spears in him & one side of his head beat in: The other Man had no apparent wound but a blow on the fore head.
Saturday. 31st: The Governor with a party went to the place where the two Men had been killed by the Natives, the boat returned leaving them in a Natives path which they meant to follow until they met with the Natives. The Officer who was in the boat called at the Lt Governors farm as he returned

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1788
May. June.
& was there informed that a Convict had killed one of the Natives some days before by cutting him across the belly with his knife, I have no doubt but this Native having been murder'd occasioned their seeking revenge & which proved fatal to those who were not concern'd. They have attack'd our people when they have met them unarmed, but that did not happen until they had been very ill treated by us in the lower part of the Harbour & fired upon at Botany Bay by the French.
Sunday. 1st June. The Governor & party return'd by land to Sydney Cove: He had followed the path to the NW arm of Botany Bay, met with a party of Armed Natives of 210; The Governor & one of their principal people, met unarmed, one of the Natives advanced to shew a wound which he had received in the shoulder apparently with an Axe; they were all friendly, the Women shew'd every disposition to be very familiar; a quantity of dried fish was found among these people & bones which from the size were supposed to belong to the Kanguroo. Orders were this day given, that no party under 6 armed Men were to go into the woods on account of the Natives being so numerous.
Wednesday. 4th. Being the first Birth Day of the King to be celebrated in this New Colony the Sirius & Supply saluted the Rising & setting Sun & at the usual Hour 1 in the after[n] w 21 Guns each: When the Sirius & Supply had finished at

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1788
June.
1 O'clock, the Transports all except the Alexander, which ship wore the Agent's pendant, saluted one after the other with 5 Guns each. At the Governors House, after dinner, the County in which Port Jackson is situated was named Cumberland, boundaries of which is Broken Bay to the N.oward & Botany Bay to the S.oward as far in land as a range of Mountains seen from Port Jackson to the W.tward. The extent of the Territory of New South Wales is from Cape Yorke or N.o p.t of the Coast, to the S.o Cape of Van Diemans Land & as far West as 135 degrees of East Longitude from Greenwich.
Wednesday. 11th: Went to the N.o Head to observe the Latitude, had a very good observation 33:49':23".So: Capn Hunter 33:49':16". On the pitch of the N.o Head we saw a Man immediately under the overhanging Cliff, on our calling to him, he answer'd & made signs where the road was to come down. The Rocks under the Cliff appear to be a large flat with deep water close to the edge of it; on our return we were joined by 2 Men & 2 boys of about 14 years Old, they laid down their Spears & made signs for us not to fire our Musquets, they had a quantity of shell fish in a net which had been taken out of the shell, these they offer'd to us eating one themselves at the same time, we tasted & return'd them: they walked to the Cove with us & then went along on the rocks up the North Arm. Several parties were sent in quest of the Bull & Cow which

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1788
June
belonged to the settlement they having been missing some days; One of the Convicts having absented himself about the same time, it was supposed he had driven them away. These parties were continued for several days without success, in all directions.
Saturday. 14th: The Governor made known his intention of sending the P.ce of Wales Transport to England, this Ship had been fitting for sea several days & said to be going to Norfolk Island until the question was ask'd by Capn Tench. A Convict was poison'd by eating some fruit which he got in the Woods.
Friday. 20th. Seven Canoes passed through the Cove within the Sirius, 20 Men, 12 Women & 1 Child; the Child was carried upon one of the Mens shoulders as he passed. In a Cove down the Harbour an old Man was found nearly dead, with some young Men & Women with him, he was laying on his back appear'd worn out with age, they had a fire on each side of him to keep him warm.
Saturday. 21st: A kind of fruit had been discover'd here a pure ascid & found very good in Scorbutic cases, as we had several people down with the Scurvy, a party was employed to get those berries.
Sunday. 22nd. A shock was felt about 4 in the afternoon, which much astonished all who noticed it, the weather Calm &

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1788
June.
very clear & of moderate heat, Thermometer at 58, the water perfectly smooth, this shock was distinctly felt on board the Ships in the Cove & by several people on shore, who supposed it to be the shock of an Earthquake, it was not noticed on board the Sirius which ship lay just off the Cove in the Stream.
Monday. 23rd: The Convict who had been supposed to have driven the Cows away was brought in & tried the next day for a robbery he had committed before he absented himself & was sentenced to Death as was another Convict for robbing one of the Officers Tents.
Wednesday. 25th. Several Canoes came down the Harbour & passed within the Ship, some of the Men came alongside we gave them some fish & several other things, they were much pleas'd & gave us some Oysters in return, these people seem'd to suffer much from the Cold.
About 1/2 an hour before Noon those two Men under Sentence of Death were Executed.
Friday. 27th. A Flying Fox was killed that measured 3 feet from wing to wing, this was the first met with.
Tuesday. July. 1st: It having blown a Gale of wind dead upon the shore for 48 Hours, we went down the Harbour to get on the high land of one of the Heads to look round that part of the Harbour which is exposed to the Sea, for any broken water or foul ground that may shew itself in so great a Sea;

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1788
July.
We found the Swell too great to attempt landing near the Middle Head as we intended; We went to the a Cove near the land of the S.o Head & walked over to the Sea face near the S.o Head, where we had a good view of the Sea & of all that part of the Harbour open to it, could not see the least appearance of any foul ground except the rock marked in the Chart & which was seen when the boats first visited this Harbour & that shoal did not appear of greater extent than we had before determined it; If the flat round this rock was not a perfect smooth bottom, I am confident that with the Sea that was running it would break.
Monday. 7th. A considerable party of the Natives were met with about 2 Miles from the Camp.
Tuesday. 8th: Went down to one of the lower Coves & walked over to the Sand Hills which are given as a mark for a Ship coming from the S.oward to know when they are near to Port Jackson, We found a good path over the neck of land, & not half an hours walk.
Thursday. 10th: The Governor's fishing boat, met a great number of the Natives in the lower part of the Harbour, as they were hauling the Sein, the People gave fish to all the Natives, but they were not satisfied with that, they closed upon the people employed in the Boat & took what they pleas'd, their Musquet happening to be left in the Boat.

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1788.
July.
Friday. 11th. One of the People killed a Male & Female Kanguroo & took a young one alive, which was sent on board the Alexander Transport to go to England.
Monday. 14: The Alexander, P.ce of Wales, Borro[u]dale & Friendship Transports sailed for England under the direction & Command of Lieut Shortland Agent for Transports, these Ships were all in a distress'd state when they sailed both as to sickness, want of provisions & furniture; we made a party to the S.o Head to see them off the land, they had a fresh Gale from the SW & were soon out of sight steering to the N.oward; On our return we went into Camp Cove where we found a Man & two Children who appear'd to be starving we gave them Salt Beef which eagerly took & eat immediately, whilst the boats remained in the Cove, the Man went into the woods & brought in a root which he roasted, beat it with a stone which he frequently wet with a stone his mouth & when it was properly prepared he gave it to the Children to eat, the Man had many sores about him & was really a miserable object, the Boy & Girl appear'd to be about 5 or 6 years of age, the Boys teeth were complete as were the Girls fingers. We saw several Women fishing near the Cove but they would not land; we had two Seins with us, both of which were hauled several times without one fish being taken, some Birds were shot, all of which were given to the

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1788
July.
Old Man & his Children.
Thursday. 17. Boards of direction were sent to Botany Bay to be fixed on Bare Island which is near the entrance, so that any Ship that may arrive there would be informed that we were at Port Jackson, this party met with but few of the Natives. One of our Boats down the Harbour had several stones thrown at her on landing, a musquet fired at them set them off. The Supply sailed for Norfolk Island with Provisions & stores.
Friday. 18. Several of the Women Convicts met with a party of the Natives in a Cove where they were employed, they Natives did not appear to notice the difference of dress but soon found which Sex they were of.
Sunday. 27th. Convicts gathering greens for the use of the sick were attack'd by the Natives, one of them got clear & ran into Camp leaving his Companion to do the best he could for himself; He was soon found by a Marine who happen'd to be near, but not before he was wounded by a Spear which passed through one side of his face to his neck.
Monday. 28. A Sailor straggling into the woods met several of the Natives who threw stones at him & followed him when he attempted to run away, He with great presence of mind stoped & presented a stick at them in manner of a Musquet, at which they stop'd & by that means he got

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1788.
July. August
away clear of them.
August. 7. The Lt Governor's House which was building of stone & several feet above the ground, gave way with the heavy rains & fell to the ground.
Sunday. 10th: Two Kanguroo were killed at one shot, they were in the act of propagating the species which from the construction of their generative parts they perform with their rumps to each other.
Friday. 15th: Fourteen Canoes passed, going down the Harbour 12 of them had a man in each the other two empty & towed by them.
Saturday. 16th. Several Canoes went up the Harbour.
Sunday. 17th. The Governor & Capt Hunter went down the Harbor with two boats & the 1st Lieu.t & Master up the Harbour with 2 boats to examine all the Coves & collect as near as possible the number of Canoes & Natives then about the Harbour, these were met with, 67 Canoes, 94 Men, 34 Women & 9 Children: all those that we met with in the upper part of the Harbour were very friendly & one party of them which we met with took the shellfish off their fire & brought us to eat; Those met with in N.o arm of the Harbour were not so friendly, for while speaking with the boat in which Captain Hunter was a Spear was thrown which passed about 6 feet right over the midships of the boat, they immediately run away & were followed by the charge in one of the musquets which luckily

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1788
August.
for them happen'd to be only loaded with small shot; some time after this, when the two boats had joined & were passing the same place, several Women came down & used every endeavor to entice the boats to land. As we were coming down the Harbour the Master shot a fish of 11/2 lb weight in a a branch of a high tree which we got & eat, this fish was in the claws of a large Hawke when fired at, drop'd the fish & flew away.
Monday. 18: A Canoe with 3 Men in her followed our fishing boat up the Harbour & came alongside the Ship but could not be persuaded to come on board.
Tuesday. 19. The Governor w a party land at the bay nearest the Sand hills to walk along the Shore to Botany Bay.
Wednesday. 20th. They returned, met many Natives & on a part of the Coast near Botany Bay was the remains of a Whale which had been thrown ashore apparently a considerable time since, On this, the Natives were then feasting.
Thursday. 21st: Several Natives passed through Sydney Cove & landed with 2 Canoes on the West point; whilst these people engaged the attention of the Officer on one side, the rest went round & seeing a Goat on the other side killed it with a spear & made off with it in a Canoe towed by one of the others, they were pursued but not until it was too late, either to recover the Goat or discover the theif.
Friday. 22. The Governor landed in the N.o arm to go to the N.oward

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1788
August.
Met a great number of Natives there with 50 Canoes.
Sunday. 24. Two Boats were sent down to attend the Governor in case of his return; they found a great number of the Natives in the Cove where they lay with the boats, they observed several small parties join those who were first seen: the Women came to the water side & used every means to entice our boats to land: when the boats had been there about an hour, the Men formed into two parties & fought some time with Spears & using Oval Sheilds, some fought with Clubs & sticks; when they began the women & Children scream'd & ran about seemingly much frighten'd & some of them came close down upon the beach off which the boats lay, some spears were thrown at our boats & fell so near them as to be picked up;
One of the Officers was of opinion that this was a sham fight, from their holding frequent parlies & only one seen to fall: at Sunset when the boats left the Cove, they set up a loud & apparently Contemptuous shout & came close to the water side, except a party of very tall Stout Men, who remained among the long grass & had the appearance of being chosen either as a Guard for the Women or a reserved party; In this Branch of the Harbour we have experienc'd that they have hostile intentions when they suppose our people in their power: there were about 200 of them collected together during the time the Boats stay'd

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1788
August.
in the Cove & all arm'd with Spears & Clubs. This day a Convict was examined who said he had discover'd a Mine, which had some Gold in it, but for some time would not tell where it was, unless he was promised pardon & a sum of Money, finding that he could not obtain it, he said he would shew any Officer the Lt Governor might send with him, where it lay.
Monday. 25th: Captain Campbell went with the Convict to the spot where he expected to find the Mine, the Man led him away to the land about the S.o Head & found means to escape through the bushes, he returned to the Camp by Noon telling the Lt Governor that Captain Campbell was at the Mine & wished a Guard to be sent to him; it was 4 o'clock before Capt Campbell got into Camp at which time the Convict could not be found:
In the evening the Governor returned soon after which this Convict the Goldfinder surrender'd himself up saying it was his intention to divert the time until the return of the Governor & that to him he would declare every thing, in the mean time he was punished with 50 lashes for his conduct respecting Capt Campbell & then sent with another Officer who had orders given him in the Man's presence to put him to Death if he Offer'd to escape or play any more tricks, soon after the Boat left Sydney Cove, he declared to the Officer, that the

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1788
August.
Metal Ore produced was the work of his own hands from Brass Copper & a Guinea mix'd with it in a composition which he had prepared for that purpose & that he had hopes of selling a considerable quantity of it to the Transports when they might be just on Sailing & that he had not made any discovery, but was persuaded by the woman who lived with him to do it.
Tuesday. 26th: The Supply arrived from Norfolk Island; whilst she was at that Island August 6. A Boat which had been order'd to lay just within the p.t of the reef in Case of an accident happening to the Supply's boat then coming in, was carried out by the strength of the outset so far as to oblige them to pull across the swell to regain the landing place in effecting which the Surf rose suddenly on her the consequence of which was, the Boat lost:
Mr. Ja.s Cunningham Mate of the Sirius, one Seaman belonging to the Sirius, one to the Supply & one Convict were drowned, the other Man who was in the Boat, a Convict saved himself by swimming through one of the channels thro' the reef. The accounts of the produce of the Island are very favorable & flattering to the Settlement, the pines are said to be fit for all purposes & of sufficient size to Mast a First rate with the Stick, there are several other kinds of wood besides the Pine with which the Island abounds: Mr King the Commandant

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1788
August: September.
is so sanguine as to expect that in the course of 3 years the Island would support itself: Landing is very difficult & frequently dangerous, sometimes altogether impracticable for Day & Weeks together; the Boat in which Mr Cunningham was lost was before overset on the same reef & one Marine belonging to the Sirius drown'd.
September. 1. A Convict at Major Ross's farm was wounded by a spear being thrown at him from behind a tree by a Native, who ran away immediately.
It had been determin'd that the Sirius should visit some of the Islands near the Settlement, every preperation was made for the Voyage; But early in this month her destination was alter'd, it appearing that a considerable quantity of the Vegetable part of the Provisions in the settlement was damaged & that the produce of Grain was likely to be very small great part of the seed not producing any thing, in consequence of this, It was thought necessary that the Sirius should land some of her Guns, Heavy Stores & provisions, reserving a sufficient proportion for a passage to the Cape of Good Hope at which place it was intended she should take in as much as could be stowed of such articles as were most wanted in the Settlement, where they woul be distress'd for some articles if a Supply did not arrive in the

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1788
September. October.
course of the ensuing Season
The latter end of September, a Midshipman, 2 Seamen, a Corporal & 5 private Marines belonging to the Sirius, 20 Men & 12 Women Convicts were put on board the Golden Grove Transport to proceed under the direction of the Master of the Supply to Norfolk Island to be left there in addition to those people already on that Island with Mr King, taking 12 Months provisions of all Species for the whole N.o of people.
October. 1st. The Sirius & Golden Grove dropt down the Harbour, & in the night the Golden Grove sailed for Norfolk Island.
Having pass'd part of a Summer & one Winter in New South Wales; I shall give a collected account of the Natives &c. before we quit Port Jackson, from occurrencies which has in the Course of that time come within my certain knowledge. In the course of the last month, the Natives appear to be very numerous & the Fish to come in great quantities into the Harbour, from which circumstance I still support the opinion of their not having any fixed residence & that the Fish as well as considerable part of the Natives incline to the N.oward during the Winter.
What has been experienced lately in several instances meeting with the Natives, has occasioned me to alter those very favorable opinions I had formed of them, & however much I wished to encourage the Idea

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1788
October.
of their being Friendly disposed, I must acknowledge now convinc'd that they are only so, when they suppose we have them in our power or are well prepared by being armed. Latterly they have attack'd almost every person who has met with them that has [indecipherable letter]not had a musquet & have sometimes endeavoured to surprise some who had; We have also experienced that they have great cunning, which was twice particularly shewn in stealing a Goat each time, this they effected by a part of them engaging the attention of those who they supposed might interrupt them whilst others would spear'd the Animal & put it into a Canoe, paddled away directly & by the time the animal could be miss'd they had been gone too long to follow them with any chance of success.
The Musquet now seems to be the only thing to keep them in Awe, which when they notice we have, & they are disposed to come among us, they are familiar & friendly. That some of them have been killed by Musquet balls, both at Port Jackson by our People & at Botany Bay by the French I have not the least doubt.
The Instruments & Weapons, that I have seen, Are Spears some with 4 prongs 3, 2, & single for fishing the points of all which are barbed with shell or bone secured to its respective prong with stiff Gum, the single one is generally barbed at the point & at several parts above it in the same

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1788
October
manner; they are seldom without a Spear which they use as an Offensive Weapon, the sharp pointed end is made of very hard wood 2 or 3 feet in length & taper'd to a point (I never saw any of those barbed), this is secured as are the prongs of the fishing spear to a long & light stick which they find about the low Gum Trees & which they make to the length they want by lashings & Gum at the different parts where they join it, generally from 18 to12 feet in length. I have seen them add a joint to the fishing spear by letting one part into the other & use it immediately:
I think the Spear may be easily avoided if you see the Man who is going to throw it, in two or three instances when they have attacked our People, their spears were taken up & broken as fast as thrown; those Convicts who were killed were either surprised or held a Contest with them until surrounded; They no doubt endeavour to be assured that those whom they mean to treat unfriendly are not provided with fire arms before they make an attempt & those Boats at which they have thrown stones & spears appear'd to them unprepared, but twice they experienc'd that the people in the boats were perfectly ready altho' the musquets where not shewn until it was necessary to fire on them. For short distances & commonly in striking Fish they throw the Spear by hand, but other times they use a stick about 3 feet long, with a peg at one end, which is applied to the end of the Spear, then balanced they just steady the Spear

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1788
October
with a finger thumb & apply the force of the arm to the Stick on which they spear is poised, they throw it from 60 to 90 yards. I have seen them throw it very true at 60 yards; On the other end of the throwing stick is fixed a shell which they use in getting shellfish from the rocks & various other purposes as we would a knife or chissel.
They use Targets made from the bark of the Gum Tree & I have some of the outside part of the Tree itself when the Tree has been burn'd inside which is here a very common practice for getting the Opossum &c. out of them or some purpose we are yet unacquainted with: I have seen there sheilds or Targets with the points of spears broken in them & some holes which had the appearance of the spear or pointed part of it having passed through; It was noticed by the Officers who were in our Boat[s] in the N.o arm of the Harbour & present at a real or sham fight among the Natives, that they use the Target for security against the Spear. The other Instruments of War which I have seen are the Club, Wooden Sword & Scimeter.
The Club is 3 or 4 feet long, of very hard & heavy wood of diff.t shapes, some are pointed so that it may be used to make a charge with as well as to give a very violent blow
The Sword is somewhat of the shape of the common hanger with the handle or hilt carved so as to give them a good hold of it: It is made of very hard wood, smooth & sharp at both

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1788
October
edges coming to a tolerable sharp point, they are from 2 to 3 feet long & as many inches broad or more.
The Scimeter is of the same hard wood, of a Curve with two handles to it & appears to be used to repel the blow of the Club or Sword & from its construction, will as well as fend off a blow occasionally give a very heavy one.
The Implements or Tools which we found among them are very miserable tools indeed: & they do not appear to have one which is not absolutely necessary for furnishing the means of subsistence to themselves which appears to be their only care.
The Stone Hatchet is made of a hard stone much like Flint, sharped at the edge, secured to a stick about 2 feet long by fixing in with Gum & lashing & is a miserable blunt tool -
The adze is made of the same stone & secured to a stick in a similar manner as the hatchet but of shape somewhat like our Carpenters adze but 100 strokes with it would not do the same execution as one with ours.
They use a wedge of the same kind of stone, with a junk of wood for a Mallet or Maul. These tools appear all to be used in providing the Canoe & sheilds from the Trees, which with such wretched implements is a work of great labour; they cut the bark round to the length they want & enter the wedges leaving it in that state some time before they take it off altogether: Many of them has been met with & several

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1788
October
times seen at work on the Canoe & Sheild: Some have been considerably above the reach of any Man, they notch the Trees to enable them to get up for this & other purposes.
The Canoes we met with are by far the worst I ever heard of, being nothing more than a peice of Bark gather'd up & lashed at both ends with spreaders of small sticks inside by way of thwarts. I have seen them from 10 to upwards of 20 feet in length & observe that when employed fishing have seldom more than two people in them, when moving their station I have seen 4 & once 6 in a Canoe, we never met with any that had outriggers or any kind of sail, we have met with them without the Harbour between Port Jackson & Broken Bay when there has been a great swell on the shore.
They row with paddles in shape like a pudding stirrer about 2 or 3 feet long, which they use one in each hand & take the stroke alternately as one hand comes aft, the other is applied forward. I have noticed them when in a great hurry apply both at the same which occasions them to stoop forward, at other times they sit perfectly upright & are very expert in preserving the equilibrium so necessary to prevent oversetting.
The Men sit upon their heels with their legs under them & their feet [stucky] out behind them: The women sit with their knees up to their chin & their feet cross'd before them, they all sit in the bottom of the Canoe with their face forward

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1788.
October.
they have generally fern & some sea weed under them & under the fire which they are scarce ever without in the middle of the Canoe; When Men & Women are in the same Canoe I have always observed that the woman sat forward & the Man abaft, the Women sitting forward have their backs to the fire which occasions many of them to be mark'd which appear'd to us at first like that of their having been severely scourged.
Having fire in the Canoe I take to be for the purpose of getting fire when they land & for warmth, more than that of dressing food in the Canoe, I have seen them broil fish in the Canoe once or twice when alongside the Sirius, but in general they put all that was given to them among what they had before got themselves. We never yet got an opportunity of seeing the method they use to produce Fire & from their always carrying it about with them suppose it to be a difficult process or a work of labour & time:
The young Children in the Canoes are sometimes laid across the Mother's lap, setting between her knees & sometimes on the Mens shoulders, holding fast by his head neither of which prevents either Man or Woman from using both paddles; from the wretch'd construction of these Canoes they take in a great deal of water; which they throw out with a flat stone or slate, taking it in the hollow of the hand they throw the water out behind them without getting up in the Canoe, this for the

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1788.
October.
time prevents the person who is baling, from using both paddles; this method of freeing the Canoe is very hurtful to them as they apply the edge of the stone every time to touch the bottom of the Canoe, that part wears away & when into a hole, they patch up with Gum & sometimes use the leaves of the Cabbage trees with it, but from these holes enlarging they are frequently obliged to lay the Canoe by before the other parts are decay'd; they get in & out with great ease, tho' it is not without great difficulty & attention that any one of us can without oversetting when they land at the rocks, they lay the Canoe alongside of them keeping fast by a peice of line; when at a beach or Mud flat they haul the Canoe ashore after them or heave a stone overboard with a fishing line fast to it as soon as they take the ground to prevent their driving off; they frequently haul their Canoes up upon the rocks at those places where the shelving rocks afford themselves shelter.
In the Summer, the Sea seems to furnish the Natives good subsistence, Fish being then in great plenty in & about the Harbours, among which are the Jew Fish, Snapper, Mullet, Mackrel, Whiting, Dory, rock Cod, leather jackets & various others, some of a species which had never been seen by any of us; There are great numbers of the Sting ray & shark, both which I have seen the Natives throw away when given to them & often refuse them when offer'd. We met with

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1788
October.
several Fish that seem'd to partake of the shark, the upper part being that of the skate or other flat fish with the back fins & tail of the shark: This kind of mixt breed is also found among the Beasts & Birds, the Quadrupeds, the Dog excepted partake of the Kanguroo & Opossum, many having the false belly & hind legs & feet similar to those of the Kanguroo. The Birds frequently partake of the Parrot.
The Natives strike fish with their barbed Spears from the rocks & sometimes from the Canoe in with they stand up: in general we observe the Canoe occupied by the Women who fish with hook & line, which I never noticed any of the Men to use or that the women use the Spear. The line appears to be made from the inside / bark of the Cabbage tree, it is laid of two strands well twisted & strong. Their hooks seem to be made both from the claws of Birds & the inside of a shell resembling the pearl Oyster Shell, from the latter I have seen a hook made, they rub it down on the rocks until fit for their purpose & then shape the hook in a curve with a sharp shell or stone; we found vast quantities of Oysters & other shell fish in the Harbour & Oysters of an amazing size in the uppermost Coves. At Broken Bay we saw several very fine Cray fish & one tolerable size Crab, but did not ever meet with either at Port Jackson. For a considerable time after our arrival it was supposed that the food of the Natives was entirely Fish,

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1788
October
but the winter convinced us, that if they had not some other resource great numbers of them must perish, as it is, they are very hard put to it when the Fish is scarce; they we have been several days together without getting half a bucket of fish with the Seine & having met some of the Natives in a most deplorable situation for want of food in the winter Months. At those times they will eat any thing & have been seen to take up the carcase of a sheep that had been thrown overboard as eagerly as if the animal had been just killed; I have several times met with small parties of them seeking roots & spungy substances which grow on some of the Trees & yeild a small seed & sweet juice which the Birds feed on: The fern & some other roots they prepare by moistening & beating between two stones a considerable time before they use it.
There is no doubt but they lay wait for the Kanguroo & Birds many of the trees are notch'd that has not had a Canoe taken from them from which I suppose they get into these Trees to seek or wait for any thing that may come in their way, About the open ground where the Kanguroo frequent we have met with a kind of hunting wigwam, consisting of two sides made of bark over some small sticks just meeting each other & open at both ends, in the sides they have a hole or two to look out; The Dogs Hunt the Kanguroo we have prove of by one being shot close at the heels of a Kanguroo. In an ex-

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1788
October
excursion made to Botany Bay, near the Sea Coast, many of the Natives were found feasting on the remains of a Whale that had been thrown on shore by the Sea: they have no idea of dressing fish any other than by laying it on the fire; One of them very eager to steal a fish which he saw in a pot at our fire in one of the Coves, put his hand in to snatch it out but the water being just boiling he let the fish go & appear'd to be much surprised. We found a kind of wild fig & notice that the Natives use it; they also use a nut which grows in clusters to the size & shape of the top of the pine, One of the Convicts was poison'd by eating them, in what manner the Natives prepare them I do not know but I tasted some at Broken Bay & thought them good.
We never met with the smallest appearance of any kind of Cultivated ground: We found wild spinage, samphire & parsley & small quantity of sorel & wild celery, all of which with the leaves of several kinds of bushes were used by us for want of better vegetables which were not yet supplied from the Garden, as will appear from our whole stock of vegetables on board the Sirius for her intended voyage was a dozen heartless Cabbages & as many young Brocoli plants & those the produce of the Governors Garden. Soon after our arrival a berry in appearance like an unripe currant was found in many parts of the Harbour; a very strong pure ascid & of infinite use

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1788
October
in removing the Scurvy from those on board who had been attack'd by that disease: We also found a plant which grew about the rocks & amongst the underwood entwined, the leaves, of which boiled made a pleasant drink & was used as Tea by our Ships Company: It has much the taste of Liquorish & serves both for Tea & Sugar & is recommended as a very wholesome drink & a good thing to take to Sea.
The Quadrupeds we met with here, were the Dog, of the common size much resembling the Jackal: The Kanguroo which is an Animal we have reason to suppose is not known in any other Country, are of a Dunn & reddish Fox colour, the fur on the young ones is tolerable good, the body of this animal seems to be of a peculiar structure, narrow shoulders the fore legs small & short having 5 toes on each foot or paw; regularly placed the middle the longest; this animal is very large & strong about the loins, the hind legs long & of great strength, they seldom use the fore feet in moving, but bound along with great swiftness upon the hind legs, in doing which the tail which is large & powerful affords them much assistance they have but 3 toes on the hind feet, one large long one with a very strong nail on it, this is between the two others which are smaller than those of the fore feet & one of those has a double nail, which I never heard of being met with in any other Animal & in this is general in the vast number

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1788
October
shot there never was one exception, they also differ from other Animals in having the testes situated before the penis which comes out thru' the external orifice of the anus, the Female has but one external orifice within which is seated the parts necessary for propagation, it is not ascertained whether they bring forth the young in the false belly or whether in the same manner as other animals & afterwards put it into the false belly to nourish it, the Teats are situated in the false belly & the young one has been found fix'd on the Teat when just formed & not half the length of a mans finger; they young ones of considerable size has been found & killed in the false Belly;
The Kanguroo have been killed from the smallest size to that of 160 Lb weight the dimensions of which were from the head to the tail 7Ft:03In, of the tail 3Ft:04in: fore legs 1Ft:3in, hinder legs 2Ft:09in the tail at the root 18 inches in circumference; the head is much the shape of the Horses head, small & rather longer ears which they turn right round & hear the least noise, windy weather is reckon'd best for shooting them, the woods being then in motion & making a noise prevents them hearing the approach of any person, we think the Meat very good having been so long without other fresh provision, but in any other situation I cannot think it would be esteem'd as such. We found great numbers of the Opossum, Squirrels, rats of various kinds & many of which partake of

