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(Arranged in chronological order for binding)

A. 1836. Posthumous Testimony to Native Chief. Died at Flinders Island Dec.4,1835. Describes the funeral with the address given. All apparently composed by Mr.Robinson who was in command of the settlement.

B. 1834. Approved scale of rations for aborigines.

C.1836. July 4. Flinders Island. G.A. Robinson to John Montagu, Colonial Secy. A report on the state and condition of the aborigines in the settlement. About 30 pp. Gives description of the habits, health, food, clothing religion, education, standard of civilisation, etc. The water supply is unpure, for which reason he has several times recommended moving the settlement to the “adjacent coast of New Holland." Gives some description of their amusements.

D. Statement of supplies sent to Flinders Island from Launceston, V.D.L.

E. 1836 Oct. 15. report by J.Montagu, the Lt. Governor on the settlement and condition of the aborigines. About 45 pp. Comments on MR.Robinson's various reports. Mr.R. was originally a missionary.

F.1836. Notes from G.A. Robinson to Col. Arthur accompanying presents of native spears, necklaces, and venison from Flinders Island.

G.1836. Oct. 27, 28, 29. Three reports from Mr. Robinson dealing with his proposal to move the Flinders Island settlement, to Mr. Montagu.

H.1836.Sept. 8. Report of 20 pp. form Mr. Robinson
to Mr. Montagu. Forwards half-yearly report to effect that conditions had greatly improved. Describes a new market. Adds a page written by an aboriginal youth.

I. 1834-7. Application for appointments as assistant Protector of Aborigines.

J. Account of provisions issued to aborigines.

K. 1825.Feb.24.Sydney. Copy of letter of instruction given by the I.M.S. to their missionary for the aborigines.

L. 1828. Nov.I. Printed Proclamation by Col. Arthur enforcing martial law against aborigines.

M. 1830. Aug.3. Anstay Barton, V.D.L.Acknowledgment by G.A. Anstay of 500 acres of land as mark of approval of his efforts relative to aborigines.

N. 1830. Nov.30. Borell Camp. Report on native problem to effect that segregation is only remedy and describes measures taken by troops with that object. Approx.10pp.

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O. No date but probably 1830. resolutions passed at a Public meeting in Hobart relative to natives.

P.1833. Oct.25. Wybalenna Aborigines Establishment. Mr.W.J.Darling to Col. Arthur. Reports having suspended Mr.Wilkinson.

Q. 1834. June 24.Wybalenna,Flinders Island. Mr.darling to Col. Arthur. Reorts on proposal to remove Aborigines elsewhere.

R. 1837. July 20. Downing St. Mr. James Stephen to Col. Arthur asks whether Mr. Robinson is equal to the task of the Office of Protector of the Aborigines in S. Australia.

S.1837.Nov.2 Downing St. Sir George Grey to Sir George Arthur. Asking if he knows of suitable persons to be appointed as Asst. Protectors of Aborigines. Four Needed.

T. 1837. Dec.15. London.Draft of Sir george Arthur to Lord Glenelg.Has made enquiries about fit Asst. Protectors of Aborigines. Submits four names and hopes that Mr. Bromley, already in S. Australia, will be considered as an additional asst.Says that ten Assts. are really needed.

U. 1851. May 5.Downing St. J. Hawes for Earl grey to Sir Geo. Arthur Bart. A pension has been granted to Mr. Robinson in response to his memorial to Sir George, in recognition of his quieting the natives under the Arthur regime.

V.No date. Moahara, Chief of the Heads at new Zealand, to his friend ,Governor Arthur. Wishes that Col, A. may remain friends with his tribe when he is dead. Is sending potatoes to Hobart Town & hopes Col.A. will receive some as a present: hopes to set up trade with V.D.L…“our people are not afraid to go to sea“ Will come to see Col. Arthur as soon as he can get a schooner of his own. 'Signature ' is a pencil design of a head with the N.Z. National Flag.

W.1829.? Copies of extracts from Major Gray's letter of recommendation of John Batman who is to direct a party in pursuit of the natives. Copy of extract of letter from Mr. Batman in which he seems aware of the necessity of a reconciliation between Government and the Aborigines.

[ in pencil on side of page - Bound separately] X. 1826-7. Major Lockyer's Journal concerning the establishment of a settlement at Princess Royal harbour, King George's Sound.

[in pencil at side of page - wrtn N.Z.] Y. 1834. March 26.Kookianga, New Zealand.Moeatari, Chief of the heads,to Col.Arthur. Acknowledges present of sword and cloak from Col.Arthur, and sends gifts which his ancestors held sacred, together with a pig.

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z. 1836. May. General Bourke's Proclamation respecting the atrocities committed on the natives at Port Phillip.
1836. printed copies of letters about the aborigines of Australia. 2nd. extract by Rev. Josrph Orton, Hobart town, Aug.1836. List of native words with English equivelants.

[in margin-wrtn NZ.] 13. Thomas Lonsdale's Observations respecting the New Zealanders. 20 June 1832.

W.J.Darling on the aborigines of Great Island 1826 Nov, 5-8 2 letters from Capt.Clark of Clancy Park

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A Copy of a Letter of Instruction given by the Deputation from the London Missionary Society, to the Rev Mr. Thrilkeld, on his settling at Reids' Mistakes as a missionary to the Aborigines of N.S.Wales.
Sydney N.S.Wales, Febr.24 1825. To the Rev. Mr.Thrilkeld. Dear [indecipherable]
A new field of labour has opened before you; & while it affords encouragement to our hopes of success to see the finger of Providence so clearly indicating the divine will. it should inspire you at [indecipherable]with confidence & with zeal in entering upon this important Sphere of Missionary labour, with the persuasion that your efforts shall not be in vain in the Lord.- While we know well that the success of all Missionary efforts depends upon the loving influences of the Holy Spirit of God, it gives us much satisfaction in feeling confident , that your talents ,your Devotion to your work, your extensive experience as a Missionary of the Cross , lends you in our estimation as a suitable instrument to employed in this important engagement. The novelty of an undertaking which proposes the

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Conversion of the Inborn Aborigines of this Country to Christianity , of their instruction in the Arts of Civilised Life, will fix upon the eyes of all in this ColonyCountry especially the Christian World in general: and awakens at once a universal interest,& a peculiar curiosity receiving your operations & in anticipating the results of the pending experiment .

Being aware of this we doubt not that on your part, prudence and activity & perseverance,& patience, in your great undertaking, will put to silence the ignorance of foolish men,& realise the hopes of the Society and of all who love the Lord Jesus Christ : while the promises of God that he will give the heathen to his Lord for his inheritance, & the affluent part of the Earth for his possession, and strengthen your hands & encourage your heart in a work which all will regard as peculiarly arduous, but which these promises encourage you to hope shall not be unsuccessful.

The liberal provision which the Government of this country has given of the appropriation of a large portion of Land for the use of the Natives at Reid's Mistake, and while you will reside with your Family, makes the way open & removes every impairment : so that you will proceed to your station there so soon as you can complete your previous engagements & operations,- We think it advisable that you should take a House at the Town of Newcastle for a short period , for the accommodation

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of your Family; while you will use your best endeavours to erect a suitable residence for your further convenience on some appropriate spot within the limit of the Land which has been given.
As to the best means of building such a House, it will be left to your own discretion; the friends of the Society being responsible for the expenses, you will see it necessary to use all the [indecipherable] which is consistent with domestic convenience and comfort.

As a knowledge of the Language of the Natives must be regarded as essential to the Success of your Mission, you will deem it your duty while the House is in progress, as well as after you have taken up your abode in it, to be using your best efforts to acquire it; While it will greatly facilitate the progress of your work to make yourself familiar with their customs, Superstitions and habits. By a knowledge of them, you will see what the principal difficulties opposing your progress are, while an intimate acquaintance with their language will enable you to communicate that information reporting the gospel of Jesus, which will be the best adopted to rein over the obstacles,& to ensure success.

You know well the importance of condescending to the capacity & to the ignorance of those degraded beings among whom you will have to dwell. While your example will inspire them with a concern

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to abandon their debasing habits, and to initiate those of Civilised Society. Labouring to cultivate their minds by instructing them in the arts of trading, writing & by communicating to them a knowledge of the Doctrines and precepts of the gospel,& the duties which they owe to the government of this country,& mankind in general, you will at the same time endeavour to promote among them Cleanliness, decency of Dress, (indecipherable)in cultivating Land & building themselves houses, & a regard to all the duties of domestic life.

Your knowledge of what has been done in these respects Among the adults of other heathen Nations will forbid that you should Despair of Success among those who have reached the years of maturity; but your special attention will be directed to the children, & to the young generation, as affording the best grounds of hope. Schools for the instruction of all will be your first object to establish, & which you will supervise with indefatigable care & Zeal.

And while your best efforts will be directed to heal their mental woes, your knowledge of Medicine will enable you to remove their bodily suffering. A steady attention to these objects together with a Kind manner, a tender soliciting to promote their temperance, happiness & comfort, & a glowing Zeal to advance their eternal salvation ,will not fail, we trust to secure to you their love, confidence & attachment. In you they will see what a Christian is, & be led to emulate his excellencies.

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The preaching of the Gospel being the great message which is ordained of God to effect the conversion of [indecipherable], & to promote their Sanctification& [indecipherable] for glory;& to break down their vile Superstitions which oppress the Heathen world, your immediate Solution will be to acquire such a knowledge of the Language of the People among whom you are to dwell and to be qualified as soon as possible to preach to them in their own Tongue the wonderful word of God.

To accomplish this will indeed be an arduous task; but the confidence which we have in your Talent & Diligence& in that Divine assistance which you will constantly implore, enables us a period not very remote where this will be achieved.-But when you have acquired a knowledge of the Language of these perishing Heathens, while your efforts will be more im-mediatly to promote the welfare of those who reside in your own immediate vicinity, you will not fail to embrace any opportunities which may offer of preaching the gospel to other Tribes, & of promoting the welfare of other natives to the utmost effort of your power throughout this vast land,- We rejoice that Providence has directed you to a partner in life likeminded with yourself , and trust ,as to Missionary Views & feelings. Her intimate

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knowledge of the Natives will qualify her to take an active part with you in promoting their welfare, especially the good of her own sex, to which we are confident, to the extent of her Domestic curriculum she will devote herself.-While as a missionary your immediate and & principal duties lie among the Aborigines of this Land, from which nothing must make you swerve,- but when opportunities offer of preaching the gospel to your countrymen, we are assured you will not fail to embrace them, & endeavour to promote the Salvation of those who have left their native shores,& taken up their abode in this country.

As to the onus of Sustaining yourself and Family it must be left to your own Discretion. Assured that you will use all the [indecipherable] which is consistent with your Domestic comfort, we pledge the funds of the Society for your support,& authorise you to draw upon the treasurer for such funds from time to time as may be necessary; at the same time we request that, so soon as you can ascertain what sum will be equal to your annual support, you will name it to the Society at Home, persuaded that a fixed annual Salary will be more able to all parties. As the Society will take the most lively interest in your engagement, it will afford them the highest gratification to know of your progress. You will

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therefore send a report, over a year, at least, to the Society, containing a full detail of the state of your Mission, & all the important transactions of the past year.
The object which your Mission proposes to accomplish, being those of the purest benevolence, the present comfort, & the eternal Salvation of mortal Souls; you will feel it your bounded duty to avoid any-thing with the politics of the country in which you live, on the one hand; while on the other, you will know all our deference and input to the Civil authorities of the Land,& endeavour to promote peace on Earth, goodwill towards Man,- even declaring yourself as a pious Christian, a peaceful Member of Society,& a worthy subject of the State.

On other particulars, respecting your Missionary Duties, it is not needful that we should [indecipherable], as contained in the several instructions which you Received from the Society when you first commenced your Missionary career,& to which we refer you.
During our residence in this country, we shall be happy to assist you with our advice, or in any other way in our power.- Affectionately commending you and your partner and family to

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a gracious God,& fervently praying that great [indecipherable] may attend your every effort to promote the Divine glory,& the good of immortal Souls, -We remain, dear Friend & Bro.r On the behalf of the Society, Your Friends & Brethren for Jesus' sake
Signed _{DamienTyerinan -
George Bennet.

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Cluny Park 5th Novr. 1826
My Dear Colonel
I trust you will excuse the liberty I take, in the absence of a Magistrate, in making known to your Excellency a most horrid murder committed by the Natives, on friday last, on the person of a Servant in the employ of Mr. Pitcairn, beyond the Shannon, by literally beating out his brains. This is the second murder perpetrated by this people during the last Month, beside having waylaid and attacked others who had the good fortune to escape, tho’ wounded by their spears. On Thursday they made an attack on the hut of Mr. Thomson, near Dr. Ross, where they were beaten off by the men, who barricaded the doors & windows, which they repeatedly attempted to force by battering them with stones. These acts of atrocity have lately been so frequent, and attended with such fatal consequences, that the stock keepers, & others employed in the bush, are afraid to go about their business, and I trust your Excellency will consider the matter of sufficient importance

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to direct some measures to be taken for the protection of the Settlers and their Servants in this remote quarter: two of my detached huts have been robbed by the blacks & my flock carried by their dogs which has occasioned considerable loss among my sheep.
I need not mention to Your Excellency that at the Cape a Camp of Nation’s Cavalry & Infantry beside a Regt. of the line are constantly kept on the Frontier for the express purpose of defending the Settlers from the depredations of the Savages.
I have the honor to be,
With much truth
Your Excellency’s
Most obedient Servant,
Wm. Clark
His Excellency
Lt. Governor Arthur
&c. &c. &c.
Since writing the above a party of Soldiers has passed my house sent (in my opinion very properly) across the Shannon by Mr. Dalrymple but this is the first time, I believe, that either the Civil powers, or the Military, has interfered for the protection of the

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inhabitants of this part of the Island from the repeated attacks of the natives.

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Captn. Clark
5th Novr. 1826
Informing me of a horrid crime committed by the Natives near the Shannon.

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Cluney Park 8th Novr. 1826
My Dear Colonel,
I have this day been honored with your Note of the 7th instant, wherein you allude to a letter of the preceding day, also to an Official from the Secretary, informing me of my appointment to the Magistracy, neither of which has come to hand. I beg leave to assure your Excellency that it shall be my constant endeavour to discharge, to the best of my ability, with fidelity and zeal, the duties of this high office to which you have done me the honor to appoint me. I this day attended an Inquest upon the body of Mr. Scott, the deceased overseer of Mr. Pitcairn: it appears from the clearest evidence that the man was murdered by the natives, who have for some time past manifested a hostile disposition towards the Stock Keeper in the neighbourhood of the Shannon, & particularly to those belonging to Mr. Thomson, whose hut they have repeatedly attacked, more particularly on Thursday last, as will appear from the evidence adduced before the Inquest, which I imagine will be forwarded to you. It appears that this people in their late outrages have been actuated by an opinion that Thomson’s Servants were concerned in detaining a Native woman, whom

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Dunn, about six weeks ago, carried captive to their hut, as she was seen among the assailants on Thursday.
Mr. Dalrymple will inform your Excellency what arrangements he has made for the protection of those residents on the other side of the Shannon. As yet no measures have been taken for the apprehension of the leader of this mob of natives, which is formidable in numbers, amounting to about two hundred, among whom are several that speak English; hence your Excellency will perceive the difficulty of securing the leader without injury to some of his less guilty companions, should an attack be made upon them. I shall be most happy to receive Your Excellency; instructions on this Lead: in the Mean time I shall consult with Mr. Dalrymple on the Most eligible mode of affecting this desirable purpose. Beside this large body who usually reside beyond the Big River, there are two or three small parties who are frequently seen wandering between the Clyde & the Shannon.
I have the honor to be,
Your Excellency’s
Most obedient
Humble Servant
Wm. Clark

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Captn. Clark, [indecipherable]
8th Novr. 1826
Respecting the Natives at the Shannon.

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No. 1 Moved by Mr. Kemp
Seconded by Mr. Gellibrand
That, in as much as no measures for repressing future aggressions on the part of the Aboriginal Natives, can reasonably be expected to attain complete success, without the most zealous and extensive co-operation of all classes of the Community - it is, at this juncture, peculiarly the duty of every man cheerfully to contribute to the common cause, every assistance within his power.
No. 2 Moved by Mr. Horne
Seconded by Mr. Collicott
That, as far as it respects the Inhabitants of Hobart town, such assistance may, in the opinion of this meeting, be advantageously afforded, either by personal services in the Country, or by performing a portion of the ordinary duties of the Military in the Town; by which last mentioned means a most valuable accession to the number of Troops might, as it appears to the Meeting, be for several Weeks placed at the disposal of the Government, for duty in the interior.

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No. 3. Moved by Dr. Turnbull
Seconded by Mr. Hewitt
That, with this view, the present Meeting, on behalf of themselves and their fellow Townsmen, agree to undertake for the period of 5 Weeks from the 7th second of October next, the performance of such portions of the ordinary military duties in Hobart town, as the number of volunteers subscribing to this Resolution shall be ascertained to be equal to.
No. 4 Moved by Mr. Stephen
Seconded by Mr. Thomson
That, in the opinion of this Meeting, the contemplated force will more readily and advantageously be raised, and kept together in an official state, by such a plan as, (one Officer, a person in charge, being selected for each Guard,) shall enable every Individual, so far as may be practicable, to select his own particular Guard, and the particular Officer, or person in charge, under whom he would prefer to enrol himself.
No. 5 Moved by Mr. Sorell
Seconded by Mr. Hackett
That, for the purpose of carrying the

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preceding Resolutions into effect, a standing Committee of 15 Gentlemen be appointed, with full powers to make such further general arrangements, and adopt such particular measures of detail, upon the subject, as may appear to them to be most expedient; that Mr. Stone, Mr. Horne, Mr. Cartwright, Mr. Stephen, Dr. Turnbull, Mr. Kemp, Mr. Hewitt, Mr. [indecipherable], Mr. Collicott, Dr. Ross, Mr. W.M. Orr, Mr. Gellibrand, be such Committee; that they have power to add to their number; and that 5 of them be a quorum.
No. 6 Moved by Mr. Mulgrave
Seconded by Mr. Jennings
That, The Committee, or such of them as can conveniently attend, be requested to wait upon His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor and communicate to him the proceedings of this Meeting.