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1788
October.
the Kanguroo, the hind legs & tail being similar, & the females of the Opossum having the false belly. The flying Fox, or large bat is common here as are flying squirrels. The Birds we met with here; are Gulls of many kinds, Black Swans, Eagles, Hawkes, Crows, Cranes, Curlieu, Heron Bustards Quails, Cockatoos, Parrot, & Paroquets of beautiful plumage, we found but few pidgeons & met with a great variety of small birds extremely beautiful & some of the birds most unaccountably partaking of the parrot in some degree.
The Ostrich & Emew have been seen & one Emew killed, which was allowed to be very fine eating & the best Bird in the Country on account of its size.
Many kinds of Snakes were met with & Lizards, Guanas Turpins, Centipieds of an incredible length, one which was justly called a Millepied measured 2Ft:6in in length & was taken on Garden Island; The Ants & Musquitos we found very troublesome, of the former we saw a great variety the sting of the large white Ant is very painful.
The Natives that we met with during our stay at Port Jackson & visiting Broken & Botany Bays, were in general of the middle stature, very active, but do not appear to be that strong, robuste people which Savages are usually found to be, there is a great sameness in their features, noses rather flat voice of the Men harsh; The Women

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1788
October
have remarkable soft voices & the younger Women much expression in their countenances, they are very dark & keep their skins so dirty that it is hard to tell the true colour of them, their hair is clotted with dirt & full of vermin, & as they never wash themselves unless by chance or accident, the beauty which many of them from regularity of features & pleasing countenances would be allowed to have, is destroyed. The Men wear their beards long, their hair which is full of dirt & vermin they were wear loose or rather clotted with both, & sometimes ornamented with the teeth, claws &c. of animals stuck in their hair with gum, several of them have been shaved by our people & one party after having gone through this operation, came alongside the Ship again in a few days making signs that they wished to have it repeated:
We never could prevail on any of them to come on board altho' they would frequently run all over our boats. Of the whole number I ever saw or met with, there were only two who were not entirely naked & those seem'd to be lame, the one an Old Woman, the other a young boy; some of the women I have seen with a string tied loose about their necks. The Men have many large scars about their bodies which they signified to us was done by a sharp shell, but on what account we could not discover. The Men having lost one of their front teeth is except a few instances a general custom as is that of the women losing two

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1788.
October.
joints of the little finger on the left hand; all these customs we are yet at a loss to account for, but that they are not a badge of disgrace or infamy is evident from being so general & that they are fond of shewing them to us when we notice it; one of them in a party I fell in with up the Harbour took a deal of pains to shew us the difference between the Ornamental Scars & those from the wounds of the Spear, he had three of them in his body. The inside part of the nose between the two nostrils being bored, appears to be common but not general in both Sexes, they thrust a bone or stick through it at times, but are very seldom found wearing it there. Several have been met with very whimsically painted with red Ochre & pipe Clay both which we find plenty of; they are great Theives which is common among Savages.
In many places we found straggling Huts, but I never saw more than 8 or 10 together, these are if possible more wretched than their Canoes, they are made with small boughs or rather sticks, cover'd in a miserable manner with bark & leaves of the Cabbage tree: their height will not admit of entering without stooping or crawling in; They appear to live cheifly in the Caves & hollows of the rocks, which Nature has supplied them with, the rocks about the shore being all mostly shelving & overhanging so as to afford a tolerable retreat to these miserable creatures & frequently after

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1788
October.
passing a whole day in search of food without being able to procure as much as would make half a reasonable meal they make a fire at the outer part of these dismal holes which throws a heat in, but so hard press'd are these poor Devils in the Winter, that from the hours we have seen them fishing with a light in the Canoe, they are frequently without two hours rest to themselves, Hunger is so pressing a call that they cannot quit their endeavors to satisfy it for any other enjoyment: In heavy rains I have seen the Women hold a peice of bark over their heads so as to throw the rain clear of them, but I never notice the Men make any difference, only that they are not so active in the rain & appear to be cramped. To speak of the Virtue of the Ladies of this Country, I beleive no one in the Colony can boast of having received favours; Whether they are bound by any tie or their Connexions made by promiscuous intercourse is hard for us to determine; it has been generally observed that they are very jealous of the women being among us when we happen to fall in where they are & that the Women are kept at a distance when we do not come unawares upon them, & a guard with several lances always ready for their protection has been usually found; they are very impatient to revenge an affront, & very soon forget injuries, or any offence that has been given to them. There has

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1788
October.
been two hundred of them met with together about Botany Bay, but except that & the N.o arm of Port Jackson, they are seldom seen more than 20 or 30 & frequently two & three together: That large body of them met with @ Botany Bay had a quantity of dried fish with them, which was the only time that any ^thing) of the kind had been seen.
     It has been suggested by a Convict who absented himself & remained some days in the Woods, that the Natives were Cannibals, & that he had seen a party of them eat the flesh of one who they had killed, the authority is not good yet I think that circumstance of their taking one of the convicts into the woods with them after having killed & strip'd him favours the mans report; & that but a short time before he was executed for the robbery that induced him to absent himself he affirm'd the truth of his report; this expedient of flying to the woods for shelter has been tried by several of them & have found that they have been obliged to return & be hanged or suffer the most shocking death; that of being starved. We have every reason to suppose that they burn the dead, from the number of graves we have open'd & seen in those which were open'd we found the ashes with many peices of bone not quite consumed, the ashes appear to be thrown together & cover'd with earth until raised much as those commonly met with; it was the appearance

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1788.
October
that led us first to open one which we met with newly made. They do not appear to observe any kind of religion.
The land on that part of the Coast which we fell in with is moderately high & the Sea face rocky, with many sandy beaches between the projecting points; some parts appear'd barren, others pleasant Downes, particularly that about the white Cliffs to the S.oward of Botany Bay which we called Portsdown from a remarkable clump of trees on it; The land over the sandy bays is in general woody, as is a very considerable part of the higher lands: A great distance inland from the Coast about Port Jackson are a chain of very high Mountains, towards which many excursions has been plann'd but none yet executed:
Towards the upper part of Port Jackson the Country opens & is cover'd with long grass growing under the trees, there are some spots of clear ground round P Jackson but none of considerable extent until near the head of it, from which, along by the flats & creeks it improves & near the fresh water at the top of the creek it is a fine open Country & good soil, to this part which is called Rose Hill & is about 12 Miles above Sydney Cove, it is intended early in the present Month to detach a Capt & Company of Marines with a proportion of Convicts for the purpose of clearing & cultivating that part of the Country, which will no doubt

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1788
October
be of great use to the Settlement. The wood for building is not very good, the Gum tree grows very large but the grain is so short that it is neither strong nor durable, there is a kind of pine & a bastard kind Mahogany, all of which are used, the latter makes tolerable good furniture.
     The Stock brought to Port Jackson has turn'd to little account, the sheep nearly all dead, the Bull & Cows missing, either killed by the Natives or run wild in the woods. Hogs which appear to thrive the best will be lost for want of food, before grain can be raised for their support, the cabbage tree affords good food while it lasts but there is great difficulty in getting it. All kinds of poultry thrive very well & Goats particularly well, the great want is grain to support the stock.
     To speak of the Seasons & Weather; from our partial trial of both, I have observed that the weather is generally unsettled at New & full Moon, at which times on our first arrival we had tremendous thunder squalls: The Wind frequently changes suddenly to the S.oward in a strong Gust & generally blows hard afterwards; We have remarked also that Lightning to the S.oward is an indication of such strong Winds coming, but I have frequent known them come on in a sudden gust without a moments warning or any apparent alteration in the Heavens: In Moderate fair weather, the Land & Sea Breezes are regular & fresh.

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1788
October
We found very great & sudden changes in the degree of heat a shift of wind would rise or lower the Thermometer 14 in less than 10 Minutes on board the Sirius & on shore considerably more. We observe a change in the face of the Country as the winter approaches, altho' the Trees are not strip'd of their leaves, there being a constant succession, which we also found in the vegetable production of the woods, but during the Winter neither the Grass or the Trees have the fine green appearance as on our first arrival. We found a very great variety of shrubs which had beautiful bloom but scarce any smell in them.
The progress made in the New Settlement, or what the Colony may promise from its present state I cannot pretend to judge of further than that I think the quantity of ground clear'd is very inconsiderable
October. 2nd: Sailed for the Cape of Good Hope, we left the Supply at Port Jackson, with the Fishburne & Golden Grove Transports, both of which it was supposed would be clear'd & Sail for England in November. We had a fresh Gale & S.o which soon gave us a good Offing.
3rd. At Noon, we were 37 leagues to the E.tward of P.t Jackson a strong Gale S.oerly which continued to the 6th: when in 35:22 S.o 156:51' Et it hauled round to the East & NE.t
8th: Blew a Strong Gale at NE & at Noon came to the N.oward.

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1788
October. November.
8th: It was this day determined to pursue the route to the E.tward round Cape Horn as the most certain passage from what had been experienced by others in high S.oern Latitude getting to the W.tward; & particularly as the Ship had sprung a leak the day we sailed from Port Jackson was thought the more unfit to beat against the W.terly winds:
From the 8th to the 11th: Wind & weather very changeable, then a strong Western Gale promised a good run to the E.tward
13th: We pass'd the South Cape of New Zeeland at 40 leag.s distance. The 16th: in Latitude 51.S.o 176Et, we again met with SE & E.tly winds with fine settled weather; these winds continued to the 22nd veering from SE to E.t & NE by which we were enabled to make some small progress to the E.tward altho' in 6 days, it was only as many degrees of Longitude.
23rd. A Fresh Gale sprung up from the W.tward & continued to the 30th in Lat: 53:38' S.o 203:45' Et weather mostly fair; the 30th it fell Calm, we had a great quantity of Birds about the Ship, in the evening a breeze sprung up which was very variable & the weather unsettled.
31st: Saw several Divers, small Gulls & two Sea Otters.
November. 2nd. Latitude 55:18'S. 214 E, saw several Whales small Gulls & pintadoe Birds, this day the wind fixed to the N.oward & continued to the 6th, Hazey & rain with some intervals of fair weather; at Noon the 6th. in 56:11'.S.o

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1788
November.
Long: 227:30'Et the wind again came to the E.tward with a clear serene sky, several Pintadoe Birds & Gulls were constantly about the ship, 3 Pintadoe Birds were caught with hook & line over the stern; as soon as they were taken they threw up a quantity of an oily substance; we frequently observed them to feed on some floating matter which appear'd to us to be what might come from the fish & float about upon the surface.
9th: The wind again favour'd us & blew strong w hail & snow.
18: We were under a necessity of putting a stop to the serving of Essence of Malt having been supplyied with so small a quantity, part of which was kept at Port Jackson & the quantity remaining was now not sufficient for those who were attack'd with the Scurvy.
20th: Several porpoises striped black & white were about the Ship & a great quantity of Gulls & many Pintadoe birds.
22nd. At Noon, Latd: 57:17' So Long. 280:10' Et, saw an Island of Ice in the course of the day pass'd several more, many Whales & a variety of Gulls about the Ship.
24th. Had very hazey W.r with hail & snow, passed between several Islands of Ice: Gulls & pintadoe Birds & a Sea Otter about [t] ship.
25th. Pass'd several very large & high Islands of Ice, had frequent Squalls of hail & snow; AM. Soon after day light several flocks of Ducks & one of Geese flew over the Ship to the N.oward.
 At Noon, we were by Observations of the [sun] & [moon] taken at 8 AM exactly in the Longitude of Cape Horn & by the Meridien Observ.n

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1788
November
10 leagues S.o of it: we hauled in NebN & the 26th at 6 PM made the Land on the S.o Coast of Terra del Fuego or the Isl.ds off it, from NbW to WNW then in Lat: 56:08.S. I take the W.tern extreme of Land to be that about Cape Horn: On making this land the dead reckoning was between 3 & 4 to the E.tward; we took a fresh departure from the Latitude & Longitude observed.
     The Timekeeper was near a degree to the E.tward of the observations & had been so the three last setts: It appear'd to be full as much on making the land, but not having an opportunity of determining exactly which point of land was Cape Horn it was continued by the same rate allowed on leaving P.t Jackson. We have some reason to suppose that the cold weather to the S.oward might affect the Timekeeper, as during the winter months at Port Jackson, the rate of losing increased to 7" pr day & before we sailed had regularly come back to 4".77 at which it was fixed. We have always kept the result of the Lunar Observations carried on by the daily difference of Longitude, or as often as the weather would permit, given by the Timekeeper between the times of those Observations: We observ'd the variation of the Compass off Cape Horn 25:00' E.t. As we approach'd Cape Horn we kept the parallel of 56:30' S. to see if the Island called Diego Ramirez was, or was not there to be found: There is not any Island so situated, it was clear enough for us to see land 7 or 8 leagues, the whole day.

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1788
November:December.
We conclude that in the Old Charts it is misplaced & that it is Barnevells Isle which is near the shore in Capn Cooks chart: In the Vol. of Dr. Hawkesworth which relates to that part of Capn Cooks first voyage is a Chart which calls an Island, Diego Ramirez laying S.o or SbW from Cape Horn in Lat.d 56:30' S.o: After passing Cape Horn, the wind which had been blowing strong for several days from the SW & NW, changed & became variable w fine moderate weather, from this to the 1st of December had mostly N.o & E.terly winds, with very unsettled weather, frequently Squally with very thick fog & rain, sometimes light breezes & suddenly blowing strong: Many Ice Islands, Gannets, Gulls & one Ice Bird about the ship, passed a great quantity of sea weed. The 9th the wind came to the W.ward & blowed

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1788
December
strong with fair weather, to the 13th the weather very unsettled & a great number of Ice Islands in all directions. the 13th we passed a very high one which by the ships run as a base & the angles measured was found to be 3 Miles in length: this day one of the Seamen died of scurvy which was now getting head very fast, the sick list increased to 30 & the whole Ships Company appears to be tainted with that disease, it is not to be wondered at when it is considered that they had been now more than a year without any supply of Fresh Provisions or Vegetables.

14th. The wind settled in the SW quarter, in Latd. 49(:49( Sd. & the Sun very near the So.ern tropic, water froze at the scuttle Butt on the QuarterDeck.

15 th. In 48(:30(.So. had many squalls of hail & snow, Ice Islands all around the compass, some of which had large patches of black on them , as if they had been accumulated along the shore & froze snow & earth together.

16th. Among the Ice Islands we passed this day many had black patches as beforementioned & one of them a large remarkable projecting part of a beautiful dark blue, Ice Islands still surround us & some Whales were seen.

17th. It blew strong from the NW, several Ice Islands continually in sight, a great number of Whales, Gulls & Pintadoe Birds.

18th. The wind frequently shifted in squalls from NSW to NW to NSE.

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1788
December:
the weather very unsettled: at Noon, the wind fix'd at WSW & blowed a Hard
Gale of wind, which continued to the 19th in the evening when it became moderate & the wind veering to the SW clear'd up the weather, this evening the variation of the Compass
was observed   00:04Et. Latd. 45:34 So.Longe. 340:32Et. We passed a great quantity of Seaweed & many Ice Islands.

21st . One Ice Island only was seen which was the last we met with, when we passed it, our Latd. 44:16.So. Longe.343:32.Et.; this the longest day in the So.ern Hemisphere was excessive cold. We first met with Ice Islands November 23rd. in Lat:37:17.S.& 280:10Et., so that we were 28 days floating with these lumps of misery in sight & run 836 leagues through between them, which was frequently rendered very dangerous from the thick fogs which we had much of after passing Cape Horn, we have been 12 hours sometimes without being able to see 1 mile round the ship. No particular occurrence happen'd till the ever memorable 25th on which day at noon we arrived at the Meridian of Greenwich having since last passing it, sailed East round the So.Pole: we therefore drop 360 degrees of Longitude & begin East Longitude again, repeating Thursday 25th December to make our time correspond with that at Greenwich: In this Voyage we have had two Christmas days & it being leap year 367 in the year, what few if any Navigators can boast of

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1788 1789
December January
The wind continued in the NW & SW quarters.

29th: At 11 P.M. A large Meteor with an apparent Ball of fire of a Conic Shape was seen to the NW. It rose 5 degrees above the Horizon & continued to a minute in sight falling or setting 4 points to the No'ward of its bearing first noticed. The whole space in that Qr. Of a deep reddish yellow for two minutes before the glare disappear'd.
As we drew near the Cape of Good Hope we found a very strong NW current & the wind hauled round, SSW, So. to SE.

Thursday Jan.y. 1st.: Having had some very good observations of the [sun]
& [moon], we stood in for the land till 12 at night, then off till 2 AM & at 4 saw the Table land Sb E 13 leagues.
At Noon Do. SbE 8 Leag's.. Wind variable
By [sun] & [moon ] the preceding day brought on by Timekeeper. SSE 7 Leag's. The Timekeeper on making the land appear'd to be 11/2 degree too far to the Et'ward.

Friday. 2nd . At 4 P.M. Finding we could not weather Roben Island, we bore away & at 5 Anchored on the NE side of it in 9fm. Flag at the Fort W. N. end of the Island NW. So. end SWbW off shore 3/4 of a mile; An officer was sent on shore to the Island but the Commandant not speaking English (and would not allow the slaves who could to come up) very little information could be got. He ordered Bread, many sorts of Friut & Vegetables to be put into our Boat for the use of the sick

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1789
January
& very politely requested, if we had not an immediate opportunity of getting up to Table Bay, that we could accept as a testimony of his good wishes all that his garden could afford, the fruit and vegetables which he sent to out boat afforded a very seasonable releif to those poor wretches who were in the last stage of the Scurvy & with the knowledge that we were now within reach of the means of releif saved several of their lives;
we had 40 Men not able to move & 10 who kept watch that were deprived of the use of one arm or leg with the Scurvy, the whole Ships Company were weakly & affected by the disorder in some degree; we lost 3 men the passage 2 of them just as we came in the with land:
At daylight nest morning weighed & made sail up to Table Bay, where we moored at 10 O'Clock we found a Dutch Frigate & several Merchant Ships of different nations but not one English among the whole: An officer from the Dutch Frigate came on b'd. to pay respects for his captain to the English Man of War, this Compliment & the great hospitality we rec'd. from the Commandant of Roben Island was very different to what we experienced on our passage out last year, which alteration we were at a loss to account for until the return of the Officer who had been sent to wait on the Governor when we heard of the changes in Europe & the new Alliances that had been made: We had not the least

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1789
January
account of any of our Transports which sailed from Port Jackson for England near 3 months before we did.

Sunday: 4th : The sick were landed, a House without the Town toward the Lions Rump being hired for that purpose.

Monday 5th : A Dutch Ship arrived from Rio Janiero, they informed us that two of our Transports, the P're. of Wales & Borrowdale were there when she sailed; the P're. of Wales had lost her Bowsprit, the Master and great part of the people were dead & the rest in such a state that when the Harbor Master went on board her, he was obliged to take his Boats Crew to get her into an Anchor: the Borrowdale did not arrive there for sometime after the P're. of Wales, nor had she suffer'd so much.

Wednesday 7. In a strong SE gale our Bt.Br. Cable parted, we brought up immediately with the Sheet.

Sunday. 11th . Having started all the salt water & got all the lumber & weight out of the Ship that was to be landed: Heel'd Ship to examine the leaks; found a large bolt hole, the bolt having been eaten entirely through. We found two other spike nail holes through the skirting boards, plugged & secured them all & we found the Ship did not make much water afterwards.

Monday. 19th . A Dutch Frigate arrived from Batavia, had been 37 days out; they informed us that the Alexander Transport, Lieut. Shortland Agent was there: He with the

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1789
January. February
Alexander & Friendship persever'd in the passage to the No'ward when the P're. of Wales & Borrowdale parted Co. off Port Stephens. In the streights of Macassar they were in so distress'd a situation from sickness as to be under the necessity of sinking the Friendship that with both Crews they might be able to Navigate the Alexander & when she arrived at Batavia the Dutch Frigate that gives us this account sent an Officer & people on board her to furl the Sails & secure the Ship; They continued on board with some people from an English East Indiaman to refit the rigging & while their own miserable Crew were landed for their recovery: when this Ship left Batavia the Alexander was fitted ready for Sea & waited only for the recovery of her people.

Tuesday. 27th . Came in a Portuguese Ship, that had been blown out of this Bay & kept at Sea 5 weeks in a wretched situation having but few of the Crew on board when she drove to Sea & 400 Slaves all sickly & of which they did not bring in 100 again.

Tuesday. 3rd Feb'ry. A Brig much like a Man of War passed between Green Pt. & Roben Island, hauled in for the Bay then bore up & run to Sea to the No'ward of Roben Island:

Friday. 6th . A large French Ship passed through the Bay in the same manner as the Brig had done.

Wednesday. 11th . Had accounts from a dutch ship from Rio Janiero, that the Borrowdale & P're. of Wales Transports

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1789
February
Were both ready for Sea & at Single Anchor the middle of Dec'r.

Wednesday.18th . The Alexander arrived, We found by Lieut. Shortland that the accounts given by the Dutch Frigate correspond with his account of their distresses.
Lieut. Shortland discover'd a dry sand bank with a shoal of considerable extent & an Island on the Coast of New South Wales; the sand bank he fixes in 29(:20(.S. 158( 48( Et. Which he called Middleton's Shoal: The Island he fixes in 28(:10(.So. 159(.50( Et. Lies from the Shoal by their run N35(E 97 miles this he named Sr.Chas. Middleton's Island.

Thursday. 19th : The Haspy So.Sea Whaler arrived, she left England in October, by her we hear that there had not any Transport been taken up New South Wales but that they only waited for the accounts of our Arrival
In that country.

Friday. 20th : Having taken in as much of those articles as were most wanted at Port Jackson as the Ship could stow, at 10 AM weighed & made sail, at Noon were hauling out round the No. end of Roben Island, from which to the 10th of March, we had unfavorable winds, we also experienced very strong & strange Currents for until 5th they run to the NW & when in Lat'd. 40(.S. Long' 20( Et. They took a turn & set with greater force to the Et. & SE: The 5th the weather was very unsettled & fogs banks very like 2 Islands. It came on to blow a Gale of wind suddenly at So. & continued between So.

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1789
March. April
& to the 9th. On the 10th. The weather clear'd up with a fresh gale at SW in Latd. 41(:52(.S. Long'd.22(:11( E & but little current by the Timekeeper; the 12th. It fell calm, after which a fresh gale sprung up at NE & blowed a Hard Gale of Wind on the 15th on which day it shifted to NW in a heavy squall. The Wind continued between NNE, SW & Wt. to the 7th. April with few & short intervals of SW winds, which usually came after heavy rain with the NW winds; during this time we had very unsettled weather with some hard Gales, violent squalls & a very high confused Sea. The 22nd of March it blowed so hard & the sea so high & irregular that altho' the wind was abaft the beam the ship could not bear the reef'd Foresail, this obliged us to bring too under the balanced Mizen for some hours till the sea became more regular.

April .7th Had moderate breezes from the NNW & NNE with clear weather,
the 11th the weather became squally with Fog & rain, 16th Fair weather for a few hours, enabled us to get some good observations of [sun] & [moon] & a Meridian Alt. for the Latitude, 5 minutes after which a thick fog came on again & continued to the 19th with very unsettled weather sometimes Calm, then blow very strong a few hours & fall Calm again. The 19th. a Hard Gale of wind came on suddenly at SW & on the 20th came to the So'ward & blew with such violence that we could not carry either of the reef'd Courses, this day

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1789
April
we were so unfortunate as to have three storm staysails give way at nearly the same time, that we had only the balanced Mizen left: the 21st. Knowing that we were settling down upon the land & being doubtful of clearing it as the wind came to SSE, we set the reef'd Foresail before night in case of falling suddenly in the Swilly, we passed this night in the most anxious situation but saw nothing.

22nd. Soon after noon the double reef'd Mainsail was set the wind being dead upon the shore & blew with great violence with thick rain at 3P.M. Saw the land on the lee bow, the weather too thick to make out what part of the Coast it was & not being able to weather it, we wore, in hopes of clearing the land to the W.ward, the Ship was already much pressed with sail yet in our situation it was necessary to make more to beat clear either to the W'ward or E'ward, to effect which One reef was let out of the Mainsail, the balance taken off the Mizen & the close reef'd Fore & Main Topsails set over the single reef'd Courses & all hands stationed ready, whatever might happen; as 1st to fall in with the land to the W'ward could not weather it & had just room the wear clear, it was very dark, violent squalls with heavy rain; the Hand of Providence now interfered, the Ship lay two points higher standing to the Et.ward than she did before on the same tack, which gave us some small degree of hopes that

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1789
April
we should clear the land: At 2 AM. We again fell in with the land to the Et.ward about a point before the lee beam, we had no alternative being close under it to push on with our only chance, this proved a most fortunate circumstance for had we seen it on the lee bow so near us we should have wore & then all hands must have perish'd; this land was no sooner abaft the beam than the ship broke off those two points which had enabled her to reach to windward of it at about 2 Miles dis't. but how near we passed to those rocks lying off it we are ignorant of as breakers could not be distinguish'd from that of the Sea which was all a breach to the Horizon:
This point of land appeared to be Tasmans head for we saw the land on to the N.ward as we passed it; from which it appears that, that point which we could not weather standing to the W.ward was the So.Cape of Van Diemans land, we passed to windward of Maria's Islands, saw them twice; during the whole of the time from our first seeing the land till clear of Maria's Islands, the Ship was so press'd as to keep the pumps constantly going, the Sea washed away the Figure Head & a part of the Cutwater. In the situation the Ship was in all night, it was really pleasing to find the whole Ships Company with Confidence in their Officers & a just sense of their danger particularly attentive & cheerfully alert. Soon after we had passed

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1789
April & May
Maria's Islands it fell little wind for some hours & then blew again with great violence, we found that the knees on which the security of the Bowsprit in part depended, were started & worked considerably, we therefore got all the weight from the Bowsprit & some additional securities to it. To the 25th we had very unsettled weather this & the 26th Mod't. light Breezes which continued to 7 PM of the 27th when it suddenly came on a Gale of Wind with Thunder, Light'ning & heavy rain, At Noon. Mod't Weather.

28: To 6 PM Light Breezes with rain wind variable: At 7 Blow'd strong & came on as suddenly as the last evening, the wind in the night shifted frequently Wt. to No. & a great confused Sea.

29th: The gale continued with frequent & heavy squalls at Wt. & NW, much light'ning in the night.

30th. AM The weather became Modt. & fair, wind No'erly.

May.1st: At 5 P.M It again came on to blow very hard at No. & shifted to SW at 2 AM in a violent squall & severe light'ning; At Noon Moderate.
2. Fresh Gales from SW to WNW with frequent hard squalls

3d. Towards the evening fell little wind & calm at times.

4th Calm till 5P.M then suddenly come on a fresh Gale at ENE. Much light'ning during the night.

5th: Steady fresh gale from ENE to SE with fair weather.

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1789
May
6th: Coming on to blow very strong from the So'ward, we at Noon fell in with the land to leeward of Port Jackson, the No.Head bore S.50(W dist. 10 leagues: Found the Timekeeper [? 1 1/4] degree to the W'ward.

7th: Wind continued to the So'ward. The ship fell to leeward.

8th: At 4 PM fell calm, at 10 a breeze from the land enabled us to stand along shore to the So'ward till 6 AM when the wind again came to the So'ward/ At Noon after Tacking twice, we were reaching in for the No.Head of Port Jackson

9th: Falling to leeward of the No.Head we made a trip with success & at 3 pass'd between the Heads; at 6 Anchored in Sydney Cove where we found the Supply.

We found that a Native Man had been taken by force by Lieut.Ball Commander of the Supply, for the Governor it not be(^ing) possible to persuade any of them to come amongst us; He was for some time kept with an Iron about his leg & when on board the Supply going down the Harbour, he jump'd overboard but was taken up & prevented from joining his Countrymen & Old Companions who were near. He was so well reconciled to his situation when we arrived that he was allowed to walk about by himself; His Irons were taken off, when an Old Man & his child were brought up to Sydney Cove with the small pox out on them soon after this Old Man, another Native Man was found.

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[page 162]

1789
May
in the same situation, with a child laying by him, both of which were brought up to the Hospital; The Native at the Governors (Arrabanoo) met them without fear of the disorder by which it was then supposed that he was ignorant of that disorder or that he had had it & was recover'd. The two Men died before we arrived, but the children were then on the recovery: From the great number of dead Natives found in every part of the Harbour, it appears that the small pox had made dreadful havock among them, we did not see a Canoe or a Native the whole way coming up the Harbour & were told that scarce any had been seen lately except laying dead in & about their miserable habitations, whence it appears that they are deserted by their Companions as soon as the disorder comes out on them & those who are attack'd wt. this disorder
left to shift for themselves: We judge this from their having been found not buried in every part of the Harbour, some has been found with a child laying dead close to them & some who have apparently used their utmost exertions to get at water, having been found laying dead between a Cave & a run of Water. How this disease came among them, or whether they were strangers to it before is doubtful. The two children beforemention'd, recover'd soon after our arrival & were placed; the Boy with the

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[page 163]

1789
May
Surgeon at the Hospital he was about 7 year of age, & the girl about 13 was put under the charge of the Parsons Wife.
A party of Marines was discharged from the Sirius to compleat the Battalion, which had been reduced during our absence by 6 having been executed together for robbing the provisions store, 1 killed in a quarrel with other Marines & 3 lost in the woods & perished. Capt. Shea we also found had been dead a considerable time.
The Golden Grove Transport in her passage to Norfolk Island in October 1788 discover'd a shoal of considerable extent & which we suppose from the account of its situation, to be the same that Mr.Shortland discover'd & named Middletons Shoal in July last & gave an account of at the Cape of Good Hope.