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Resolutions passed at a Public Meeting held in Hobart relative to the Natives.

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Respecting Mr. Batman
[Margin note: Letter dated 16th June addressed to the Colonl. Secretary]
Mr. Simpson Police Magistrate Campbell Town in a letter of the 16th June 1829 forwarding Mr. Batman’s application, together with the recommendation thereof from Major Gray, J.P., states “I think Mr. B in “every way calculated for the undertaking he “proposes to engage in”.
[Margin note: Letter dated 15th June 1829 addressed to J. Simpson Esq J.P.]
Major Gray states - “I have just received the enclosed paper from Mr. J. Batman [indecipherable] whom, I am convinced, there is not any person in this part of the Country, more likely to succeed in the object he proposes, or who from his sentiments on the subject of the unwarranted, and brutal manner in which the system of retaliation now pursued by those wretched beings, was on most occasions called forth, is better suited to an enterprize which has for its end the amelioration of their circumstances, and the prevention by capture of any wanton and useless loss of life, amongst a race of beings whose misfortune it is to be so ignorant of the blessings of civilized Society, and whose present hostile actions are to be attributed

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attributed not to their own natural disposition, but to the very shameful manner in which they have on most unprovoked grounds been treated. I trust you will, with me, consider Mr. Batman’s plan, one from which much good is likely to result, and submit it for the consideration of His Excellency the Lieut. Governor, who I am sure will not withhold his sanction and assistance in any case where a benefit might result to those unhappy creatures”.
[Margin note: Letter dated 15 June 1829 addressed to Major Gray. J.P.]
Mr. Batman states - “As I am also fully aware of the necessity that exists for some increased exertion towards affecting a reconciliation between the Government and those people, and of His Excellency the Lieut: Governors wish to attain so desirable an object, I have formed a determination provided it meets with His Excellencys approbation, under certain conditions, of devoting some time and all the exertion of which I may be capable towards bringing in alive some of of those much injured, and unfortunate race of beings”.
[Margin note: Extracts of letters respecting Mr. Bateman’s qualification to direct a party in pursuit of the Natives.]

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[Margin note: - 1830. Resolutions of 300 inhabts. of Hobart Town to enroll in defence of town v. aborigines.]
Resolutions, carried unanimously, at a Public Meeting of between 300 and 400 Inhabitants of Hobart Town on Wednesday 22nd September 1830 - Joseph Horne Esq. in the Chair.
Moved by Mr. Kemp
Seconded by Mr. Gellibrand
No. 1 - That inasmuch as no measures for repressing future aggressions on the part of the Aboriginal Natives, can reasonably be expected to attain complete success, without the most zealous and extensive co-operation of all classes of the community, it is, at this juncture peculiarly the duty of every man cheerfully to contribute to the common cause every assistance within his power.

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Moved by Mr Horne
Seconded by Mr. Collicott
No. 2 - That so far as it respects the Inhabitants of Hobart Town, such assistance may, in the opinion of this Meeting, be advantageously afforded, either by personal service in the Country, or by performing a portion of the ordinary duties of the Military in Town; - by which last mentioned means a most valuable accession to the number of Troops might, as it appears to the Meeting, be for several weeks, placed at the disposal of the Government for duty in the Interior.
Moved by Dr. Turnbull
Seconded by Mr. Hewitt
No. 3 - That with this view, the present Meeting, on behalf of themselves, and their fellow Townsmen

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Townsmen, agree to undertake for the period of five weeks from the 2nd of October next, the performance of such portions of the ordinary Military duties in Hobart Town, as the number of volunteers subscribing to this resolution shall be ascertained to be equal to.
Moved by Mr. Stephen
Seconded by Mr. Thomson
That in the opinion of this Meeting, the contemplated force will more readily and advantageously be raised, and kept together in an efficient state, by such a plan as (one officer or person in charge being selected for such Guard) shall enable every individual so far as may be

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be practicable, to select his own particular Guard, and the particular officer or person in charge, under whom he would prefer to enrol himself.
No. 5 - Moved by Mr. Sorell
Seconded by Mr. Hackett
That for the purpose of carrying the objects of the preceding resolutions into effect, a standing Committee of 15 Gentlemen be appointed with full powers to make such further general arrangements, and adopt such particular measures of detail upon the subject, as may appear to them to be most expedient, that the following Gentlemen be such Committee, that they have power to add to their number, and that five of them

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them be a quorum –

Mr. Horne, Mr. Stephen
Dr. Turnbull, Mr. Horne
Mr. Cartwright, Mr. A.F. Kemp
Mr. Westbrook, Mr. W. Wilson
Mr. W.M. Orr, Dr. Ross
Mr. O’Connor, Mr. J. Bell
Mr. Gellibrand, Mr. Hewitt
Mr. Thomson
No. 6 - Moved by Mr. Mulgrave
Seconded by Mr. Jennings
That the Committee or such of them as can conveniently attend, be requested to wait upon His Excellency the Lieut. Governor, and communicate to him the proceedings of this Meeting.
True copy
John Montagu
Colonial Secretary

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His Excellency Colonel George Arthur
Lieut. Governor of the Island of Van Diemens Land, and its Dependencies.
The Address of the Land proprietors and others of the Police District of Campbell Town assembled at that place this 22nd day of December 1830, in accordance with a requisition to that effect.
We respectfully beg leave to approach Your Excellency for the purpose of expressing our high sense of your fraternal care for the welfare of the whole of His Majesty’s subjects in the Colony, and we assure Your Excellency that we shall ever remember with gratitude the great personal exertions and privations which you encountered during the late operations for the capture of those hostile Aborigines whose incursions and repeated Murders perpetrated

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perpetrated on the white population rendered unsafe our remote Stock huts and flocks, and who had even threatened and plundered respectable establishments.
While we thus offer to Your Excellency our gratitude for your earnest and increasing endeavours to arrest the depredations and atrocities of the Aborigines, we in common with Your Excellency lament that the plans for carrying that important object into effect have been in a great measure frustrated from unforseen obstacles. But from the experience we have had of Your Excellency’s administration we earnestly beg to assure you, that, placing the most perfect confidence in the measures which you shall think fit in future to adopt for the safety of the Inhabitants, and the necessary subjugation of the Aboriginal Natives we

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we shall be ready at all times to come forward at the call of Your Excellency for in just and patriotic a purpose.
(sd.) Ben Horne, (sd.) Wm. Hill
Hugh Murray, Temple Pearson
I.C. Sutherland, Wm. Young
Henry Jellicoe, Geo. Alston
E.D. Wedge, Robt. Taylor
David Murray, G.B. Skardon
[indecipherable] Wedge, T.C. Crowley
Thos. Thain, James Simpson
Robt. Corrie, Wm. Hoad
[indecipherable] Wedge, Jnr., Reg. Harrison
F.M. Turnbull, Harvey Wellman
Dan: O’Connor, [indecipherable] Mackersy
[indecipherable] Foster, I. Alexr. Jackson
Robt. Taylor, Chas. Wedge
Adam Robertson, Geo. Parramore
Geo. Stewart, T. Parramore
Arthur Binst, W.I. Ruffy
James Aitkin, John Taylor
Walter Davidson, Wm. Headlam
Hugh Robertson, Geo: Craig
James Mackersy, R:C: Foster

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(sd.) Robt. Bostock, (sd.) Fras. Allison
Davd. Shirring, Geo. Atkinson
John Cox, Rd. Willis
Tim Nowlan, R:Harper Willis
John McLeod, David Taylor
John Leake, Claudius Thomson
Thos. Hughes, P. Watson
M. Trenney, Chas. McLachlan
W.I.T. Clarke, Evan Williams
Wm. Robertson, Gavin Hogg
Saml. Horton, W Broad
R.R.Leake, Samuel Hill
E. I. Leake, Adam Turnbull
W.B. Leake, R Hepburn
This address was presented to the Lieutenant Governor by Messrs. Hugh Murray and John Leake, the deputation appointed by the Public Meeting. - Reply

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Government House
31st December 1830
The Address of the Landed proprietors and residents in the Police District of Campbell Town, I receive with feelings of great satisfaction, and the assurance which is conveyed to me of your confidence in the measures of Government for the purpose of subjugating the Aboriginal Natives will, I trust, not be disappointed.
This a most interesting subject, and attended with circumstances of such painful anxiety that I cannot but feel most sensibly the kind assurance of assistance and cooperation which you so very handsomely pledge yourselves to afford me.
(sd) Geo. Arthur
True copy
John Montagu
Colonial Secretary

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Address of the Landed Proprietors & others in the Police District of Campbell Town

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Anstey Barton 3 August 1830
Your Excellency’s favourable opinion of my late attempt in furthering the Government Orders relative to the Aborigines, as communicated to me in the Colonial Secretary’s letter, as well as by the Public Notification in the Gazette, is most gratifying to me.
The additional mark of your Excellency’s favour by the gift of five hundred acres of land, will ever be most highly esteemed by me, and tend to convince me that activity and exertion for the Public good will at all times receive their rewards at your Excellency’s hands.
I beg your Excellency will accept my best thanks. I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your Excellency’s most Obedient Humble Servant,
George Alexr. Anstey
His Excellency
Lieutenant Governor Arthur.

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Mr G.A.Anstey
3 Augt. 1830
Expressing his acknowledgment for the Lieut. Governor’s manner of noticing his exertions in capturing some Natives.

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Sorell Camp: [indecipherable]
20th Novr. 30
1 The increasing boldness of the Natives Tribes and the frequency of their insidious attacks upon the more isolated Settlements having caused great loss of life and a general panic amongst the Residents in the Interior, and related loss of life it became necessary to adopt a strong measure in order to restore the security which the Inhabitants of the Country daily saw themselves losing –
The experience of years has shown that any attempt to conciliate and reform the aboriginal Inhabitants while totally cut off from all but hostile intercourse with the White Residents, and while living in a [indecipherable] of habits so utterly incompatible with the interests and customs of Civilized Man, would be vain and hopeless - and it was evident that nothing but capturing and forcibly detaining these unfortunate savages, until they, or at least their children, should be raised from their original rude barbarianism to a more domestic state - could now prevent arrest a long series term of rapine and bloodshed - already commenced -, the a great decline in the prosperity of the Colony, and the eventual extirpation of the aboriginal race itself.

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2 The mode which had, for the last two years, been adopted for capturing the natives them by means of a few trusties who were made to rove incessantly in the District where they were likely to be found, had proved quite [indecipherable] as a general security. The total want of information as to the situation of the tribes at any particular time - the facility and rapidity with which they moved to some secret hiding place after committing some atrocity which they had only attempted when sure of success, rendered pursuit on such occasions, in most instances fruitless; for the rugged and woody nature of the country in which they always took refuge was sure to baffle any attempt to trace them in their course.
3 It therefore appeared that the only remaining means of remedying the evil with a due [indecipherable] to Humanity towards the Natives was to drive them to a Peninsular in which they could be contained by a small force occupying its Isthmus, and then to induce them to surrender themselves without bloodshed - To effect this would be necessary to beat the bush in a systematic manner, enclosing and gradually surging on towards Forrestiers and Tasman’s Peninsulas

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those Tribes which infested the Central and the South-eastern portions of the Colony, leaving those on the North for after operations which could not, with so small a force, be undertaken simultaneously
4 As the strength in Troops was quite unequal to the undertaking on so extended a scale, it became necessary to call the Inhabitants to rise “en masse” and to enroll themselves for this particular service under Leaders which the Govt. should nominate. The call was answered indeed, it had long been denied by the Public with the most zealous and cheerful alacrity - and a large proportion of the Inhabitants - of all classes came forward - The Settlers brought their as many of their convict Servants as they could without great loss, spare from their farms. Prisoners holding tickets of leave were called into the Field to perform the [indecipherable] or were obliged to furnish substitutes and the whole [indecipherable] mustered by the Police Magistrates of the respective Districts. The total Force amounted to about 2200 men, 550 of whom were Troops of the 63d - 57th & 17th Regts - and they were formed into three Divisions under the orders of Major Douglas of

Transcript of a1771048

68th Regt - Capt Wentworth of the [indecipherable] Regt and Capt Donaldson of the 57th Regt These divisions were subdivided into Corps which wereagain placed placed under the command of Military Officers, and which were again told off in parties of ten men, each of which had its leader - The whole was commanded by the Lt Gov in person. The mode of advancing was in extended order - each party keeping its proper course & distance from its neighbours as well as the Nature of the country would admit - in which they were assisted on the advance by the discharge of Musketry, by bugles, and by every party repeatedly calling out its Number, by which the adjoining parties knew whether they were relatively in proper position. The offrs. of the Survey Detachment superintended the direction of this and the provisioning of the Troops
In the early parts of the operations as the line occupied by the Forces was 120 miles in extent, the advance was extremely difficult to be effected with uniformity, but the excellent spirit of the parties, and the attention which they paid to the orders which they received rendered the movements much better executed than could have been anticipated.
5 On the 7th of Oct - which was the day fixed for the commencement of operations - a chain of posts extending

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[Margin notes: indecipherable]
from St Patrick’s Head, on the Eastern Coast, along the River St Pauls - [indecipherable], Macquarie Lake, and [indecipherable] - and another series of detachments extending from the Derwent above New Norfolk, up the course of the River Dee to the Lakes - advanced the former towards the South - the latter towards the East and on the 12th Oct the whole Force occupied the positions as shown by the plans [indecipherable][indecipherable][indecipherable] extending from Waterloo Point to the Clyde - Capt Wentworth’s from the latter point where Maj Douglas’s left Right rested - to Hamilton on the same River, and thence across the Dromedary to [indecipherable] on the Jordan. This latter last forward position of his Right having him keeping in order to cut off the natives from retreating to the more inhospitable summits of the Dromedary
From this position the forces advanced on the 14th Oct and as they have now in a somewhat connected line, they were enabled to command the ground across which they moved, so as to prevent the natives from passing through the cordon undiscovered. On the 24th they took up a position of about 30 miles in extent from Prosser Bay to the village of Sorell

Transcript of a1771050

where the Right rested, and as the country in front was of a very difficult description it was not judged prudent to risk the escape through the line, of the Tribes which had been successfully enclosed - a risk which would certainly be increased should the Troops whole Force advance any further through forests so tangled as to prevent the parties from keeping up their connection It was therefore determined to continue in that position and to send within the circle a sufficient force, in roving parties to discover and capture the natives who lurked in those haunts - To effect this without too much weakening the posts it became necessary to call Capt Donaldson’s Division down from the Lakes and that force joined the Camp on the 1st Novr. During the interval the natives made repeated efforts to burst through the line - and on one occasion they speared a sentry and twice they their weapons pierced the caps of men who had advanced a few hundred yards in front of the formation
The greatest vigilance was observed both night and day to prevent
[Margin note: Two natives were taken & 2 killed

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the escape of the crafty foe - a double line of enormous fires was kept up - and every third man was on sentry while the remainder stood to their arms several times in the course of each night as the alarms caused by the natives hovering near the line was repeated.
The arrival of the Reinforcement enabled 400 men to scour the country down to the Isthmus - this occupied from the 2nd to the 5th Nov. The weather was most unfavourable and no single party discovered any trace of the Natives - but shortly afterwards an assemblage of their huts was discovered in the midst of an almost impervious thicket - The Roving parties were again sent in - and they searched these thickets as carefully as possible but still without success - a [indecipherable] party Strong Parties with axes were now sent into the Interior of the circle and under the direction of the officers of the Survey Department - new lines through the forests were opened out for the Forces to halt on during the general and final advance

Transcript of a1771052

which became necessary - for the Roving parties had proved quite insufficient to discover the retreats of the savages, and as the great loss and inconvenience which the volunteers began to sustain by so protracted an absence from their homes, rendered it impossible to keep the Force together any longer, it was determined to move the whole Body in the same order as before, down to the Isthmus, with the additional precaution of moving the Roving Parties, which was now formed into a distinct Corps and placed under the orders of Capt Moriarty RN - over the ground across which the general line was to advance - the direction of march of the one, being perpendicular to that of the other, and the movement of the Light Corps, preceding by some hours, the advance of the line - by which means, all parts of the country would be cross scoured
About this time a general [indecipherable] took place from the circumstances of no natives having been for some days seen in front

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which induced the belief that they had escaped through the sentries unobserved
Intelligence was at the same time received that a Tribe had made its appearance on the "Ouse", and that several attacks on huts had been made by a small party of natives near the rear of the forces. This intelligence seemed to confirm the belief which many entertained of the natives having escaped - Just at this [indecipherable] they suddenly reappeared at several points within the Lines - and were traced with great facility by one of the two blacks who had been recently captured.
The Forces are now therefore moving forward in full hopes of success and they will reach the Isthmus on Thursday next.
Sorell Camp 20 November 1830

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That the advance of the Force had effectively hemmed in the two worst Tribes which had infected the Settled Districts, about this time, satisfactorily shown by the circumstance of a small party, under Mr Walpole, while examining the country to the Front, having fallen in with a large body of Natives who were hunting - He watched them until they hutted themselves for the night, and in the morning he and his party rushed in after them, capturing two and in the scuffle shooting two others - The remainders about forty or fifty - immediately saved themselves by flight into the thickets whither it was impossible to follow them - one of the Captives belonging to the Big river Mob, as it is termed - and the other to the Oyster bay Mob - and they declared that those two Tribes - which have always shown themselves to be the most blood-thirsty - had coalesced and were then united. It was most unfortunate that so good an opportunity of surrounding and seizing these Natives should in this manner have been missed as the spot where they were discovered was satisfactorily near the lines as to have admitted of a large force being that night marched upon the point where the natives lay encamped in fancied security

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This event and the nature of the country, as already described, led to the determination to continue in the Position taken up on the 24th Oct

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His Excellency Colonel George Arthur Lieutenant Governor of the Island of Van Diemens Land and its dependencies
The Address of the Landed proprietors and others, resident in the Police district of New Norfolk, assembled agreeably to a requisition to that effect, the 1st day of January 1831
We beg most respectfully to approach Your Excellency for the purpose of expressing the lively sense we entertain of the intense interest and anxiety which Your Excellency has on all occasions shown to protect the lives and property of the Inhabitants of this Island, and particularly for the very great exertions Your Excellency has personally made during the recent operation to capture the hostile

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hostile Tribes.
Whilst we, in common with Your Excellency, agree that the recent admirable demonstration of the security and power of the Government and people of the Colony has not had the success anticipated, we are at the same time sensible that it has had the effect of impressing the Aborigines with an adequate sense of their danger, and we most earnestly entreat Your Excellency not to desist from your purpose, until personal security shall have been restored to the Inhabitants and particularly to the more defenceless portion of them.
We beg to assure Your Excellency that we are impressed with a very deep sense of the importance of the present crisis, and that we shall on all occasions feel it to be a duty most imperative upon us, to come forward and render Your Excellency every

Transcript of a1771058

every assistance in our power in the execution of whatever measures Your Excellency may deem proper for the full and final accomplishment of the object in view –

(sd) Arth. Davies - Chairman
(sd) Geo: Thomson (sd) F: Bell
M: Fenton Harriet Humphry
R: Officer John [indecipherable]
David Jamieson George Raynor
Chas: Baker SP: Wills
W: Macqueen John Sharland
Wm King Oscar David
D: Thomson Thos Stephenson
Thos [indecipherable] H R: Robinson
Edwd [indecipherable] Anthony Geiss
John Geiss John Terry
J H Cawthorn Geo: Brooks
J Turnbull Hugh Clarke
Thos Shone Alexr Macpherson
Wm Abell Wm Roadnight
J Triffett Andr Dornie
Wm Bradshaw Saml Haywood
Adam Thomson J Marshall
D: Ballantine W:B: Wilson

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(sd) Wm Dean (sd) George Lowe
Jas: Glover Neills Basstian
Saml Gay
This address was presented to the Lieutenant Governor by Mr Jamieson and Mr Atkinson on the 11th January 1831 -
I feel very highly gratified by the Address with which you have presented me. The Landed proprietors and others of the district of New Norfolk do me but justice in believing that the protection of the lives and property of His Majesty's subjects has always been a matter of the deepest interest and anxiety to me, and consequently, the outrage of the Natives have caused me most painful concern, but the result of the unity existing between

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between the Government and the Inhabitants of the Colony, will, I have no doubt, at an early period bring this only drawback to the peaceful prosperity of the Colony to a successful termination
(sd) Geo: Arthur
True copy
John Monague
Colonial Secretary

Transcript of a1771061

Address of the Landed Proprietors and others of the Police District of New Norfolk. January 1831

Transcript of a1771062

20 Nov: 1830
Explanatory of the movements against the Natives
V. D. L.

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To His Excellency Colonel George Arthur Lieutenant Governor of Van Diemens Land
The respectful address of the Inhabitants of the Police District of Richmond, in public assembled -
May in please Your Excellency
We the Landed Proprietors and other inhabitants of the Police District of Richmond, having long observed the unwearied and devoted attention of Your Excellency to the faithful discharge of the duties of your high office, and your care for the welfare and security of every class of His Majesty's subjects entrusted to your Government, and many of us having had recent opportunity of observing the great personal privations which Your Excellency endured, and the incessant exertion

Transcript of a1771064

exertion of which you set the example, in the late attempt to capture the hostile Aborigines.
We cannot let the present occasion pass without addressing Your Excellency, to express our esteem and our gratitude for your exertion on every occasion for the protection of our persons and Property, and the advancement of our prosperity.
While we regret that natural obstacles have hitherto defeated every attempt for the capture or subjugation of the Aborigines, our last experience of your measures gives us every assurance that Your Excellency will not relax your exertions in this cause until by the blessing of providence you have exceeded in the accomplishment of your humane intentions towards them, and in the meantime we are confident that Your Excellency will make every necessary provision for the protection of the people who are exposed to their

Transcript of a1771065

their attacks; And we beg leave to assure you that we will always be ready to render every assistance which Your Excellency may require from us, in carrying into effect whatever measures you may see proper to be adopted, for that purpose.
We most sincerely congratulate Your Excellency on the success which has attended your endeavours for the reformation of the Prisoner population, and on the happy moral change which has taken place in the Colony during Your Excellency’s Administration of the Government. We are thankful to Your Excellency for the very efficient system of Police which you have established for our protection whereby we enjoy a degree of security that is scarcely known amongst the Inhabitants of the Mother Country.
Feeling a deep interest in whatever concerns the welfare of the rising

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rising generation, we fully estimate the importance of the benevolent provision which Your Excellency has made for the education of orphans and destitute children.
We already begin to feel the advantage of the Townships which it has been Your Excellency’s care to establish in different parts of this District, and generally throughout the Colony, and we trust, under the fostering hand of Your Excellency, to see them in a short time fully inhabited by industrious Mechanics, the want of whom is most grievously felt at present.
We rejoice that by an undeviating adherence to those principles of justice and integrity which have marked Your Excellency’s Administration you have succeeded in uniting the whole Colony in an unanimous expression of respect and gratitude for your paternal regard to our interests. We

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We sincerely pray that Your Excellency may long continue happily to administer the Government of this Island , that we, His Majesty’s faithful and loyal subjects may continue to enjoyis Majesty’s faithful and loyal subjects may continue to enjoy the advantages of the knowledge which the advantages of the knowledge which Your Excellency, by experience, has acquired of the circumstances of the Country, and the character and interests of the Colonists, and that Your Excellency may have the satisfaction of witnessing the accomplishment of your plans for the good of the Colony and the happy result which we anticipate from an adherence to your wise and upright measures for its Government.

(sd) James Gordon (sd) Wm: G: Elliston
John Ogle Gage R: W: Murdoch
Daniel Stanfield G: L: Perrcivall
Geo: Burn R: Dodsworth
Wm: Kimberly Rd: Downward
John Espie J:W: Downward
Geo: Armitage George Wray
Wm: Jarritt J: W: Allanby

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(sd) John Jewell (sd) Silas Gatehouse
J:E:C: Coy Alexr: Laing
Gilbert Robertson David Reynolds
G: Marshall M: Lackey
John Hall John Wise
Clement Gatehouse Wm: Wise
David Wise Robt: Crocker
Wm: Wilson Andrew Whiteheart
J: Spottiswood Samuel Thorne
Geo: Tennent Robt: Thorne
C: Hector John Cassidy
John Aldridge Hugh Cassidy
Wm: Kearney Wm: [indecipherable]
Thos: Kearney John Hall
Roger [indecipherable] John Till
John Wade J: E:Blinkworth
A:J: Deane J: Blinkworth
John Boucher Philip Ries
John Crocker James Drummond
John Thomson Wm: Ross
Thos: Stanfield Wm: Burgess
Wm: Stanfield Thos: Bonney
Rd: Allwright James Bonney
Henry Thrupp Chris: Benney
Henry Glover Andrew Tolmey
W:L: Handley Ralph Dodge
John Handley Barnard Quinton

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(sd) John McGuiness (sd) Geo: Kirby
Hugh McGuiness Snr John Billett
Hugh McGuiness Jnr James Billett
Henry Leigh James Bingham
David McKie Robt: Guard
J Hayton John Prestage
Thos Mc Asrie Geo:Hobbert
John [indecipherable] David Lane
Andrew Counsel Hugh Coggins
JohnLaing Wm: Patterson
Richd. Strachan Josep Patterson
T: B: Watson John Mauley
John Morrisby Thos Austen
Henry Morrisby Wm. Woolley
Wm. P. Wild Wm. Gangell
Henry Batten Thos. Riley
John Birchall John Rollins
Geo: Guilford John Ibbett
Daniel Long John Worthey
John Wood Rbt. Dickinson
Wm. Currie Arthur Connelly
John Clapison Jos: Plaston
W: H: Fisher N: Lusty
Catherine Wade James Correll
Robt. Docter W: Butcher
N: G: Ward J: Thomas
John Willis JohnSutton

Transcript of a1771070

(sd) John Conliffe (sd) Edward Chaplin
Robt. Greenhalgh JohnBrown
Robt. Espie James Brown
Wm. Espie Fran. Cox Snr.
Joseph Roberts Fran. Cox Jnr.
James Riley Jane Cox
John Parry John Clark
Thos. Hayes Alfred Thrupp
Thos. Giles Hayes Wm. Johnson
Wm. Hayes Wm. Waterson
Rd. Lucas Henry Ball
Wm. Roberts Wm. Nichols
P: McCabe George Mundy
Edwd. Whitehouse Snr. Robt. Evans
Edwd. Whitehouse Jnr. Hugh Germaine
John Hayes George Aylwyn
Thomas Peters John Easy
R: Peters Richard Larsome
John Staples Francis Barnes
Geo: Kearley James Ratcliffe
Robt. Hall Peregrine Clark
Price Pritchard
The above Address was presented to His Excellency by a deputation consisting

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consisting of the following Gentlemen -
Mr Gordon Mr Gaye
Mr Stanfield Mr Kimberley
Mr Burn Mr Espie
Mr Armitage
Government House
1st February 1831
The Address of the Inhabitants of the district of Richmond, I receive with peculiar satisfaction, not because I feel the very gratifying expression of your sentiments a tribute due to my exertions in the Administration of this prosperous Colony for a period of nearly seven years, but (however much you have overrated my services) because your expressions evidently flow warmly

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warmly from the heart, and convey a lively assurance that I have gained your esteem and confidence.
The flattering testimony which your Address conveys that much has been done for the welfare of the Colony is a very high reward for the labours and anxiety which I have undergone; but, with unaffected sincerity I can assure you that my daily regret is that I have not done much more in a situation wherein almost every measure may prove beneficial or injurious to the present or future welfare of the community.
(sd) Geo: Arthur
True copy
John Montagu
Colonial Secretary

Transcript of a1771073

Address from the inhabitants of the district of Richmond January 1831.

Transcript of a1771074

The original of this address cannot be found. This is taken from a manuscript copy which was put up in the Colonial Department office with the reply in the hand writing of Colonel Arthur
To His Excellency, Colonel Arthur, Lieut. Governor of Van Diemens Land
We the Landholders, Merchants, and Colonists of Van Diemens Land assembled in public Meeting (duly convened by the Sheriff of this Island) beg leave to offer your Excellency our most sincere thanks for the zealous endeavours of Your Excellency to secure our lives and properties from the attacks of the Aborigines whose dreadful atrocities have so alarmingly increased as to cause the most serious apprehensions to all whose residence in the Interior exposes them to their ferocious attacks and which are beyond the reach of individual efforts

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efforts to suppress.
The unwearied exertions of Your Excellency so conspicuously displayed upon the late expedition to capture the most savage Tribes of the Aborigines demand from us every expression of gratitude. We therefore beg of Your Excellency to accept our most cordial thanks for the proof you have thus given us of your earnest desire to protect our dearest interest.
We anxiously hope that Your Excellency will not cease to follow up the measures you have so laudably undertaken by such others in continuance as in Your Excellency’s judgment you may consider best calculated to ensure success, pledging ourselves to support Your Excellency therein by every practicable means within our power.

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Government House
22nd February 1831
The Address of the Landholders, Merchants, and Colonists of Van Diemens Land declaratory of your serious apprehensions from the dangers to which that part of the community is exposed which is resident in the Interior from the dreadful atrocities of the Aboriginal Natives, and testifying your cordial approval of the general effort which has been made to capture these savages, or expel them from the settled Districts, I receive with great satisfaction.
The expression of your sentiments on this occasion is indeed, most gratifying, for there can be no individual whose mind

Transcript of a1771077

mind is influenced by humanity but must view with deep sympathy the peculiar, the anxious, and most difficult situation of the Executive Government, with reference to the Aboriginal Inhabitants, whose strong feelings of revenge have led them to the commission of so many acts of plunder, of violence, and of bloodshed. The truth will force itself upon every one who faithfully and dispassionately considers the subject, that although the Natives of Van Diemens Land have always exhibited that treachery
which seems inseparable from savage life, and have continually made the very worst return for the kindness and liberality which the respectable class of Settlers have for many years uniformly manifested towards them, it is still undeniable that they were lamentably

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lamentably neglected in the early colonization of the Country, and have been treated with cruelty and oppression by the Stock Keepers and other Convicts in the Interior, and by the Sealers on the Coast, and from the want of due discernment their vengeance has been indiscriminately wreaked upon the unoffending Settlers of the present time. This fact must continue to disarm us of every particle of resentment, it has powerfully influenced the Executive Government in resorting to measure after measure for conciliating the Natives rather than destroying them - it was this feeling which originated the general assembly of the Troops and Inhabitants for capturing the Savages, and whether that measure were successful to the degree anticipated or otherwise, I am certain it will ever be a gratifying reflection to every

Transcript of a1771079

every individual who was engaged in rendering his aid on that occasion, either in the enterprises of the field or in the duties of the Towns, that he bore a part in a transaction which was founded on the necessity of self defence combined with the most merciful intentions towards a foe who was daily inflicting the severest injuries upon the community.
With this expression of my sentiments I beg leave to add that I most fully appreciate the assistance in the continuance of such measures as the Government may still feel it necessary to resort to for the protection of the lives and properties of the Settlers and you may be assured that I shall be a stranger to any real tranquility of mind myself until I see the Settlers in the enjoyment of personal security.
(sd) Geo: Arthur

Transcript of a1771080

His Excellency, Colonel George Arthur
Lieut Governor of the Island of Van Diemen’s Land, and its dependencies.
The Address of the Landed Proprietors and others of the District of Great Swan Port.
We the Land holders and others of this District having viewed with the greatest anxiety the late measures adopted by Your Excellency for the purpose of freeing ourselves, our families, and Servants, from the outrages and Murders, so frequently committed against the which population by the Aboriginal Inhabitants, dangers to which we in this district are more particularly subjected, from the well known hostile disposition of the Tribe that infests it, do gladly embrace this opportunity

Transcript of a1771081

opportunity of expressing our most earnest thanks to Your Excellency for your individual personal exertions, and for your watchful care & concern in superintending those operations.
We beg earnestly to solicit Your Excellency still to continue your humane and generous exertions, not only to protect our lives and properties from these savage and inhuman people, but also to adopt such measures as may be deemed expedient to bring them from their state of pitiable barbarism, to enjoy some of the benefits of civilized life.
Although we have to regret that the late operations did not succeed to the extent that might have been anticipated, we have the satisfaction of informing Your Excellency that they have not been altogether lost in benefit to this district, its Inhabitants never having

Transcript of a1771082

having been molested by the Aborigines since the expedition for capturing them commenced, a period free from alarm much longer than any that had before occurred in the recollection of the oldest Settlers; and we desire to assure Your Excellency that while we solicit a continuation of whatever measures Government may please to adopt to free ourselves & families from the continued state of anxiety attending us for the preservation of life and property while the Aborigines are at large, we on our part, pledge ourselves to use our most strenuous endeavours to forward such to the utmost of our ability.
We have the honor to be &c &c &c

Transcript of a1771083

(sd) Frans. Cotton sd) B.R.Watson
G: F: Storey Edwin Allen
George Webber Joseph Allen
Thos. Watson Snr. Patrick Duffey
Thos. Watson Jnr. Wm. Lyne
John Lyne Wm. Lyne Jnr.
Wm. Leard James Amos
John Amos Adam Amos
James Amos Jnr. Alexr. Reid
Geo. Meredith Thos. Buxton
John Buxton J.D. Harte
John Hawkins P. Maclaine
I am highly gratified with the Address from the Landed proprietors and other Inhabitants of the District of Great Swan Port.
That the peace of your district in common with the Colony at large, has not recently been disturbed by the hostile Natives, leaves no doubt on my mind that they were greatly dismayed by the late

Transcript of a1771084

late operations against them, and I trust they will now be disposed to accept the offers of conciliation which the Government have, by every possible means, held out to them, and is still most anxious to proffer. If, however, it should unhappily be necessary to continue the measures for protecting the Settlers against their aggression, I shall gladly avail myself of the assistance which the Inhabitants of your district have so handsomely offered –
(sd) Geo: Arthur
True copy
John Montagu
Colonial Secretary

Transcript of a1771085

Address of the Landed Proprietors and others of the District of Great Swan Port

Transcript of a1771086

Bagdad 12th Novr,
After I wrote you from the Shannon, I crossed the Ouse, and searched the Country from that River to Lake Echo, and the Dee - finding nothing of the natives in that quarter, I called for information at Mr. Young’s the Division Constable on the Ouse - by his recommendation, I sent a party to search, between the Dee
Thomas Anstey Esqre
&c &c &c

Transcript of a1771087

Dee, and the Derwent, back to Black Bobs River, While I went with Mr Young, to search the opposite side of the Ouse, between Hells Corner and Hamilton, - while engaged in the search, I heard of the Blacks, having robbed the quarters of Lieutenant Fry, at the Deep Gully, and being seen about the settlement of the New Norfolk, close to the Township on this side the Derwent - expecting from what I could hear of their motions that they

Transcript of a1771088

that they were likely to take a course through the Hunting Ground to the Country laying east of the Port Dalrymple Road - finding many parties in all directions, about the Clyde District, and not aware of any being in this quarter, I left the Ouse, Wednesday morning and coming through Hells Corner’s Lagoon bottom, Spring Hill Marsh, the Hollow Tree Bottom, Beachman’s Valley, and Aby Pines Forest to Mr Pitts, at the Hunting Ground

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Ground, I heard that the Blacks had robbed Stanfield’s at the Broad Marsh on Tuesday - this information made me suppose that they must be still about the Dromedary or Mangalore Hills, and made me alter my intention of making for the Oatlands by the Table Mountain. I came by Langfords, and having warned them of the probable approach of the Blacks, I made for the usual crossing places, on Constitution Hill - I do not think they are gone across the road, I will take Jack, and the only two