18th. Arrabanoo, the Native of the Governor's died of the small pox which it is supposed he caught from the Native Children he was taken ill about the time of their recovery: He was a great loss being quite familiarized & very happy, quite one of the Governor's family & had got some of our language as well as communicated much of theirs; He was remarkably good temper'd & had he lived would no doubt been of infinite use to us.

19th. A party from the Sirius to Rose Hill, to which place a Company of Marines & considerable numbers of Convicts

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1789
May. June.
had been detached in October last for the purpose of cultivating that part of the Country, their situation is pleasant, the soil good, the Country open & promises much to the success of the Colony; It is 12 miles above Sydney Cove & 4 from the flatts from which a creek runs up Navigable for Barges or Lighters, observing the tides. We met with 6 Canoes as went up & saw the same number of Fires as we returned in the Cove just below the flatts.

June.2nd. Twenty Canoes passed Sydney Cove going down the Harbour, this was the first time any number of them had been seen together since the small pox having been among them.

Saturday.6th. The Supply sailed for Norfolk Island with an Officer & additional number of Marines & Provisions for that Island: The Governor & Capt. Hunter went to the
N .ward to trace those parts of Broken Bay which had been left unexamined, the Master of the Sirius & a Mid. was sent round with two boats to meet the party who walked over:

Thursday.11th. A Native Man was met with at Botany Bay who had just recover'd of the small pox, He had as child with him & made signs that the Mother of it had died of that disease.

Wednesday.17th. The Governor & Party returned from Broken

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1789
June
Bay; In the branch running to the NW out of the SW arm they discover'd that an opening round an Island, which had not been examined before, led to a fresh water River up which they went about 20 Miles from the Island at the mouth of it, when they were obliged to return for want of Provisions to enable them to proceed, when they gave up their pursuit they had 6 fm. water & made use of it both for drinking & cooking. They met with but few Natives & found some that died of the small pox laying near the path between Port Jackson & Broken Bay. In a Cove of the So. Arm they met with a woman who had just recover'd but was so reduced & weak that she could not accompany her Companion who ran away on the boat coming in near where they were, this poor creature crawled in among the long Grass to hide herself & was by chance found in that situation, after having received every releif that could be given her, she became familiar as her fears subsided, but was not to be found when the Boats came away: By Capt. Hunters Observation taken near the Inner So.Head of Broken Bay it appears to be 15 Miles to the N.ward of Port Jackson.

Friday.19th. The Sirius went over the (th) above on the No. side of the Harbour, to be clear'd & refitted for the purpose of examining the Ground Tier & strength'ning her upper

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1789
June
works with Riders: in the night 3 of the Natives appear'd on the shore near the Ship, where they remained a short time & went away, they did not speak & we observed them creeping along to avoid making any noise, this appear'd to be a visit of curiosity to see who they had near them.

Saturday.20th. In Spring Cove 70 of the Natives were seen in one party by our fishing boat.

Thursday.25th. The Governor went to Rose Hill in consequence of receiving information of a large peice of Water being discover'd some distance to the W.ward of Rose Hill, but he being anxious to pursue his discovery of the River in Broken Bay left this for the present.

Monday.29th: The Governor, Capt.Hunter & party went to Broken Bay to trace the River to its source, The Master as before went round to meet this Party in the South Arm with three weeks Provisions.

Tuesday.30th. An Officer return'd from a Visit to those at Rose Hill, during his stay there, they made a party to the W.ward 18 or 20 Miles when they were obstructed by water, which they found to be fresh & apparently a part of a very considerable river; they found Natives there who had traps for catching Ducks great quantities of which were seen; they also had snares for taking Opossums & other Animals: This part of the River

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1789
June
which Capt. Tench fell in with bore nearly West, from Rose Hill, estimated distance 18 Miles; It is conjectured to be a part of that River which the Governor is now gone to trace; they did not observe any tide but a constant set to the NEbN in which direction the branch they fell in with lay; Its breadth they reckon about 80 fathoms & to appearances deep water; Capt. Tench attempted crossing it in an Old Canoe which was found there, but was obliged to give it up by her filling, the Banks appear'd very high & as if they were subjected to great Torrents in Rainy Season; In this excursion they met with level open Country for some Miles & the Grass short, so as not to be troublesome in walking.
Near the banks on the Et. Side they found a party of Natives sitting round a fire broiling a Kanguroo Rat, they all ran away as soon as they discover'd any Person near them. Amongst other things found there, was a peice, made of the skins of small animals sew'd or laced together, somepart was of the Opossum skin, the rest of some animal the fur much superior; these were curiously carved on the inside, every skin having a different pattern & the whole formed a peice that was supposed they might use to cover a child with: The Needle they use was found; It is a hard

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C 1789
June. July
peice of wood much in size & shape of a small bodkin, with which they make holes (it not having an eye) to receive the thread which was found & appears to be the sinewy fibres from the tail of some small animal.

Tuesday.7th. A second party return'd from Rose Hill after having visited the River that had been discover'd to the Wt.ward, some small distance lower down than the former party had been, they supposed it to be fordable but did not venture on account or a strong set & a fall with it: One of the part crossed it in an Old Canoe buoy'd up bundles of Reeds & the wild fig tree which they found would swim, they found Wild Yams on both sides of the River.

Tuesday.14th. Finding that the Governor was in the Nt. Arm we sent a boat for him & his party, on this boat landing to the utter astonishment of all in her they saw the Sailmaker who had been missing 3 days, going about the Hill close to the Ship Saturday afternoon, he lost himself & wandered into the woods; parties were sent in all directions each day to look for him & to no purpose & boats along the shore Monday & Tuesday, on which days Guns were fired on board the Sirius to direct him to the Ship, the Guns on Tuesday morn'g being heard by the Governors party in the lower part

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1789
July.
of the Harbour, they supposed to cause to be a Man lost & in their walk towards Middle Harbor to look for a Boat found the print of a Man's foot with a shoe on which served to convince them that they had judged right & determin'd them to search for him; they fired a volley of Musquets & were soon after by a single Musquet, which being repeated on both sides, they soon came within hail & calling to the lost Man to stand still they soon found him; His joy on seeing them was such that for some time he was like an Idiot.
This Man experienced a most singular deliverance from perishing in the Woods; He had not more than half a dozen charges of powder when he left the Ship & no provisions; altho' he tried to fire his Musquet till he wore the flint to a stump he could not get it to go off, only at night to get a fire to rest by; from this circumstance alone he was enabled to answer the Governors Party when they first began firing vollies for him then he again had the same good fortune, his Gun not missing fire on either of these occasions & his stock of Amunition just sufficient for those purposes. The Governor return'd the same evening to Sydney Cove, they had traced all the braches of the River which they discover'd in their last visit to Broken Bay; About 3 Mile within

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1789
July.
 the entrance of the River it branched away to the So. 6 or 7 Miles in which were other inconsiderable & shoal branches from this the Main River run some Miles then taking a SW direction & branching away to the No'ward which branch was extensive but shoal water. Capt. Hunter observed the Latitude 3 Miles below that past where it was too shoal for the boats to proceed, to be 33:21So. The Main Channel to the SW took many windings, following which until they got into very shoal water with very large hard stones of which the Natives make their hatchets &c. & at the beginning of the falls, they found themselves at the foot of a hill which they ascended, Capt. Hunter observed the Latitude on it 33:37So.The Governor named it Richmond Hill.
As they proceeding up the River, the Trees had much the appearance of there being great torrents in a rainy Season, Grass Mud & peices of timber were found in them measured 30 feet from the surface of the River to that of the Tree where they had been lodged in the great freshes or Torrents. This River by Captn. Hunters estimated distances following the course of the Main River runs 55 Miles to Richmond Hill which is by do. 27 Miles West & by Observation 2 Miles So. of the Inner South Head of Broken Bay; This

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1789
July.August.
River, the Governor named the Hawkesbury.

Thursday.16th. The Boats returned from Broken Bay, they met with a Man Woman & Child, the woman was the same that they met with before in the So.Arm just recovering from the Small Pox, who was now quite recover'd of the disease but one of her legs was contracted, this Family would have been taken by force but the wind not being fair, the Officer in the Boat did not think it a proper opportunity.

Friday.31st. The Parson & the Native Girl went down the Harbor to endeavour to have an interview with the Natives, they met with a party of them, some of whom the Girl said were her relations, she told them how well she was treated that she had recover'd by the care taken of her & that whe was very happy & used every persuasion to get one or more of them to return with her, but to no purpose.

Sunday. Augt. 2nd. The Surgeon General with the Native boy went about the Harbour for the same purpose, they soon met with a party of the Natives who knew the boy, but they could not prevail on any (of them) to come with them, the boy was much inclined to join the naked tribe.

Saturday.8th. The Supply arrived; having landed the party of Marines, Stores &c. at Norfolk Island, she proceeded in search of Middleton's Shoal & Island discover'd by Mr. Shortland but did not meet with either, after having passed over

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1789
August:September.
their situation as given by him; Nor did theyi meet with that shoal seen by Mr Blackburne in the Golden Grove & was supposed to be part of that which Mr. Shortland had named Middletons Shoal.

Monday.10th. The Carpenter with a part of the Crew only, came on board to examine into & repair the Ships defects for which purpose she had long since been clear'd.

Tuesday.18th. A Party went down the Harbour to take a Native if a good opportunity affor'd, they met with several in the No.Arm & found them very friendly, they did not take much notice of the Native boy who accompanied the Party or the Boy of them, they were a considerable time with them but had not an opportunity of taking one.

Thursday. 27th. Capt. Hunter went by the Sea Coast to Broken Bay, to examine the Bays &c. between Port Jackson & it; Two boats were sent round with the 1st. Lieut. to meet them & proceed on the Survey of Broken Bay, at 2 in the afternoon the boats arrived at Broken Bay, & met Capt. Hunter there the next morning. During our stay in the So.Arm , only three of the Natives were met with & but few other seen.

Tuesday. Sept.8th. Having survey'd the Bay, South & SW Arms up to near the entrance of the Hawkesbury, return'd to Port Jackson.
Broken Bay is easily known when to the So.ward of it

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1789
September.
By the land of the So.Head which forms a high round bluff to the Sea from a low neck, & when the entrance of the Bay is well open another bluff Head will shew itself, round which is the South Arm; As you approach the entrance an Island which lies in the Bay & off the So. & SW Arms will appear & very high toward the Sea, this is the mark to lead you into either of those Arms passing the the So.ward of the Island, the SW Arm lays from it about SW 1/2W by Compass, & the South Arm nearly So..
The South Arm has fresh water in several of the Coves; there is a flat at the entrance which extends more than 2/3 of the Channel over from the Et. Point, between which & the Wt. shore is 3 fm. at low water & shoaling very gradually on the bank: Going into this Arm steer in for the Wt. point keeping the land forming the Et. Point or Inner So.Head open until well over on the Wt. shore, which keep on board 'till the No.Head of the Bay comes on with the Inner So.Head, then you may haul over to the Et.ward, after passing this flat there is not any thing found that will take a ship up in the fair way up to the Arm or into any of the Coves, that a Ship may chuse a birth as may be most convenient.
Just within the inner South Head, Capt. Hunter observed the Latitude 33:351/2.S.& at the upper part of the So. Arm 33:41. This Arm the Governor has named Pitt Water.

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1789
September.
There is a middle ground with less than 3 fathoms on it in some parts, near the entrance(^or outer part) of the SW Arm, there is good room on both sides it shoals gradually to the Middle ground when near it, the Et. side is deepest water & best channel as you are landlock'd on that side when abreast of the Middle ground. There is a rock lays a small distance of the Pt. forming the Arm above two little sandy bays which you avoid by not opening the No.Head of the Bay with the Et. end of the Island until the length of that point, then by keeping it just open you avoid the Middle Ground to the Et.ward, the water near the shore on the Et. side is deep:
When you are the length of the No. point forming a branch to the NW out of this Arm you are above the Middle Ground & may anchor where you please in this Arm in which are several branches & Coves forming very good Harbour with good depth of water & fresh water in several of the Coves: the branch leading to the NW has a large flat near 1/2 way over from the No. shore, to which in the Channel up it shoals gradually to 3 feet.
As you come into this branch, an Island will shew itself to the NNW about 2 Miles up, there is a flat round to the So. & Et.ward some parts of which dry at low water, but there is a very good Channel round the No. part of it & when to the No'ward & Wt'ward of this Island the opening leading to the Hawkesbury River will shew itself to the Wt'ward, between two Islands which forms the

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1789
September:
entrance of it, in going to which you leave two large openings to the No.ward, these are large peices of water but too shoal for anything except boats.
The rive Hawkesbury following the Course of the Main Channel is by Captain Hunter's estimated distance 55 Miles, to the falls, near the foot of Richmond Hill on which Capt. Hunter Obs'd Latitude 33:37.S., & near the top of a shoal branch of the River leading to the No.ward 33:21.S. which is some miles to the No.ward of any part of the No. Arm of the Bay as examined by our Boats.
The North Arm of Broken Bay is very shoal, with a large flat laying off the entrance of it on which the Sea breaks a considerable distance out except in very fine weather: It is only fit for boats through a very narrow Channel & frequently dangerous.
The Bay, except that part on the No. side just mention'd, appears to be clear ground with regular soundings in Behind both the rocky points at the So. end of the sandy beaches in the Bay is good shelter for Boats in any weather, or for small Vessels to push for if caught in the Bay & not able to reach the So. or SW Arms; I think either of these bights far more safe than to attempt the No. Arm. By Captain Hunter's Observation the entrance of Broken Bay is 16 Miles to the No.ward of Port Jackson, the Coast

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1789
September.
between forms several bights, two of which a boat might shelter in if caught upon the shore & could not reach either of the Harbours, the one is round the No.Head of Port Jackson between the high Cliffs & the Sandy beach, the other is in that bight off which is a reef of rocks about 3 Miles to the No.ward of Port Jackson; going along the shore to & from Broken Bay twice in the Boats I observed that the flood set to the So.ward & the ebb to the No.ward regular; We observed the tides at Broken Bay to be nearly the same as at Port Jackson.

Tuesday.15th. A Party went to visit the River to the W.ward of Rose Hill; they found that the freshes had been very great & marks of its rising near 30 feet, the course of the stream when they left it they supposed to be 7 knots.

Sunday.20th. Captain Hunter with the Masters of the Sirius & Supply went to Botany Bay to survey it

Thursday.24th: The Purser of the Sirius being down the Harbor to get Cabbage Tree, was met by some Natives who took an opportunity of stealing his Axes & running away on being pursued they left two children behind them, these were taken to the boat, very soon pacified & even went to sleep in the boat, one 7 or 8 the other not more than 2 years old, some considerable time after this, the Men appear'd again & were given to understand that they should

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1789
September
not have the Children until they brought back the Axes, they after some hesitation fetch'd the axes & took the Children, they did not seem to care about the eldest but were very anxious about the little one.

Saturday.26th: The Man usually employ'd shooting for the Ship; was near the Middle Harbor suddenly attack'd attack'd by the Natives with stones, he did not see them till a stone passed close to his head, looking round he saw 3 of them with Clubs & spears advancing toward him, he gave them the contents of his Musquet which then was loaded with small shot, this they did not mind only by standing still & gave a shout, in a very short time He saw 50 of them had got together & were advancing towards him wt. spears & clubs making a great noise; He was now well prepared having loaded with large Buck shot while they were collecting: He stood his ground to receive them, letting them advance to within about 50 yards fired among the thick of them, two fell, the others ran off immediately taking their two dead or wounded Companions with them, the Man being alone did not follow them.

Wednesday.30th. Captain Hunter returned from Botany Bay, having survey'd the Bay & taken an eye sketch of the branches, all except that to the NW which they only traced a few miles; they met but few Natives

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1789
September.October.
those were all friendly. In some of the Caves, skeletons of some & loose bones of others were found, who had no doubt died of the small pox by their bodies not having been removed.

Monday. 5th: October. A Vessel of 12 Tons was launch'd which was the first built in the Country: Her construction was that of the Lighter & of an easy draught of water for the purpose of carrying Stores & Provisions over the Flats to Rose Hill.

Wednesday.7. The Governor was to Rose Hill to trace a peice of water near it, supposed by those who first fell in with it to communicate with the NW Arm of Botany Bay.

Saturday.10. He returned, fell in with a fresh water River about 4 Miles from Rose Hill to the So.ward & which had many windings, they followed the course of it down on one side of the banks, not having a boat, as far as the Gullies, which they were obliged to walk round would admit of, they found a rise of 4 feet where the water was fresh & some distance below that part they met the Salt Water, which had every appearance of communicating with Botany Bay or a small distance to the So.ward of it with the Sea, but this for want of a Boat they could not ascertain, being upon the forked part of

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1789
October. November
 a branch, at one part of which a Kanguroo was closely pursued by the Greyhound that they had with them & took to the Water, the Dog followed & got hold of the Kanguroo, the Kanguroo attack'd the Dog & tore him so much that one of the People was obliged to go in & cut the Kanguroo's throat to save the Dog.

Saturday. 31st. The Sirius, Supply, Battalion & Convicts put to 2/3 allowance of Provisions.
Saturday. Nov.7th: Having repaired the defects of the Sirius compleated her bottom & fixed the necessary Riders; We went over to Sydney Cove where the repairs to the upper works could be more conveniently done.

Sunday 8th: Mr. Hill one of the Mates having been absent since Thursday & finding that he had left Sydney Cove early Friday morning & landed on the No.shore to walk round to the Cove where the Ship was refitting we concluded some accident had happen'd to him, several parties were sent to the No.shore, Boats up & down the Harbour to endeavor to meet with him, Guns were fired onb'd. the Sirius every two hours from daylight till 8 at night, all to no purpose.

Monday.9. Parties & Boats as yesterday without success.

Tuesday.10th. Parties &c. continued: One of the Boats was attack'd by the Natives in the No.Arm, these people had met the boats crew & been some time together quite friendly

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 1789
November
Soon after the Natives left them, they were surprised with several Spears flying among them & not a Native to be seen at that moment, they soon appear'd & were advancing toward the boat, when a Musquet ball was fired among them they stop'd which gave the people time to get out of their reach with the boat, none of our people were hurt altho' the Spears passed through amongst them.

Wednesday.11th. The Supply sailed for Norfolk Island with Convicts & Provisions for that place.

Thursday.12th. We left off firing Guns, the Parties & boats all returned without meeting with the smallest trace of the unfortunate young man, who, there is scarce a doubt had been kill'd by the Natives, many of them at that time being about the No.shore.

Sunday.15th. A Man belonging to the Supply who had left her before she sailed & ran into the Woods, gave himself up, he had been absent 11 days, he heard all our Guns, but his intentions not being to return just then, he did not avail himself of so favorable an opportunity of directing himself back; but after this he was reduced to the necessity of returning to take the punishment awaiting him or perish in the Woods.

Saturday.21st. The Sirius fishing boat was attack'd by the Natives in one of the lower Coves just as they were leaving

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1789
November.
the shore, four Musquet balls were fired before the Natives retreated, their spears passed over & in the boat, one struck in her & broke, very luckily they all passed clear of the people in the boat. Another boat was also attacked this day, laying at a Grapnel off a point of the No.Arm, several spears were thrown, on which the people moved farther off; A great number of Natives then appear'd, the Women came close to the rocks & used every wanton lure to entice our people to land, when the Women came forward a party of Men were observed to walk away, no doubt to be ready for an attack if our people had been so improvident as to land, this artifice having been practised by them before, the people were well aware of it.

Wednesday.25th: Governor Phillip judging it necessary that a Native should be taken by force, (no endeavor to persuade them to come among us having succeeded) I was order'd on this service, having the Master, two Petty Officers & a Boats Crew with me in one of the Governors boats: As we went down the Harbour we got some fish from the boats that lay off the No.Arm fishing & proceeded up the Arm in which we saw a great number of Natives on both sides & several landed on the beach at the No.Cove hauling their canoes up after them; As we got near the upper part of the No.Cove, we held two

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1789
November.
large fish up to them & had the good luck to draw two of them away from a very large party by this bait, these People came around the rocks where they left their spears & met us on the beach near the boat & at a distance from their Companions sufficient to promise success without losing any lives, they eagerly took the fish, four of the boats crew were kept in the boat which was winded & back'd close to the beach where the tow Natives & the rest of our People were, they were dancing together when the Signal was given by me and the two poor devils were seiz'd & handed into the boat in an instant; The Natives who were very numerous all round us, on seeing us seize those two, immediately advanced with their Spears & Clubs, but we were too quick for them, being out of reach before they got to that part of the beach where the boat lay, they were entering on the beach just as every body was in the boat & as she did not take the ground we pulled immediately out without having occasion to fire a Musquet; The noise of the Men, Crying & screaming of the Women & Children together with the situation of the two miserable wretches in our possession was really a most distressing scene; they were much terrified, one of them particularly so, the other frequently called out to those on shore apparently very much enraged with them, they followed the boat on both sides as far as the points of the Cove & then

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1789
November.
Returned to the beach, we saw them take up the two fish which their two unfortunate friends dropt on being seiz'd; On our landing at Sydney Cove we were met by Nanbarry, the Native boy who was much pleas'd & called them by name Colbey & Bennalon, Colbey we have frequently heard spoken of by the Boy as a great Warrior & a leading Man among them; they were taken to the Governors House where they were soon met by Abooroo, the Native Girl she called them by name the same as the boy had done & was quite frantic with Joy; they were assured by these Children that they would be well treated thereafter allowed to return to their friends, but all that could be said or done was not sufficient to remove the pang which they naturally felt at being torn away from their Friends; or to reconcile them to their situation;
It gave me great satisfaction to find by the Children that neither of them had Wife or Family who would feel their loss, or to be distress'd by their being taken away, it was by far the most unpleasant service I ever was order'd to Execute. These People were shaved, wash'd & cloathed; an Iron shackle was put on one leg with a rope made fast to it & a Convict charged with each of them, they were very sullen & sulky, continued so several days, yet it did not by any means affect their appetite if we may judge from the quantity they now eat, which is beyond every thing incredible (12 lb of fish does but little towards satisfying

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1789
November:December.
them for one meal). They made several attempts to get away by gnawing the Rope in the night, but being unacquainted with the securities on doors & windows; they might have as well remained fast, when their keepers awaked they found them groping about the room to find an opening by which they might escape.

Tuesday. Decr. 1: The 1st. Lieut. & Master of the Sirius were sent the examine the NW branch of Botany Bay, on the 5th returned I found it to be a Creek of about 8 Miles length to the NW with a winding shoal Channel & end in a drain to a swamp, all salt water: Saw several Natives in small parties, they would not come near us; On our return we landed in a bay about 3 Miles to the No.ward pf Botany Bay, the wind was fresh & a considerable swell right on the shore, yet we landed smooth at the beach where there is a fine Run of Water the inner Pts. of this Bay are open from SEbS to ESE, the water shoaling gradually wt. soft bottom to the beach the inner points which break the Sea off are about a Cable or Cable & half across & 5 fathom water Midchannel, within the outer Pt. Is 7 fm. from which it runs up rather more than 1/2 Mile to the NW & is a very good place for a Boat to stop in going along shore & night coming on, or a contrary tide coming on.

Wednesday.9th: Lieut. Dawes with a party went to Rose Hill for the purpose of penetrating to the Wt.ward towards the Mountains.

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1789
December:
Saturday.12th: Notwithstanding the two Natives had got themselves loose several times & were prevented from escaping, Colbey this evening got away by the very same means which had before been detected, the Man who had charge of him was severely punish'd for his neglect, & the Man who had charge of Benallon was now chain by the wrist, the other end being fasten'd to the shackle on Benallon's leg instead of a rope which was before used: Benallon was nearly loose when the other was miss'd & in a minute more would have been after him, he was much alarmed, no doubt expecting punishment or to be put to death: in the course of two or three days he became quite composed, & seem reconciled better to his situation than before; He came on board the Sirius without the smallest apprehensions for his safety; He looked with attention at every part of the Ship & expressed much astonishment particularly at the Cables.

Thursday.17. Mr. Dawes & party return'd found it impracticable to get near the Mountains in the direction which they went.

Tuesday.22. The Supply arrived from Norfolk Island: She brought very favorable accounts of the Crops of Corn; called at Lord Howes Island, very little success in getting Turtle.

Sunday.27th, Mr.King 2nd Lieut. Of the Sirius being established by the Governor, Commandant at Norfolk Island was discharged from the Ship & Mr.Maxwel 3d. Lieut. being Insane was invalided

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1789 1790
December. January.
Mr. Newton Fowell & Mr. Henry Waterhouse were appointed to act as second & third Lieutenants.

January.8th. The Supply sailed for Norfolk Island with Convicts & Provisions.

Wednesday. 20th. A look out Post was establish'd at the South Head: Capt. Hunter with a Party went to that station.

Friday.29th. The 1st. Lieut. with a Party went to the South Head to releive the look out Post. Black Kangoroo seen about there.

Sunday.31st.: Caesar, a notorious Convict a Native of Madagascar deliver'd himself up to the Officer at Rose Hill, He had been absent since the 22nd of December when he ran off with a Canoe from Garden Island & on the 23rd. paid them a visit in the night & stole a Musquet, which he dropt in a Garden a Rose Hill a few nights since being closely pursued: The account he fives of his subsisting himself so long a time was, that where he saw a party of Natives with any thing on, or about their Fire, that he frighten'd them away by coming suddenly on them & swaggering with his Musquet, then help'd himself to whatever they had left; in this manner he made out very well without ammunition, sometimes robbing Gardens: When he lost the Musquet he found it impossible to subsist himself, he was then attack'd by the Natives & wounded in several places & escaped from a party of them through a very thick brush when he surrender'd himself.

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1790
February.
Wednesday.3rd. The Governor & Benallon visited the Look out Post Benallon being now well reconciled generally accompanies the Governor in little excursions: He threw a Spear on the South Head against a strong wind 98 Yards, which was considerably farther than I ever noticed before: In their return to Sydney Cove they saw some Women on a point of land near Rose Bay to which they rowed, throw'd them a Jacket & several other things, among this party was a Woman whom
Benallon was very fond of (Barang-ooroo) & with whom he had much conversation, he wanted her to come to the Boat telling her that he was fast by the leg & could not get the them, they learn'd from these Women, that Colbey was then fishing on the other side of the Hill, that he could not get the shackle from his leg.

Sunday.7. Nanbaray (the Native Boy) was at the look out Post on a visit, this day among other amusements he went through the ceremony of a Burial; which he did by first digging a Grave, put into it a quantity of dry sticks: the body was laid at length in green brush which he tied at both ends & placed it upon the dry sticks, then piled sticks over it above the surface of the ground & signified that they set fire to the pile & threw ashes & earth all together leaving the ground in shape of the Grave usually met with: That part of the ceremony of lighting the fire he was obliged to omit not being strong enough to get it;

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1790
February.
He shew'd us the manner in which it was done by two sticks, one placed horizontally, the other pointed is applied to this which by constant friction, makes a small hole through which fire is communicated to some very dry stuff placed under for that purpose, it appears to be rather tedious & laborious.

Wednesday.10th A Sail was seen in the Offing which was soon known to be the Supply: she falling in to leeward of Port Jackson bore away for Botany Bay.

Friday.12. The Supply arrived at Port Jackson, she left a Party on Lord Howe Island in her passage to Norfolk Island for the purpose of getting Turtle, she took the People off in her return, they did not get any Turtle.

Sunday. 14th: The Sirius was order'd to be got ready for Sea, it being judged that the state of the Colony with respect to Provisions was such, as made it necessary that she should be sent for Supplies to releive it & China was determined as a proper place for that purpose: Some days after this Plan was chang'd & it was judged necessary to divide the People in the Settlement; Norfolk Island was fixed on to remove the Lieut.Governor with his Part of the Battalion & Convicts; it was therefore order'd that the Sirius & Supply should take those People to Norfolk Island & return to Port Jackson after which if there was not a Ship arrived from England, the Sirius was to go to China as before resolved on. The Governor & one of the Mates

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1790
February. March
with 6 People took charge of the look out Post.

Tuesday.2. March. Having got the Provisions & Stores on board for Norfolk Island, we went out of Sydney & Anchored in the Stream.

Wednesday. 3rd. Rec'd on board the Sirius Major Ross, 4 Lieuts.2 Serj. 2 Corpls. 2 Drums & 20 private Marines: The Supply rec'd 1 Captain 1 Lieut. 2 Serjants, 2 Corporals & 26 private.