Transcript of a1771090

only two men, whom I have got that are able to travel, and search well about the Mangalore Hills to day, I expect they will cross between Brighton, and Constitution Hill, unless they happen to see us, in which case they will either return back to the Ouse and Shannon, or go across under the Table Mountain, and probably join the mob of Port Dalrymple Blacks, whom I suspect to be still hovering under the Western Tier from Blackman’s River to Mr O Connor’s - there is so little dependence to be placed

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placed on the reports, as to the numbers of natives seen at the different places that
it is impossible to judge, whether the Oyster Bay mob is with, Mon [indecipherable] in the Clyde, and New Norfolk Districts - if not, I expect to hear dreadful news from Oyster Bay, or the Eastern Marshes, but from many circumstances, I am led to hope that two Tribes are together - all their motions to the eastward confirm the truth of the information, which I received from Wna Dranidally, the wife of the Chief, who was shot by

Transcript of a1771092

shot by Mr Bateman, and who was to have been the principle leader in the hostilities against the Settlers this Summer - from some cause the general meting of the Tribes, which was to have taken place near Norfolk Plains was held further to the eastward, probably the approach of some party broke up the assembly about a fortnight sooner than I was led to expect, which deprives me of the pleasure of being present at their deliberations - I shall

Transcript of a1771093

I should have communicated this to you before I went to the westward, but I had not much confidence in a Mrs W Dranidally’s report, nor could I correctly understand my interpreter (Eumarra) and I feared that I might only mislead the other parties had I been fortunate enough to have hit the proper time and had Eumarra and Jack proved faithful, I have no doubt but by the blessing of God, I would have been able to put an end to the horrid scenes which keep the Colony on continual alarm - had they proved

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proved treacherous, they would of course have escaped, and my life must have fallen in their hand and paid the penalty of my misplaced confidence - I had weighed the chances well, and was fully persuaded that the chance of success together with the importance of the object to be gained, was more than equal to the risk, as I would have exposed no life but my own and had I failed, no one would have an opportunity of upbraiding me for my error - I do not know what to do, for I have no hopes of their being captured and I have no doubt, but the parties

Transcript of a1771095

parties sent out in pursuit of them have driven them in upon the settled districts - I send this on to Constable Flaxmore by one of the Richmond Field Police, who is stationed here - I have directed him ( and one of my own party who is to meet him in the evening) to patrol the road on Constitution Hill until dark to give me the earliest notice if they should cross in that direction - I must remain in this quarter until I ascertain that the Blacks have gone away, my only hope is to be able to prevent them murdering the people at remote stations - I cannot

Transcript of a1771096

I cannot meet Grant, or the party at Mr Eddies on the 18th, as I promised, nor do I know what orders to send them - if I do not hear any thing of the blacks before Monday I will leave this party, (which is knocked up) to protect the Jerusalem District and I will endeavour to join Grants Party on the 19th at Ross or Campbell Town - Grants party are all picked men, and better able to endure the fatigue which we must encounter, if we have to go into the Swan Port District - if you have a Constable to spare, I think it would

Transcript of a1771097

it would be well to warn the people about the Eastern Marshes that the Blacks are coming back, for all the people to the east of the Port Dalrymple Road, were very secure in the belief that the Oyster Bay Tribe was gone to the westward for the summer. Ten of my party will be entitled to their Tickets of Leave on the first of January. I hope you will recommend Grant for his emancipation - he will be glad if his health can stand it to serve an additional period for his free pardon - I am sure there is not a fitter man to have charge of a party - my time will be up on the first

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first of January and if my constitution could endure another years service in the bush, I am convinced that my services are not by any means worth on this employment, what they cost Government - it will be necessary for the protection of the inhabitants, to have local parties stationed in the several districts and their range ought to be limited to a distance not exceeding 10 miles each way - should the Government adopt this plan I will be happy to do every thing in my power to make it effective and without any reward - I will gladly take charge

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charge of all the parties that may be stationed to the east of Port Dalrymple Road, as far as the Macquarie River - the experience which I have acquired this year and the attention which I have paid to the movement of the natives will enable me to make my services more useful than if I were continually with a party - I will write you very fully on this subject before I give up my charge, but at this moment my mind is so warn out with disappointment, vexation, and anxiety, that I can hardly write common sense, I cannot [indecipherable]

Transcript of a1771100

cannot however forebear to bring under your notice and through you under the notice of the Government the useless description of men that have been sent to join the parties and against the natives - many of them are incapable of any sort of exertion, except eating and indeed fit for no purpose connected with this service, unless it be to devour food and retard the movement of the parties
I have the honor to be Sir Your very obedt. Servant
(Signed) Gilbert Robertson

A true copy
Colonial Secretary

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This letter which I received from the Post Office Messenger on the 14th November, I now send to Mr Burnett, that His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor may see what Mr Robertson recommends etc.
Jorgenson was really insane many days last week - Mr Robertson too, is evidently mad, but with this difference, that there is method in Robertson’s madness.

(signed) T. Anstey
16 Novr

A true copy
Colonial Secretary

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Great Island
4th May 1832


As Your Excellency expressed a wish before I left Hobart town that I should write to you personally and knowing the extreme interest you feel in the welfare of the Aborigines , it is with the most sincere pleasure that I do myself the honour to inform you of the present happy and prosperous state of this Establishment, as far as regards them; with the exception of one or two slight cases of cough, they are in the most perfect health and in high spirits and there have been no cases of sickness among them of any importance since my arrival; they are well kitted for the winter as circumstances will admit of, & sufficiently to prevent them from suffering in any way from the inclemency of the weather, and I have sanguine hopes that we shall go through the

His Excellency
The Lieut Governor

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winter without casualties.

You will be pleased to learn Sir, that though their huts are not fifty yards from my own, I have never found it necessary to have a sentry on watch of any kind by day or night over the Establishment; the knowledge alone of the number of muskets we have is quite sufficient to deter them from hostile attempt, should such a thought ever enter their heads; they value too much the comforts they enjoy and are too sensible of the kindness they receive, to undertake any thing of the sort - such at least is the opinion I have formed of them, and I have every reason to think that I am not mistaken.

To show you the confidence I am able to place in them, I have been out on a hunting party with upwards of thirty, men and women, attended only by Dr. Mackachlan, whose kindness to them is excessive, and whom from

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his knowledge of their habits and disposition I have found of essential service, and have passed two nights among them in the bush, and returned much gratified with their endeavours to please and the hospitality they showed in their own rude way. Their eventual civilisation depends much, I conceive, in its present early stage, on their being supplied with those things which they are most desirous of, such as spoons knives etc. they take every care of those which I have been able to spare them, and, and make a proper use of them; this Sir, is the kind of property which they are most anxious for, and which is best suited for them at present. Sheep I cannot keep on this Island, as there is no good pasture for them, and the dogs would destroy them,. They however thrive well on Green Island, & in course of time when they increase, might

Transcript of a1771105

be converted into money to purchase these articles for them; by having a little household property, they will begin to find that pleasure in their houses, which will gradually eradicate their desire for a wandering life; indeed this feeling has already began to display itself very considerably. Tobacco is essentially [indecipherable]. I know nothing that they are more constantly asking for; they would give up almost any thing for a little tobacco; and it is considered as one of the greatest rewards that I can bestow upon them; to give you an instance Sir most of the women had been in the habit of washing their faces and hands every morning but had lately left it off and substituted red ochre and grease instead - the promise however of a trifling bit of tobacco as a reward had the desired effect, and they now regularly wash every morning. The Oyster Bay Chief who is a very intelligent and good tempered person

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has just been here, and when I told him that I was writing to you, desired me to tell you to send down plenty of tobacco and clay pipes for the Wiebas and Lubras. Men and women independent of their fondness for it, it is moreover conducive to their health in their mode of life. I allow no restraint of any sort to be put upon them; they go out hunting whenever they like, and as long as they like but they have never yet shown a disposition to be long absent from home.

In short, to sum up in a few words my opinion of them so far as two months observation may have enabled me to form one, I would say that they are a happy and very intelligent race of Beings - they are very kind to one another and quarrels are a rare occurrence; like the Africans they are very fond of dancing, singing and laughing, and are most animated in their conversation and their mode of expressing

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themselves; the women, particularly those who have lived long with the Sealers are certainly addicted to lechery, but I am in great hopes that an effectual check has been put to the improper intercourse which it appears has subsisted between them and the Whites before my arrival, and which I understand has been effected chiefly through the incidence of tobacco- this Sir, is one reason why a constant supply of tobacco is so essential, as should that fail them, they would not hesitate to obtain it by the means above mentioned, and should the women themselves be induced to seek this intercourse, it would be out of my power effectively to prevent it; till their minds as well as manners shall become civilised, by the influence of religion, they can of course have no proper sex training principle - I cannot learn
that they have any knowledge of a God or of any future state of rewards and punishments that

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I am induced to think that they have some belief in good and bad spirits whom they invoke in their songs.

If Sir, these people appear to us to be savage and bloodthirsty, it can easily be accounted for without attributing to them any of these qualities - the sealers, stock keepers and other persons of that description have robed them of their wives and daughters & otherwise ill treated them; they not being able to distinguish the difference between one white face and another have vowed vengeance against their persecutors & have considered themselves in a justifiable war against the invaders of their country, and accustomed as they are from their infancy to roam about thru thick scrubs and dense forests it is not to be wondered at that they have been able to elude pursuit - their adroitness in the bush appears at

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a first view surprising, but no longer so, when considered as the result of constant habit.

I am acquiring some knowledge of their different languages, and becoming acquainted with their dispositions, and I must confess that I feel much attached to them, as I possibly believe they are to me, at the same time I can have no doubt, that should I be left unprovided with the means of gratifying their simple wants, and gradually increase their comforts, they would pine, and in fact be a different type of people.

I forward by this opportunity to the Secretary of the Committee a list of the different articles which are most required, and, I trust Sir, that you will confide in my discretion that whatever public property may be thus placed at my disposal is neither wasted nor

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There are at present on the Establishment 4 boys between the ages of six and nine years, fine intelligent lads, but who by remaining here will only grow up in ignorance; I take the liberty of strongly recommending that they be taken from hence and put into the Orphan School, or into the service of kind masters who would take the trouble to instruct them, and I feel assured that a very great deal might be done with them.

I have the honour to be
Your Excellency’s most obedient
Humble Servant
W.S. Darling

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Gt. Island May 4. 1832
W.I. Darling
Relative to the establishment of the natives-

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24th September 1833
I take advantage of the permission given to me by Your Excellency of writing to you privately to afford you the gratifying intelligence that the Natives have now got in the ground potatoes of their own planting.-
His Excellency
The Lt Govnr

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I marked out a good sized piece of land in front of their houses, which will eventually be divided into separate gardens for each house, round which they have constructed a permanent and substantial fence; they were then furnished with large hoes or mattocks, and just

Transcript of a1771114

shewn once how the ground was to be broken up; they set to work with alacrity and persevered till they had completed it, and from the number of hands employed, it was soon dispatched- the women meanwhile were employed in cleaning up the ground and setting the potatoes

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as fast as the men broke it up, so that all have had a share in this interesting work; the Superintendent and myself were constantly with them and took part in their employment; the work instead of being a labor appeared to be a pleasure to them-
They have quite exceeded

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my most sanguine expectations; I thought that if they worked an hour a day at the commencement, I could not expect them to do more, but they have sometimes been at work the whole day entirely of their own choice –
Nothing would give

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greater pleasure to myself or Your Excellency’s sable subjects than your being able to spare time to visit this part of your dominions, though I should wish the village to be completed first. I leave at present rather at a stand still in our more material operations

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for want of sawn timber and lime.
I have the honor to be
Your Excellency’s most obedient humble servant
W.I. Darling

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Lieut. W. I. Darling
23rd Septr. 1833

The natives at Flinders Island have planted a considerable quantity of potatoes.

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Aborigines Establishment
25th Oct 1833
I regret to inform Your Excellency that I have been obliged to suspend Mr. Wilkinson from his functions as Catechist on this Establishment; the circumstance which led to this I have explained in an official letter
His Excellency
Lt. Govnr Arthur

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letter addressed to the Colonial Secretary with several enclosures forwarded for Your Excellency’s consideration.
I never could have anticipated that I should have been obliged to have recourse to such a step towards a person of Mr. Wilkinson’s profession, or who had been appointed for the situation he holds by the advice of the Executive Council, to whom

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moreover I have always shewn every possible civility and attention, and every desire to render him what assistance my own experience enabled me to do, though his strange and uncalled for conduct in endeavouring to separate himself not only from me but the other officers of the Settlement, rendered the task a disagreeable one.
I know not what Mr. Wilkinson

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Wilkinson may have been, but I can too well convince that he has very few notions of a gentleman, or of his duties as a servant of the Government in his religious notions, he is bigoted, particularly as regards outward forms and appearances as will be seen by his letters, but he does not I fear possess much of the true spirit of genuine christianity, a real professor of which would be

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most useful on the Establishment. Your Excellency will hardly believe that during the time the natives were employed in cultivating their gardens, he never once went near them, to encourage, assist or shew that he took the least interest in what they were about, I know not when he could have had a finer opportunity of expatiating on the existence and attributes of

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the Deity.
With regard to the circumstances which led immediately to his suspension, Dr. Maclachlan’s character is again called in question. Your Excellency will I hope pardon me for this intruding on your time, which I am well aware is plentifully occupied with more important matters, but this very circumstance impels me to it ; since

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I have been acquainted with Maclachlan which has only been since I assumed the charge of the “Aborigines” Establishment, I have found his conduct highly meritorious, which has induced me to write strong letters in his behalf which Your Excellency was pleased to approve of- as long as I find no change in his conduct, I can never do

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otherwise than support him, not that even in the days of his bondage he ever hinted at such a thing; it was entirely a voluntary act of my view; in the present instance the charge against him is totally unfounded, and arises I fear, more from spleen than any other motive.
If Your Excellency could for a moment conceive, that I am presumptuous enough to

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write the strong letters I have done in behalf of Dr. Maclachlan, without having just grounds for so doing, or weak enough to allow myself to be deceived by him, or sufficiently mean to connive at improprieties of conduct on his part, as Mr. Wilkinson has presumed to insinuate, You would at once pronounce me unworthy of the Charge which You have been pleased to entrust

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me with, and I would rather at once resign my situation than lay under the imputation for a single moment.
It is because Dr. Maclachlan following the dictates of humanity, has discharged his duty fearlessly, that he has laid himself open to the slurs of evil disposed persons; if the Natives had been treated otherwise than they have been, and expelled

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from our houses, in order to save appearances, they would never have been in the state in which they are at present, and I sincerely trust that whoever succeeds him may be actuated by the same feelings of humanity towards this unfortunate people, and discharge his Duty with as little trouble to the Commandant of the Settlement.
I would now more than

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ever request of Your Excellency to appoint some person to visit the Settlement and I know no one whom I would more readily see here than Captain Montagu Chairman of the Aborigines Committee, if he were inclined to unde take such a trip, and could be spared from his official Duties, or I should feel equally favored by a visit from Messers Backhouse and Walker who I am sure feel great interest

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interest in the welfare of the Establishment. The Natives have now shewn that much , very much may be done with them, and I might desire much benefit from the opinions of sensible persons formed on the spot.
If the neighbouring Islands were stocked with sheep, and a few head of cattle sent down we might be in a great measure independent of

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extraneous supplies- We shall this year I trust have a plentiful crop of potatoes produced from the very commencement even to the enclosing of the land by the labor of the Natives, who derive no little pleasure from observing the progress of the result of their own labours.
I must now return to the unpleasant subject of my letter to give you some idea of the spirit by which Mr. Wilkinson

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is actuated, I would beg leave to refer Your Excellency to the enclosed note which I received from him this morning. On my returning from the Cutter which I had beached on her arrival, he sent me a message by one of his children that he understood a parcel had come ashore for him; as nothing of the sort had occurred, I replied that he

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must be mistaken, as no parcel had come ashore in the boat for him- he then wrote me this note, upon which I sent him the same message again; not however content with this, he met me going down to the beach and addressed me personally on the subject; such conduct could leave no other impression on my mind than that he actually thought

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I had knowingly detained his parcel.
The step I have been obliged to take has given me great pain, being the second of the kind in the short space of twenty months, but I could not see any other possible course to pursue. Your Excellency will better judge of the whole affair; should you not deem it necessary to recal Mr. Wilkinson,

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(feeling as I do every sentiment of gratitude to Your Excellency for the kind interest Your leave taken in my advancement) I must respectfully request that You will be pleased to relieve me from the charge of the Settlement, as after the insults I have received from Mr. Wilkinson, I never can again do Duty with him.

Transcript of a1771138

I have the honor to be
Your Excellency’s most obed.t
humble Servant

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Mr W. I .Darling
25th Octr 1833
Respecting his suspension of Mr. Wilkinson.