Thursday. 4th: Rec'd on board the Sirius 96 Men & 65 Women Convicts with 23 Children; the Surgeon & Assistant who were appointed to Norfolk Island. The Supply rec'd 20 Men & 2 Women Convicts & 3 Childn.

Friday. 5th. Sailed with the Supply in Company, but the weather being squally & very unsettled we came too in the lowerpart of the Harbour.

Saturday 6. Wind fresh from the So.ward Sailed out of Pt. Jackson Supply in Co. the 8th we found by Observation for the Latitude & Timekeeper that the Current had set us 38 of Latd. to the No.ward & 49 of longde. to the Et.ward: Weather Moderate, Wind So.erly.

Tuesday. 9th: At 1 PM. Saw Lord Howe Island, Mt.Gower NEbE 23 leagues, Mt. Gower & Mt. Lidgbird with these bearings make in two round hills with a space between them & in clear weather Ball's Pyramid lying to the SE of Mt. Gower may be seen nearly at as great a distance in a peak; the land which joins the two Mountains is not to be seen 'till much nearer 15 or 16 leagues & the low land of the Island not till within 6 or 7 leagues: found a Current which set us this day 16 No. & 49 of Longitude Et.. The Supply stood

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1790
March
into the Bay to try if any Turtle could be got.

Wednesday, 10th: PM passed through between Balls Pyramid & Mt. Gower, they bear from each other S51E & N57 W by Compass 5 or 6 leagues distant: To the So.ward of the Pyramid which is a very high inaccessible peaked Rock are several Rocks which shew above water, between Lord Howe Island & the Pyramid is a clear passage, we had soundings near Mt. Gower but none before or after, we found a very strong Current setting through to the NE.
                 Bearings taken by Compass.

No. Pt. of the Island & So. end of the Admiralty rocks . .N62 E
. . . . . . . & Et.most of Do. . . . . . .N31E
Mount Gower NNE 3 Miles had 26 fm. Coral & Shells 
Pyramid from Mt. Gower. . . . .S51(E 5 or 6 leagues
Two Mountains in one . . . . . . N20E
Do. opening . . . . . . . . N11E.
Mount Gower & small Rock just off it. NW1/2W
Et.most small Island open . N11(W

Backland toward the No. end open N43W most of the Admiralty Rocks are then open without it.
From good Meridian Observation & good Altitudes for the Timekeeper only 3 days out of Port Jackson when its Rate was determined on our sailing, we make Mount Gower the So. end of Lord Howe's Island to lay in 31:35 So. Latitude.

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1790
March.
Longitude by the Timekeeper 159:12Et. & by [sun] & [moon] 158:51 East.
Variation of the Compass. 9:30 Et..

After leaving Ld. Howe Island we did not find any Current until we came near the stream of Norfolk Island, when we again found a strong Et.erly Current: We made Norfolk Island Saturday 13th at 2 AM Brot too at 4 & made sail in for the Island at daylight, as we came in with Sydney Bay. (So. side of the Isld.) saw the Signal that there was no landing; the Supply was sent to see if landing was good in Balls Bay on the Et. side of the Island; Lt.Ball could not land but back'd the boat in so as to throw a letter on shore to the Commandant: We then went round to the No. side of the Island & found landing practicable at low water in Cascade Bay.

Sunday 14. Landed the Marines & Men Convicts early in the afternoon & the next morning the Lt. Governor & part of the Women Convicts in Cascade Bay, by backing the Boat in from which they jump on a Rock , one at a time keeping the boat on her Oars & frequently obliged to pull out several times before a boat load can be landed: the Rock on which you land you cannot pass from after 1/2 flood it being seperated from the shore & there being always a surge upon the shore would be dangerous crossing after 1/2 flood or till 1/2 ebb, this Rock being detached & steep too makes safe landing in So.erly winds, the Rock

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1790
March.
for landing lies to the Et.ward of the stoney beach some distance.

Monday, 15th: The wind coming to the Et.ward we had drifted so far to leeward that it was a considerable time before we could get the Ship far enough to windward for the boats to reach the landing place, about Noon we landed the remainder of the Women Convicts & thought ourselves exceeding fortunate in having made so good a passage & having had so good an opportunity of landing so great a number of people, but the most difficult part yet remained, that of landing the Provisions & Stores for them & which could only be done in Sydney Bay, where the settlement is made: While off Cascade Bay we made the landing place by several Observations in Latitude 29:021/2. Longitude 168:02E by Timekeeper

Tuesday.16th. Coming on a Gale of Wind at East, Bore away & Run under the lee of the Island; Sent on board the Supply as much Provisions as she could stow, that no time might be lost in getting it landed should the Supply have an opportunity of getting into Sydney Cove Bay before the Sirius which was reasonable to suppose she would from her superiority in Sailing & working.

Wednesday.17th. It blew very strong from the Et.ward; We were beating up under a press of Sail, but could not reach Sydney Bay before the evening, when it was would be too late & too much wind to send a boat: The Supply at Noon was

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1790
March
well in with the Bay.

Thursday.18th. The Gale increased with very heavy squalls, the Supply got far enough in to send a boat on shore, on the return of which Mr.Ball, bore away & informed us that landing was dangerous & as the weather had a very bad appearance, He recommended standing off as the night came on, which we did under the reef'd Foresail & Storm Staysails: We lost sight of the Supply in the night: At Noon we were about 10 leagues to the leeward of Phillip Island.

Friday. 19th. PM. The Gale moderated, we made what sail the Ship would bear to endeavour to beat up to Norfolk Island, in the night the wind coming to the SE enabled us to fetch so far to windward as to have Norfolk Island on the lee bow at daylight: AM At 9 standing in far close in with Phillip Island, saw the Supply under Norfolk Island; the Signal being up on shore for good landing & that Longboats might land, stood in for Sydney Bay, Out 3d. Reef Topsails, steer'd close in with the So.point of Nepean Island, wore & brot too Mail Topsail to the Mast with the Ship's ;head to the SSW, Out boats, loaded one of them with Provisions & sent her away, while we were lading the other Mr.Ball hailed from the Supply then on our lee bow & waved his hat towards a Reef of

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1790
March.
sunken Rocks which lay off the West point of Sydney Bay. We sent to boat away half loaded, filled the MainTopSl. set the ForeSail & Mainsail to make a trip to Windward the Supply could not weather these Rocks; she tack'd & passed just clear under our weather bow; Lieut. Ball hailed & said we were both too near in, at this moment the Wind shifted two points to the So.ward. we couldnot weather the Reef, the wind baffled & baulk'd the Ship in Stays, she missed & fell off, haul'd the after Sails & paid her round upon her heel & hauled our wind on the starboard Tack, Out 1st Reef Mizen TopSail & set the Driver to endeavour to fetch through between Nepean Island & the Et. point of Sydney Bay as the only chance of saving the Ship
(Anchoring when the Ship miss'd stays would have been unavoidable destruction, the bottom being full of spiral Rocks, the lee part of the Bay & the shore inaccessible). The Ship settled in upon the shore, shoal'd the water to 5 fathom: Put the Ship stays; when she getting fresh stern way right in upon the shore, Cut away the small Bower Anchor let go the TopSl. Halliards &c. but before the Cable could check her she struck violently on the Reef which lays along parallel to the shore in Sydney Bay & some distance from it; the Carpenter almost immediately reported the Ship Bulged & 7 feet water in the Hold.

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1790
March
the QrMaster then attending in the Main Hold called up that the Water was flowing in fast; Cut away all the Masts, The Ship by the heavy surf which broke over her was thrown well in upon the Reef; It being impossible to hold an Idea of getting her off again, every body was employ'd getting Provisions as it could be got at, on the Gun deck & securing it there; Lt.Ball came as near the Ship in his boat as he could to ask if the Supply could be of any use; Capt.Hunter told him No! that the Sirius was gone & desired him to take care of the Supply; the Surf increasing in the evening & the weather having a bad appearance, Mr. King, who had now been more than 2 years on the Island signified to us, that it would be dangerous to remain in the Ship all night.
We got a Hawser from the Ships Qr. To the shore by means of a Cask floating a small rope through the Surf, which the People on shore got hold of & hauled the end of the Hawser on shore, we got a heart on it for as traveller & fixed hauling lines, by which the People belonging the Island hauled a part of the Ships Company ashore though the Surf to the Reef, from which they crossed to the shore in a small boat employ'd inside the Reef for that purpose, the Reef being cover'd at 1/2 flood & night coming on, more than half of the Ships Company were left on board; As the tide flowed the Cable

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1790
March.
Check'd her so much that at high water her situation was alter'd 3 or 4 points more in & out, she struck violently at high water time, but at low water lay quiet AM. At daylight began to get more of the People on shore the surf still very high & the tide rose too much for those on the Reef to work before all the People could be removed from the Ship.

Sunday.21st: PM. At 3 all the People were got on shore in which we were so fortunate as not to lose a life; several were so near drown'd as to be quite senseless for a time. Altho' we had all escap'd from Shipwreck with our lives, yet our situation with respect to Provisions was alarming & very precarious, it being doubtful whether any could be saved or not. In the Morning Lt.Ball came over from Cascade Bay, He informed us that both Friday & Saturday the Tide set to the Wt.ward the whole of each day except about 2 hours, a circumstance he had never met with before at this Island; On the contrary we had always been given to understand that the Ebb set to the Et.ward & run 9 hours & that the flood was only a drain to the Wtward & run about 3 hours; To this unaccountable change in the Current usually found we attribute the first cause of the Ship being lost, for it was more than 2 hours Ebb or Eastern tide when we brot too

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1790
March.
with the Ships head SSW., in full assurance that we had a strong weathertide we stood nearer in than we should otherwise have done before we brought too, One boat was loaded & sent away before we observed her settle in upon the Shore.

Monday. 22nd: We got over from Cascade Bay 3 Tieaces of Pork & 8 Barrels of Flour which was all the Provisions the Supply could spare us, & even this in our situation was an object; We had now landed near 400 people & scarce any of the Provisions, when the unfortunate accident happen'd. The Timekeeper was saved & sent aboard the Supply. AM. Martial Law was proclaimed & half allowance of Provision order'd.

Tuesday. 23rd. The Master & Mates with a gang of hands got on board to get ready for sending Provisions on shore the Supply came off Sydney Bay but the surf was to high to send the People who were to embark in her; she bore away & run to leeward to Cascade Bay.

Wednesday.24th. PM. Made an unsuccessful attempt to get a Cask of Provisions on shore: AM. Sent over to Cascade Bay where they embarked on board the Supply for Port Jackson the 2nd & 3rd Lieuts. 4 Midshipmen, a Surgeons Mate, 23 Seamen & 2 Marines: Mr.King the late Commandant on this Island also went on board the Supply to proceed to Port Jackson; this forenoon we were fortunate enough

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1790
March.
to get 18 Cask of Provisions on shore.

Thursday.25th: PM. The Supply sailed for Port Jackson, this & the following days till the 28th. we had good enough in getting Provisions from the Ship & several other articles of consequence.

Sunday.28th AM. Very heavy Surf, the small bower Cable parted; the Surf hove the Ship further in upon the Reef & not having any thing to keep her bow steady, she complained very much, The Master who was on board expected that she would part at High water: It was the next lowwater time before those on board could venture to come on shore which they with great difficulty did without the loss of any.

Monday.29th. Surf very high: At high water the Surf hove the Ship's Head round in upon the Reef & further in upon it bodily; this made it necessary to get a Hawser with a Traveller to the bow of the Ship & to cut the Bridle Port so as to allow of Cask & large articles of Stores going out, which was done the 30th the Surf being more Moderate: & from which day to the 14th of April we were employed from 1/2 Ebb to 1/2 Flood getting on shore every article of stores belonging to the ship and the Colony that could be got at, 16 Half Barrels of powder were also got on shore, the remainder being spoiled was started into the Sea in the Magazine. The situation of the Ship, being bulged

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1790
April.
fore & aft, many of the beams fallen & the lower deck given way, the Sheet & Bt.Br. Cable were left on board & many other Stores, it being impossible to remove them without cutting so much through the deck & beams as to render the attempt dangerous: With the quantity of Provisions which we had been so fortunate as to save, there appear'd on a Survey to be in the Settlement 14 Weeks at 1/2 allowance.
Parties were allowed to go for Birds, for the Seamen, Marines & Convicts twice a week each & limited not to bring more than a Proportion of 3 for each Man: These Birds are very numerous & burrow in the ground about the Hills particularly about Mount Pitt which is the highest land in the Island; It was the practice before we came to dig them out of their holes in the day time, but the People now take them as they settle in the evening & early part of the night & were they not restricted they could bring away almost any number:
These Birds are the much nearly the same as the English Puffin or Manks Puffin as described in Brooks's Natural History found on the Isle of Man & Scilly Isles: & is the size of a tame Pigeon; The colour on the upper parts is brown or black, & on the under brown & white legs black. The bill is narrow & black, about an inch & half in length, the upper chap is crooked at the point like that of a Cormorant & at the base there is a bald skin in which

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1790
April
the nostrils are placed. The wings are long & the tail is a palm in length, It feeds at Sea & although such incredible number settle on the Hills to get into their Holes at the approach of night, a great number has been taken in the daytime by being dug out with a grubbing hoe or brought our by terrier dogs, they lay but one Egg which is larger than that of the Common Hens, they are said to be in & about this Island from March to August
when the young are ready to fly they all go off together; about which time another sort is said to come, but not in such numbers; these Birds are a great resource to us, they enable us to go with the Cultivation of the land for the Crops which we must soon depend on if we are not releived, & which I fear will not keep us without feeling pangs of extreme hunger.
Fish (with which to Sea abounds) is too precarious to be consider'd as any resource on account of the Surf; It being impossible to keep a Boat for that purpose at any other part of the Island except at Sydney Bay in which is a Reef from the Et.point to the bight on the W. side which is dry at 1/2 tide but no landing on it with a boat, there are two small Gullies in the Reef close to each other that will just admit a Boat (in one of which there is not breadth for a common 6 Oar'd Cutters Pass) & that only when there is but very little Surf on the Reef, it is frequently many days together that the boats cannot go out & is unless very

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1790
April
smooth always dangerous; I shall collect into a separate Table, from the general one of Weather &c. an account of the Surf from the time of our being wreck'd to the time of our happy deliverance whenever it comes; & bring it in Course with leaving the Island, distinguishing the days on which the Boat could go out for Fish (& no opportunity is lost), & those of High Surf to prevent it.

Tuesday. 20th.. Half a pound weight of Salt Provisions were order'd to be deducted from the weeks allowance & parties allowed to get Birds every day to make up the deficiency.

Thursday.22nd: Went out in the Cutter to sound round Nepean Island, between it & the Et. point of Sydney Bay found a Rock about Midchannel or rather nearer the Island wt. only 2 1/2 m. on it at low water & another not so much as 1/3 over from the Et. point of Sydney Bay wt. 3 1/2 fm. on it both which was were seen to break some days before, between these Rocks is 9 fm. the 5 & 9 again , It appears to be all foul & very uneven bottom from more than Mid Channel around to the NE part of the land forming the Et. point of Sydney Bay; The passage through if a Ship should be obliged to it, is to keep the Island close on board, but I do not by any means recommend it as a safe passage: There is a very dangerous Reef off the SE part of Nepean Island, which lies nearly SE from it about 1/2 mile to the outer Rock;

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1790
April: May
on which the sea only breaks in bad weather or great Swell. We passed between this & a rock  near the surface dry at low water & had 8 fm. crossing the ledge & 12 on each side about 1/4 of a Mile from the Island.

Sunday. May 2nd: The Birds taken at Mount Pitt being found very sufficient to Supply every person, orders were given not to shoot any Birds on the Island during the continuance of the Mount Pitt Birds.

Friday.14th: A Council was held by the Lt.Governor & all the Commission'd Officers, to take into consideration the present reduced state of the Provision Store & to consult upon what measures were most proper to be pursued in Order to preserve Life until such time as we might be releived by some supplies arriving; & bring the Season round that we may expect some releif from the Crops which the ground already clear'd & clearing may produce; all which having been duly consider'd, the Ration of Provisions was reduced to the following quantity 3Lb of Flour, 1 1/2Lb of salt Beef or 17 Oz. of Pork & 1Lb of Rice or Calavances pr week to each Man and Woman: To Children more than 1 year old half the aforementioned Ration & to Children under 1 year 1 1/2 lb of Flour & 1 lb of Rice pr week; At which allowance there remain in Store 17 Weeks Flour, 16 Beef & Pork together & 21 of Rice & Calavances together: The Parties for Birds were now in-

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1790.May
increased & allowed to bring in as many as they thought proper there not yet appearing to be the smallest decrease in the numbers.

Saturday 22nd. A Practice being made known which several of the People going for Birds had, of destroying them for the sake of the Egg after they had taken as many birds as they as they wanted to carry away & leave the Birds laying about so as to become a nuisance round the hills, the Parties were not allowed to go out till 3 in the afternoon & to return by 10 at night, these Birds were now so plenty that the People could get as many as they wanted & the practice which of destroying & throwing away the Bird having been put a stop to, they seldom brought in any but those with the Egg in them, letting the other go again after taking them; Our People generally return about 8 O'clock loaded, they have between 3 & 4 Miles to go for them to Mount Pitt & the hills about it.

Tuesday. June 1st: Went out to sound between Nepean Island & the East point of Sydney Bay about those Rocks which I was on with the boat the 22nd. of last month, found a flat with 5fm. round the rock nearest the Island & discover'd the bottom to be full of spiral rocks or large stones laying on a flat Coral bed, these Rocks lie just at the edge of a Bed of Rocks which appear to spread nearly over to Nepean Island the sounding very irregular, on the rock next to Pt. Hunter 3 1/2 & on that

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1790. May
June
nearest Nepean Island only 2 1/2 fm.. I crossed the Channel & found the bottom very uneven & all Rocky, & although I had not less then 5 fathom except on those rocks beforemention'd I think it probable that in many parts there may be much less from the rippling of the tide & from the breakers which we see in bad weather; I also went along by the Island to try for a passage, the sounds within 1/2 a Cables length of it are more regular than any other part of the Channel 7 & 6 fm. but the tide making very strong prevented my being able to determine whether there was a safe passage through or not, The Supply has gone through but I think it rather dangerous, the rocks which are known are so small that many of the same kind may have as yet been passed over without being noticed.

Wednesday.2nd; A large patch of level ground about 2 Miles to the Westward, which was said could easily be clear'd was fix'd on as an elligible situation to detach some people to for that purpose.

Friday.4th: At Noon, the Detachment of Marines fired 3 vollies in honour of the Day.

Tuesday.15. The Fishing Boat was suddenly overtaken by a Gale of Wind, that she could not reach the landing place in Sydney Bay or land if she could have got to windward which obliged them to run under the lee of the Island.

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1790
June
Our People were sent over & had the good luck to save the Boat by hauling her up in Balls Bay on the Et. end of the Island.

Thursday.17. A Captain & Company of Marines & a party of Convicts were detach'd to the ground lately discover'd, for the purpose of cleaning it for Cultivation: It was named Charlotte Feild.

Wednesday. 23. The Coble was launched from Balls Bay & brought round, this was the first day that it was practicable on account of the Surf since the day that she was obliged to run to leeward of the Island.

Thursday 24th: Got some empty Casks from the Ship, she was found to be bulged the whole way fore & aft on both sides & the keel broke right up into the after hold

Tuesday.29th: The Fishing business was given into charge of the Officers & People belonging to the Sirius, that the two Crews of Convicts kept for the Coble might be turn'd to cleaning ground; We also made hooks & lines for carrying it on with. The Birds at Mount Pitt are yet taken in the usual quantities without appearing to have diminished in their numbers, which has already far surpass'd every thing we can have an Idea of, but the Divine Hand of Providence; Fish we have been very badly off for this Month being mostly high Surf.

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1790
July
Saturday Monday.19th. The reduced state of the Provisions Store made it absolutely necessary that the issuing Salt Provisions however small the Ration should be stopt while any Birds were to be had.

August
3. The Lieut.Governor assembled the Council for the purpose of determining on the best plan in our distress'd situation to secure to ourselves the means of subsistence until we may be releived by the arrival of some Ship, the Birds now became scarce & the young being nearly ready to fly are about to leave the Island: a Reduction of Provisions to 2lb of Flour & 1 pint of Rice pr Week was judged necessary to take place on Saturday the 7th following; It having been as Practice for some people to abscond from their Work & take to the woods living by plunder & the section of the Articles of War relating to Martial Law being established not being affecting the lives of such People without their having robb'd or plunder'd being fully proved, it became absolutely necessary from the situation we were reduced to, that a Law should be established deeming such as quitted their Work & were absent one week to be Out Lawed & to be put to Death if met with, or if brought in to be punished with Death on a proof of their having been absent one week.

The 4th: The appearance of a Ship to the Et.ward & working

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[page 207]

1790
August
up towards the Island, filled every Soul with a most Heart felt Pleasure & extravagant Joy, some crying some laughing, Running about like People without Reason, Parties were sent to Balls Bay & Cascade Bay not doubting but b a boat would land there, but after standing close in with Cascade Bay about 4 O'Clock in the afternoon She bore away & made sail to the No.ward, the Gloom with which the Island was now overspread our feelings on this disappointment cannot be expressed by words, such a sudden change almost threw every body into a state of despondency, the only Idea that could be suggested to rouse & give us hopes was that there were Ships at Port Jackson & that this Ship might have been order'd to shew herself off the Island, but the Commander of her not having any intercourse with us when he could so easily have done it & without loss of time is I think unpardonable & not worthy the character of a Man but rather that of a Brute: This disappointment had a very bad effect on the Working People who now consider'd themselves as without a hope of releif & the Birds being scarce impressed the Idea of distress more fully on their mind: The Idea of there having been arrivals at Port Jackson was encouraged by all the Officers, yet it had but little effect on the lower class.

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[page 208]

1790
August
Saturday.7th. At daylight a sail being seen to the Southward again fill'd us with a sudden joy & hopes of being speedily releived from the gloomy prospects now before us, this was the day appointed for reading the Proclamation beforementioned respecting a new Law & & further reductions of Provisions, but it was deferr'd, a Ship being in sight although at too great a distance for a Boat to reach her:

Sunday.8th. At 3PM A Boat was sent out to the Ship in the Offing the Boat was scarce without the Reef when they saw another Ship coming close round the Island & to which they went found her to be the Surprise Transport form Port Jackson with Convicts & Provisions for this Island, that the Ship in the Offing was the Justinian also with Provisions & that the Ship that passed was the Lady Juliana which Ship had been clear'd at Port Jackson & dispatched on her Voyage to China; The Justinian & Surprise being also charter'd for China, we are yet without an opportunity of being removed form Norfolk Island: Besides these Ships, the Neptune & Scarborough had arrived at Port Jackson & altho' all these arrivals were in the beginning of June and in the course of the same month it was not judged necessary to send releif to the unfortunate on Norfolk Island 'till the 27th July & 1st August
, on which days the Justinian & Surprise left Port Jackson, The reason for their having been so long detained seems

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[page 209]

1790. August
only to be known to our very Humane Governor , who no doubt must have felt much for the distress'd situation of the five hundred Inhabitants on Norfolk Island: If we even allow him to possess only those feeling which a reasonable being would have for a fellow creature, it is unaccountable what could have kept him from releiving us sooner. These Transports besides Provisions, Stores & Convicts brought out part of the Forest Rangers an independt. Corps raised for the Protection of the Colony in New South Wales:
We are informed that the Gorgon was very soon expected at Port Jackson with the new Lieut.Governor & the remainder of the Forest Rangers; Provisions Stores &c. The Marines are to be releiv'd by this Corps & we are informed by the Governor that the Officers & Company of the Sirius are also to return to England in the Gorgon. The Guardian a new 44 Gun Ship, Commanded by Lieut.Riou which sailed from England in Sepr. 89, with Provisions & Stores & very amply supplied with every necessary for the Settlement, had taken a great quantity of Cattle & other articles on board at the Cape of Good Hope & proceeding on her voyage, in Latd. 44° So. & Longde. 44° Et. unfortunately run upon a peice of drift Ice from an Ice Island which she struck on her bow, the Ice overset & as she passed struck her abaft carrying away the Rudder & part of the stern post, In this situation, which

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1790. August
was thought impossible for her to keep above water long, she was deserted by part of the Officers & Crew who having permission took to the Boats, The Long boat in which was the Master, was taken up by a French Ship; which Ship the Justinian spoke with, the account they gave of the Guardian was that she had founder'd; This circumstance induced the Master of the Justinian to push for New South Wales with touching at the Cape of Good Hope supposing the Colony was much distress'd,
By Letters recd. from Lieut.Riou we find that the Guardian was brought into the Cape & after laying some time was hauled on shore in Table Bay; We also hear that the Supply sailed from Port Jackson the 17th of April for Batavia, at which place a Ship was to be hired to take in Provisions for the releif of the Settlement, that she was order'd to call at Norfolk Island but not to lose more than 5 days in doing it; We conclude that the strong Easterly Winds which at that time prevailed, prevented Lieut.Ball from making the Island.
The Governor has by these Ships order'd Spars for Masts to be got ready against the arrival of the Gorgon, which are intended to be taken in her to England for trial at the Kings Dock Yards. The 1st Lieut. of the Sirius was sent on board on of these Ships & a Mid. On board the other to assist them with the knowledge our own misfortunes had given us of the place: The 17th. A Cutter belonging to the Sirius with Provisions & Convicts in was thrown

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[page 211]

August
1790.
upon the Reef by a sudden Surf, the Boat instantly went to peices, 2 Seamen, 1 Convict Man, 3 Women & 1 Child were drown'd; Clearing these Ships was render'd very tedious by the Surf until the 22nd. When the weather settled Modt. & but little Surf on the 27th they were both clear'd, the same day Martial Law was discontinued, the cause for which it was judged necessary being done away by the Supply of Provisions landed from the two Ships, whole allowance was now issued

Monday. 30th. P.M. The Surprise sailed for China & at 11 AM the Justinian. The Island being now releiv'd & at full allowance of Provisions, every Publick work went on in the usual way according to the directions given by Major Ross who had a detached Party about 2 Miles to the Wt.ward of Sydney Bay building Huts &c. for the reception of People who were to be sent there to Cultivate that part of the Island. A Person who had been sent for the purpose of Manufacturing the Flax was settled at Cascade Bay at which part of the Island there was little else done altho' by far the most elligible part for settling The Hills surrounding the Valley first Cultivated by Mr. King employed the other labouring People.

February.6th. 1791
At daylight a Sail was discover'd to the SW which proved to be the Supply from Port Jackson

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February 1791
at which place she had been 3 months before Governor Phillip thought proper to send her for that information so necessary for him, it was now 11 months since our misfortunes had brought us to a miserable & uncertain state & altho' there were Ships that could have returned after releiving the Island in August
last, time enough to have saved the Season to China, it was not thought necessary to remove the Sirius's Ships Company, or to have any return from the Island altho' the last accounts of us were that not a Cask of Provision was at that time saved from the wreck but that some had been lost in making the attempt.
The Supply made a tolerable passage to Batavia, discover'd a shoal off the Coast of New South Wales No. end of it in Latitude 21°:24'So. Longitude 159°:24'Et.& passed to the No.ward of it; They made the East part of that Land named by Mr Shortland New Georgia & pass'd along the East Coast of it till Squally Weather obliged them to leave it steer to the No.ward; They arrived at Batavia the of July soon after which Mr. King sailed in a Dutch Packet with dispatches for England. Lieut. Ball took on board as much Provisions as the Supply could store & hired a Dutch Snow which was also loaded & sailed soon after the Supply from Batavia, She arrived safe, was clear'd & ready to sail when the Supply left Port Jackson: The Season while the Supply was at Batavia

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February.1791
was very unhealthy, several of her People died there; & Lt. Fowell who was sent to conduct the third Vessel to Port Jackson died on board the Supply soon after she sailed, He having been taken on board her as the only chance of saving his life when the Fever attack'd him, One of the Midshipmen was left in his stead; The whole of the Crew belonging to the Dutch Vessel also died & left only the Commander who had to get Hands to man his Vessel a second time. They brought some account of a War between Great Britain & Spain but by no means circumstantial or, from good Authority.