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Adelaide South Australia
4th June 1834.
You will not be surprised Sir James at my notifying you from the Colony, as I make you acquainted with my intention of coming here at the last interview with which you honoured me as also with the prospect I then had, of obtaining the situation of Protector of the Aborigines, which I understood was vacant, and I took the liberty of soliciting your interest with Lord Glenelg, and I think you kindly told me that if I should find it necessary I might refer His Lordship to you for any further information He might require respecting me which I did in my memorial to him. I however found by His Lordship’s reply that this situation had been already filled by a Mr Robinson of Van Diemens Land, who I understood has declined the situation, being unwilling to come home, so that until my arrival here on the 24 ultmo it has remained vacant, but with this circumstance I was ignorant having been invited to remain in Kangaroo island for the purpose of organising a School for the European children.
This I found it my duty to do, as it had become an important branch of this colony, in account of its excellent harbour. I remained four months on the
island which I intended to have escaped the winter, the seasons being precisely the reverse of those in England, I was however surprised by the arrival of a Government Cutter, which had been sent expressly for me with an offer of the situation ad interim of the situation I had solicited in London from Lord Glenelg - The necessary documents were forwarded to me by the Governor and Council here, with a request that if I choose to accept of the appointment, I might return by the Cutter, which I did, and entered on my office on the 24th ultmo when I immediately pitched my tent in the midst of about 50 men –women and children of [indecipherable] black colour, The men being all armed with

Transcript of a1771141

long spears & yet I found them so docile and tractable that I found no difficulty whatever in managing them and they all call me Achilly which means father.
These original people not having had the slightest knowledge or intercourse with any other nation in the world either savage or civilised until our arrival. They of course were unacquainted with any manufactures, metal trades or the value of money - They have no religion being totally in the dark respecting their Creator, are such Canibals or idolaters and yet practice the painful rite of circumcision when they arrive at the age of puberty, ceremony they seem indispensably necessary before they take a wife, but they are allowed more, for they practice polygamy, and yet we cannot discover in what way they obtained a knowledge of the ancient Jewish ceremony.
It is however supposed, judging of the formation of their heads and features being unlike African, that they are of eastern origin, but their dances & games etc strongly resemble the African - Their language is [indecipherable] sonorous or guttural, so that it is most difficult to acquire and for the same reason, the advantage to them is reciprocal and this respect we find the children remarkably intelligent and clever, as they repeat our words with very great precision. I find that their numerals do not exceed six, so that they have to count their fingers to express a higher number. Their war weapons are a thin spear made out of the tea tree, which they throw with great precision - this they call [indecipherable] - a short club (waddy) with a knob or knobs at the end - The third is a shield made of bark in the form of [indecipherable] of the ancients, are all they have when they go to war, although they appear of the most simple construction are nevertheless formidable in their wars, and their passion being easily excited, they have desperate battles about their women, and their favourite game the Kangaroo, which they feed on almost exclusively

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during the whole year, except the breeding season, which happens to be now.
I shall now conclude these brief remarks, which I have the liberty of making, by observing that as far as the eye can reach, and perhaps for hundreds of miles which remains unexplored, the whole country appears like one continued gentleman’s park in England, wanting deer, with rich soil - abundance of grass, and ever green trees conveniently, and delightfully interspersed, so that nature has indeed been bountiful in its gifts to this country, not only as regards the soil and climate but the feathered tribe, which in beauty exceeds any thing I ever saw, and in this department of natural history I take the great delight, being in the habit of preserving their skins almost every day.
As I now advancing in years, and probably may never have the pleasure of seeing or addressing my late respected Governor any more, I trust Sir James that if I have inadvertently offended you in any former occasion, that a lapse of 12 years will have banished forever the impression from your liberal mind, and from your general knowledge of mankind, I am sure you will admit that in no human being has perfection yet been found, and as I hope for pardon from my Maker for my transgressions, I confidently hope that yours will also be extended to me, and should the Colonial Secretary have occasion to refer to you respecting the confirmation of my appointment, I cannot entertain the slightest doubt, that you will throw any impediments in the way - With this impression I close my letter, hoping that you may enjoy health & happiness wherever you go and remain Sir
Yours most respectfully
W Bromley
To Sir James Kempt K.B.
etc etc etc

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[indecipherable] Flinders Island
24 June 1834
With reference to Your Excellency’s proposal for removing the natives either to Portland Bay, or allotting them some tract of land in their own country, I now do
myself the honor to lay before you my view on the subject after having more maturely considered it.
I cannot under existing circumstances feel myself justified in recommending either one or the other, at all events for the present, for the following reasons - 1st as to their removal to Portland bay, it must be remembered that in all they are but a handful, and that handful comprised of the remnants of different tribes, who though they may be perfectly peaceable and friendly with one another here, have no binding tye to keep them together once they are at large, as they would be, if sent to Portland Bay - That Country abounds, I believe, like the rest of New South Wales, with hordes of wandering savages - [indecipherable] among Savages are generally about their hunting grounds or their [indecipherable]; though a great part of the natives at this Establishment evince a pleasure in cultivating the land and are more indifferent to hunting than formerly, yet it is not to be supposed that if sent to a fine Country abounding with game, they would forget altogether their favourite and natural employment, and I feel strongly persuaded that with all the precaution in the world, they would
His Excellency
Lieut. Governor Arthur
etc etc etc

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would in some of their hunting excursions be all cut off by the natives of New Holland.
Secondly - As to their removal to their own Country, there are no doubt many of them, who, if fed clothed, and protected by the Government as formerly, would live peacefully and quietly under proper superintendence, and naturally contribute to their support by the cultivation of the soil, while their herds of sheep and cattle would increase (though they would be as liable as those of the settlers to stray away and be stolen) but I much fear that it would be impossible to prevent them from being molested by Convict Servants and the Settlers themselves, from the remembrance of old times would be too ready to impute to them faults which they never committed; then fresh evils would break out between them and the whites, which would be productive of the worst results.
There are many natives on the Settlement whom I would not think of trusting on the Main for some time to come; I allude here particularly to the Native Tribes who are
now mustering strong, and who have almost all joined the Settlement at different times since I assumed the charge - I have very little doubt but they could take the first opportunity of making off to their own Country where they have never been much molested.
I beg leave respectfully to draw your attention to my letter to the Colonial Secretary of this date in which I have endeavoured to point out the resources of the island and the measures that might be adopted for reducing the expense of the Establishment, which as it makes no return to

Transcript of a1771145

to the Government, is I am aware a heavy burden, though it is evident these poor savages being deprived of their own Country must be maintained by the Colony, and rendered as happy and comfortable as it is possible to make them; such at least is the aim pointed out by common justice and humanity -
I shall have an opportunity of again conversing with Your Excellency on the subject when I have the pleasure of meeting you in Hobart Town
In the mean time
I have the honor to remain
Your Excellency’s most obedient
humble servant
W. I. Darling

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Lieutenant Darling
24 June 1834
His opinion as to the removal of the Natives from Flinders

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Scale of Rations to Aborigines at Flinders Island
1lb Beef - 1lb Flour - 1/2lb Biscuit - 1/4oz Tea - 2oz Sugar - 1/2oz Soap
with Half rations to Children
This Scale was approved of by Colonial Secretary’s letter 18th Dec 1834

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Jan ‘36
Posthumous Testimony to“Mannalargenna”
A celebrated Native Chieftain of Van Diemens Land who departed this life Friday Dec. 4th Anno Domini 1835
Died at the Settlement for the Aborigines Flinders Island
On the afternoon of the above day, an Aboriginal female came to my quarters, and informed me that Mannalargenna” the King was dead. I proceeded immediately to view the body, accompanied by the Surgeon. On leaving my house the Song of Lamentation was distinctly heard, the mournful dirge, like the trump of death, seemed to declare the solemn warning “Prepare to meet thy God”, and pointed out the frail nature of all earthly existence. It was as though a voice from Heaven spoke saying - “And yet a little while and thou shall be numbered with the dead”. Although I had for some time watched with painful feelings his approaching dissolution, still I did not apprehend his death so near. It was sudden

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and took place earlier than expected, how solemn this circumstance. I went in the direction of the house where the body lay, but was too overpowered to enter, I therefore avoided the house of mourning, and proceeded by a retired path, in the rear of the Natives’ Huts to the Surgeon’s Quarters; The body was afterwards removed to the new store, wrapped in a blanket, and the lamentation ceased. Some of the Male Aborigines accompanied me to the burial ground, to select a place for the grave, a spot was marked out when the Natives at my request dug it out. This labor had heretofore been performed by Prisoners, but on this occasion the Natives did it themselves. I was informed that it had been the practice with very few exceptions, to bury the dead without coffins, the only covering being the blanket that they had died upon. True it matters little what becomes of the body after death, and as far as I am individually concerned, I am quite indifferent what becomes of any poor

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earthly Tabernacle, but then it has been the practice with all civilized nations, in all ages to respect the dead, and it looks like invidious distinction to do that to the dead bodies of the poor Aborigines, that we would not do to white persons; such a procedure must necessarily create an unkindly feeling in the minds of the Natives. Surely we have no right to make those distinctions, for what are we better than they, it is not being born of christian parents, or in a christian country, as English people say, for it is but a saying at the best . I declare that I have found worse savages among white people - a thousand times worse than I have found among the Aborigines of Van Diemens Land. Then why those distinctions; It is grace - free grace alone that makes the difference. It is the goodness of God, we were privileged to be born in a land where the Bible was known and disseminated, and where the Gospel of the grace of God is preached, but for the mercy of God we might have been born of Heathen parents, then away with boasting, & remember

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that it is of Gods mercy we are what we are, and of His mercy, we are not consumed. If Men would only follow the practice of the Heathen whom they effect to despise, learn their maxims - learn to comprehend that great moral precept “ Know thyself” they would act widely different towards their fellow men than they do at present.
The funeral of the departed chief took place on the afternoon of the following day, upwards of One hundred persons attended the corpse to the grave. The Native Inhabitants were in clean & neat attire, the Officers of the Settlement & near relatives followed next to the corpse, the Surgeon & Catechist in front. It was past 3 OClock when the mournful procession moved on in solemn order to the burying ground, distant about half a mile. The day was fine and the whole scene was one of great interest. The Aborigines stood in a circular form round the grave, select portions were then read from the Burial service by the Catechist, after which the

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following hasty eulogium was delivered as a last a last tribute to the remains of the departed chieftain, though brief was listened to by the Aborigines with great attention, there never was better decorum observed among any civilised community than was [indecipherable] on this occasion.
The Address
My Christian and coloured Friends, I feel it to be not only my duty, but also my privilege to address you on this occasion. The death of this Man is to me a source of grief. He was my friend and fellow traveller, for several years; He was a faithful attendant and rendered essential service to the mission I had the honor the conduct. He was a Man of superior intellect & in his own language a good logician, although not fluent in the English language, he frequently gave cogent reasons for the measures he had to propose, and though an aged man he never shrunk from the arduous duties

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he had engaged to perform. Among his countrymen he was considered a sage & and the greatest warrior of his tribe. Anterior to my acquaintance with him he had been constantly engaged in war, either with rival tribes or in predatory attacks upon the white inhabitants, and by his superior tact & prowess, always escaped uninjured & proved victorious. He possessed a commanding influence over his own people. He was a good husband & a kind parent, a faithful friend & a good ally & his coming to Flinders Island was looked forward to by the Tribe to which he belonged, with pleasing anticipation and delight. In disposition he was kind, docile, & affectionate, to his foes fierce & resolute, yet honorable & humane. He was brave & possessed a noble spirit. I could relate many anecdotes I have heard concerning him, highly creditable to his character, but the time will not permit that; Had the same been done in a civilized community it would have entitled the individual to the

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warmest commendation. On one occasion he had to contend in single combat with a very powerful opponent , yet by his superior prowess he overcame his antagonist, & when he had him prostrate upon the ground, & about to inflict the death blow, his adversary begged for his life, & he nobly gave it. This was true magnanimity. I knew the Man whose life he had thus spared, & he told me the story. You have perhaps remarked the observation I made, that had the same been done by a civilized person, his name would have been held in honorable mention, & I hope I shall be able to do justice to the memory of the deceased among my own countrymen. Among the remnant tribe to which he belonged, it will be held in respect, & borne in remembrance as long as an Aborigine shall exist. But why this boasted civilization, where is the difference if we stop at civilization the poor heathen is equally nigh to Heaven as ourselves, for civilization without christianization

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is valueless. Where is the difference between those poor people, and the abandoned and depraved, who form by far the largest portion in civilized communities; surely the white savage is the worst. Before he became acquainted with white men, the deceased was guided solely by the light of creation, whilst with me he had heard the Gospel preached, the good news that Jesus Christ came into the world to save sinners. That God sent his Son, yet the Son was not forced, It was a free will offering; He voluntary undertook the task. His Son came not to call the righteous but sinners, and died to save sinners.
We cannot therefore say what has been the result; perhaps some recollection of those things has recurred to his mind, let us hope so, but whatever may have been his views, it is now over, as the Tree falls so it lies, we may therefore truly say “Great is the mystery of Godliness”, but then we have an encouragement, we have the

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promise that his word shall not return unto him void, that a remnant of all shall be saved; And if a remnant of all, we are bound to believe that a remnant of those people will be saved also. Yes, all nations, kindreds, & tongues, shall call him blessed.
God will have his witnesses from among those poor outcasts. “Hasten me beseech Thee O God, that happy period, when All shall know thee from the least unto the greatest”. I have seen my Brethren many spots where the deceased had fought & distinguished himself, & I have heard his deeds extolled; And to day I am called to view the spot where his poor remains are to be deposited. Tuery & Hector you have lost a Father, & I a friend. Your earthly parent is dead, & my Friend is dead; but we may rejoice that God is our Father, & Friend. A Father & friend that will never die. But you ask who is God that He is our Father & where does he dwell? God is a Spirit & Heaven is His dwelling place. You cannot see Him & you cannot hear Him, nor feel Him, but

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He exists, and He heard & [indecipherable] you. God is here, God is there, God is everywhere. God is a Spirit you cannot comprehend His form, he is invisible, yet always present. He is not like you, not like me, a spirit has no bones, no flesh like you & me. God the Spirit made the first Man. God the Spirit made the Sun, the Moon, the Land & the Water, the Trees, the Grass, the Salt water, & the dry Land. God made every thing. There is only one God, the God of white Men, & the God of black Men. There are not two Gods, God is a Spirit, & they that worship Him must worship Him in Spirit & in truth; This is the way we must worship Him. He will be worshipped in no other way. We are told this from God’s book. This is God’s Book, & it is called a Bible. Bible means Book. If I were to say Bible, it will be the same as if I should say Book Bible. Well then the words of this Book are Gods words - God told good men long time ago, to write

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them down, that all men might know what he wished them to do, and what they were not to do, and if they did what he commanded them to do He would love them, like them, take care of them, & when they came to die, / one of your friends died but a short time since & plenty of black men, & white men, & black women, & white women die, & by & by you & I shall die; well then God will take care of good men when they die. The Devil is afraid of God, God is his Master, the Devil will not touch Gods people, he is too frightened. When good men - good white men, & good black men die, God tells Angels, Angels Spirits, that is little Spirits, God is a great, a very great Spirit, the greatest of them all; God tells Angels Spirits / they are Gods servants God tells them to take care of the good Men when he is well, & when he is sick, & when he dies, he tells Angels spirits, His servants to take care of the dead mans soul & carry it to Heaven, where he will see God

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see him face to face, see him the same as I see you, & then he will never be sick any more, never be hungry any more, never be cold any more, but he will be happy - happy for ever, every thing will be good, & he will like it, yes he like it much, he would not wish to go back to his own country. He will have no desire to go there. If you could say to him will you come back to your own country again, he would say No; he would be displeased with you - he would not like to hear you ask him, he would say No, No, I like this place, I like it better than my own country, I like it much, I am happy here, he would say when I was in my own country you fought with me, you talked no good - talked too much. When I was in my own country I was sick, I was hungry, I was cold, I was frightened & I was miserable. But now I am happy very happy indeed, this is a good place - a very good place, all good people good black & white men are here. I am hungry no more - I am sick no more

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I am frightened no more, all are good, it is all very good, a very good place, & then he must sing, Prase to God, & to the Lamb, Jesus Christ is called the Lamb, /the Lamb being a symbol of innocence/ who is seated upon the Throne for Ever and Ever. Yes there is joy in Heaven, you have heard music, but there is no music like Heavenly music. It is indescribable. There is no song like the song of Angels. In heaven all is good, no evil nor bad can dwell there. The souls of good black men & good white men are in Heaven. All good people go to heaven, but no bad or wicked men can go there. If you pray to God he will make you good. In another country a long time ago there was a very wicked and bad black man, he fought and killed other black men, stole too much - told too many lies, & talked and said very many bad words. By & by he heard gods word, he heard Gods word he hears Gods Book the Bible read. Then God made him hear the words of his Book, his ear was open to hear it- his heart was open to receive it - God made him to see &

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feel what a wicked, bad, & great sinner he was, & and when he had seen & felt what a very wicked bad & great sinner he was he began to cry, he thought he should be lost to the Devil, he thought his soul would be lost, he prayed to God to put the Devil from him, & God heard him, & God had mercy upon him and pardoned him. “For God delighted not in the death of a sinner, but rather he would turn him from his wickedness & live” so this poor black man was pleased when God pardoned him his sins, he was exceedingly glad & rejoiced greatly & thanked God - thanked him much & thanked him plenty. Then he told other black men what God had done for him, & told them to go to God & pray as he had done, and God would pardon them their sins and make them good. Then he made a song about what God had done for him, for his soul & made a tune also & sung it to other

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black men, these are some of the words & they are very good

I am glad I saw another day
Sing Glory - Glory –Glory
We ever need to sing and pray
For Glory - Glory - Glory

I have Glory - Glory in my soul
Sing Glory - Glory - Glory
Which makes me praise my Lord so bold
For Glory - Glory - Glory

I hope to praise him when I die
In Glory - Glory - Glory
And shout Salvation as I fly
To Glory - Glory - Glory

These are some of the verses - there are many more but there is not sufficient time to repeat them on this occasion. I fear there are some words I have already spoken which you do not understand. I told you that when good black men die, or good white men die, that God sends his Angels spirits his servants to take care of them, to take

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charge of the dead mens soul & to carry it to Heaven; but you do not know what a Soul is. White men cannot tell what a soul is. I cannot tell what a soul is, yet I know that I do have a Soul. We have also a mind, the mind is a faculty & with the mind we think, for instance you are thinking. I cannot tell you what you are thinking, you may be thinking that you would like to have Gods word like the black man I have told you about you may be thinking that you would like to be good & would like to go to Heaven when you die, or you may be thinking very bad, or very good. I cannot tell what you are thinking, but God knows what you are thinking. He knew before you began to think. He knew a long time ago what you would think today, & what you will think to morrow - therefore dont think bad, for God knows, God sees, God hears, God knows every thing. This thinking & doing is a proof that you have a soul. You know you first think about a thing, & then