Saturday.12th: PM. Captain Hunter with the Officers & Crew of the Sirius embarked on board the Supply & sail'd immediately for Port Jackson, where we arrived the 26th

Directions &c. for Ships going to Norfolk Island. Norfolk Island is situated in 29° :03' So.Latd. & 168° :02' Et.Longde. is 5 miles in Length Et. & Wt. & about 3 No. & So.. Three miles to the So.ward of Norfolk Island is Phillip Isd, about a Mile & 1/4 in length & 1/2 Mile in breadth, there is a high Sugarloaf Peak runs up from the So. side of it which may be seen as far as the highest part of Norfolk Island, between there is a smaller Island called Nepean Island about 1/2 mile from the Et. point of Sydney Bay, which is situated on the So. side of Norfolk Island & where the Settlement was made in March 1788; This Bay is shelter'd somewhat by Nepean & Phillip Islands from the Et. &

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February. 1791
SE winds, but the ground is very bad for Anchoring, that which is clear of Rocks being loose sand & Coral that a Ship would find it difficult to Ride in a fresh breeze of Wind; There is a Reef of Clay & Coral extends along the Bay which dries from 1/2 ebb to 1/2 flood, the outer part more than half a Cable's length from the shore, through this Reef just to the Wt.ward of the Flagstaff are is the channel leading to the landing places which is nothing but a Gully through between the end of this Reef which dries all the way from the Et point of Sydney the Bay & Rocks just below the surface to the westward of it, round this point of the Reef one passage runs in through the Coral Reef in an angle to the Flagstaff & is the safest channel being shelter'd by the Pt. of the Reef when round it & those stones which had hitherto render'd it dangerous for Boats at low water being removed;
The other channel is straight in from the end of the Reef, through broken parts of the Coral Reef to the Wt.ward of the Flagstaff & in the narrowest part is not room for a 6 sand Cutters Oars, which together with its being exposed to a second Surf after having passed the end of the Reef makes it very dangerous & it was much more so before a middle Rock (which Boats could not pass over at low water) was removed by the Sirius's People at the same time they clear'd the other Channel; There is always an Outset in both Passages & sometimes so strong that I have seen a Boat with 6 Oars several minutes without being able to get ahead, It is generally strongest just as the

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February.1791
Reef begins to be cover'd, or when the Surf is high & beats over the Et.ern part of it, there being a large space of water between the Flagstaff & that ) Et. pt. within the Reef, which forces itself at these times over that part of the Reef that dries to the Flagstaff & forms a passage to the landing place through which it runs out like a sluice; From the knowledge have of this circumstance, I think it but common Justice to the memory of Mr. Cunningham who was drowned in this passage to declare that the reflection cast on him in a Book publish'd by Stockdale & said to be compiled from papers furnished by the Publick Boards is not only unjust, but that he lost his life using his utmost endeavours to obey the Orders of Mr. King the Commandant which were an impossibility to effect, instead of not attending to them as is so shamefully & falsely represented in that Publication.
There is no danger in approaching Norfolk Island or those adjacent from the Sea there not being anything laying more than 1/2 a Mile from the Shore; Ships coming to this Island with, West, SW or So.ly winds scarce ever meet with an opportunity of landing in Sydney Bay on their arrival: It would be much better for a Ship to wait a smooth time (which frequently happens for several days together) than to risk a Boat when the Surf is high at times altho' smooth at intervals. In general there is landing in Sydney Bay with the wind from the SE round to the No.ward to West.

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February.1791
but when to the So.ward of West or SE very seldom. Sometimes the Surf rises without any apparent cause, I have seen a very heavy Surf when the wind has been two days off the land after its rising. When there is no landing in Sydney Bay there is generally smooth water in Cascade Bay about a Mile round the NE end of the Island, the landing is on a black rock standing out from but joining the shore & steep too, a little to the Et.ward of a kind of stoney beach composed of very large stones, to this Rock the Boats back in, Here People & small packages may be landed, & I think the landing of Provisions very practicable by fixing a Derrick in the Black Rock which is of sufficient Base & making a Rowling way from it to the Valley at the Beach where the Flax Manufactory is carrying on & where a store could be built to receive it till it could be convey'd over to the General Store:
If this was done a Ship would never long be detained as she could be clearing on one side of the Island or the other. Sydney & Cascade Bays are the only places where Provisions or Stores can be landed, but People may at times be landed in Balls Bay which is to the So.ward of the NE Pt. of the Island, at Duncombe Bay, which is between Cascade Bay & the NW point of the Island & at Ansons Bay which is situated round a Point about a mile to the So.ward of the NW Point, from either of these it would be impossible to remove Stores or Provisions

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February 1791
on account of the Perpendicular Hills that surround them. The ground off the N.side of the Island is much clearer of Rocks than off the So.side, A Ship may lay safely & smooth with SW or So.ly winds off Cascade or Duncombe Bay & by anchoring prevent being driven away to the Et.ward: There is also good Anchoring Ground to the NE of Nepean Island, the Flagstaff on with Pt. Hunter in 14 fms. Mud & sand & is the only muddy bottom I know about the Island. There is a Reef off the West Point of Sydney Bay running, SEbS from near 1/2 a mile from the shore to the outer sunken Rocks, which being just below the Surface at low water it always breaks, unless the Sea is uncommonly smooth; The Tides in general are equal each way, Flood runs to the SWbS & Ebb to the NEbS Ebbs & flows very regular by the shore & is high water Full & change 1/4 before 8 O'Clock, The Tide makes two Hours sooner on the Norfolk Island shore than in the Stream or over by Phillip Island;
We have experienced that the Tides are subject to unaccountable turns, sometimes running the greatest part of the day to the SW & sometimes the contrary, altho' this but very seldom happens it makes it necessary for the safety of a Ship that she should bring too & lay the Tide before she comes into the Bay within a line drawn from the outer Rocks of the Reef off the Wt. point to the So. part of Nepean Island 7 fm. is full near enough to come to

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February. 1791
the back of the reef in the most favourable time; The SE & So,ly winds are baffling, frequently shifting several points particularly when close over to Norfolk Island, which should be attended to, for if a Ship cannot lay up SSW the Et.ern Tide will throw heave her in upon the Shore: The West side of the Bay is full of Rocks & not safe for a Ship to go farther over than to bring the two Flag Staffs in one.
There is a bed of Rocks to the Wt.ward of the little Bay in Nepean Island & more than a Cables length from it, on some parts of which there is not more than 3 1/4 fathoms at low water, this lies much in the way coming into the Bay from the Et.ward & makes it dangerous for a Ship to go within the Island unless the wind is steady & off the shore, or a strong weather tide, as there is not any safe passage between Nepean Island & the Et. point of Sydney Bay the whole being a bed of Rocks on several of which is only 3 & on two of them only 2 fathom at low water & probably many more not yet discover'd; I have crossed this Channel several times & kept sight of the bottom all across, by which alone I was enabled to find the top of those Rocks, which are so small that they might be pass'd over unnoticed in a Boat rowing across & keeping the lead going in the usual way, the middle is all a Rocky flat of 5 fathom with Rocks or Stones rising from & laying upon it; Within less than 1/2 a Cable of the Island Is the

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February. 1791
part I would recommend if a Ship should be under a necessity of attempting it; The Supply has been through, but that was before any dangers were discover'd in it, she was fortunate enough to pass clear of all. Going through between Phillip & Nepean Islands, take care of a reef which runs off to the Et.wd. of the So. end of Nepean Id. about a 1/4 of a mile to the outer sunken Rock between which & the outer part of the reef that dries at low water is a passage wt. 8 & 10 fathom through which a Ship may go, but unless press'd I would recommend going round it, which you do by keeping the Wt.ern extreme of Norfolk Id. open to the So.ward of Nepean Id. until you open the Points of Balls Bay, when you may haul round to the NEt.
The marks for this outer sunken Rock is the two points of Balls Bay on & the Bluff on the SE part of Nepean Id. sight on wt. the dry Reef, It breaks in bad weather & has 10 fathom close round it. There are several ragged Rocks running out from that part o! f Phillip Island opposite to Sydney Bay, one of which is but just above the Surface & lies farther from the Island than the others they are steep too & deep water round them: SSE 1/2 Mile from the Wt. end of Phillip Island is a little rock above water, from which all round the So. side of the Island appears to be foul ground. There are sunken Rocks off the NE Pt. of Norfolk Island which do not always break, they lay NE from it about 1/4 of a Mile &

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February. 1791
20 fm. just without it, It is necessary to give it a good birth in hauling round for Cascade Bay; There is sounding 30 & 40 fathoms some Miles round Norfolk Island. In Sydney Bay, The flood runs SWbS. Ebb. NEbN On the Et. & Wt. ends . . . .So.ward. Ebb to the No.ward as the Land lies & on the No. side nearly West & East, The Flood sets strong over the NE end of Phillip Island & along by the shore as the Land lies, the Ebb the same over the Wt. end:
Between the Islands the Tides are very strong; It flows1/4 before at full & change rises 6 or 7 feet & makes 2 Hours sooner on the Norfolk Island shore than in the Stream or by Phillip Island.
A Ship may water in Sydney Bay very well wt. small Casks particularly if the Island Boats are used for that purpose.
Norfolk Island is a very healthy situation as will appear from there having being been only 3 natural deaths since it was first settled in March. 1788 (The Casual deaths are 2 killed by Trees falling on them & 14 drown'd) at which time a small party was sent under the Command of Lieut. King of the Sirius, since which time the number of Inhabitants have been continually increasing by draughts from Port Jackson & in March. 1790 the Lieut. Governor with 2 Companies of Marines & 200 Convicts were sent there, & Lieut. King removed: After the Sirius was wreck'd the number of People on the Island was 507 & in August following 200 more were sent from Port Jackson.

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February. 1791.

The soil is in most parts good & by those who are Judges from having been long used to Farming, said to be capable of producing anything, the Ground has been much infested with the Caterpillars which runs over it clearing all before them, & particularly this last Season, when the Crops were scarce Seed Corn for the Ground.
The Pines which are in size equal to any in the World, are said to be by the Carpenters of very bad quality, not having any Terpentine in the Tree will never be fit for Masts; What little terpentine they have is between the bark & the tree, the body of the Tree has a moisture like water all through it, which makes it very heavy & when that water is drained from it, they think the wood of no substance: However we have cut down & left there a Top Mast & Topsailyard for a 74 Gun Ship a 32 Gun Frigate & a Sloop of War, & a rough spar ready to be taken to England for trial as order'd: In getting those 7 spars, 34 Trees were cut down, 27 of which proved defective: It makes good plank for Flooring &c..
There is several other kinds of wood on the Island, a Great variety of the Fern Tree & great quantities of the Palm Cabbage.

The Birds which so providentially afforded us subsistence form March until August, when releif arrived from Port Jackson cannot again be expected for some years, from the vast number of Eggs & young Birds that were destroyed & the ground

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February.1791.

in which they burrowed being torn up; But for a small number of Inhabitants the Birds may always a resource in case of accident happening to a Ship with Supplies or other failure.

I do not think that Fish can ever be consider'd as a resource to trust to, from the danger & difficulty of getting them & the scarcity of them in the Winter Season, during August, Sepr.

October & till the latter end of November, we did not get Fish, the Boat returning several times without one & whilst the Justinian & the Surprise were about the Island from the 4th to the 30th of August there was not a fish caught on board either of them altho' they tried on every side of the Island. They are very plenty in the Summer Season mostly of the Snapper kind, many sharks are met with & during the Months of July & August several Whales were about & between the Islands. The No. of People on Norfolk Island after we re embarked were, as follows;

Officers, Marines & Free People 93
Men Convicts . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Women Convicts . . . . . . . . . 245
Children of Do. . . . . . . . . . . 62

627 Total

The Ground cleared at Norfolk Island when we left of it was 130 Acres from the best accounts I could get, including Gardens, Private & Public; Tobacco thrives very well as does the Plaintain & Sugar Cane, the Vines were just

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February. 1791

beginning to bear this Season; The Ground is certainly capable of producing every thing usually found in the same Climate & altho' the Crop of Corn belonging to the Public failed the last Season, there were some remarkable fine Crops on the ground belonging to some of the Officers who had followed the same Plan & as had been at first adopted which was not the case with that belonging to the Government however the whole of that failure is laid to the Catterpillars. The Island is very well water'd except just at the Wt. & NW end, & there in the Summer Season the runs or streams are quite dried up, at all the other parts of the Island it has never failed It rises from Springs in different parts of the Island One of which takes its course through the Valley first clear'd & empties itself in a little Bay formed by the Et. Pt. of Sydney Bay, it passes under ground & forces itself up through a hole in the Rocks (which dry at low water) a fathom deep. Neither Phillip or Nepean Islands have any water on them from which circumstance & the great difficulty of landing on them they are of no other use to Norfolk Island except than that of breaking the Sea from Sydney Bay in SE or Et.erly winds: The whole three taken together do not contain more that 16 Square Miles which is but a small spot for the purpose that Government been have sent so many People to.

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 A Table for the Surf at the Landing Place in Sydney Bay Norfolk Island shewing the days of good Landing & those of High Surf to prevent it, between 19th March 1790 & 12 Febry. 1791

[Table not reproduced - please see original]

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February.1791

It was the 22nd. before we made Lord Howes Island, which we passed 15 leagues to the No.ward of, at which dis'ce. the land joining the two Mountains is just seen; We had very unsettled weather, arrived at Port Jackson the 26th where we found the Dutch Snow laying & that there had not been any Arrivals from England since those Ships that arrived last June, charter'd for China; In consequence of which & having been particularly disappointed at not yet seeing the Gorgon who was to have sailed immediately after those Ships, the Governor had detained the Dutch Snow & enter'd into a Contract with the Master of her to carry the Officers & Crew of the Sirius to England.

We found that the Natives had lately become familiar; several of them staying cheifly in the Camp & at the Governors: Benallon had sometime since, made his escape & join'd his Old Friend Colbey & other Companions; Early in Sepr. The Governor hearing that Benallon & Colbey had been seen in Collins Cove in the No. Arm went down there & after passing some time in the most familiar & friendly manner was suddenly wounded with a Spear; the particulars of which occurrence I take from Lt. Waterhouse who was present at the time & saw the whole transactions; His words are
"On Tuesday 7th Sepr. Ulto. I went down the Harbour with the Governr.
"& Capt. Collins to the look out Post at the South Head at which

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[page 226]

"place the Governor mark'd out the ground & gave directions
"for building a Column or Land mark for Ships coming in
"from the Sea & was returning up with the harbour when a
"Boat that was coming up from Collins Cove (after having land'd
"a party who were going to Broken Bay) made Signals to
"speak with us; on their coming up, the Coxswain inform'd
"the Governor that the Gentlemen going to Broken Bay had had
"a long conference with Colbey & Benallon in Collins Cove
"that they had enquired for every person whom they knew &
"particularly for the Governor, that Benallon had sent him
"a piece of Whale & said he would return with the Governor if
"he would go down to him; in consequence of which the Govr.
"went immediately to the look out post it being the nearest place
"& got everything that he thought would be acceptable & frunish'd
"themselves with 4 Musquets & a pistol; went down into Collins Cove.
"In our way down we found that only two of the musquets could
"be fired both of which were loaded as was the Pistol; when we got
"into Collins Cove, we saw several Natives assembled round a
" fire opposite to a Whale that had been thrown ashore; the Govr.
"stood up & ask'd (in the Native tongue) where was Benallon, he
"answer'd immediately that it he was there; He told him that he
"was the Governor, his Father, which name Benallon had
"desired to go call him by while living with him: The Governor after
"desiring Capt. Collins & me to stay by the Boat & have the Musquets

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[page 227]

"ready, stept out & advanced up the beach with his hands &
"Arms open, they did not seem much inclined to come down,
"however the Governor persever'd & follow'd them into the Woods
"'till out of our sight & had a parley with some of them, One of
"whom (found afterwards to be Benallon) repeatedly called him Go-
"vernor & Father after which & having shook hands together
"the Governor return'd to the Boat & took a Man up with him
"with some Wine, Beef & Bread & some presents; On his holding up
"the bottle one of them call'd out Wine & repeated several English
"words, two of them came forward & rec'd the things & one of
"them drank some Wine; In a short time the Governor came again
"to the Boat, told Capt. Collins what he had done, but that Colbey or
"Benallon was not there, & ask'd Capt. Collins to walk up with
"him, desiring me still to remain by the Boat; as they went
"up I frequently heard a man on the right of them call out
"Benallon & told him of something he had observed as we kept the Boat
"on her Oars (which might reasonably occasion some mistrust as the
same precaution was observed when they were forcibly taken away & in
the same Cove where the Boat was now laying) "Shortly afterwards a
"Man come to me, said that Benallon & Colbey were there & that
"Benallon had enquired for me & that the Governor desired that
"I would come up, which I immediately did: On my getting
"up the bank I perceiv'd several of the Natives on each side &

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[page 228]

"eight or ten in the front all arm'd with Spears except Colbey
"& Benallon with whom the Governor appear'd to be in earnest
"Conversation; I went up to them, but did not know Benallon
"until he was pointed out to me, I then recollected him
"very well & we shook hands, I ask'd him several questions
"alluding to circumstances that had happen'd while he lived
"with us, which he perfectly understood & both him & Colbey
"ask'd me several q . Benallon at the time the Governor was
"up had a remarkable good spear, which he ask'd for,
"but Benallon either could not or would not understand him
"but took the Spear & laid it down in the Grass, during all
"which time perfect Harmony subsisted. The Natives appear'd now
"to be closing round us, of which the Governor took notice
"& said he thought we had better retreat, there were then 19
"arm'd Men near us & many more that we could not see;
"The Governor then assur'd Benallon he would return in two
"days & bring with him the Clothes he used to wear & 2 Hatchets
"(which they are remarkably fond of.) one for Colbey & one for himself
"with which they seem'd much pleas'd & often repeated it that
"it might not be forgot: Just as we were going, Benallon pointed
"out & named several of the Natives that were about us, one in
"particular to whom the Governor presented his hand & advanced
"towards him, at which he seem'd frighten'd, & seiz'd the Spear
"that Benallon had laid down in the Grass & immediately

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[page 229]

"threw it with great violence, all those who were near retreat'd
"with great precipitation; The Spear struck the Governor, enter'd
"the right shoulder ju & went through about 3 inches just behind
"the should blade close to the back bone; I immediately concluded
" that He was killed & supposed there was not a chance for any
"of us to escape I turn'd round to run for the Boat as I per
"- ceived C.Collins running that way & calling to the People in
"the Boat to bring Musquets up, The Governor also attempted
"to run holding the Spear with both hands to keep the end off the
"ground, but owing to the length of it, the end took the ground &
"stop'd him short (I suppose it was 12 feet long) He then beg'd me for
"God sake to haul the Spear out, which I immediately stop'd to
"do, when I recollected that I should only haul the barb into his
"flesh again which we knew to be an inch long, I then determin'd
"on breaking it off & bent it down for that purpose, but owing
"to its length could not do it, I then bent it upward but could not
"break it; just at this instant another Spear came & grazed
"the skin off between the thumb & forefinger of my right hand.
"I own it frighten'd me & I believe added to my exertions; for
"the next sudden jerk it broke short off; Spears were then fly-
"ing very thick, one of which I perceiv'd fall close at Capt Collins
"feet as he was speaking to the Boat Crew; The Governor
"then fired a pistol, which with a Musquet that was fired by the
"Sailors who had then got between the Natives & us, enabled

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[page 230]

"us to get down to the beach. The Governor was lifted into the
"Boat he being very faint; Capt. Collins soon joined us with
"the Boat Crew, when we put off, & got up to Sydney within
"two hours, when the Surgeons who were immediately sent
"for made us all happy by confidently assuring the Governor
"there were not any fatal consequences to be apprehended,
"the Spear was then extracted & in 6 weeks he was able
"to get about again."
There are different opinions as to Colbey & Benallon being accessary to this assault, which I cannot but mistrust was the case: However they were afterwards encouraged to come up to the Camp, which was soon effected & now they are cheifly about the Governors House with many more of their Friends; Benallon has a House built for him on the Et. point of Sydney Cove which he & his companions frequently visit; Notwithstanding this apparently friendly intercourse I cannot think they are to be trusted, from their having so frequently attack'd those who they thought were not provided wt. fire Arms & surprising & Murdering some who had Musquets. In one instance soon after our arrival from Norfolk Island, Benallon & his friends behav'd very well in swimming off to a Boat that had overset just off Sydney Cove, they brought the People Boat & every thing belonging to her safe ashore & helped them to repair the Boat & launch her again; Benallon's Sister .

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[page 231]

March. 1791.

& two children (who she swam to shore with) were in the Boat when she overset. The Governor & those Gentlemen who attend to the getting a Vocabulary of the Native language have made considerable progress in it, but many of the Customs of these Savages yet remain doubtful as to the cause.

While we were at Port Jackson, I went wt. the Governor & a Party to Benallon's House on the Et. pt. of the Cove to see a Dance according to previous notice given to Benallon who had assembled many of his friends for the purpose of entertaining us; they began soon after dark, having several small fires for the purpose of giving light, they placed us in a Ring within which they were to perform; their Musick was that of a Man beating two sticks & singing to it & some of the Women who did not dance, accompanied the Musick by beating on their thighs with the hollow of their hands, the dance began with the little Boys & then the Men join'd in, they danced a variety of figures all of which were observed to have regularity & good order in them, so much that if any of the fires were in their way they danced through them, the number that danced were 24 Men, Women & Children, there were several more there & plenty of Spears laying by them ; after entertaining us about an hour & they supposed we were going, Benallon asked if we would have one more dance which was agreed to & we then parted, several of the Children returning with us.

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[page 232]

March. 1791.

I also went to Rose Hill, of which I can say but little, but the Soil does not go any depth; a few inches in many parts goes into a perfect sand & it is but in small patches in)any part that the Soil is a foot deep: the Return got from the last Crop only bore the proportion of 5 to 2 that was plan sowed; which is only 2 1/2 for one, It is the opinion of some that it never will produce good Crops of Corn, the quantity of ground clear'd at Rose Hill this 9th March, is Land clear'd for Corn 213 Acres; Land for Buildings Gardens &c. 80 Acres, & 121 Acres in three Parks, Total 414 Acres; but it is to be observed that the Trees are only cut down & removed, & the ground clear'd & turn'd up with the Roots of the Trees remaining in it, that all the labour is with the Grubbing Hoe & Spade, the Plough cannot be used 'till the ground is more effectually clear'd. There has been several excursions made into the Country all of which serve but to furnish as many Proofs of the Sterility of the inland parts of the County of Cumberland, the other parts of the Coasts or Country have not yet been examined. Having an opportunity of getting a satisfactory account of His Maj. Arm'd Vessel the Bounty from Lieut. Blighs letters to Governor Phillip giving an account of their proceedings & loss of the said ship by being piratically taken possession of;

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[Inserted into journal between pages 232-233]

Account of the different kinds of Timber & the use it is fit for; in Port Jackson

No.1. Gum Tree, the Gum very dark; the Wood white fit for little but the fire, but very good for that.

2: Iron Wood, No Gum in it, grows very tall & large all about; but near Rose Hill in particular, fit for large Beams, Girders, &c. a very good Timber for such large uses tho' very hard to cut & to work.

3. Corkwood, called so because the bark is like Cork, grows near the Sea side, just within the Harbour, none in land, not even so far as Sydney, it is a very good Timber tho' very scarce, No Gum in it, the largest that has been seen was about 2 feet diameter, fit for almost any purpose; but for Boats & for light boarding in particular, such as doors &c.

 4. The Peppermint Tree, so called because the leaves taste strongly like peppermint & give an Oil, much like the Oil of Peppermint; would make very good & handsome furniture, but has not been at all used by us in Buildings, because it does not run sufficiently long before it branches, there is some gum in it.

5. The Tea Tree, so called because a little of the leaves being put into the Native Tea gives it a pleasant spicey taste; works very easy & smooth, more fit for furniture than any thing else, they are mostly unsound, tho' no Gum in them.

6. The Swamp Mahogany, grows in, or close to swamps some of it turns out very good Timber & perhaps all would if not very Old, fit for furniture, or framing, such as doors &c. the largest to be sound is about 18 inches diameter, No Gum in it to damage it at all.

7. The High Ground Mahogany, grows on higher ground, is best wood for furniture of any in the Country; it runs to about 2 1/2 feet diameter & sound, fit for doors, wainscots, door frames &c.

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[Inserted into journal between pages 232-233]

8. Brown Bark'd Gum Tree, exceeding good Timber for large uses, grows in the Kanguroo Ground & about Rose Hill, to the height of 80 to 100 feet without a branch, some have been cut which were 9 or 10 inches diameter at about 80 feet from the base & quite sound, if is fit for very large beams &c. boards for flooring, door frames & for every use in common: No Gum to hurt in it.

9. Blue Bark'd Gum Tree, but little different from that last mentioned & nothing inferior in respect to size or use.

10. Turpentine Tree, so called because a very small quantity of a kind of Turpentine is found between the bark & the Timber & the largest from 3 to 4 feet in diameter at the base, fit for any kind of building uses, board, flooring &c. No Gum in it.  

11. Pine Tree, so called for no other reason than that the leaves nearly resemble those of the Pine Tree, very good framing Timber, also for laths, shingles, flooring &c. No Gum in it.

12. Honeysuckle Tree, called so because it bears a flower which contains a great quantity of Honey grown in Sandy & rocky ground has been used particularly for Staves & felloes of wheels, Wheelbarrows & some boards &c. does not often grow to more than 10 to 12 feet high & from one to two feet diameter, very crooked, no Gum in it.

          March. 1791.

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[page 233]

Bounty Arm 'd Vessel:

I introduce here among my general memorandums, as it in some degree relates to the New Colony & Public Service.

Cape of Good Hope Decr.. 20th..1789 Sir      Having been so unfortunate as to lose His Maj. arm'd Vessel Bounty; I have transmitted to you an account of the failure of the voyage I had the Honor to be entrusted with & also a description list of the Pirates. I passed through Endeavor Streights in the Latitude of 10:30. So. between the Prince of Wales's Islands about which are a number of dangerous shoals: I saw but a few Islands to the No.ward of me & I have reason to think that a tolerable fair passage may be found through to the Wt.ward about the Latitude of 10°:00'S. I was to have explored this streight, which I should have done from the side of New Guinea. Coupang in Timor lies 12 miles to the NE of the SW part of the Island in Latitude 10°:12'S. Longitude by my account 125°:45'E but by the Dutch 121°:5'Et. It is a safe & convenient Road & affords good water which can be conveniently got; other Supplies are doubtful, but what Cattle they can spare are tolerably good: It is a pleasant Village situated on the sides of a fine River; the Resident with four other people in the Civil department & about 30 Soldiers are the whole of the Europeans. The No.side of the Island is the most elligible way for a Ship to come from the Et.ward, One Ship Trades here

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[page 234]

Lieut. Bligh's Letter.

for the Dutch Et. India Company & are not allow'd to lie in the road before the 10th of March; In April the Et.erly Monsoon is set in & continues until the middle of October or beginning of November, the wind is however a little variable until December when the Wt. Monsoon is steady with Rains as the Et. Monsoon is in May with fine weather: The Island Pamow gives good anchoring places in the Wt. Monsoon.      Oranges, Limes, Breadfruit, fine CocoaNuts, Nanca's Karambola's & other Fruit are to be got at Timor, the Horses are small & but few Sheep or Goats; No more Rice or Indian Corn is cultivated than is used. They have the Mountain Rice which does not require any more water than the common rain. There are some Portuguese Settlements on the No. part of the Island, who are from report a very miserable set of People.      I have thought it my Duty to say so much of Timor as it is a place but little known & lies elligible for a Stopping place if Endeavour Streights is found a safe route for Shipping.

To Capt. Phillip Comr. In Chief Signed W.Bligh.

     Botany Bay  

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[page 235]

Lt..Blighs account of the Bounty.

     Lieut. W. Bligh presents the following account of the loss of His Majesty's Arm'd Vessel Bounty, unto His Excellency Arthur Phillip Esqr. &c.&c.&c.

     On the 23rd. of December 1787. I sailed from Spithead with H.M.S. Bounty under my Command for Otaheite, there to take on board the Breadfruit Plant for the West Indies. The Burthen of the Ship was nearly 215 Tons; Her extreme length on deck 90Ft..10In. & breadth from outside to outside of the bends 24Ft..3 in. A Flush deck & a pretty Figure Head of a Woman in Riding Habit; She mounted 4 four pounders & 10 Swivels & her Complement was,
1. Lieut & Commander 2. Masters Mates 1. Gunmen Mate
1. Master 2. Midshipmen 1. Carpenters Mate
1. Boatswain 1. Clerk 1. Sailmaker
1. Gunner 2. Qr. Masters 1. Armourer
1. Carpenter 1. Qr.Masr.Mate 1. Carpenters Crew
1. Surgeon 1. Boatswains Mate 1. Corporal
                                                                                                    24 Able Seamen
Total. 45 One of which is a Widows Man. There was likewise a Botanist & his Assistant.