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do it. You think about hunting Kangaroos & then say let us ask the Commandant to hunt Kangaroos. This thinking is something within us, you cannot see it but you know that it is there. There are plenty of things we a cant see cant feel, yet me know there are such things. You cannot see the wind, yet you know there is wind. You cannot see the fish in the Sea, yet you know there are plenty of Fish, you cannot see your Soul yet you know you have a soul, you know you have a something living within you which enables you to live, yet you cannot tell what it is. Well this is your Soul or Spirit, it is called a spirit because you cannot see it. Life is not the soul, no more than death is the soul. Life is animal being. Soul is spiritual being, you know that you have something within you by which you live and move. Know the Soul never dies, the body is the dwelling place for the Soul, the body dies, but the

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soul never dies. You know I have a house to live in, if I go away & get another house & the house should fall down still I dont fall down, the house may be old and tumble down , but yet I dont tumble down, so this body is the house for my soul. By & by the body will die, but my soul will not die, so my soul will go to another house it will go to Heaven, & stay in heaven & live with God in Heaven, provided I serve God, love him with all my heart, with all my soul, and with all my mind. Again I told you that in Heaven you would not be hungry, nor cold, nor sick, & perhaps you are ready to ask what then shall we eat in Heaven, what will God give us to eat there, are there Kangaroos in Heaven - Bullocks in Heaven, Sheep in Heaven - Bread in Heaven. No there are none of these things in Heaven. The good men and women in Heaven dont eat bread nor drink water, they dont eat anything & yet they have plenty. They are full, they are satisfied with the plenteousness

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of his house, but they do not want to eat, they have no desire to eat, the desire to eat is taken away, & they are filled, yes when you and I get to Heaven we shall like it we will be pleased with it, we will be satisfied, for in his presence “ There is fullness of joy & at His right hand pleasure for ever more”. - Again I told you about Gods book - about Gods word; Let me explain & tell you a little more about this Book, I fear you do not understand me. In Gods word we read of a black man, a long time ago, who was a very rich man, a very great man, & a very learned man & he had read Gods book: but did not understand it. & God sent Philip a very good man to teach him, that is to explain the words of the Book to him. In like manner, God sends His holy Spirit to teach, to instruct, & to explain his words unto us, that is the words of His book provided we ask him. This is Gods Book it is called the Bible. It is also called the Book or

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Book of Books, because it is the best of Books - And why the best of Books, - because the best of things are contained in it. It contains Gods words, all other Books contains Mens words, but this contains Gods words. God did not make this book, white men made it, but God spoke the words. God made the Karney i.e. the words, you are perhaps ready to ask how did God make these words. I will tell you. God saw man very bad, he saw plenty of bad men here & and God did not like to see so many bad & wicked men. Then God called one very good Man whose name was Moses & said unto him write; Moses said what should I write Lord, & God said to Moses write what I shall say unto thee, so Moses wrote Gods word which are in this Book. Moses did not write all the words in this book. Other good men who wrote Gods words & those good men who wrote the last

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words in the Book were called Apostles & disciples, they were Holy Men inspired by God, and wrote as they were moved by the Spirit of God; that is they wrote what God told them to write, but the last good men who wrote, that is the Apostles & disciples, wrote also what they saw, They wrote what they saw God's Son do; for you know I have told you already that "God sent his Son into the world to save the world" that is to save sinners, & that wicked bad men put God's Son to death, but if this I shall tell you more hereafter.

The words of this Book then tell us, what we should do & what we should not do: If we do according to the words in this book we do right, but if we do not according to these words, we do wrong.

This Book is sometimes called Scripture. Scripture means writing, the same as when you see me write. When God first spoke the words, Good men wrote them the same as I write. There is another observation I wish to explain to you, I said

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God told us in His scriptures or Bible Book that he was a Spirit. I have already told you who God is, that he is a Spirit, also what was meant by the word Spirit. I will now briefly explain the kind of worship required by God. The Book, Gods word, tells us he is a Spirit, & and they that worship him must worship him in Spirit & in truth. That is, it is not worshipping of God by coming here, by reading books, by hearing Gods book read. No if I come here and sit down & hear the book read & do no more, I do not worship God. If we wish to worship God right, we must worship him with the heart. You know we may use a form of words in Gods House & may pretend to pray to God, when our hearts are far from him. When this is the case God will not hear - God will not notice us. God looketh at the heart “To that Man

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“will I look, who is of a humble and contrite spirit” & in another place says “Give me thine heart” . God will not be satisfied with anything short of this. Man looketh at the outward appearance, but God looketh at the heart that is to the desire, what a Man desireth that will he seek after. Now if you desire to know God, to love & to serve God, you must go to God in prayer, tell him so, God invites you to go to him, he says “Come unto me all ye that are weary & heavy laden, & I will give you rest”. “Ask & ye shall receive “Knock & it shall be opened unto you” Ask God to open your ears , to hear his word. Ask him to open your hearts, to receive & keep his word. Ask him this minute, dont put it off any longer, but ask him now. Methinks you are ready to say, how can I ask him. I must not karney - speak, make a noise here. No it is true

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you ought not to make a noise here, & on this occasion, but then let me tell you, it is not necessary for you to make a noise for God to hear you. This would be wrong, this would be false worship. This has been the common practice with all false worshippers in every age of the world. You remember my Christian friends the Priests of Baal (18 chap: 1st Kings) whom Elisha reproved, you know that the Prophet laughed at their endeavours & seemed to encourage them “Cry aloud said the Prophet ironically spare not “ make a noise, perhaps thy God will hear thee”
We are told also that the Pharisees made a great show of religion, & prayed at the corner of the streets, & in market places, & made long prayers & a loud noise. It is therefore not necessary to make a noise for God to hear you. Yet good Men are not ashamed for people to hear them pray; Public prayer is

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commanded by God, as well as private prayer. God knows what you will pray for before you begin to pray, still he requires that you should pray “God heareth in secret & rewardeth openly”. We read of a poor woman in Gods word, who prayed to God in Public, when her [indecipherable] were not seen to move, & this is the way you may pray even now whilst you are here; for instance I have just now prayed, you did not hear me, this then is called “ejaculatory prayer”. I prayed to God for you, I asked God, I said O God, open their ears to hear thy word, open their eyes to see it, & open their hearts to receive it & keep it. Now try if you cannot do the same; but you must not only pray when you are here, but you must karney - speak to God in your houses, in your [indecipherable] in the bush, everywhere. Now I tell you what I did, you know I have walked plenty - a long time - along way - I karnied, prayed to God that I might not be sick, God heard me, & put away the sickness. I heard also

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that plenty of white men shoot & kill black Men & I said to God, let me go & speak to the poor black men, & take care of the black men. & God said Go, that is He made me feel desirous to go. Now I was not frightened, there were plenty of white men frightened, but I was not frightened. I said God will take care of me & protect me. I said black man was my brother, God made my black brother & my white brother, so I prayed to God to bless me & the black man & he heard me. Then you know that I went upon the sea in the Whale Boat, by & by there was plenty if big wind, plenty of big sea, & the white men were frightened, & said they should all be drowned, but I was not frightened. I prayed to God & by & by the big wind went away, & the little sea came.
Thus you see God heard me, & God was good, but we are to worship him not only in Spirit, but also in truth - that is we must mean what we say. You know

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you & I may say many things we do not mean. I may say I will throw all the Potatoes in the Garden into the Sea but then I do not mean so. You may say I will run into the Sea & drown myself, but then I am sure you do not mean it. Now when you pray to God, that is ask God for any thing, you must mean what you say. If you ask God to make you hear his word, to make you a good Man, he will not hear you unless you speak to him in truth, you must not tell lies. If you say to God, learn, teach me to pray you must mean it, Now to pray is to mean what you say, the same as if you were to very hungry, you would come to me & say I am very hungry, please to give me some bread, this then would be praying to me, because I knew that you wanted and desired the bread. In like manner go to God & tell him you are hungry, & ask him to give you his words, out of his Book, which is called the “Bread of eternal Life that will never perish” I must conclude - In

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this address discourse I have told you of the being of God - who God is - How He is to be worshiped - Of the Unity of God - the Scriptures or Book of God - How to pray to God. The redemption of sinners by the Son of God - Of the goodness & love of God. All those subjects I have briefly glanced at & and which I hope will be taken up & followed out by the Catechist whenever the opportunity offers. These subjects I have endeavoured to simplify & to bring down to your understanding, for at present you are but babes, & and must be fed with the Milk of the word. After you have been further instructed, & become Men in knowledge, we will tell you of deeper things. I hope I have spoken plain yet I fear many words & expressions are not understood, for if we fail to speak plain we are what St Paul says in the 1st of Corinthians chap, 14 “speaking to you in an unknown tongue”. Note - It being thought advisable to

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recapitulate what had been said at the Grave, the subject was again resumed in the Chapel on the following Tuesday, with some few alterations & additions.

Mannalargenna was fully sensible of the injustice done to himself & people, in the usurpation of his country by the white intruder. He had often recounted to me the cruelties inflicted upon himself and his progenitors, and which will be found in the course of my work, in their proper place. He had frequently often been chased for his life by the white Savage. On one occasion he was shot at by a Sealer named “Tucker”, & was slightly wounded in his side by slugs. When I first met with him he was in his own country waiting the return of a party of his people who had gone on a predatory excursion to the settled districts, on which occasion they robbed Mr Batemen at Ben Lomond . They had gone there for the avowed purpose of committing depredation, in retaliation

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for some supposed wrongs they had received at the hands of the Stock Keepers. At this period they were joined by a male Aborigine who had been sojourning with Mr B. & by whom this Black had been instructed in the use of fire arms. After he absconded he headed the blacks & committed several robberies. On this occasion two Aborigines were shot by the whites - they were fine young men, brothers to an Aboriginal female now at this Settlement.
Mannalargenna was obtained by me also his people at the time of the line, i.e. the military operation for subjugating the blacks. I succeeded in meeting with him inland from the East coast near St Georges River & removed him with his own consent to Swan Island where I had formed a depot for the aborigines. He afterwards assisted me in communicating with the Stony creek tribe. This was at the commencement of his missionary career. He afterwards continued with me to the

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conclusion of the mission, in 1835. His wife joined me before her husband & continued with me until conclusion of her death which took place in 1835. She died in the Hospital at Hobart Town. She was a woman of strong mind, & possessed a commanding influence over the other females. She had much dignity of manner, was tall & well made, with a pleasing countenance & of the asiatic cast of feature. I have furnished a memoir of her which will appear in my work. They were a happy couple. I never knew them to quarrel at any time, she suffered much from an affection of the lungs which she had contracted before I knew her. She was stolen from her tribe by the Sealers when a child, at which time several other girls were stolen.
Mannalargenna was well acquainted with the Mythology of the Natives. He was passionately fond of bedaubing himself with ocre & grease. He was never known to eat animal food except what the forest

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afforded, domesticated animals he never partook of. He was first attacked with cold which brought on catarrh & inflammation of the lungs which terminated in his death.
(Signed) G.A. Robinson
Flinders Island
January 1836

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Commandants Office
Settlement for the Aborigines
Flinders Island
4th July 1836
In compliance with yours of the 30th ultimo, I do myself the honor to submit the following Statement, in replication to certain queries contained therein, and trust the same will be found both satisfactory and explanatory.
I have the honor to be,
Your very humble Servant,
J Montagu Esqre.
Colonial Secretary

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[In margin - 1st The state and Condition of the Natives at Flinders Island.]
The present state and condition of the natives at this Settlement, is I am proud to say, of the most pleasing description, and from what has recently taken place, and the arrangements in course of preparation for their further improvement, the best possible results may be fully hoped for.
The minds of the Aborigines are beginning to expand; they have more enlarged views of their present situation, and are grateful for the favours conferred upon them, still it is easy to be perceived they consider them more as matters of right than of debt or obligation; They hear with greatest respect those in authority over them; In their intercourse with each other they are affable and courteous, free from bickering and contentions, and which in their pristine state frequently ended in deadly strife; Moreover, the remnant tribes who in their native wilds were most [indecipherable] are now the most friendly, their manners are mild and inoffensive, they are volatile in their spirits, and are extremely facetious, and perfectly under command, and when

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excited to anger, which is a rare occurrence, their passions are readily allayed by a few kind words, or soothing expressions; Their attachment to myself is devoted in the extreme, my requests are met by a ready compliance: For the fulfilment of the conditions made to them in their native districts they rest implicit confidence, and are fully satisfied of their being realized; They studiously avoid exciting my displeasure, and appear grieved if they imagine that I am in the least offended, and a look is sufficient to suppress the greatest excitement.
The natives are placed under no kind of restraint, but enjoy every degree of personal freedom consistent with a due regard to their health, and the formation of religious and civilized habits:. - The aborigines are now perfectly docile, and the greatest tranquility exists among them.

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[In margin - 2nd The Number that were removed to the Islands and their decrease.]
The average number of aborigines removed to Gun Carriage and Flinders Islands, as far as can at present be ascertained, were about. Two hundred, and the decrease about seventy three.
[In margin –Their present state of health and the apparent cause of such decrease.]
At present the health of the natives is good, and when the measures in course of preparation are completed, there is every reason to hope they may be continued.
The alterations [indecipherable] in the habits of the natives has already been attended with the most beneficial results, and their numbers are upon the increase; Three births have taken place within the last twelve weeks, and several are now enceinte.
The mortality that has heretofore taken place among the Aborigines on the Islands may be attributed to a variety of causes, but the following appear to be the Chief: The exposed, and damp situations of their dwellings, and frail manner of their construction; their want of warm, and sufficient clothing; the saline properties

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of the water, and the continued use of Salt provisions.
The catarrhal, and Pneumonic attacks to which they are so subject, and which are the only fatal diseases among them are caused by the injudicious system of suddenly changing their habits, food, and manner of Life.
It is in contemplation to supply this settlement with wholesome water by the following means, either by boring, or the construction of tanks; and the new buildings about to be erected, will be placed in a sheltered situation; hence, the above objections will be removed.
The supply of fresh meat already sanctioned by His Excellency, and which is about to be forwarded to this station, in lieu of Salt provision will remove the baneful influencies arising therefrom.
[In margin - 3rd The means of sustenance which the Settlement naturally afford.]
The Settlement affords no natural resources as regards sustenance for the natives.

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[In margin - 4th The nature of the Supplies forwarded to the Settlement by the Commissariats Department.]
The supplies forwarded to this Settlement by the Commissariat, consists of Flour, Salt. Beef and Pork, Tea, Sugar, Tobacco, Rice and Oatmeal. Of their relative qualities, there is nothing to object to, being mostly good of their kind, but from the many removals of the flour before its arrival at the Stores, and the want of proper conveyance it has generally been more or less damages by. Salt water; either on board the Brigs, or by its transmission in the Settlement Boats to this Station : - To obviate this, it has been generally thought that if the flour intended for this Settlement was packed in Casks, and a suitable deck’d boat supplied to this Station, as already recommended, little or no damage would occur; and; as the difference of stowage would be very trifling, its adoption would prevent a repetition of the serious losses that have

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lately taken place.
[In margin - 5th The daily ration issued and how far it is suitable to and sufficient for the habits of the Aborigines.]
The Scale of rations issued to the natives are as follows; -
Meat - one pound
Flour - one pound, eight ounces
Sugar - Two ounces
Tea - one fourth of an ounce
Soap - one fourth of an ounce
Salt - one fourth of an ounce
Tobacco - Two fourths of an Ounce
With reference to the suitability of the above, I would observe, that the dislike of the natives to Salt meat still continues, and that nothing but absolute necessity compels them to partake of it.
Sugar - Two ounces
Tea - one fourth of an ounce
Flour - one pound. Issued in lieu of one pound of meat
This commuted allowance of tea. Sugar and Flour has been received by the greater part of the natives during four days of the week; - the other

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three days the natives are supplied with Salt meat, for notwithstanding their aversion for this description of food, they are compelled to accept it rather than have none at all; And, as it is found impossible to bring the natives to subject wholly on Vegetable diet, it becomes indispensably necessary that fresh meat be afforded them, when the ration above enumerated would be found wholly sufficient: - To the Aborigines who from their earliest infancy have been accustomed to the purest of animal food, fresh meat must necessarily become an indispensable article of Aboriginal consumption.
[In margin - 6th The Clothing, its description and how far it has been found suitable.]
The Cloth heretofore supplied to the natives has generally been of an inferior description, of a coarse woolley texture neither impervious to the

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wet nor sufficient to exclude the Cold. The male Aborigines wear in general but one garment, a frock-coat, close at the skirts, and buttoned up the waist; - It is absolutely necessary, for the preservation of their health, that the Cloth furnished; should in future be of a strong and durable quality, and which Ultimately would be a saving to the Government.
The last supply of Cloth to this Settlement was a most flimsy fabric, principally consisting of a kind of Drugget. The Coats made from this material soon fell to pieces, and have left the people almost in a state of nudity; The most suitable cloth for Garments of the Male Aboriginal is Pilot Cloth, if it could be procured. This would be by far the cheapest to the Government;- Provided this material could be furnished

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their present mode of dress would be the best that could be adopted.
No suitable material has yet been furnished for Garments for the Native Women;- Hitherto, their frocks have been made from Blankets, which being of a coarse - open - texture is unfitted for the purpose. The Native Women seldom wear more that two garments, an upper and under garment. It is therefore very desirable, that they be provisioned with warm and durable raiment. Either of the following is recommended.
Strong thick Chambray (dark coloured)
Blue twilled flannel
Dark Coloured Cloth (in its undressed state)
Cloth Blankets
[In margin - 7th What religious instruction has been imparted and how far do they appear to understand it?]
The Natives are instructed in the principles of the Christian religion.
Public worship is celebrated twice on the

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Sabbath; namely, morning and evening, that in the morning from half past Eleven to One, that in the evening from half past three to five. The Services are commenced by singing and reading select portions from the Common Service, then one of the Lessons; occasionally the Commandments, singing four psalms and hymns, and concluding with an exhortation, generally from the Lesson that had been read. The Service is then concluded, by singing and prayer.
The native Youth “Walter” acts on those occasions, as Clerk; giving out the hymns, and reading the responses; the rest of the Service is conducted by the Catechist:- The principal points to which the attention of the natives are directed are first
The Being of a God;
The Worship of God;
The duty we owe to God;

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Praying to God;
Love of our Neighbours;
The goodness of God, in his providential care of Mankind;
Of man and Depravity;
Future rewards and punishments;
Love of God;
The redemption of the World by our Lord Jesus Christ.
The whole of which instruction is conducted in the English Language;- Single ideas and simple truths are what I recommend for the instruction of those interesting people;- Catechetical instruction is the best adapted to the Capabilities of the Natives, for which purpose the Catechist was requested a short time since to commence a course of this instruction on the Tuesday Evening, and which is the only Weekly religious exercise afforded the natives.
In reference to the foregoing subject, I am proud to state, that the most astonishing and marked

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improvement has taken place among the Aborigines.
In their attendance at Divine Worship, the people are left in a great degree to their own choice, and which in matters of religion I think they ought, but as example teaches before precept, I am a constant and regular attendant:- The Sabbath day at this Settlement is a day of rest, and a day set apart for religious worship:- At Sun-rise, the Union Jack is hoisted at Mount Arthur and hauled down again at Sun set:- The hoisting of the flag is the Signal for the Aborigines to prepare and clean themselves for church, after which they wait about their huts, in clean and neat attire until the tolling of the bell, when they join me in Company and in an orderly and becoming manner proceed with me to the Church.