 On the 23rd. of March 1788. I doubled Staten Land & attempted to make my passage round Cape Horn to the Wt.ward between the Latd. Of 59° & 61°, but I met with such dreadful tempestuous weather & high Seas with Hail & Snow Storms, that altho' I tried 30 days I could not accomplish it; I therefore

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[page 236]

Account of the Bounty. Lt.Bligh

(as my people were getting ill & as I had the Honour to have the most discretionary Orders to do as I thought best for the Voyage) determined to bear away for the Cape of Good Hope on the 23rd of April & repass'd Staten Land the next day: On the 24th of May I Anchored in False Bay & having Refitted & Compleated my Stores & Provisions, I sailed on the 1st of July, arrived at Van Diemans Land 20th of August & after wooding & watering, I sailed from thence the 4th September.
On the 19th Sepr. After having pass'd the So. part of New Zealand I discovered very dangerous Rocky Islots never known before, they extend 3 1/2 Miles Et. & Wt. & 1 1/2 No. & So. they lie from the Traps off the So. end of New Zealand, S89°Et 146 Leags. Latd. Of them in 47°:44'So. Longitude 179°:09'Et. called them Bounty Isles. I arrived at Otaheite the 26th of October & remain'd until the 4th April 1789 when I sailed with 1015 Breadfruit Plants & many other Fruit kind in all 774 Pots, 39 Tubs & 24 Boxes. Obsd. In Totourah Harbour 17°.31':30"So. 210°.31':37"Et. I anchor'd at Anamocka the 24th April & left it the 26th.
On the 28th A little before Sunrise Fletcher Christian who was Mate of the Ship & Officer of the Watch, with the Ships Corporal came into my Cabin while I was asleep & seizing me tied my hands, assisted by others who were also in the Cabin all arm'd with Musquets & Bayonets; I was now threaten'd with instant death if I spoke a word, I however called for assistance & awakening every one; but the Officers who were

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[page 237]

Bounty &c.

in their Cabins were secured by Centinels at their doors, so that no one could come to me; The Arms were all taken possession of & I was forced on deck in my shirt with my hands tied behind my back & secured by a Guard abaft the Mizn.Mast during which the Mutineers express'd much joy that they would soon again see Otaheite.
I now demanded of Christian the cause of such a violent act, but no other answer was given but hold your tongue Sir, or you are dead this instant & holding me by the line which tied my hands he often threaten'd to stab me in the breast with a Bayonet he held in his right hand. I however did my utmost to rally the disaffected Villains to a sense of their duty but to no effect.
The Boatsn. was order'd to hoist the Launch out & while I was kept under a guard abaft the Mizen Mast the Officers & Men not concern'd in the Mutiny were order'd into the Boat, this being done I was told by Christian Capt.Bligh, your Officers & Men are now in the boat & you must go with them, & with the guard they carried me across the deck with their Bayonets presented on every side, when making another effort, one Villain said to the other, blow his brains out. I was at last forced into the Boat & we wore then veer'd astern in all 19 Souls. I was at this time 10 leagues from Tofoa the NW most of the Friendly Islands. The Boatswain & Carpenter with some other whilst the Boat was alongside collected several necessary

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[page 238]

Lt.Blighs account of the Bounty.

things & water, & with some difficulty a Compass & Quadrant were got, but Arms of no kind, nor any Maps or drawings of which I had a valuable collection. The Boat was very deep & much lumber'd & in this condition we were cast adrift with about 28 Gallons of Water 150 lbs of bread 30 lb of Pork 6 Quarts of Rum & 6 Bottles of Wine; the day was Calm attended with light breezes & I got to Tofoa by 7 O'clock in the evening but found no place to land the shore being so steep & rocky:
On the 30th I found landing in a Cove on the NWpart of the Island & here I remain'd in search of Supplies until the 2nd of May when the Natives discovering that we had no fire Arms, they made an attack upon us with Clubs & Stones; In the course of which I had the misfortune to lose a very worthy man (John Norton Qmaster) & most of us hurt, more or less; Getting into our Boat was no security, for they followed us in Canoes loaded with stones, which they threw with much force & exactness, happily night saved the rest of us.
I had determined to go to Amsterdam in search of Poulahow the King but taking this transaction as a sample of their natural dispositions, there was little hopes to expect much from them; for I consider 'd their good behaviour hitherto as owing to a dread of our fire Arms, & now knowing that we had none, would not be the case & that supposing our lives were safe, our Boat & every thing would be taken from us

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[page 239]

Lt. Blighs account of the Bounty

& thereby I should never be able to return. I was also earnestly solicited by all hands to take them towards home & when I told them no hopes of releif remain'd for us but what I might find at New Holland until I came to Timor a distance of 1200 leagues they all agreed to live on one Ounze of Bread pr Day & a Jill of Water; I therefore after recommending this promise forever to their Memory, bore away for New Holland & Timor across a Sea but little known & in a small Boat deep loaded with 18 People, without a Single Map of any kind & nothing but my own recollection & general knowledge of the situation of places to direct us.
Unfortunately we lost part of our Provisions, our stock now only consisted of 20 lbs of Pork, 3 bottles of wine, 5 of Rum & 150 lbs of Bread & 28 Gallons of Water. I steer'd to the WNW with Strong Gales & bad weather suffering every Calamity & distress.
I discover'd many Islands & at last on the 28 May, the Coast of New Holland & enter'd a break in the Reef in Latitude about 12°:50'.S. & Longitude 145°:00' Et. I kept on in the direction of this Coast to the No.ward, touching at such places as I found convenient, refreshing my People by the best means in my power, these Refreshments consisted of Oysters & a few Clams, we were greatly benefited by them & a few good nights rest; On the 4th of June I past the No. part of New Holland, steer'd for Timor & made it on the 12th which

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[page 240]

Lt. Blighs account of the Bounty.

which was a happy sight for every one, particularly several who were perhaps could not have existed a week or a day longer.
I followed the direction of the So.side of the Island & on the 14th in the afternoon saw the Island of Rotty & West part of Timor, round which I got that night & took a Malay on board to shew me Coupang where he informed me the Governor resided; On the next morning before day I anchored under the Fort & about 11 O'Clock I saw the Governor who received me with great Humanity & kindness; Necessary directions were instantly given for our support & perhaps a more miserable set of Beings were never seen. Thus happily ended through the assistance of Divine Providence without accident, a Voyage of the most extraordinary Nature that ever happened in the World, let it be taken in its Extent Duration & so much want of the Necessaries of Life.           The People who came in the Boat were

John Fryer . Master Thos. Haywood } Lawre. Leebogue. Sailmkr.
Wm. Cole. Boatsn. John Hallett }MidRobt. Tinkler }AB
Wm. Peckover. Gunner John Samuel. Clk. John Smith }AB
Wm.Purcell. Carpenter Pr. Linklater. Qr.Masr. Thos. Hall }AB
Thos.D.Ledward. Actg. Surgeon John Norton. Do. Killed at Tofoa Robt. Lamb }AB
Wm. Elphinstone. Mastr. Mate George Simpson.QMr.Mate David Nelson.Botanist.

 The secrecy of this Mutiny was beyond all conception, so that I cannot discover that any
who were with me had

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[page 241]

Bounty; loss.
the least knowledge of it, & the comparing this with the description list will shew the Strength of the Pirates. I remained at Timor till the 20th of August when I sailed & arrived at Batavia the 1st of October, from whence I sailed in a Dutch Packet on the 16th of October & arrived at the Cape of Good Hope 16 of December. Signed W Bligh. Lieut Commander.

Description List of the Pirates remaining on board His Majestys Arm'd Vessel Bounty on the 28th of April. 1789.

Fletcher Christian. MasMate. Aged 24 Yrs. 5Ft..9In. high very dark complexion dark brown hair, strong made; a Star tatowed on his left breast; backside tatow'd; a little bow legg'd; He is subject to a violent perspiration in his hands, so that he soils anything that th he handles.

George Stewart: Mid. Aged 23 Yrs. 5Ft.7In. high. Good complexion, dark hair, slender made, narrow chested & long neck, On his left breast is tatowed a Star & also one on the left arm on which is likewise tatowed a heart with darts, tatowed on the backside, very small features.
(Drown'd when the Pandora was lost.)

Peter Heywood. Mid. Aged 17 Yrs. 5Ft. 7In. fair complexion, light brown hair, well proportion'd, very much tatow'd & on the right leg is tatowed the legs of a Man as the impression of that loin is, at this time he had not done growing; He speaks with the Isle of Man accent.
(Condemned Sept.18. 1792 recommended for mercy. Pardon'd 27 July [Oct] 1792)

Edward Young: Mid. Aged 22 Yrs. 5Ft. 8Ins. dark complexion & rather

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[page 242]

Pirates, Description List.

a bad look, dark brown hair, Strong made, has lost several of his fore teeth & those that remain are all rotten; A small mole on the left side of the throat & on the right arm is tatowed a Heart & dart through it with EY. underneath & the date of the year 1788 or 1789. We are not sure which.

Chas. Churchill. Ships Corporal. Aged 30 Yrs. 5Ft. 10In. fair complexion short light brown hair, baldheaded, Strong made, the forefinger of his left hand crooked & the hand shews the marks of a severe scald, tatowed in several parts of the body.
(Made a Chief at Otaheite & murder'd by Mat. Thompson at Otaheite.)

Jas. Morrison. Bt.Mte. Aged 28 Yrs. 5Ft. 8In. Sallow Complexion, long black hair, slender made, lost the use of the first joint of the fore finger on his right hand, tatow ed with a Star under his left breast & a garter round his left leg with the Motto, Honi - Soi, Qui Mal y Pense, has been wounded in one of his Arms with a Musquet ball.
(Condemn'd 18 Sept. 1792 & recommended for mercy. Pardon'd 20 Octr. 1792.)

John Mills. Gunners Mte. Aged 40 Years. 5Ft. 10In. fair complexion light brown hair, a strong raw boned Man, a Scar in his right Arm pit occasion'd by an absciss.

John Millward. Ab. Aged 22 Yrs. 5Ft. 5In. brown complexion, dark hair, strong made, tatowed under the pit of the stomach with a Taoomy or Breast Plate of Otaheite.
(Condemn'd 18 Sepr. & executed 29 Octr. 1792.)

Matthew Thompson. Ab. Aged 40 Yrs. 5Ft. 8In. very dark complexion short black hair, slender made, has lost the joint of his great toe on the right foot, is tatowed.
(Killed by the Natives & offer'd as a Human sacrifice by the Otaheiteans for the Murder of Churchill.)

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[page 243]

Wm. Mickoy. Ab. Aged 25 Yrs. 5Ft. 6In. fair complexion, light brown hair, strong made, a scar where he has been stab'd in the belly, a small scar under his arm, is tatowed.

Matthew Quintal. Ab. Aged 21 Yrs. 5Ft. 5In. fair complexion, light brown hair, Strong made, very much tatowed on the backside & other places.

John Sumner. Aged 24 Yrs. 5Ft. 8In. fair complexion, brown hair slender made, a scar upon the left cheek & much tatowed.
(Drown'd when the Pandora was lost.)

Thos. Burkitt. Aged 26 Yrs. 5Ft. 9In. fair complexion, very much mark'd with the Small Pox; brown hair, well made & very much tatowed.
(Condemn'd Sepr. 18 Executed 29 Octr. 1792.)

Issac Martin. Aged 30 Yrs, 5Ft. 11In. Sallow complexion, short brown hair, raw boned, tatowed on his left breast with a Star.

Wm. Muspratt. Aged 30 Yrs. 5Ft. 6In. dark complexion, brown hair. Slender made, very strong black beard, scar'd under the Chin tatowed in several places.
( Condemn'd Sepr. 18/92. Remanded for the opinion of the 12 Judges. 27 Octr. 1792. Pardon'd. 10 Febry. 1793.)

Henry Hilbrants. Aged 25 Yrs. 5Ft. 7In. fair complexion, sandy hair, very strong made, his left arm shorter than his right having been broke. Is an Hanoverian & speaks bad English He is tatowed in several places.
(Drowned when the Pandora was lost.)

Alexander Smith. Aged 22 Yrs. 5Ft.5In., brown complexion, brown hair strong made, pitted with the Small Pox, very much tatowed, Scar on his right foot.

John Williams, Aged 25 Yrs. 5Ft.5In. dark complexion, black hair

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[page 244]

Pirates, Description List.

slender made, a scar on the back part of his head, Is a Native of Guernsey, speaks French, is tatowed.

Richard Skinner, Aged 22 Yrs. 5Ft.8In. fair complexion, light brown hair, very well made, scars on both ancles & on his right shin.
(Drowned when the Pandora was lost.)

Thomas Ellison aged 17 Yrs. 5Ft.3In. fair complexion, dark hair strong made, got his name tatowed on his right Arm & dated October 25th 1788.
(Condem'd 18 Sepr.1792 Executed 20 Octr.)

Wm. Brown. Botanist Assist. Aged 27 Yrs. 5Ft.8In. fair complexion, dark brown hair, rather slender made, remarkable scar on one of his cheeks which contracts the eye lid & runs down to his throat, occasioned by the Kings Evil; is tatowed.

*Michael Byrne, aged 28 Yrs. 5Ft. 6In. fair complexion & is almost blind; plays the Fiddle; has the mark of an issue on the back of his neck.

*Joseph Coleman. Armourer. Aged 40 Yrs. 5Ft.6In. fair complexion, grey hair, strong made, a Heart tatowed on one of his Arms. This Man declar'd publickly to me when I was in the Boat that he knew nothing of the transaction & begg'd of me to remember he told me of it, & that he was kept against his consent.

*Thos. McIntosh. Carp.Crew. aged 28 Yrs. 5Ft.6In. fair complexion, light brown hair, slender made, pitted with the Small Pox.

*Chas. Norman. Carp.Mte. Aged 26 Yrs. 5Ft.9In. fair complexion, has a remarkable motion with his Head & Eyes: The two last are likewise deserving of Mercy.

(*Acquitted - September 18 - 1792 - )

          Sign'd. W Bligh. Lt. Commander

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[Inserted between pages 244-245]

The Mutineers after turning Capt. Bligh adrift, made sail & steer'd for the Island Tubai, at which place they had determin'd to Fortify & settle themselves, but on their arrival, found themselves destitute of almost every necessary towards effecting their purpose; it was then agreed to go to Otaheite for those necessaries, making the best story they could to deceive the Natives, in which they succeeded by telling that they had been at an Island, where they had met their old friend Capt. Cook, (who they had supposed was dead) & that he had kept Capt. Bligh & all those who were with him, at Tubai, & sent Mr. Christian with the Ship for what supplies they could grant.
They readily beleiv'd the story & were so overjoy'd at hearing that Capt. Cook was alive & again in that part of the world, that they furnish'd Christian with every thing he wanted & even gave them a Bull & Cow; with these they again all went to Tubai & went on with every success towards settling; but soon quarrelling among themselves, Christian lost his Authority & nothing was done; He then took their opinions the majority of which were for going to Otaheite, to which place Christian carried them & afterwards left the Island with the remainder & some Natives of Otaheite & which is the last account gain'd of Christian by the Pandora.
Those who were left at Otaheite, built a Schooner in which some of them had embark'd under the direction of Morrison the Bos.Mate, but soon losing confidence in him they again return'd to Otaheite; where Churchill was made a Cheif by the Natives & killed by Thompson in a quarrel, the consequence of which was that they Natives killed Thompson & offer'd him up as a human sacrifice according to the Custom used among them.
The People found at Otaheite by the Pandora & taken together with the Schooner, were

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[Inserted between pages 244-245]

Peter Heywood.Mid.} Condemn'd 18 Sepr. 1792 & Pardon'd 27 Octr. 1792
J. Morrison Bs.Ma.}Condemn'd 18 Sepr. 1792 & Pardon'd 27 Octr. 1792
J. Millward}Condemn'd 18 Sepr. 1792
Executed - 29 Octr. 1792
T. Burkitt} Condemn'd 18 Sepr. 1792
Executed - 29 Octr. 1792
T. Ellison} Condemn'd 18 Sepr. 1792
Executed - 29 Octr. 1792
W. Muspratt}Condemn'd 18 Sepr. 1792
Respitted - 27 Octr. 1792
Pardon'd 10 Febry.1793
Mi. Byrne}Acquitted - 18 Sepr. 1792
Jos. Coleman}Acquitted - 18 Sepr. 1792
T. McIntosh}Acquitted - 18 Sepr. 1792
C. Norman}Acquitted - 18 Sepr. 1792
G. Stewart.Mid.}Drown'd when the Pandora was lost.
J. Sumner} Drown'd when the Pandora was lost.
H. Hillbrant}Drown'd when the Pandora was lost.
Ro. Skinner}Drown'd when the Pandora was lost.

Remain'd in the Bounty -

F. Christian. Mtr.Mate
E. Young - Mid
J. Mills - Gunnr.Mte.
W. Mickoy
M. Quintal
J. Martin
A.Smith
J. Williams
W. Brown

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[page 245]

March. 1791.

March. 22nd. The Supply sailed for Norfolk Island with a detachment of the New Corps to releive the same No. of the Marines; a Native Boy who had been living sometime with the Captain Commanding this detachment embarked with him & was much pleas'd at the Idea of the Voyage, he is the first who has had confidence & courage enough to go to Sea.

Sunday. 27th. Capt. Hunter, Officers & Crew belonging to the Sirius embarked on board the Waczaamheydt Dutch Snow & sailed down the Harbour but the wind failing we anchored just within the Heads. His Maj. Armed Tender Supply was now the only Vessel left in the Colony, the State of the numbers of People in the Settlement; is as follows:

     N o.     N o.
Governor.................................... 1 Staff........................................8
Commissd. Officers ................. 14 Civil .......................................6
Non Commission'd Offcs......... 24 Free Men & Women ............16
Surgeons Mate ......................... 1 Men Convicts ....................789
Drummers ............................. 8Women Convicts ...............203
Privates ............................... 164 Children of Do. .................. 50
Wives of Soldiers ................... 36 Natives...................................6
Children of Do. ........................ 59 At Sydney & Rose Hill = 1385
Soldiers on their passage to Norfolk Island & Officers ............................ 24 
A Surgeons' Mte & (8) 10 Settlers from the Sirius, do. ........................9 11
At Norfolk Island as before specified .................................................. 627
March. 26th, 1791 ------- Total 2045 47

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[page 246]

 
March. 1791.

List of Births Marriages &c. since leaving England.

Baptized Couple
Married
Dead
On the Passage . . . ... 15  44 +
Sydney . . . . . . . .... 105 . . . 110 246 Of which 17 were Hanged
Rose Hill . . . . . . . 6 . . . 10 8
Norfolk Island . . . . . 19 Of which 2 were killed by Trees
falling on them & 14 Drowned.

On Monday the 28th March We sailed out of the Harbour with a light land breeze, as we stood off shore we saw the Column or Land Mark on the So. Head to the distance of 6 leags. Yet I think a Stranger who did not exactly know where to look for it would not discover it at more than half that distance except coming along the Shore from the Southward. We were to have called at Norfolk Island in our way to the No.ward, but were so unfortunate as to be driven to the So.ward two degrees by a series of contrary winds & bad weather & which prevented our making any progress to the No.ward 'till the 14th of April when the wind came to the So.ward. & hauling round to the SE & Et.ward. as we approach'd Norfolk Island forced us 20 leagues to leeward of it when we crossed its Parallel, which circumstance together with that of the wind appearing to be steady & fixed at East, it was determined not to lose time in endeavoring to beat up to it, but proceed immediately on our

Transcript of a138247

[page 247]

April. 1791.

Voyage, intending to pass to the So.ward & Et.ward of New Caledonia but the wind inclining continued so far to the Eastward that on the 23rd. we made the Isle of Pines & could not weather it; We stood off for the night & in again at daylight & finding that we could not get to windward of it we bore away at 9 O'Clock to run to the Wt'ward.

Sunday. 24th: Standing along by the shore passed 5 low Islands which seem'd to encircled by a Reef, At 1/2 pt. 2PM: We hauled off without the outermost land then in sight, about 4 Breakers were seen to the SbW & soon after to the SW & more to the Wt. & seem'd to be connected having some small Islands within it; We now discover'd that we had mistaken the Isle of Pines for Queen Charlottes Foreland & that we had got into the bight between the Isle of Pines & the Shoals to the SW of it, the Wind & a great Swell setting right over them, our situation was very dangerous;
We continued all night to work the Ship with a great press of Sail to keep her to windward in which we succeeded so well as to be able to stretch along the Reef at daylight & passed the So. extremity of it at 10 AM at 3 Miles distant; Near the So.ext. is a considerable opening & smooth water within it, over which the Reef was seen to the NW as far as the eye could reach from the MastHead. We did not see breakers close home to the Foreland but from some small Islands shewing themselves between it & the

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[page 248]

April. 1791.

Breakers which we saw, gave us reason to suppose that it is one extensive Reef from that land running about SEbS 32 Miles to the So. Extremity round which we passed; & lies from the Highland of the Isle of Pines SWbS1/4W by Compass 29 Miles & is in 23°:00'So.Lat: 167°:17'Et.Long.&c, according to our Longitude corrected; It is a very dangerous Reef & appears to be on considerable breadth. The SE Trade appeared steady which with which we steer';d to the No.ward giving the West side of New Caledonia a reasonable birth; On the 29th the Trade freshen'd into a Gale with very squally weather in Latd.20:39 Longte. 162:18 Et. & continued, sometimes blowing very strong with much rain, till the 5th May in 11°:56'S...163°:58'Et., At 8PM it suddenly fell Calm & variable light Airs; After which we had moderate breezes with frequent Squalls & variable winds; We passed between Queen Charlottes Islands & the Land discover'd by Lieut. Ball in the Supply last year with seeing either.
Our Longitude when we pass'd the Parellel of Gonont Island was nearly the same as Capt. Carteret had fixed West Coast of that Island to lie in; Our Longitude being determined from Observations taken some days before & after I am inclined to think the error is likely to be with him & that He has placed them too far too the Wt.ward; how much is impossible for us to say, but it was observed

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[page 249]

May.1791.

that nearly about passing the parallel of those Islands we had every indication of Land being very near us to the Et.ward.

Monday. 9th at 7 AM Saw Land to the WNW which had the appearance of being an Island, soon after saw another to the Et.ward of it; at 9 Bore away & stood towards them, At 10 saw 2 more Islands & at Noon another came open with the Island first seen, they are very small Islands 5 in number forming an Irregular figure that 11 Miles would circumscribe; We saw broken water between some of them but passed at too great a distance to ascertain whether they are all connected by a Reef or not.
From our Latitude we at first supposed this Land to be Carterets Island but we soon satisfied that it could not be, from the extent of this little Groupe; & to be more clear, we stood to the No.ward for Gowers Island & not meeting with it convinced us that this was a new discovery; The middle of the Groupe is in 8°:26'So.Latd & 163°:07'Et. by Observation of the [sun] & [moon] taken the preceding day, they lie N14E.. 50 leagues from the Et.most Pt. of Balls Maiden Land (disc. by him in the Supply last year). They are cover'd with Trees of the Palm & Cocoa Nut & some large trees on one of them; We did not see the least appearance of Inhabitants: Just to the No.ward of these Islands is we found a ripling like a Race, thro' which we passed in a few minutes.

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[page 250]

May.1791.

We steer'd from these Islands WNW with a fine steady Et.ly wind & on Thursday 12th at 9 AM. Saw breakers on the Starboard bow; immediately after which, saw the Sea break nearly in the Ships wake, which shoal she must have passed over very close; the Water being exceedingly smooth 'till near 9 O'Clock it did not break when the Ship passed it & it was but seldom that it did break afterward; those on the bow were a continual foam of broken Water & it appear'd to be sand banks by the colour of the Water round them; at 1/2 pt.10 We were abreast of the No.most at 3 Miles distance, when more breakers were seen on the larboard beam & abaft it, in two detached shoals, We could not clear these, or the others before seen, by hauling our Wind on either Tack, we therefore stood on our Course & passed clear through.
How far they extend NE & SW we could not ascertain, their Extent NW & SE is 7 Miles by our Run & the breadth of the Channel through which we passed is 8 Miles from Shoal to Shoal; We could not get any soundings 130 fm. in passing through; the middle of this Channel which is called Wachraamheydt Passage from the name of Ship lies in 6°:52'So.. 161°:06'E by [sun] & [moon]. & is situated N52°W...51 leags. from the little groupe of Islands disc. the 9th: They are very dangerous shoals, those to the No.ward of us broke in 6 detach'd Parts & those to the So.ward in 2, One of which was an extensive Range of broken water, they appear to be but little below

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[page 251]

May.1791.
the surface steep too & no part dry. Steering on the same course WNW on Satruday.14th. At daylight; saw Land from NW to SE, appear'd to be several Islands; At 6, Thirty two, including Rocks above water; were counted from the Masthead; At 7. There were 20 distinctly seen; small, low & well cover'd with Trees, the largest Island is about 4 Miles in length Et. & Wt. Our Course carried us along nearly parallel to them; At 9. Another Island was seen to the NNW of the Wt.most of those first seen; Some rocks were seen above water, but as we did not pass nearer than 9 Miles we could not determine whether any of them were joined or surrounded by a Reef:
About 10, we saw 6 Canoes with Sails coming from different parts of the Land towards us; We still kept on our Course that it was Noon before any of them came up with us & then only one Canoe with 9 People in, they came close to the Ship, but would not come on board, Some Nails, Beads &c. were thrown to them & they in return threw back pieces of Cocoa Nuts: They were tall  & stout; One of them was painted Red over the face & appear'd to be a cheif or leading Man, they were not provided with anything for Trade, not nor had they any Weapons with them, their Hair, or long wool was tied close upon the head as is the Custom in many parts of the Et.Indies; they either had not any beards, or were close shaved, they wore ornaments

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[page 252]

May.1791.
Ornaments round their Necks, Arms &c. the cheif of which appear'd to be Hair plaited with Bone & Shells made fast to the ends, they wore ornaments also through the Nose, & which we took to be hair plaited or twisted & put through on both sides so as to lo hang down as low as the lips, on the ends of some of these were fasten'd peices of Shells in imitation of teeth; they appear'd to be very friendly disposed & wanted us to go to the Islands, they were naked except a peice of Matting round the waist; Some of the Gentlemen on board observed that they were tatowed but I noticed nothing but the marks of paint or dirt on any of their bodies.
The Canoe I take to between 30 & 40 feet in length, very narrow, with an Outrigger, the sides consisted of two planks laced or sew'd together & brought to a point at both ends rather inclining downwards than rising, they use single paddles & have a Latteen Sail, they were about half an hour with us & some of the others close up, when the breeze freshening we left them. These Islands have every appearance of Supplying the Inhabitant very plentifully with the necessaries of Life. It is probable that these Islands extend farther to the Et.ward, as the Et.most of those we saw, was on the quarter & 7 leagues distant when the first seen at daylight. Those which we saw & determined the situation of, extend from 5°:18' to 5°:29'.So.

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[page 253]

May.1791.
& from 159°:14' to 159°:36'Et. by [sun] & [moon]. Variation of the Compass 8°:00'Et.. These Islands lie NWbW 44 leagues form the Shoals which we passed through the 12th & might afford releif to any who may be so unfortunate as to get on those Shoals, provided they could escape with their Boats or otherwise, if the Ship could not be removed. Whether this is a new discovery, or part of those Islands seen by an American Vessel bound to China in 1787, I am doubtful.
A great quantity of our Water having leak'd out owing to the badness of the Casks, we were furnish'd with at Port Jackson, made it absolutely necessary that we should recruit it we therefore steer'd for Cape St.George intending to water at one of the Ports in the Streight between New Britain & New Zealand that Capt. Carteret had visited, we found the Et.ly winds very weak at this time: Wednesday. 18th. At 1/2 pt. 8AM Saw land, which was soon discover'd to be low Islands cover'd with Trees & from our situation they were the SE.most of the 9 Islands mention'd by Capt. Carteret; at the same time we saw high Land to the SW which had every appearance of forming a streight between the Land discover'd by Mr.Ball in the Supply & the Louisiade New Georgia of Lt. Shortland: We stood for the Islands till within 3 Miles of the So.most & then along by a reef which run off WbS from it & seem'd to surround the other Islands

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[page 254]

May:1791.
in sight; they extend North 5 Miles & WNW 8 Miles from the So.most of them: The Reef seem'd to be a sandy spit with some Rocks on it & dry in many parts & in one place between the So.most & Wt.most of these Islands just round the Pt. of the Spit along which we passed there was an opening seen & the appearance of deepwater & good shelter within it; We saw several of the Natives on the dry sand & some Canoes came out & made towards us, but the Breeze freshening, they could not come up; These Islands are small & have a beautiful appearance being cover'd with Cocoa Nuts & other Trees with sandy beaches to the water side.

Thursday. 19th: We steer'd WbS & W1/2S along by the shore of either New Georgia or the Louisiade at the distance of 10 or 12 leags. & which had the appearance of being Islands, At 2,AM We passed the Wt.ern extremity of the Land seen at SunSet at 5 leagues distance sounded frequently 130 fm. no ground; At 5AM Saw Sir Chal. Hardy's Island bearing N.2°W 5 leagues & Land which had the appearance of being an Island S48°E 6 leagues which we conclude is the Land mentioned by Capt. Carteret Winchelsea Island, & appears by our Run & the angles taken to be same Land we pass'd at 2AM & had much the appear'ce of being a projecting point of the Main Land when to the Et. of it, it is very high, running out to the No.ward in a low sandy point on which the Sea breaks very high; We did

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[page 255]

May.1791.
not see any land to the Southward of it; At 5 AM Had several very good Observations for the Longitude by the Moon & Aquila from which the Latitudes Obsn. This & the preceding Noons I fix the following places.

[Table not reproduced - see original journal]

Friday 20th: At 6Pm Saw Cape St.George bearing N80°E 7 leagues & the No. extreme of New Ireland N26°W, Hitherto we had not met with any Current to speak of, but this night bringing too off Cape St.George we were carried to the So.ward out of sight of it; At 6 AM We again got sight of it & the wind being favourable we steer'd right in for it. Cape St.George by our Observations is in 4°:51'So. & 153°:15'Et. which is only 30 6m. to the Et.wd. of that given in the New Requisite Tables & 56m. to the Et. of Capt Carterets, we also found nearly the same difference between Capt Carterets account of the 9 Islands, Sr. C.Hardys & Winchelsea Islands.