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Their conduct during divine worship is of the most exemplary kind;- They are quiet and attentive to what is said, and the Church is crowded;- At all the religious exercises that I have attended, there has been full congregations, both morning and evening. The ignorance of the Native, heretofore in the first principles of religion was more the fault of the system, than of the people, for I am fully persuaded, they are capable of high mental Improvement, and which I hope will soon be made apparent:- I consider that the moral and religious instruction of the natives is of paramount importance;- This in my Opinion is the groundwork on which to begin, and by means of which the Amelioration of the Aborigines is to be effected - At church the people are seated

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in the following order. In the Table pew are the Civil Officers, and their families, also the Native Chiefs and their Wives; next in rotation, are the native Women collectively;- Behind them are the Male Aborigines, and in the rear the Servants and overseers - Sacred Melody. - This had always appeared to me a delightful part of Worship, and as the natives are generally partial to Music, I requested singing to be introduced, and which has already been attended with pleasing results:- It is truly gratifying to see with what avidity they listen to this part of devotion;- The singing of some of the Native Women has a pleasing effect;- their melody being soft and harmonious. I think in a short time that the entire of the

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congregation will be brought to take part in this religious exercise: In conclusion, I would observe, that at this Settlement the greatest possible respect is paid to the Sabbath;- There is no strolling about;- The religious Services are well attended;- the people are arrayed in their best attire, and all Amusements are totally refrained from:- Those are some of the Characteristics by which the Sabbath is distinguished, as a day for rest, and devotedness.
[In margin - 8th Has a school been established have the natives attended it have they manifested a desire for instruction?]
There are now at this Settlement three Schools established for the instruction of the aborigines.
[In margin - Is the Catechist a competent person to perform his various duties efficiently?]
1st A boys and womans day school
2nd Sabbath School and lastly Week day Evening School –
The day School for the

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boys is conducted by the Catechist. that in the morning from Ten to Twelve, and in the afternoon from two to three. A day School, also, has been commenced for the native Women under the Superintendence of Mrs Clark. The instruction in the morning lasts about an hour, in the afternoon two hours;- the women on those occasions are instructed principally in sewing. But it is at the Evening School that the principal instruction is imparted. My family and the Civil Officers and their Wives act as Teachers, and the average attendance of Scholars is from Sixty to Eighty. No language can do justice to the intense anxiety Manifested by the Adult Aborigines for learning; It must be seen to be properly

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comprehended. Assiduity on the part of the teachers is alone wanted to lead them forward in the paths of Knowledge;- The natives themselves are always ready and are desirous that instruction should be imparted to them:- The desire of the Natives for learning is not the result of Compulsion, but is the free exercise of their own unbiased judgements, and on this Account its continuance may be reasonably looked for. Six months have now passed away since the Schools were commenced and there is not the slightest diminution of their numbers the same vehement desire continues unabated. The anxiety manifested by the Natives for the attainment of Knowledge is great in the extreme their proficiency is - astonishing. Some are

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now able to read in words of three syllables and if they progress but half as rapidly as they have heretofore done in another six months they will be able to read the Scriptures. Those pleasing results act as Stimulants to renewed exertion.
The juveniles are making considerable proficiency in learning and several are in writing and have acquired a knowledge of the relation of numbers and some can add tolerably correct.
The School Master is competent to educate the Aborigines with the aid that is now afforded.
[In margin - 9th have the Aborigines known any disposition to become civilized. How are the Men and Women employed. Are the Men employed in cultivating the Soil and the Women in domestic concerns. Do they show any aptitude for these pursuits.]
The Aborigines have shown every disposition to become civilized. The men are employed in rural and other pursuits and the women are occupied in domestic concerns and for which those people have shewn the

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greatest aptitude and by their repeated enquiries evinced the strongest desire to become acquainted with the Arts of Civilised Life. Their wild habits are fast giving way their corrobories and pereginations into the Bush are less frequent they are becoming more cleanly in their persons and are rapidly acquiring industrious habits. The use of Ochre and grease which heretofore they were so much addicted to they have entirely refrained from. The Women take particular pains in the arrangement of their domestic economy; Their cottages are carefully swept out twice a day their bedding is put out to air weather permitting the cleanliness order and regularity observed by the Inmates of the New Cottages and the disposition of their culinary utensils furniture bedding &c would do

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credit to any white person and put many of them to the blush. The other natives are envious to have Cottages of the same kind, and assure me that when they are in their new houses their domestic economy will be managed equally as well;- In sewing the Women have made great proficiency, they make all their own dresses and recently they have displayed greater precocity of intellect in Knitting;- The native Women provide fuel for their fires, they also wash their own garments, bedding &c &c
The Male Aboriginals are equally as industrious; Around more than half a mile in length cut through a dense forest at the rear of my quarters to the beach, and as well also the cross roads have been done by them;- They have assisted in clearing a part of the forest which before was impassable;- Several acres of barley the first grown

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upon Flinders Island has been reaped by them, with the assistance of the Civil Officers, and the facility with which they execute this branch of husbandry was a matter of surprise to every one; They appear complete adepts at reaping; No accident whatever occurred during the Harvest.
The Big river and Oyster Bay tribes, taken collectively, are the most advanced in civilization, and the Western natives who occupied a Country far remote from any Settlement, and therefore could not have acquired any previous Knowledge of rural pursuits, were equally as ready at reaping as the other; Indeed their aptitude to acquire Knowledge can scarcely be credited;- In addition to the One thousand six hundred birds forwarded to Launceston in March last, two thousand six hundred and thirty have since been cured by the natives and will be forwarded

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to Hobart Town ex “Tamar” by the present opportunity. The Aborigines dig and plant their own potatoes; Indeed to enumerate all the various employments in which they engage would occupy too great a space in this communication;- Suffice it to say they are ever ready and willing to assist in any undertaking they are required to perform; A short time since they dug three acres of potatoes, sorted and conveyed them in trucks to the Store, and dug pits, and covered them up which labor was accomplished in the course of a week; whilst working, they divided themselves into parties, and thus relieved each other.
The Natives now cook their own meat, and bake their own bread. The Contrast between their past and present condition in this respect is striking.

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in the extreme. In their primitive state their mode of Cooking was to throw the Animal upon the fire (whole), and when half warmed take out the entrails, and rub the inside over with the paunch. It was then eaten;- Their mode of Cooking is now widely different;- they follow the examples of the whites, and adopt their practise and in every possible way endeavour to imitate them.
When occasionally supplied with fresh mutton, they boil it with Vegetables and make it into Soup thickening it with flour, and seasoning it with Salt; Some of this Soup I have found to be of a Savoury kind, and they are becoming great epicures in their diet. In preparing it they are extremely cleanly, carefully washing the Kettles, and ingredients. The few Walloughby they

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occasionally obtain are skinned, and the hind quarters hung before the fire to roast, when they dredge it with flour, and prepare a gravy with onions &c: Numerous are the Incidents that might be cited to show the great advancement the Aborigines have made in Civilization, and their great desire for further improvement.
They are extremely importunate to have new and good cottages, and which they promise to take care of, and keep in clean and good order; and if admonished or spoken to about any irregularity in their present dwellings they reply that their habitations are old, and that it is impossible on account of their fragile property to keep them clean;- That they are anxious to do so but are unable on account of the frail manner of their construction, as their

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dogs are continually forcing their way in, and soil them immediately they are clean.
In their dress they are extremely studious and are careful to repair as far as they are able any rend or tear, and whenever they lay their hands on a Clothes Brush, it is immediately applied to its proper Use.
They display a great deal of taste in decorating the interior of their dwellings, and arrange the pictures and ornaments given to them to the best advantage, and shew a desire in every possible way of imitating their more civilized fellow Beings.
[In margin - 10th How far do [indecipherable] consider Flinders Island with reference to its climate and capabilities a fit asylum for the natives. Can [indecipherable] there enjoy the [indecipherable] and exercises [indecipherable] which they were accustomed before their removal thither.]
There can be no possible objection to Flinders Island as a Settlement for the Aborigines either as regards its Climate or its Capabilities, for Agricultural purposes, and affording the Means of artificial Sustenance.
The principal

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objection is the impure water and the scarcity of Game, the former there is every prospect of remedying, but the latter can never be obviated.
In several communications which I have recently had the honor to submit to the Government, relative to the welfare of the Aborigines, I have taken occasion to recommend their removal to the South Coast of New Holland, and I would here again remark, that after a careful re-consideration of this subject I am still of an opinion, that if the people are removed from Flindwers Island, the most suitable abode for them would be the adjacent Coast of New Holland; I think that this alternative would be attended with manifold advantages, not only to the Aborigines of Van Diemens Land, but also to the natived of New Holland, to whom they would prove useful auxiliaries by imparting

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to them their religious knowledge and their more civilized habits:- I trust the day is not far distant, when this to be hoped for event will take place, and, though, not withstanding the wild propensities of the Van Diemens Land Aborigines, are in great degree removed, and they are rapidly acquiring civilized habits, yet in a country so extensive as is New Holland , and in which Game is so abundant, it must necessarily follow, that in that situation the Natives would be better able to enjoy their accustomed sports should their propensities incline them occasionally to do so.
[In margin - 10th Does the Island afford game - Is there any fishing [indecipherable] Coasts?]
The Island affords scarcely any natural ressources as regards sustainance for the Aborigines; - The Game ie. the Kangaroos and other wild animals were partly annihialted by the Sealers, who destroyed them, for thier skins antreior to the formation of the Settlement

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and their destruction has since been completed by the frequent hunting of the Natives. The Islands adjacent to Flinders affords sustenance in Birds and Eggs during six months of the year, and this is the only natural resource that can be depended upon apart from a few Craw and mutton fish occasionally met with on the Coast; - Scaled fish are not eaten by the Aborigines of Van Diemens Land
[In margin - 11th Do the Natives appear to be happy and to enjoy themselves or do they languish for their former homes and haunts?]
The Natives are now contented and happy; - there is now no bad feeling, no spear and waddy making for hostile purposes, no slandering; but the best possible understanding seems to exist amongst them; -That cupidity and obliquity of Character for which they were heretofore remarkable has now passed away, their old games and

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amusements are now almost forgotten; - their wild corroberry, or dance, which on account of the great and violent exertion used in its performance, and which was found injurious to their health is now seldom indulged in, excepting for the gratification of an occasional visitor; - Their chief exercise is hunting; - when at the Settlement they amuse themselves by dancing running, bathing, cricket, hap. ball-playing; and recently they have constructed swings, but the Amusement to which they are most partial, is marbles; - This game they have been taught by those Natives who formerly attended the mission, and independent of the above they have other light amusements, and exercises; The women join in the dance, and lately have taken a fancy to play at marbles also -
I have given them several entertainments in the Bush, which the Officers have attended; - Those festivities afford them much amusement, and tends to

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beguile the ennui with which they might otherwise have been affected, and which will, on the return of fine weather be again resumed; Moreover, I omit no endeavours that can in any way add to their pleasure, or could [indecipherable] to their comfort; - I may safely take upon me to state, that the Aborigines do not languish for their former homes and haunts, though they may occasionally revert to them, and when the vicinity of Flinders to the Mainland (which they can plainly distinguish in the fine weather) is considered, it is not to be wondered at, if it did call to mind their expatriation from their vernacular country –
The paucity of game on Flinders is much to be regretted, as by their drawing a comparison in that respect between Flinders and the Main it is apt to keep alive those feelings which otherwise would be buried in oblivion and which would be obviated

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if my reccommendation for their removal to the coast of New holland had been acceded to
In conclusion, I beg to state, that in the course of my replies to the several queries above proposed, it will be observed that I have been led to adopt some of the language used in my former reports, and which as it bore upon the subject submitted in the preceding Document, its introduction became unavoidable.
Brevity of time prevents my going into detail at present but I hope to be able to submit a full and ample account of all matters connected with this Experimental, and Interesting Institution, and which will be forwarded by the vessel which is to return hither (immediately) with the ordinance and other supplies intended for this station.
I have the honor to be
Your vey humble Servant,
G.A. Robinson

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Statement of Supplies furnished to the Establishment at Flinders Island by the Commissariat and paid for direct by the Colonial Government. –
From 12th June 1833 to 31st Aug 1836
May 14 Heifers at £ 5 phead - £ 70 0 0
“ 240 Sheep “ 11s/6d phead - 138 0 0
Mar 200 lbs Rice “ 3d plb - 2 10 0
Aug * 100 Sheep “ 20s70p phead - 125 0 0
* fifty of these are not yet delivered by the Contractor, but will be in a few days. –
Commissiariat Office - Launceston 5 Sept 1836
F Woolrabe

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Commandants Office
Aboriginal Settlement
Flinders Island
8th September 1836
I have the honor to report for the information of His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor the subjoined particulars relative to the progressive improvement of this Settlement since the transmisson of my previous communication of the 7th March last. In compliance with your Instructions of 30th May 1836 requiring
The Colonial Secretary

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requiring that an ample and detailed report be made every six months of all matters connected with this experimental institution for the due information of the Government, I am prepared to state that the results that have taken place since that period are of the most gratifying description and exceeds in every possible way my most sanguine expectation.
The present condition of the Aborigines is very considerably improved - There is the greatest cordiality and harmony existing among them. They are now contented and happy and when the

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the arrangement now about to be made are complete its continuance may under judicious management be reasonably hoped for
Health of the Aborigines
(In margin - There have been four deaths since October last 3 of whom were deceased before my arrival and the fourth during my absence in Hobart Town)
I have the greatest satisfaction saying that the Natives are now perfectly salutiferous and that no deaths have happened for near six months I believe a circumstance unparalelled in the History of the Settlement at this season of the year and that four births within the same period have taken place results which I hope will be found gratifying.

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I have much pleasure in stating that up to the present period the schools have been continued and that the anxiety of the Natives for learning is unabated - Several can now read the Lords Prayer and a great many have committed it to memory - Also hymns which they unite in singing - their memories are found to be particularly retentive - The evening School the principal one is always well attended and the greatest zeal is envinced and eagerness shown to receive tuition and their rapid
advancement may reasonably be looked for. Independant of

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of the advantages derived by the Natives mentally from their attendance at the evening School they have likewise benefited physically as it entirely supersedes their corrobories which consisted in the most violent exercises and distortions of the body continued to the greatest excitement and whilst in a stste of violent perspiration they drank copiously of cold water which practice was attended with most painful [indecipherable]
The yells and monotonous chanting which at one time disturbed the Settlement and
frequently hurt the repose of the white Inhabitants is now no longer heard

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heard - those revelries which oftentimes were of an obscene nature are now abolished.
In carrying into effect the Philanthropic intentions of His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor in connection with the race confided to my charge, and aware that the primary object in establishing this Settlement was to afford succour and protection to the original occupants of Van Diemens Land who had voluntarily consented to leave their native wilds and had moreover submitted to the bounty of the Governement still I cannot divest myself of the idea that this Settlement may

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may likewise be considered as an experimental institution and by suitable measures the latent intellect which has developed itself to me in my long intercourse with them might be brought to light and the odium which was even attached to their very name be obliterated. The Aborigines of Van Dieman’s Land have been considered the most degraded in the scale of humanity and a link only between the human and brute species - I cannot therefore refrain from expressing the inward triumph I feel in connection with the results already produced on

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on the minds of those untutoured people which in my opinion is a refutation to the unjust and cruel calumnies propagated against them and which must for ever put to silence the skeptical and prejudicially minded - I have been most anxious and have endeavoured as far as the means at my disposal admitted to put into immediate operation every scheme that could in any possible way bear upon the beforementioned subject, and it is a source of peculiar encouragement to find that amid the numerous measures I

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I have adopted they have in every instance met with a prompt and ready compliance.
The following are among some of the measures established since my last communication and which have been attended with very beneficial results
1st The Aboriginal fund arising from the Private property of the Natives.
2nd The adoption of a circulating medium
3rd An Aboriginal Police
4th A Weekly Market for the Aborigines.
5th A Weekly Periodical or Newspaper.