Saturday. 21. The wind So.ly wt. light breeze, AM Stood for Gowers Harbour, but had so light a breeze the tide or Current carried

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[page 256]

May.1791.
carried us so far to the Wt.ward, that when a fresh Seabreeze came in from the SEbS we could not fetch it but stood in for the Land to leeward of it.

Sunday.22nd. At 2PM Bore away for Carterets Harbour which Port we unfortunately overshot; Having missed both Harbours we stood for the NW along the shore in hopes of finding a watering place; At 8. It fell Calm & continued so with variable light Airs 'till 2AM the next day when a breeze sprung up from the SW enabled us to get the length of the Et.pt. of the Duke of Yorks Island; whilst we were thus becalm'd we did not observe a NW Current setting through but an equal tide as much one way as the other & the same on both shores, We sent the Boat along the shore of New Britain Cape Bulbes & Cape Palliser to look for Anchorage but they did not find any.

Monday.23rd.. AM At day light being off the NEpt. Of the Duke of Yorks Island sent the Boat to examine the Coast on the No. side of it & look for water; following with the Vessel, The Boat was met by a great number of the Natives in their Canoes, they were very friendly, exchanged some Cocoa Nuts for peices of Iron hoop, Our People gave them 2 kegs to fill with water, which they return'd with to them in a few minutes; they were very numerous all along the shore, walking along as the Ship pass'd & the Canoes accompanied the Boat; We did not find Anchoring ground 'till

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[page 257]

May.1791.
near the NW part of the Island, where we follow'd the Boat into a very fine Cove where we anchored at Noon in 25fm.. Natives very numerous & friendly, some of them came on board. Tuesday.24th: PM. An Officer was sent on shore to look for the watering place; found one in the SE bend of the Cove; the Natives were very numerous & all Armed wt. Spears, Clubs or Slings & Nets full of Stones, they walked into the water to meet the Boat as we landed & seem'd quite familiar, but as our party was going up into the Wood with them they were met by an Old Man who insisted that they should return to the beach, this Old fellow appearing to have the Controul of the Multitude & seeming to be much displeas'd it was judged best to return on board, they all came to the Water side with us, the same as on our landing:
Soon after the Boat return'd, two Guns were fired from the Vessel into the Woods, this occasion'd those Natives who were on board to Jump overboard instantly & all the Canoes pulled to the Shore; Great numbers of the Natives had assembled on the beach, several of them blowing a white powder out of their hands which appear'd like smoke; this seem'd to shew displeasure & a degree of defiance, it was observed that the Men who did it always advanced on the beach & blew it off towards the Ship; Some of them in Canoes in

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[page 258]

May.1791.
passing the Ship did the same; They were blowing Conchs & making a great noise all night & it appear'd by their frequently calling to each other at different stations that they kept a look out upon us; At daylight, An Armed Party was sent on shore with the Waterers & arm'd Boat to lay off & Cover them; they found the Natives troublesome & seem'd to be much disposed to quarrel they blew off the white powder in several of our People's faces.

Wednesday. 25th. PM. The Natives still continued to be very troublesome & at length threw some stones which struck the Armed Boat, on which a firing began from the Boat & Armed Party on shore & several Guns with Round & Grape were fired from the Ship into the woods in different parts of the Cove, the Natives instantly fled, & when any of them came in sight they were fired at by the Arm'd Party, which effectively kept the watering place clear. AM At daylight We weigh'd & warped the Ship over towards the watering place & moored with a Hawser, Head & Stern to keep our broadside to bear both on the watering place & that part of the beach where the Natives had assembled; We fired some Guns with Round Shot into the Woods before our Party landed, they were not the least interrupted; Many of the Natives left this Cove with their Canoes, whilst others came in from the Wt.ward offering Cocoa Nuts & by signs gave us to understand, that

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[page 259]

May.1791.
it was not them that had behaved ill; No notice was taken of them, they soon went leisurely out of the Cove: In all parties of them were seen about the Cove but not one appear'd near the watering place.

Thursday. 26th. In the evening, as soon as our People had left the Shore, several of the Natives came down on the beach near the Watering place with green boughs in their hands & unarm'd, bringing Cocoa Nuts & shewing every sign of their earnest wishes to make peace, others brought Cocoa Nuts, Plantains &c. and laid them down on the beach in two heaps & on the top of each was put a young dog with its legs tied: As soon as the Boats came off, one of them was sent with an Officer to receive their Peace Offering & establish friendly intercourse with them;
On the Officers landing, He was presented with two long boughs about which were several platted lines made fast at the top & about half way down the Stick the bight hanging slack, when these were received they express'd great Joy & immediately shouting a kind of Song brought every thing to the Boats that had been laid in the two heaps on the beach & the two little dogs: In return they had a Dog & Bitch Spaniel given to them,  with which they were much pleas'd & shouting a Song retired in small parties. In the morning several of them came to the watering place but unarmed, they brought Cocoa Nuts with them for our

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[page 260]

May.1791.
People & so much afraid of giving offense that they would scarce move or speak for sometime without observing the countenances of our People to see if they were pleas'd; several Canoes came about the Ship but very few Cocoa Nuts or other useful articles could be procured; Some Spears, Slings &c. were exchanged for mere trifles, Iron they do not value.

Friday.27th. The Water being complete soon after Noon, I had the Boats to survey the Cove; having occasion to Land near the Water place, We were met by a great number of the Natives who presented the bough the same as yesterday & then carried several Cocoa Nuts to the Boats; We returned on board about Sunset had only time just to Survey the Cove without examing further to the Wt.ward, than to see that there was another Cove & the appearance of a very good Harbor round the Wt.Point of it.

AM At daylight, sent the Boats for a turn of water to fill all up, this morning several Women came in Canoes to the Ship, which was now intirely surrounded by the Natives of all descriptions, but very few useful articles were exchanged. At 9 A Breeze springing up from the SE Weigh'd & stood out of the Cove. The Master of the Transport now to with his own Officers now took charge of Navigating the Vessel & of the respective Watches, which had hitherto been done by Captain Hunter & the Officers

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[page 261]

May.1791.
belonging to the Sirius We were very unlucky in not having an opportunity of getting any Observations for the Longitude, we therefore determine it from those taken off Cape St.George. 152°:37'Et. Latitude Obsn. At Anchor 4°:08'So. This Cove lies within a Mile of a small woody Island forming the NW point of Duke of Yorks Island & is very convenient for a Ship to stop at coming through St.Georges Channel, off the Et.pt. of the Bay 1/2 a Cables length is a Reef of Rocks running out from the Shore after passing which, there is no danger, the Soundings in the Bay are 20 & 25 fm. muddy bottom by the lead but the People fishing brought up several large peices of Coral Rocks; There is another Cove just round the Wt. point of this which has good Anchorage in it & to the SW of that there is every appearance of a fine Harbour.
Although we only got a few Cocoa Nuts & Yams we saw that the Island produced Breadfruit, Plantains Bananas, Mangoes & several other fruits, very fine Sugar Cane, Beetle Nuts, the Wild Nutmeg; Cocoa Nuts & Yams in great abundance: They have Hogs, Dog & Poultry among them but we could not procure any of either. The Men in general are stout & well made, long woolly hair & beards which most of them keep cover'd with a powder that appear'd to us to be made from burnt Coral, It is white when first used but the heat of the Sun turns it to a reddish brown & in time takes great part of the hair off, the Women that

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[page 262]

May,1791.
we saw were very diminutive & ugly; Both Sexes go quite Naked, they have a variety of Ornaments which they wear cheifly about the Neck & round the Arms, consisting of Bone, Shell & the teeth of some Animal. They are of very different complexions some being quite black & others not darker than the Malays; they appear to live in society their Huts being many of them close together, they have inclosures for their Plantains &c. but as not one went into the Country we only conjecture that it is in most parts cultivated & from the very Robust appearance of the Men, they no doubt live in plenty.
Some of the Gentlemen planted Indian Corn, Garavances, Peas, Pumpkins, Melons & made them understand that the Produce from them was good to eat; & the Corn particularly so for their Poultry. Their Huts are not above 5 feet high with a small door & without any window, the floor is hard clay & very smooth & before each Hut is a small clear plot. Their weapons are Spears, Clubs & Slings with which they throw stones; Spears & Clubs they have a great variety of & appear to be used in close fighting; The Sling is made of Flax neatly twisted each part about 4 feet long of the size of a small fishing line, these are made fast to a kind of basket 3 inches long & 1 1/2 broad in which they put the stone, they carry nets filled with stones about with them They Fish with Spears, Nets which are very neatly

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[page 263]

May.1791.
made & strong, they also use hooks & lines. We did not observe any of their Spears either for fishing or fighting to be barbed. They shew great ingeniousness in the workmanship of their Canoes, Weapons &c being all neatly carved & ornament'd, the bottom of the Canoe is hollowed out of a Tree, on which is a streak of 9 inches or a foot very neatly & securely on each side & brought to a point at both ends, on each of which is fixed (not very firm) a kind of Ornamental Prow turning abruptly up, inclin'g inwards & coming in a Curve to a point; they are of different lengths from 12 to 30 & 40 feet & none more that 16 inches in breadth, they have an Outrigger which is neatly but not firmly fixed; the Paddles are single blade which is broad & with which they row very fast, they are ornamented with Carve work & Paint: We did not observe that any of them used a Sail.

Saturday. 28th: Wind at SE, steer'd to the Westward along by the shore of New Ireland at about 12 leagues distant; At 8.AM Saw Sandwich Island, the Latd. & Longitude of the So.Coast of it I fix from Observn. & bearing at Noon, Etpt. 2°:58'So. ...150°:26' Et. West Point 2°:56'So. ...150°:06' Et.

Sunday.29th. At 3PM Pass'd the Wt.end of Sandwich Island at 5 leagues distance, the length of the Island Et & Wt. is 21 Miles & does not appear to be more than 4 or 5 No. & So. the Coast of New Ireland is about 5 leagues from the No.

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[page 264]

May.1791.
side of it: This Island has every appearance of being equally fertile with Duke of York Island & considerably larger; there does not appear to be any danger about the shore; & which seems to promise good shelter for shipping. We did not see any Canoes, I suppose our distance & being directly to windward prevented their coming out to us: At 5 saw the Wt.part of New Ireland & the Islands laying off it & New Hanover which we passed in the night at 7 leags. distance: AM At 5 saw the Portland Isles from NobW to NW & pass'd them steering WbS by Compass at the distance of 4 Miles from the So.most of them & which appear'd to be near the middle of the Groupe; it is situated in 2 2°: 38'So. Latitude We saw 9 Islands all small & cover'd with Trees they extend Et. & Wt. from 149°:10' to 149°:06'Et.: It is necessary to observe that from the constant cloudiness of the weather, that those place since passing Cape St.George which we have determined the situation of as near as circumstances would admit, may be liable to some error.
We found St. Georges Channel a very clear good Navigation & affords refreshments to those passing through without much loss of time; We found a regular tide until the length of Sandwich Island, where we found a strong Wt.erly current which appear'd to alter its direction to the No.ward between New Hanover & New Ireland; We did not see the appearance of any Shoal

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[page 265]

May. 1791.
 all through the Channel, nor could we ever get sounds but just off & in the Cove where we anchored; The shore of New Ireland is very Mountainous & appears to be but thinly inhabited; New Britain is moderately high cover'd with Trees, appears to be cultivated & very full of Inhabitants; near the No. pt. of New Britain is three Hills or Mountains called by Capt. Carteret the Mother & Daughters from one of which a vast column of smoke almost constantly issued. We found the winds variable between Cape St.George & Sandwich Island.

Monday.30th. Squally unsettled weather: At 7AM Saw an Island to the NW, At 9 saw 2 more which at Noon we discover'd to join & form one large Island.

Tuesday.31st.. Modt. & fair weather, at 3PM Saw a Canoe wt. a Sail standing out from the Island first seen, but the Ship being to windward & a fresh breeze we soon lost sight of her, At 4 this Island bore No.7 Miles from which I fix its situation 2°:19'So. & 147°:52'Et., it is about 1 1/4Mile in length & has a very beautiful appearance, the shore towards the Wt.end off which lies a Reef, is rocky Cliffs & to the Et.ward & top sides of the Hills it is cover'd with trees, with some open patches delightfully green on the sides as we stood on to the Wt.ward we saw another Island; the wind being from the So.ward could not weather the large Island, we brought too for the night & at day light

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[page 266]

May; June. 1791.
found ourselves nearly in the same situation as when we brought too; Many other Islands were seen bearing from So.25°W round to the Wt.ward & No.ward to N23°Et. & the Island we passed yesterday bore No.80°Et. 15 Miles; Some Canoes came off from the large Island; at 8 we were within 4 Miles of it & nearly Calm; the Canoes came near the Ship but would not come alongside: I take them to be about 30 feet in length, they had a Platform or Stage in each, in the Midships which went out some distance on the Outrigger on the larboard side & projected with a rising over the starboard side, they had there were People on these Stages besides those who paddled, the greatest number I saw in one Canoe were 5 on the Stage and 6 at the paddles, one of those on the Stage had evidently the Command of the Canoe, they had Bows & Arrows with them, but we saw nothing Hostile in their manner;
We had reason to suppose they had been visited before, from their signifying to us by signs that they wanted to exchange some things with us & one of them went regularly through the motions of shaving himself, These people were ornamented with Shells & Bones in Rings round their Arms & hanging about their necks, the had something about their Waist which was supposed to be Bow Strings; The Man who we supposed to Command had his hair tied on the

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[page 267]

June.1791.
top of his head & was painted on the face & breast, they were near half an hour about the Ship, a fresh breeze springing up from the So.ward with rain they left us, We steer'd to the Wt.ward to get through between some of the Islands but finding them very thick in that direction & some shoals shewing themselves we bore away to the NW for a passage between two Islands that appear'd to be clear.

Wednesday. 1st. June. Modt. Breezes & showers of Rain PM At 1. Passed through between two of the Islands (had no soundings) & saw a very extensive Island to the Wt.ward; We steer'd WNW for the Et.most part of it & at day light found it to be the NE point of a very large Island the No. Coast of which lay nearly Et. & Wt. as far West as the eye could reach from the MastHead; We did not see the appearance of any Islands or Rocks laying off the No.ward of it: the Wind shifting to the WSW prevented our ranging along the shore; The extremes of this Island seen & some of the other Islands, are determined by the Latitude Obsd. & Longitude corrected, as follows.

[Table not reproduced -see original journal]

There are several Islands laying to the ENE of these, the tops of which were only seen from
the Mast Head.

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[page 268]

June.1791.

[Table not reproduced -see original journal]

This Land comprehends a very extensive & beautiful Country to appearance: & divided into a numerous cluster of small Islands besides two of considerable Extent both of which appear to afford shelter for a Ship; they appear to be full of People & are apart of those Islands named by Capt. Carteret Admiralty Islands; He passed to the So.ward of the large Island & did not see those which we sailed through in passing to the No.ward.

Wednesday 3rd. AM Saw 3 Islands through which passed & by Angles taken & the Ships run I fix them in
1°:33'So...145°:34'Et. - 0°:51'So...146°:17'Et. & 0°:44'So.. 145°:54'Et.
they appear'd high but of no considerable extent.

Monday. 6th.. Cross'd the Line in 144°:48'Et. Longitude Varn. Of the Compass 5°:00'Etly.; from this time to the 12th of July we had variable light breezes & a strong Et.erly Current which we found by Lunar Observations had set the Ship 10 Deg 21 Min to the Et.ward of the Log in that time sometimes going at the Rate of 40 Miles pr.day & at other times less, this very unfavourable circumstance & with every prospect of its continuance, occasioned a

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[page 269]

July.1791.
Consultation to determine what was best to be done; It was the general opinion that it was absolutely necessary that we should make the best of our way to Macao in China circumstanced as we were with respect to Provisions which as now become very short, the Wind being at SW We bore away on the 13th & steer'd to the No.ward: AM At 9. Saw Land, it appear'd to be an Island brg. NbW soon after, we saw 2 other Islands to the NWbN; As we approach'd the first, we found that they were all three connected by a Reef & dry sand bank extending 7 Miles in nearly a WNW direction & 3 Miles in breadth the Et.most of these woody patches which at first appear'd to be seperate Islands is about a Mile in length & lies in 8°:06'No...140°:30'Et. deduced from Lunar Observations taken two days before & 2 days after;
The two Wt.most patches are very small & close together & lie in 8°:08'No. ..140°:23'Et. It breaks very heavy upon the Sand all round, except just to the Et.ward of the two woody patches on the No.side of the Sand, where there appears to be a small opening; We passed the Et. pt. of this Island at about 3 Miles distant, Saw several of the Natives come out of the wood to the beach but did not see any of their Canoes or Habitations, We had an amazing number of Birds & fish about the Ship & many Bonettas were caught.

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[page 270]

July.1791.
Thursday.14th:The wind hauling round to the Et. & No.ward we could not pass to the Et.ward of a Group of the New Carolines which were near, we therefore run close along to the So.ward of them, but it being thick rainy weather we did not see any of them 'till the 18th when we discover'd Land & which proved to the Et. West most of the Caroline Islands At Noon they were seen to be 3 Islands & a rock above water the No.part of the middle Island which is the largest & has some high Land upon it lies in 9°:35'N. ..137°:39'Et. by Obsn . of the Moon & [stars] at 10 the following evening, they are well cover'd with Trees of which we had but an imperfect sight as we passed at 19 Miles distance from the nearest;
At 1/2 pt. 4 when the largest Island bore S13°W pr. Compass 24 Miles we came suddenly over a ledge of Rocks, saw the bottom very plain & had 15 fm. but I think we were in less water before the lead was hove, this ledge appear'd to extend to a considerable distance both to the No. & So. of us in a NbE & SbW direction, we stood on our Course NWbW & in about 10 minutes had no Soundings, I suppose it to be 2 or 3 Cables length in breadth & every appearance of deep water round it, there was a considerable Swell & had it communicated with the Islands in sight, I think we should have seen breakers between us & the Shore, of which there was no appearance all round; These Islands are called Ladda in the Old Charts

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[page 271]

July.August.1791.
& are to SW of the Groups called the New Carolines. It was now judged more elligible to alter our route & instead of going to Macao, to go for the Port of Manilla; we accordingly shaped a Course for Cape Espintu Sancto at the entrance of the Channel leading to it; the wind favour'd us 'till Sunday the 24th in Latd. 11°:57'No. ..131°:27'Et., when it came to the No.ward & then round to the Wt.ward wt. Squally Wtr.
The 26th. It increased to a strong Gale with which we kept on the Tack that would keep us most in with the Land, the Gale blew with great violence 'till the 29th with very heavy Squalls; The weather clear'd up with SSW wind & continued with moderate weather & a few Squalls between SSW & West of which changes we took every advantage, to get in with the Land: On the 3rd. of August we found that the Observation gave a degree to the So.ward of the Log for the last two days & we saw the looming of the Land to the Wt.ward;
We were in this situation 45 leagues from Cape St.Espintu Sancto brg. N70°W of us, the wind settled at SSW & SW blowing a steady fresh Gale, & altho' the streight leading to the Port of Manilla was to leeward of us & at so short a distance, It was now determined to beat to Windward along the Et. side of St. Johns & Mindanao & make the passage through the streight of Macassar, which had before been deem'd Impracticable [...] at the

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[page 272]

August.1791.
time that Macao as first determined on. As we came near the East Cost of the Phillipine Islands found a Strong So.erly Current which set from 25 to 50 Miles pr.day, wind So. & SW: Thursday 4th August, Saw Land to the WSW but at too great a distance to ascertain what part it was; We had variable light airs & Calm all night, At daylight Saw the Land again to WSW of considerable extent, We stood in WbN, I take the N.most part of this Land to be the N or NE Point of the Island of St. John, stretching out to the No.ward in a low point from very high Land ;
This Pt. by our Observations is in 9°:30'No. ..126°:30'Et. which situation nearly corresponds with the Dutch Est. India Directory but not with ours; We continue to work to the So.ward with great success the Current setting more than 1 Knot pr. hour to the So.ward; the Weather was hazey & clouds hanging heavy over the Land prevented our having a good view of it & ascertaining any of the projecting Points or Bays that may be there; A few miles to the So.ward of the NE Pt. of St.Johns is the appearance of an Island laying near the Shore & shelter behind it.

Saturday.6th. Had some good Observations of the [sun] & [moon] from which & the Latitude at Noon I fix the situation of a projecting Pt. running out to the No.ward & appear'd to form a Bay behind it. 7°:41'No. ..126°:28'Et. we were abreast of it at 6 leagues distance, the No. extreme of Land then in sight

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[page 273]

August.1791.
bore NNW a low point; & the other Extreme SbW, High Land.

Sunday. 7th. Clouds hung so heavy over the Land that it could not be distinctly seen, wind from the SbE to SW found the Current had set us 51 Miles to windward these 24 Hours; At Noon Could just discern the Land through the Haze to the WSW.

Monday. 8th. Stood off to the SE 'till 8 P.M, then Tack'd & stood to the Wt.ward & at 6 AM Saw an Island with a remarkable Peak on it & low land to the Wt.ward: At Noon it bore ESE 7 leagues from which I make its situation 5°:33'No. Latd. & Longd. by Ships Run from [sun] & [moon] yesterday 126°:35'Et.: Suppose it to be the Island called Palmas in the Old Charts: found the Current had set us 32 Miles to the So.ward these 24 hours.

Tuesday. 9th. AM. Saw Land to the WNW, we had light breezes from SSW to WSW , At Daylight Saw the South Pt. of Mindanao & the Islands laying off to the So.ward of it, the SE Point then bore N2°W 9 leagues, had very good observations of the [sun] & [moon] in the afternoon & of the [stars] on the opposite side in the evening; I fix the SE Pt. of Mindanao (or middle Pt. between that So. Pt & Cape St.Augustine) in 6°:00'No. .. 125°:49'Et. & Cape St.Augustine from Capt Carterets run 6°:12'No. 126°:30'Et. We did not find any Current these 24 hours; the Land of the So.Coast of Mindanao is very high, running down to those parts which appear to be projecting points & terminating in Land of moderate height.

Wednesday. 10th: Modt. Breezes wt. fair weather, Wind So.erly

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[page 274]

August. 1791
we gained but little to the Wt.ward: AM At 9 finding that we could weather the Islands, we bore away for a passage between the two Et.most of them, but on seeing breakers in the passage we stood back till the Boat was got out & went ahead when we followed her through.

Thursday. 11th: Found the Passage a very good & safe one, the Reefs on both sides shewing themselves & the depth of water 20 to 13 fathom, Rocky near the Reef & muddy in the Channel through which we passed, there is a reef laying some distance off the Et. side of the middle Island along parallel to the shore which being near the Surface always shews itself: There is also a Reef laying 1/2 Mile or more from the Et.most of the Islands running out to the ENE from it, the Sea breaks very heavy on it & some of the Rocks are above water: several of the Natives appear'd on the Middle Island & retired as we approach'd.
We stood tothe Westward & Tack'd occasionally as the Wind favored most; About 5PM Standing over for the largest of these Islands called by Capt. Carteret Hummock Island, Saw 2 Canoes or Boats coming towards us, with white Flags which was answer'd by our hoisting a White Flag at the Ensign Staff; One of them a Canoe came alongside before dark, asked many questions concerning the Vessel her destination & informed us that the Raja lived on the So. side of the largest Island which they call Loorongo:

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[page 275]

August. 1791
& that He was appointed; by the Dutch Et.India Company; from Ternate to Govern at these Islands, the Dutch having establish'd a Trade with them & that their small Vessels frequently came wt. Trade from Ternate an Island to on the Wt. side of Gilolo where the Dutch have a Settlement. They asked for a paper, with the Ships name, Captains name, where Bound to &c. for the Raja, which was given to them & they went away well satisfied. Having Malays on bd. & a Native of Ternate we understood each other perfectly by Conversation, they were most.ly of them cloth'd with Jackets Trowsers &c. & armed with a Cress or long Dagger;
About 8 O'Clock the others who were in a large Boat came close up under the Stern, ask'd many questions, said that they had things to sell, but that it being dark they would not dispose of any until the morning, they said that they would shew us a good Anchoring place & left us, steering over for the Middle Island where we should have followed had not the Wind prevented us; We therefore stood over towards Hummock Isl. or Loorongo in hopes of getting good Anchorage there, when with 1 1/2 or 2 Miles of the Shore got Soundings, 80 fm. & at Noon Came too in 25 fm. Sand & Shells about 3/4 of a Mile from the Shore abreast of us on the NE. side of Loorongo; The Pt. of that Island bore S.38°E & N86°W The Hummock SW; The Middle Island S.49°E to N40°Et. The No. most

Transcript of a138276

[page 276]

August. 1791.
No.most of the 3 Islands N37°E: The So.Coast of Mindanao from N40°W to N26°E about 5 leagues distance: Soon after we anchored, several of the Natives came on board, appear'd very well disposed & traded very fairly; Most of them had Cresses by their sides.

Friday 12th. P.M: A Boat with some people of consequence came off with a Dutch Flag flying; they brought an answer to the Letter sent to the Raja last night & which mention'd that we could get Wood & Water; Goats, Poultry &c. but that they had but little Rice or Paddy to spare, they also brought on board what they called a Pass dated. 1791 from the Dutch Company, Authorising the Raja to Govern these Islands & the Vessels trading here from Ternate; Several of the Natives came on board but few articles were purchased this afternoon;
The Boats were sent for a turn of Water & returned before dark with a Raft of 14 Casks they found it a very good watering place & convenient except just at low water when the Reef dries some distance off, the Natives shew'd where to fill the Water & then retired. AM. Soon after Sunrise several of the Natives came off bringing many useful necessaries to Trade with us, Poultry, Sago, Tobacco, Honey, Wax, Sugar Cane & various fruits were exchanged for Cloath, Iron, Buttons, Knives &c. in all which they

Transcript of a138277

[page 277]

August.1791.
dealt very fairly & honestly; Watering went on very well: Many of the Natives brought fruit &c. to Trade to the watering place & exchanged with out People for what things they had to give them; Our Party on shore were not armed any part of the time.

Saturday.13th. The Raja came on board; He was saluted with 3 Guns as was the second in Command when He came; & on their leaving the Ship they were saluted by  with a Volley of Small Arms from the Poop; An Armed Party having been previously station'd there in case these People might shew any hostile intentions which not appearing in the smallest degree the Musquets were discharged as a Salute:
The Raja promised to come the next day & bring a sufficient quantity of Rice & Paddy for all our People, He had a present of a Peice of Silk given him by the Master of the Vessel: He was on board about an hour in the course of which time he shew'd a Paper signed by Capt. Vanholm, Commodore of the States Ships then employed in India, appointing him the King of these Islands, Many useful necessaries were procured this day & 10 Bags of Paddy on the Publick account. AM At daylight when the Boat was towing a Raft of Casks on shore it came on to blow very fresh from the WSW by which several of Casks were lost & we were prevented from Compleating our water.

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[page 278]

August.1791.
Sunday.14th: PM. It continuing to blow fresh from the WSW it was judged necessary to go the Sea before night with what water & refreshments we had procured; About 5 O'Clock the Raja came on board according to his promise, but instead of bringing the articles he mention'd yesterday; He only brought 20lb of Rice, On which the Commander of the Vessel remonstrated & told him that he had broke his word & I have reason to think threaten'd him with Confinement until those things were brought, He having declared that to be his intentions, but as their Conversation was in the Malay language, what passed could not be well understood by us farther than by their actions;
The instant Words arose which I supposed to be threats, An Old Man who stood near drew his Cress & would have immediately ki stabb'd the Commander of the Vessel had not the Raja prevented him; the Raja then went to the Ships side where his Boat was, & several of his People coming in with their Cresses drawn, He made a stand as if he meant an attack, but by this time several of the Officers were armed & all hands coming aft with handpikes, Capston Bars &c. they made a very precipitate retreat throwing themselves over the quarter into their Boat & some into the water, they immediately cut the Boat adrift, the Raja himself after throwing a Spear into

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[page 279]

August.1791.
the Ship took an Oar to endeavour to get the Boat away from us; She was scarce astern of us when a Strong Party was collected on the Poop at Small Arms, who kept up a very smart fire on them for some time; Every ball going through their awning of Slit Bamboo into the Boat, great execution must have been done the whole of them except the Raja & one man being in the body of the Boat, some were seen to fall in attempting to get to the Oars & we have great reason to think that the Raja fell at one of the Oars.
Some Great Guns were fired when they had got a little dis'ce. off but only the Grape shot struck the Boat, the round shot going over her; The Boat belonging to the Ship was at this time returning from the Shore with some Goats & other articles which one of the Natives of some consequence had sent off as a present;
Our watering party were luckily all on board, but unfortunately one of the Malays who had been left to take care of some Casks that had drifted on shore was not thought of 'till it was too late, as there was a necessity for our going to Sea immediately, Night coming on, the Ship having drove close to a Reef & the lee tide nearly made against us & which would set us over the Reef & only one little Boat that we could have sent to the shore. We weigh'd & stood out to the Et.ward about 8 O'Clock.

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[page 280]

August.1791.
The road in which we anchored is shelter'd from the NE to the So.ward & Wt.ward to West, by the Pt. of the Island Loorongo & those laying near it, the bottom does not appear to be good holding ground as we drove without any Sea setting in upon us; There is every appearance of good shelter in deep Coves along the West side of the Middle Island, as also of as clear passage out from thence to the So.ward but for want of a Boat we could not ascertain either;
These Islands afford plenty of Goats, Poultry Sago, Yams, Sweet Potatoes, Honey & Wax in great quantities, Tobacco, Sugar Cane exceedingly large & fine & all the Fruits usually found between the Tropics, We saw some Nutmegs, but whether they got them from the Dutch or were the produce of the Island we could not learn; they have Turtle about these Islands the Shell of which is an Article of Commerce: A Ship might get every refreshment here provided a friendly intercourse with the Natives could be establish'd.
Our Anchorage lies in 5°:26'N & 125°:12'Et. from as mean of 50 Observations of the [moon] & [stars] on each side of her, from which & the Bearings taken, I make the So. Point of Mindanao to lie in 5°:40'N & 125°:08'Et: The Hummock on Hummock Island or Loorongo 5°:23'No...125°:09'Et. & the small Islands the No.most of the three 5°:36'N. .. 125°:21'E.

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[page 281]

August.1791.
Variation of the Compass 1°:00' Et.

Monday.15th. Wind SW to So. Passed 5 Islands to the Wt.ward of us, & saw more to the SW & one very large one to the SSW before night; between those two of the Islands first seen there appear'd to be a Reef; but the distance we passed from the others prevented our being able to see whether they had any dangers about them; We had but little wind all night & at day light found that the Current had set us close up the Islands & Rocks laying about to the NW & NE of the large Island:
About 11 We were set close in between two of the Islands, Hoisted a Boat & sent her to examine the passage & if they found it clear they were order'd to go on to the Small Island & try if any thing was to be got there; We had drifted considerably within this Island when a fresh breeze spring up Made Signal for the Boat, she returned without having landed but was near enough to see several Natives on the beach & that the Island was cover'd with Cocoa Nut & Plantain Trees & had the appearance of a litt le Garden: Sounded 70fm. Sand.

Tuesday.16th. P.M: We had just got without this Passage again when it Calm we were carried along by the Current to the Wt.ward close along by the other small Islands & had no Soundings, about 12 the Land wind came off with which we stood clear out to Sea between the NW Pt of Po.Sanguy, & an Island laying about 9 Miles to the No.ward of it: These Islands being

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[page 282]

August.1791. cover'd with Cocoa Nuts & Plantains have a beautiful appearance; We saw some Canoes fishing but they did not regard us. In passing from Loorongo to Po.Sanguy we found a Chain of small Islands all in sight of each other, the Situation of those that se saw are as follows

[Table not reproduced - see original journal]

We had light breezes cheifly from SSE to SW & having clear weather & good Observation every day for the Longitude were able to determine our situation very near & found a little westerly Current: We pass'd a great quantity of drift wood & some very large Trees.

Thursday.25th: Saw the Land & at Noon the NW Point of Celebes bore SbE 11 leagues: the Wind when we had any was cheifly from the SW, we had much Calm & made but little progress, It was not 'till the 28th that we brought the NW Pt. of Celebes to bear East of us, we then began to feel a Southerly Current tho' not very strong & consider'd

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[page 283]

August. 1791.
ourselves as then entering the Streights of Macassar. From our Situation at Noon the last 4 days & the bearings taken I make the NW Point of Celebes to lie in 1°:19'N & 121deg;:02'Et: And another Point to the So. & Wt. of it & which has much the appearance of an Island 1°:09'N. .. 120°:35'Et. We found the Variation of the Compass so trifling, that the Compass would sometimes give five a few Miles Et. & sometimes Wt.

Monday.29th: A Fresh breeze Sprung up from the SSW with which we stood over f towards the Borneo shore; the wind continued steady till 4 AM when it shifted to the Wt.ward in a heavy & sudden squall; blew Strong for about an hour & then settled in a moderate breeze at WSW: from which Qt. we have mostly found the winds prevail even so far to the Et.ward as the New Carolines.

30th at 6 PM Saw the Et. Coast of Borneo bearing WSW 12 leagues & the Taba Island (the So.most) WNW 4 leags. We had then run 93 Miles from the NW Pt. of Celebes on nearly a West Course, which differs considerably from Capt. Carterets run in the Swallow, At. 10 AM Saw both shores being then in Latitude 1°:00'N & which I take to be the narrowest part of the streight & which by Observations & bearings taken I make 70 Miles: The Mountains shew on both sides before you see the Land of the Sea Coast; the Wind when we had any was cheifly from the So. to SW & sometimes light Land winds for a few hours from the Celebes shore. We

Transcript of a138284

[page 284]

September. 1791.
We cross'd the Line Sepr. 2nd. In Longitude 119°:25'Et. at 13 Miles distance from an Island laying under the Line & close to the Celebes shore, having Light airs & Calm we made very little progress. On the 7th at Noon Saw a Point on the Celebes shore bearing East 8 leagues which was the So.most part of it that we saw & lies in 1°:47'So. .. 119°:19'Et. by Observation.

The 9th: Standing over towards Borneo, at day light saw breakers to the SWbW & an Island behind them; At Noon the Island bore WSW & was seen over a range of very heavy breakers, with some rocks shewing above water, which I take to be the NE part of the shoals & from which we were then 3 Miles: That part lays in Latde. 2°:57'So. .. 117°:57'Et. We could not ascertain the situation of the Island not knowing the distance it was at the back of the reef; It appear'd to be surrounded with very dangerous shoals extending some Miles both to the NW & SE of that part to which we were nearest: We had 35 fm. sandy bottom 12 Miles to the NEbE of them.
They are call'd the Triangles in the Dutch Chart, but no notice seems to be taken of them in ours, unless they are there called the little Pater Nosters & then they are very erroneously placed: We cross'd the whole of their extent in Latitude in the day time 2°:15' to 2°: 31' So. as given by Capt Carteret at the distance of 10 to 18 leagues from the Celebes Shore with seeing any thing & run between 80 & 90 Miles

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[page 284]

September. 1791.
We cross'd the Line Sepr. 2nd. In Longitude 119°:25'Et. at 13 Miles distance from an Island laying under the Line & close to the Celebes shore, having Light airs & Calm we made very little progress. On the 7th at Noon Saw a Point on the Celebes shore bearing East 8 leagues which was the So.most part of it that we saw & lies in 1°:47'So. .. 119°:19'Et. by Observation.

The 9th: Standing over towards Borneo, at day light saw breakers to the SWbW & an Island behind them; At Noon the Island bore WSW & was seen over a range of very heavy breakers, with some rocks shewing above water, which I take to be the NE part of the shoals & from which we were then 3 Miles: That part lays in Latde. 2°:57'So. .. 117°:57'Et. We could not ascertain the situation of the Island not knowing the distance it was at the back of the reef; It appear'd to be surrounded with very dangerous shoals extending some Miles both to the NW & SE of that part to which we were nearest:
We had 35 fm. sandy bottom 12 Miles to the NEbE of them. They are call'd the Triangles in the Dutch Chart, but no notice seems to be taken of them in ours, unless they are there called the little Pater Nosters & then they are very erroneously placed: We cross'd the whole of their extent in Latitude in the day time 2°:15' to 2°: 31' So. as given by Capt Carteret at the distance of 10 to 18 leagues from the Celebes Shore with seeing any thing & run between 80 & 90 Miles

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[page 286]

September.1791.
Being only a dry low Sand Bank of small extent It lies in 3°:35'So. .. 1187deg;:01'Et. by [moon] & [stars] & bears from the Triangles So.6°E 38 Miles: AM. At daylight saw Land bearing WSW1/2W 3 leags. which we soon discovered to be some small Islands called the Brothers, laying off the large Island Po. Laudt on the SE end of Borneo, they bear from the shoal S84°W 59 Miles: After passing the Spit to the So.ward of the Sand bank we had 22 & 20 fm. Sand & Mud all across to the Brothers & 17 when within 3 Miles of them, they are in 3°:41'So. .. 117°:02'Et.

Monday.12th. We found that the swell & a strong indraught between Po. Laudt & Borneo carry the Ship in upon the shore that laying up SWbS we could not clear the land; We stood into 12 fm. & then stretch'd off in hopes of getting out to the Et.ward of the Brothers again, which we could not accomplish 'till the 13th. in the AM, At Noon on which day they bore WSW 16 Miles so that we were again carried into the Streight after having supposed ourselves clear.
While between the Brothers & Borneo we found the sounding very regular from 20 to 12 fm. blue mud; at the dist. of 7 to 2 leagues from the shore. The Shore of Borneo appear'd low & woody with many openings & some Islands laying off between Po. Laudt & Borneo; there is a hill which shews over the lowland & is the only high land that we saw between Po. Laudt & a projecting point which we take to be

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[page 287]

September.1791.
the South Pt. of Borneo & it is a low woody Point; We saw Land without it to the SW which appear'd to us to be Islands, on one of which is two Mountains or very high hills exactly resembling each other, this was supposed by some to be the South Pt. of Borneo; I think it doubtful which of the two is the So.Pt. this last mentioned in Lat: 4°:14'So. 116°:20'Et. or the low Woody Pt. beforementioned in 3deg;:59'So. .. 116°:34'Et.

The 14th & 15th: We endeavor'd to work up to the SW but lost ground the wind inclining to the Wt.ward of So. & a great swell running in upon the shore; We were then under a necessity of stretching out to the Et.ward as the only chance of getting far enough to the So.ward to weather the Brothers of So. part of Borneo; We fell to the No.ward of the sand bank Zeelandt & at 8 AM the 17th saw it bearing WbS 5 or 6 Mile, from which I judge that we passed to the No.ward of it in the night at 5 or 6 Miles disce. making an EbN or ENE1/2E Course from the Brothers & had from 17 to 25 fm. across & 28 to 30 passing along to the Et.ward of it at 4 1/2 Miles distance, the wind favoring us we stretch'd to the So.ward & had 30 fm. at Noon the Sand Bank bearing NbE. 12 Miles.
It is very low & appears to be just a heap of sand, we did not see any thing like a bush upon it & cannot be seen more than 6 or 7 Mile from a Ship's deck: There appears to be good soundings to it on all sides except the So. off which runs the Spit that

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[page 288]

September.1791
we pass'd over; & from the Rocks that we then saw laying on the bottom & the irregular soundings, I think the South side should be passed with great caution & not within 7 Miles. We were just a week from having pass'd it the first time & found the situation we had then fixed it in, to correspond with our run this time from the Brothers & which is settled by several Lunar Observations.

Sunday. 18th. At Noon, In Latitude 4°:03'So. & 117°:48'Et. I consider ourselves clear of the Streight of Macasser in which we were 24 days from making the NW Pt. of Celebes. I would not by any means recommend this passage for Ships bound to the Wt.ward, the SW wind being so prevalent all through & indeed we found them at times as far to the Et.ward as St.George Channel & after passing through it we were forced to the No.ward of the Admiralty Islands by SW winds & after laying more than 4 weeks becalm'd & swept away to the Et.ward by a Current, the SW wind again prevail'd with which we stood to the No.ward , had the easterly trade for a day or two in 9°Latd.No. & then found the SW Monsoon meet us again along to the So.ward of the New Carolines, Coast of Mindanao & through the Streight of Macasser. We saw many Proas, all of which appear'd to be for Plunder as they never kept a steady Course as if bound on any Trade.

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September.1791.
Latitudes & Longitudes: Streight of Maccaser:

NW Pt. of Celebes .......1°:19'N. 121°:02'E. To the Et.most part
of Borneo seen by us W.81 1/2 °:W. ......... 133 Miles.
Taba Islands So.most of them ...... 1°:29'N. ..119°:17'Et. Lie from
NW Pt. of Celebes W1/2 N. .........105 Miles.

Land near the Et point of Borneo 1°:00'No. ..118°:50'Et.
Opposite the Celebes shore 1 :00 . ....... 120: 00
A small Island under the Celebes shore 0 :00 ........ 119: 38
So. part of Celebes seen 1:47So. .... .119: 19
Triangles; NE part of the Shoals 2:57 ...... 117: 57
Sand bank, Zeelandt 3:35 ...... 118: 01
Brothers 3:41 ...... 117: 02
Triangles to the Sand Bank. S.6°Et. 38 Miles
Sand Bank to the Brothers. S.84°W 59 Miles
So. Pt of Borneo, Low woody point {3°:59' So. ....116°:34' Et.
So.most Land; 2 remarkable hills {4 :14 ...........116 : 20

Monday 19th: AM At 9. Saw rocks under the ships bottom; sounded. 10, 9, 12 fm. in a quarter of an hour had deep water again, Saw the shoal extend some miles to the NNW & SSE of us that to the So.ward appear'd very shoal that part which we pass'd over is in 4°:36'So. .. 117°:19'Et. by [sun] & [moon] & no Land in sight from the Mast Head

Tuesday.20th. Saw Land bearing from WbN to WbS 6 or 7 leagues

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September.1791.
which we suppose to be Little Po. Laudt, we saw as large & a small Island, the SE Part of which is in 4°:53'So. ..116°:16'Et.. We passed to the So.ward of them & had 25 fm. Muddy bottom:

Wednesday. 21st.: At 12 PM. Saw Solombo NNW 3 or 4 Miles, the Soundings between little Po. Laudt & it were from 25, 28, 20, 18 & 16 when abreast of Solombo & soon after we pass'd it 32. I make the So. side of Solombo 5°:41'So. ..114°:14'Et. by [sun] & [moon].

Friday.23rd: At 6.AM Saw Carimon Java brg. West 6 or 7 leagues. We passed to the So.ward of them at 4 or 5 leagues distance: Carimon Java appears to be a large Island with 2 rem'ble hills upon it, with several small Islands laying off both to the Et.ward & Wt.ward & several rocks above water scatter'd about the Islands: The Latitude of the middle of the So. side of the large Island is 5°:51'So. & Longitude 110°:35'Et. they are several Miles in Circuit.

Saturday. 24th. AM Soon after Sunrise a very sudden change in the weather (which was clear & serene) took place Clouds came very fast from over the Land with several whirlwinds pools all about, two of which pass'd very near the Vessel, these

were succeeded by tremendous Water Spouts which drove the Water up as high as our lower Mast heads in a foam all round them & making a rapid progress along the Water, two of these came very near us at which we fired 2 Shot, without effect; they pass'd clear to leeward

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September. 1791.
& in half an hour afterwards dispersed, when the weather clear'd up again.

Sunday. 25th. At 5PM. Saw the land of Java WbS & the Boomkins NW 9 or 10 Miles: They are two low Islands laying about NNW & SSE of each other cover'd with Trees; there is a Reef laying off to the No.ward of them on which is some rocks above water. We pass'd 8 Miles to the So.ward of the innermost: the middle of the So. side of which is in 5°:55'No. Longde. ..108°:37'Et.

From Solombo to Carimon Java, is S87°:23'W ...........219 Miles
   " Carimon Java to the Boomkins S88°:40'W ...........118
   " Boomkins to Carawary Pt. S86°:42'W ........... 87.
By our Observations the Boomkins appear to be much misplaced in the Directory, as are
Solombo & Carimon Java with respect to Latitude.

Monday. 26th. Pass'd several Ships & Vessels working along shore to the Et.ward, at Sunset, saw Carawary Pt. S.55°W 4 or 5 leags. the Pt. next to the Et.ward of Carawang Pt. has some remarkable Trees on it which look like Ships at an Anchor & is a very good mark coming from the Et.ward along the Coast of Java to know when you are near Carawary Pt.

Tuesday. 27th: At 5PM. Anchored in Batavia Road in 3 fm. found several Dutch Indiamen, 2 French Ships & an English Snow belonging to Bombay laying there. Edam. N17°E Onrust N46°W. Church at Batavia S12°E 1 Mile from the shore.

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September. 1791. October.
We were 26 weeks from Port Jackson & arrived with the whole Ships Company in good health. By the Commander of the English Snow we heard of the War in India & of the Fleet fitted out in consequence of the dispute with Spain, of the Great Naval Promotion & that the Gorgon with the Lt.Governor for New South Wales & the other Ships for Port Jackson were at the Cape of Good Hope in August last.

Thursday. 29th: The Vessel went to Onrust to be refitted for the Voyage to Europe: & returned to Europe Batavia the 12th October on which day a Squadron of Dutch Men of War arrived.

Saturday. 15th Octr. The Dutch Master of the Waakzaamheyd was turn'd out of her for Insolent & other improper behaviour behaviour & his Crew all previously discharged agreeable to the Contract made between him & Governor Phillip, the English Colours & Pendant were hoisted the Ship being left to the direction of Capt. Hunter We had hitherto continued healthy but now began to feel the effects of the Climate which is certainly one of the worst in the World & had been particularly so these last 2 years the number which have died at Batavia in that time is incredible & not to be ascertain'd with certainty. At Onrust which may be consider'd their Dockyard where they heave their Ships down &

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October. 1791.
repair all defects they have now only 200 Carpenters & other artificers & Labourers left out of 2000 which were employed there 2 years ago, that they have lost 1800 on the Island, besides the Supplies of some few which every Indiaman from Holland brings out with them for that purpose the Master Carpenter told me, that He was one of the only 5 European Carpenters left alive there: We were told at Batavia on our arrival that the sickness was just then inconsiderable to what it had been & from what our Officers saw, who lived ashore at Batavia the Mortall )ity was then very great.

Thursday. 20th: AM Sailed from Batavia Road but having some Stores to take in at Onrust we anchor'd there about Noon & on the 22nd. At daylight Sailed & stood out to the Wt.ward between Middleburg & Ontory Java; not being able to weather the shoal point off Man Eaters Island. We anchored at Noon in 4 1/2 fm. Sand & Mud the Beacon on the Spit brg. SWbW 1/2 Mile & Maneaters Island WSW; Sent the Master to examine the Channel, found it a very good one; We found the Shoals had marks on them, but some being beacons, & others Buoys we were sometimes a little at a loss but pass'd very well through by a Dutch Chart which we got at Batavia; the next morning we weigh'd & stood to the Wt.ward with the Land Wind between Pulo

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October.1791.
Pulo Baby & Bantam Point: but not being able to weather St.Nicholas Pt. when the Sea breeze came in we anchored off it in 22 fm. The Pt. bearing WSW 2 Miles. While at anchor we found a strong Wt.ly current & at day light weigh'd again, working to the SW through the Streight of Sunda.

Tuesday 25th: PM. Spoke an English Ship from Bombay, bound to Batavia; by Her we heard that all was Peace in Europe: A Dutch Boat came on board soon after from Anger Point, with Turtle &c. to sell, there was a Dutchman in her who brought a book to take an account of the Ships name &c.: By examining this Book for English Ships that might have pass'd the Streight lately; we found that the Leopard Capt. Blankett with a small Squadron & Convoy from China amongst which were the 5 Ships from Port Jackson has pass'd this Streight in April last. The wind fixing at SSE we continued to work to windward through the Streight which we clear'd the 26th. having Java Head E1/2S 8 or 9 Leagues: At 6 AM. The 26th. the Weather became Squally with rain & continued so till the 30th. in 10°So. Latde. When the SE trade appear'd to be fixed & blew a steady Fresh Gale.

Tuesday. 1 Novr. At 3PM. Saw Cocos or Keelings Islands from N8°W to N35°W about 5 leagues distance: At 4 the Middle of them No. 5 leagues from which I fix the situation of the So. side of those Islands 12°:03'So. & 98°:20'Et. by our account

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N ovr. Decr. 1791.
from Java Head: There are 3 distinct Islands & some Rocks above water with very heavy breakers all about them, they extend about 3 leagues Et. & Wt. are very dangerous being so very low, that they cannot be seen more than 5 leagues: We find their Longitude nearly the same as given by Capt. Hudson in Herberts East India Directory but differ in Latde. 13 Miles, Probably he may have pass'd to the No.ward of them & given the Latitude of the No. side of them & it being hazey when our Observation was taken there might be an error of 2 or 3 Miles in that: We could not ascertain their extent No. & So.. The SE Trade continued till the 20th November between EbS & SSE sometimes light & sometimes Squally, but in general a steady Fresh Gale & fair weather: On the 28th. it became rather variable but cheifly from the NE to the SE & So.

December 14th. At 4 AM. In Latde. 35°:53'So. Longde. 21°:59'Et. got soundings 70 fm. Sand & Mud, Cape Lagullas then bearing N51°:45'W true brg. 36 leagues & had 27 1/2°;Wt. variation, from which situation we steer'd NWbW pr. Compass 24 Miles, NW 22 & had 53 fm. Sand & Stones, then NbW 26 & had 60 fm. coarse sand & stones then NbW 26 and had 60 fm. coarse sand & broken shells: We then hauled in NNE at 5 AM the 15th & after running 10 Miles saw the Land from NNW to NNE off shore 6 or 7 leagues. We then steer'd NW 20 Miles inclining in with the Land to Noon at which time we knew to be Cape Lagulhas & bore NbW by Compass 4 leagues & which by Observation I make in Lat

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Decr.1791. January. 1792
34°:46'So. from which & taking its Longitude 20°:15'Et. of Greenw'h. the situation of the Ship at 4AM the 14th is reduced back by the Log. Cape Lagulhas (the most So.ern part of the Land forming it) is a low Sandy Point, the land moderately high behind it & coming from the SE has much the appearance of being a sandy beach in a bend of the Coast which falls in a bight to the NE round it but as you come near the shore makes in a projecting Point & is the most So.ern point of the whole Coast. It may also be known by the Gunners Quoin which is a high hill about 4 leagues to the Wt.ward of it much resembling the Bill of Portland when to the Et.ward of Wt.wd. of it, but loses its remarkable appearance when abreast of it. For a considerable distance both to the Et. & Wt.ward of Cape Laghulas at the distance of 4 leagues from the Shore the water was of a green muddy colour & appear'd to be shoal, but as we did not heave the lead, can only judge from the appearance.

16th. Decr. At 8 AM Pass'd the Cape of Good Hope at 7 or 8 Miles distance with a fresh Gale at SE: Saw the Bellows break very high.

Saturday. 17th. PM. Standing in for Table Bay, met the SE wind out of the Bay so strong that it obliged us to Anchor 2 Miles to the No.ward of the proper Anchorage. We saw

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an English Ship of War & Brig in the Road: A Boat from the Ship soon informed us that it was the Providence Sloop & Assistant Brig going to the Society Islands for the Bread fruit plants. The Providence commanded by Capt. Bligh who soon after his return to England when forced away from the Bounty, was made Port Captain & these Vessels fitted out for the same Voyage. We found also that the Pitt Indiaman was in the Road bound to New South Wales. She had on board Major Grosse the New Lieut.Governor of that Territory with part of his Corp. & Men & Women Convicts. By meeting with these Ships we got accounts from England to the latter end of July which in our situation was very Interesting. We found heard that the Gorgon had sailed from the Cape last July & that al the other Ships for New South Wales had passed all well. We made several unsuccessful attempts to get up to the Anchorage off the Cape Town but & lost ground every time & on the 20th at 4 PM. It blew so violent that we found the Ship would not ride with 2 Anchors ahead & a whole Cable upon each, we therefore cut & run out to Sea (to prevent driving too near the No. shore & then not be able to do it) to the No.ward of Roben Island & were so fortunate as to regain the Bay & anchor off the Cape Town

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Decr. 1791. Jany. 1792.
the 22nd. at 6PM: We stood in for Bay with the Signal of Distress & had every assistance from the Providence & other Ships that could be given & before dark got an Anchor & Cable from the Shore with which we moored.

Friday.23rd. The Swan Sloop of War arrived from England bound to the Et. Indies, sailed from England 23 Sepr. last. The same evening the Providence & Assistant sailed on their Voyage.

January. 12th.:1792. After having refitted the Ship & waited several days for the recovery of the Sick, we were under the necessity of leaving 5 of them at the Hospital; the others were taken on board but by no means perfectly recover'd: The Wind being unfavorable it was the 18th. before we could get to Sea. At Noon Passing Roben Island. Whilst we were at the Cape: We fitted the Spare Main TopMt. for a Mizen Mast & got down the TrySail Mast & Gaft as the Vessel was in want of After Sail: Having experienced that She was considerably over Masted, we reef'd both the TopMast 4 feet & made some other necessary alterations for the security of the Masts. We had the Wind from the So. to the SW till in the Latde. of 23° when we got the SE Trade which in general was Moderate & fair weather: Made the Island of St,Helena the 4th of February & Anchored off James's

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Febry. 1792.
Valley at Noon the same day.
In standing towards St.Helena, it is best to keep to the SE of the Island before you get close in with it. It may be approached without fear. The only Landing places are on the NW side of the Island & the anchoring ground off the Town being not more than One Mile & the outer edge of the bank not more than two Miles, it is necessary to keep the shore close aboard as you haul round the NE end of the Island (Barn Pt.) which you may know coming from the SE by a very ragged hill on the Et side & about a Mile to the So.ward of it, with a small Sugar Loaf top & a look out house on it, where they hoist Signal Flags & shew balls; before you get the length of that Hill, you will see the top of Sugar Loaf Hill with a Flag & Fort on it shewing over the Land between this look out & Barn Pt. When you pass Barn Pt. which you may do at a Cables length distance haul close up for Sugar Loaf Pt. which runs steep down to the Sea from the Fort beforemention'd & is about 2 Miles to the Wt.ward of Barn Point. It is necessary to keep close in with Sugar Loaf Pt. if the Trade wind is fresh, otherwise I think not nearer than 1/2 a Mile as the Wind baffles very much when the Trade is not brisk: As you approach Sugar Loaf Pt. you open the Road, which bears from it about SWbW p. Compass: between 2 & 3 Miles.

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Febry. 1792.
A small distance to the So.ward pf Sugar Loaf Pt. is Rupert's Valley (or rather Gulley) off which you have Anchorage if press'd to it: The hill forming this Valley to the SW also forms James's Valley to the NE: It has a square Fort near the Water & another Fort or Battery on the top & is called Munden's Pt. The Anchoring ground is off James's Valley. 12 or 15 fm. is a very good birth, you will then be rather more than 1/4 of a Mile from the beach. I would recommend always to Moor, or steady with the Stream, being subject to have strong flaws off the Land & between those flaws, baffling Winds from all quarters. . We found Watering very convenient; there being a Wharf & Crane built farther out than that one formerly used for the purpose, & proper Moorings laid down off it for a Boat to go & lay with Stoppers to veer in & haul out occasionally by Stern & Head Ropes: the Boat lays in deep Water, & the Crane projecting well over the Boat the Empty Casks are got up & full ones struck over, with great ease & expedition. It very seldom happens that the Surf is so great as to prevent Watering, but that may always be seen. On coming in with Sugar Loaf Pt.; it is necessary to send a Boat a head & inform the Fort which is near the Water on the Pt. what Ship it is, & they convey that information      

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Febry. March.1792.
as to the Nation, Force &c. by Signals to James Valley. Capt Hunter was saluted with 11 Guns on his going on Shore & on embarking to go to Sea. We found every thing very scarce & dear except Fish, occasioned by their having had two very dry Seasons following. Variation Obsn. in the Road. 15°:30'W

Monday. 13th: at 3 PM. Sailed from St.Helena & passed to the Wt.ward of Ascension the 20th. : We saw a Ship in close but did not speak with her: The SE Trade did not fail us till the 1st of March We cross'd the Line the 27th of Febry. in 22°:18'W Longitude, & kept the Trade fresh till the 1st.March when it became Light & variable & sometimes Squally before we got into the NE Trade which we did on the 5th of March in Latde. 5°:09'No. & 25 °Wt. Longitude. We were carried to the Westward to 46 degrees of Longitude & in the Parallel of 28 1/2° No. Latitude; when on the 30th March, the Wind back'd round to the Et.ward & SE & soon became Variable as generally found in the Western Ocean.

April.8th: Pass'd the Meridian of Corvo 31 Leagues to the Northward of it: Spoke an American Ship from Bristol by whom we heard all was Peace in England.

Sunday.22md. At 4 PM. Saw the Lizard brg. N.15°E 6 Leagues, do. by last Lunar Observations N.47°E 9 Leags. At 9.AM Saw Portland brg. NNE 4 or 5 leagues & at Noon were nearly abreast

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April, May.1792. of St.Albans the weather very hazey over the Land.

Monday 23rd. At 1 PM Saw the Isle of Wight & took a Pilot on board; At 5 pass'd the Needle Rocks & at 8 Anchored in Portsmouth Harbor off the Common Hard. Found Vice Admiral Roddams Flag flying on board the Duke with the Guardships belonging to the Port in the Harbor.

Friday. 27th: A Court Martial was held on board of the Brunswick to try Capt. Hunter, the Officers & Crew of the Sirius for the loss of the said Ship; when it appear'd that every thing was done, that could be done; to save the Ship; Capt. Hunter, the Officers & Crew were Honorably Acquitted & removed from the Waakzaamheydt to the Admiral's Ship, where they were paid off the 4th May 1792 ...... W: Bradley.