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1st The Aboriginal Fund
The following are the means by which this fund is raised:
(In margin - also from the proceeds arising from the produce of the gardens)
By the proceeds arising from the natives Flocks: The sale of their poultry. Salted Mutton Birds: Shell Necklaces: Baskets: Kangaroo and Wallaby skins together with various other articles of Aboriginal Manufacture and industry - They are fully sensible of the good resulting from these measures and are extremely desirous to acquire property.
2nd a circulating medium
Of all schemes that could be put in force for the civilization of

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of the Aborigines this appeared to me of paramount importance. On this subject I had the honor to communicate in my report of March last - It would as therein stated enable the Aborigines to acquire a knowledge of the value of property more readily than any other mode by which means they would be led to the care of property. A principle I had long since endeavoured to establish among them and which I am now happy to say is about to be realised. –
Shortly after my arrival in June last I proceeded to carry into effect those intentions and

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and in the presence of the Officers of this station distributed among the Natives various pieces of money and which subsequently on occasion of the market was laid out in the purchase of goods - The results produced were of the most gratifying descriptionn and are detailed under the head of market –
3rd The Aboriginal Police
With a view to assimilate the Aborigines as much as possible to the Customs and usages of the Europeans and for the better regulation of their own affairs I have been induced to establish a Police from among themselves - And on the 9th August three of the most active

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active and intelligent having been selected (one from each of the three remnant tribes) who were appointed to this duty and vested with the power and authority of Constables - They were chosen viva voice by their own people assembled for the occasion who yielded compliance and promised to uphold the regulations and support the authority of their Officers - and as it was understood that in all matters of an urgent and important character I was to decide I judged it prudent to recommend that the two principal chiefs should sit with me on those occasions and by whose fiat the cases should be

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be determined - This met with universal concurrence.
The Constables receive a weekly stipend of one shilling each out of the Aboriginal fund - Their duty is to take a general surveillance of the entire Aboriginal population - The best possible good has resulted from this measure - To detail all the incidents emanating therefrom would occupy too much space in this Report but if no other was adduced the following alone would be sufficient to prove the utility and advantage of the same - In consequence of the great increase of Dogs on the Settlement near three hundred and the

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the absence of means for their subsistance they were not only a nuisance but had become alarmingly dangerous. –
The only way of removing this evil was to destroy them and the necessity that existed for so doing I made known to the Aborigines - and further in order to stimulate and encourage them to this act I held out a Bounty of 6d for every Bitch, and 3d for each Dog that might be so destroyed.
(In margin - These sums is paid from the Aboriginal fund)
The self denial here evinced by the Aborigines is striking in the extreme especially when we consider the fondness they have for

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those animals which is proverbial. Many of the dogs thus destroyed had accompanied them in their wanderings on the main and on whom they had depended in a great degree for support in procuring them game - their attachment therefore to these animals cannot be wondered at. Each native killed his own dogs.

_______ 4. Weekly Market ______

On the 9th Ultimo the first Market on Flinders Island was held and attended by the whole of the Aboriginal Population dressed in their best attire - the weather proved very auspicious and

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all were happy and gay - the pleasing excitement which universally prevailed was truly gratifying. A spot had been previously selected contiguous to my Quarters and where the market was held seats and tables were erected and a variety of useful goods offered for sale. The following are among some of the articles exhibited - Cooking ware - Tea caddies- Pocket Knives - Table Knives, fishing lines - Straw hats, white cotton shirts - pipes (ornamental & Clay) Fishing Hooks - Plums - Sugar - Rice etc. etc. Various kinds of produce were brought to the Market and offered for sale

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by the natives such as Neck laces - Poultry - Baskets - Kangaroo and Wallaby skins etc. etc. which were purchased accordingly. At 11 A.M. the ringing of the Bell indicated that the Market had commenced. The officers and several members of my family and issued the Articles to the Purchasers and assisted in the general supervision. It will be difficult to describe with what avidity they entered into the spirit of the affair - Their conception of what was intended by this experimental sale was instantaneous and before the conclusion of the market they

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had become shrewd and spent bounteous. The market closes at 2 oclock, when a dinner of fresh Mutton and Boiled Rice & plum pudding is provided and concludes the day - The utmost harmony and hilarity prevails among them on these occasions. They are [indecipherable] to [indecipherable] each other in their expressions of thanks for the amusements afforded them - To the Philanthropist it would be a pleasing and gratifying sight. The Market is held on the Tuesday of each week and is continued with unabated excitement the

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same [indecipherable] and interest is still maintained and they wait the return of each coming day with much anxiety.

The Aboriginal Fund. The entire of the Native property is confided to the care and management of a Committee of Officers consisting of the Medical Attendant as Auditor, Mr. L. Dickinson as Storekeeper, and the Catechist as Clerk of the Market. All communication connected with this property is made through the Storekeeper with whom the goods are deposited and from whom they are drawn upon

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approved requisitions signed by myself in the same manner as is done with the Commissariat and other Government property and the most exact and careful Record is kept of all matters connected therewith.

_____5. Weekly Periodical ______

It had long occurred to me that a Newspaper would be found useful to the Aborigines at this settlement and I am happy to say that I have been enabled to carry this intention into effect. Duplicate copies of the first prospectus written by the Aborigines is herewith arranged. The Journal will be published locally

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on Saturdays the copies to be in manuscript and written exclusively by the Aborigines - the size is half foolscap and the price two pence. The profits coming from the sale of the Journal to be equally divided amongst the writers which it is hoped may induce emulation in writing, excite a desire for useful knowledge and promote learning generally.

_______ Religious Exercises_____

Divine Service is continued as formerly reading in the morning one of the lessons for the day - occasionally the commandments singing four

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psalms and hymns and concluding with an exhortation generally from the lesson which has been read - Walter the Aboriginal youth continues to officiate as Clerk for which and other duties he is allowed one shilling per week from the Aboriginal Fund - This lad is well conducted and reads well and audibly and I have suggested to the Catechist to employ him in reading the lessons for I feel convinced that when it can be done instruction is more readily imparted by the Native teachers than by foreigners. This youth now gives out the Hymns and Psalms and reads the responses.

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He also concludes the evening school by giving out a hymn and repeating the Lords Prayer in which the entire of the natives present join Bruce the Aboriginal youth is progressing and is expected shortly to take part in those Religious exercises - He with the other Boys are employed at the Evening School as teachers to the Adults - The same order and regularity is observed on occasion of the religious services as was repeated on a former occasion - I should here mention that Bruce is appointed assistant to Mathew for which he receives six pence per week - There are many pleasing incidents connected with

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this subject but which I fear might be deemed prolix in this communication.

________Employment for the Aborigines _______

Since my return to the Settlement the Aborigines have been employed in cutting and bringing in from the Bush large posts for the purpose of enclosing their Gardens the old fence from its flimsy construction having fallen to pieces - the greater part of the fencing prior to my arrival, with the exception of the turnip and Potato Paddock ( and the whole of this needs repair) having gone to decay, hence new fencing became necessary.

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Five acres of Potato have been planted by the Aborigines - A quantity of ground has also been prepared for vegetables besides which they have been engaged in Shipbuilding and various other pursuits and they have occasionally been indulged with short hunting excursions.

______ Exercises and Amusements ____

The Aborigines continue to amuse and recreate themselves as described in my previous communication of March last - some additional amusements and exercises have been added.

_____-Miscellaneous _________

Rural Economy - The Natives

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are improving in agriculture and are tolerably efficient in husbandry and considering the paucity of whites much has been accomplished in a short period in addition to planting five acres of Potatoes a Paddock of three acres has been sown with barley.


I regret having to state that a Mortality has taken place among the sheep on Prime Seal Island and that numerous deaths have happened among them. I am of the opinion that the mortality originated in a diseased constitution and with which the original stock must have been infected. At

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the same time I think that if due care and attention had been observed in sheepherding at a former period it would not have happened to the extent it has - the sheepherders recently appointed have been busily engaged in dressing the sheep which I am glad to say have greatly improved and the contagion stopped - It was deemed advisable for the preservation of the flocks that half the quantity (about 300) be removed to fresh pasturage at Green Island and as the Government cutter Shamrock was opportunely on the station I judged it advisable to employ her for that duty more especially as there is no boats

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belonging to the Settlement they having been stolen some salt provisions for Tamar and which was lying on Green Island not being considered safe was also brought to the Settlement. The recent appointment of Shepherd will be a considerable saving to the Flock and consequently a saving to the Government and as every means has been resorted to by me to assist in their convalescence an increase may be reasonably looked for.


The Cottages and other buildings upon the Settlement are undergoing repair but which I should not

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have entered upon had there been sufficient workmen to have commenced the new erections they being of so flimsy a construction as to require artisans constantly at work to make them habitable. It would be desirable that the workmen already applied for be forwarded , their assistance would not be wanted more than six or eight months. Every preparation is making for commencing the new Building but for want of hands they cannot now be entered upon.

__________Water for the use of the Settlement___________

I have much satisfaction in stating that no doubt whatever now

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now exists on my mind as to the practicality of supplying this settlement with good and wholesome water. Since my return to this station in June last, I have ascertained that in the immediate vicinity of the Settlement ( in the rainy season) a stream of fine water sufficient to drive a large Mill discharging several hundred gallons per minute issues from the adjacent Hills and after running over several acres of land buries itself in the fissures of the rocks. The plan I propose adopting in reference to the same is to construct tanks for its reception.

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1st. A Reservoir at the Base of the hill from whence an aqueduct be made to conduct the Stream to the Natives Cottages. To accomplish this there is not the slightest difficulty, there being a considerable declivity from the Reservoir to the Natives dwellings. It is possible that water could be obtained by boring but the present is by far the easiest and most certain in the results.


The greatest providence has been observed in all matters connected with the Government Property at this Station & arrangements have

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have recently been made for the due care and preservation of the same.
Great loss and damage have been done to the Natives clothing in their hunting excursions in the forest. It occurred to me that if the sheep skins which it had been customary to throw away were tanned they would make excellent garments for the Aborigines to wear on those occasions and which would be better adapted and better suited especially in hot weather and a considerable saving to the Government effected thereby. I in consequence issued an order

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order which is about to be carried into effect.
Another measure has also been adopted which has been attended with benefit and a saving will be effected in consequence.
Much irregularity had heretofore existed among the Aborigines for the want of proper marks to distinguish their clothing- Blankets and other articles- their Blankets soon after becoming soiled were made away with and application made for others. To obviate this I have established a Register in which every name is entered and to which a number is attached and on the issues

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issues being made they are recorded with the date of issue. All their garments are in future to be marked with their number in different places with oil paint and on their hardware numerals are cut- the best effects have already resulted from this arrangement.
It has also been my wish that the Male adolescence should learn some handicraft and with this view I placed one of the lads under the instruction of the Tailor and I am happy to state that he has made proficiency in this craft and as soon as it may be practicable I purpose that others of the Native Youths should

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should also be instructed.


On the 30th Ultimo the Sealers named in the Margin ( Berden, Dobson, Abyssinia) came to the Settlement. These men had been to George Town with the information relative to the Outrage of the 2nd of August and they requested in permission to occupy Gun Carriage Island. On consideration of their services above alluded to and they being three of the best conducted their application was accorded until such time as the pleasure of His Excellency should be known, when should such permission be conceded them they would have to submit to a code of Regulations to which they

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they acquiesced and promised compliance. I briefly informed them they would not be permitted to destroy the game on the Islands nor depasture sheep nor would they be allowed to keep a plurality of Aboriginal females nor even a single individual of this description except by her own unequivocal consent and that the dire destruction of the Mutton Birds would not be tolerated, and moreover they would be required to assist the Government service whenever called upon to do so.
The Act for restraining these men will have a Salutary tendency. Soon as the Act was made known the Majority of the Sealers moved to Clarks Island with the avowed intention

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intention of eluding the Act vauntingly saying that as the Act applied to Bass’s Strait it could not interfere with them as Clarks Island was in Banks’s Straits and they were determined to contest it. However notwithstanding this boast I should if circumstances had required it felt it my duty to have expelled them therefrom this subject is merely introduced for the purpose of shewing their contumacy and their turbulent dispositions.
Since my return in June last the sealers have visited the “Sisters” two Islands adjacent to the North end of Flinders and where they destroyed 700 head of

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of Wallaby Kangaroos this was a loss and a great disappointment to the Natives as I had kept it a reserve and had purposed that they should have hunted for those animals. When the Sealers smokes were discovered I despatched a Boat and warned them off.
There are now at the present time living with the Sealers several women Natives of New Holland who have been taken from their Country at Port Philip but a short time since. This information was communicated by a Van Diemen’s Land Native woman who was with the Sealers at the time and who is now domiciled on Flinders. They

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They were kidnapped on board the vessel and brought away.
Numerous cases of this kind might be recounted but the present may suffice to shew the necessity of some efficient protection being extended to the Aboriginal Inhabitants. In concluding this communication I feel peculiar pleasure in stating that at the present moment there is not a single instance of sickness either among the Aborigines or the Europeans although this is a month in which disease is generally prevalent. The circumstance will I trust be found gratifying. And I

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I fervently hope that the same progressive improvement (mentally and physically) may continue and that the primitive occupants of Van Diemen’s Land may ere long be sufficiently advanced in christianisation and civilisation as to be able to manage their own affairs.
I have the honor to be
G. A. Robinson

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The Aboriginal
Flinders Island Chronicle
Under the Sanction of the Commandant

The object of this journal is to promote christianity civilization and Learning amongst the Aboriginal Inhabitants and Flinders Island. The chronicle professes to be a brief but accurate register of events of the colony Moral and religious. This journal will be published weekly on Saturdays the copies to be in Manuscript and written exclusively by the Aboriginals the Size half foolscap and the price two pence. The Profits arising from the Sale of the Journal to be equally divided amongst the writers which it is hoped may induce Emmulation in writing excite a desire for useful knowledge and promote Learning generally. Proof sheets are to be Submitted to the commandant for correction before publishing Persons out of the colony may subscribe
Thomas Burns.

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I Certify that this Copy was written by the Aboriginal Youth whose name is attached
Flinders Island
12th September
G. A. Robinson

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Account of Provisions etc. issued by the Commissariat Department in Van Diemen’s Land to the Aborigines Establishment during the Years 1831, 1832, 1833, 1834, 1835 & 1836:

(table here)

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Statement of Provisions etc. forwarded by the Commissariat from Hobart Town, Launceston and George Town to Flinders Island during the Years 1831, 1832, 1833, 1834, 1835, & 1836.

(table here)

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In reply to Lord [indecipherable]
Despatch No. 82
20 Nov.r 1832
Van Diemens Land.

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Flinders Island
13th Sept. 1836
Mr G. A. Robinson presents his compliments to the Lieutenant Governor and has the honor to forward some native Spears and Necklaces (Per Eliza) for His Excellency’s Acceptance.

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Aboriginal Settlement
Flinders Island
Sept.r 13th 1836.
Mr G. A. Robinson presents his Compliments to His Excellency The Lieutenant Governor and has the Honor to forward two haunches of Venison part of the Stag that was forwarded per “ Isabella” in March last and which was compelled to be killed in consequence of having had his thigh broken.
The Colonial Secretary has been communicated with on the subject.

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Colonial Secretary’s Office
15th October 1836
I have the honor in obedience to Your Excellencys Command to submit the following statement explanatory of the measures adopted by this Government, for the Comfort and civilization of the Aboriginal Inhabitants of this Colony, from the period of the first formation of an Establishment on Bruni Island in the year1828 up to the present time.
This statement has been

His Excellency
The Lieutenant Governor
etc etc etc

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been prepared with considerable labour and attention, from the very voluminous documents in my offices.
From the earliest period of this Colony becoming a British possession until within the last Three or Four years a feeling of hostility has existed on the part of the Original Inhabitants of the Island towards the European population, but how that feeling was first engendered - whether by aggressions on the part of the first Colonists or fostered by the Chiefs of the different Tribes with

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a view to the expulsion of those whom they might deem to be intruders upon their native soil - or whether activated alone by a warlike and ferocious disposition common to most Savages - it is at this distance of time impossible to determine, but it is certain that whatever might have been at first their leading motives, they continued their aggression and outrages upon the Colonists for the sake of obtaining by plunder those articles of luxury such as Tea Sugar Flour and Blankets which they had acquired

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a taste for by having received small quantities as conciliatory presents from the Europeans. –
Grievous and destructive as were the outrages consistently committed by The Aborigines to the property and lives of the Settlers, yet did the Government and indeed the European population generally with some few exceptions in all their operations for the prevention of these calamities act on the defensive only, and the most conciliatory measures were not only adopted by the Government but

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but particularly recommended to be pursued by the Colonists and in many instances have the means by the distribution of presents amongst them been given to the Settlers to accomplish so desirable an object - and in no instances is it on record that the Government ever sanctioned an outrage upon these benighted people.
Proclamations were issued from time to time to inculcate upon the British population the desire of the Government that the mildest possible measures should be pursued towards the Aborigines - and at the same time setting

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setting forth the liabilities they would incur not only in a moral but in a legal point of view by an opposite course of proceeding - and every inducement was held out to the Natives to put themselves under British protection - to accomplish which end liberal offers were made to any person who could accomplish a conciliatory intercourse between them and the Government.
In the year 1828 an Establishment was formed on Bruni Island for the purpose of domesticating

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those Aborigines who had placed themselves under the protection of the Government or who might afterwards do so - here they were made as comfortable as circumstances admitted and were supplied with full rations Blankets and other necessaries.
In March 1929, Mr G.A.Robinson applied for the appointment of Superintendent of this Establishment in consequence of the Government advertising for such a person, and his services were engaged to take charge of the Stores

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Stores, and to Superintend the general concerns of the Station.
It was however soon found that Bruni Island was not calculated to answer the intentions of The Government in civilizing the Natives in consequence of its proximity to the Whaling Stations, as the Europeans engaged in this employment endeavouring to entice the Native women away disturbed the harmony of the Establishment besides producing an immoral effect upon the rest

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The ravages committed by the Aborigines upon the Settlers becoming more frequent and destructive as the Colony became more thickly populated the whole energies of the Government were called in requisition for the purpose of putting a stop to what must ultimately have proved the utter destruction of this Territory as a British Colony - A Committee was therefore appointed consisting of some of the principal Officers of the Government to suggest such measures

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measures as they might deem most advisable under the circumstances of the absolute necessity there existed of by some means ending the outrages then daily committed by these people.
About this time Mr G.A.Robinson and several other individuals undertook to open a friendly intercourse with the hostile Aborigines and their services having been accepted by the Government a selection of well conducted men was made to accompany them, and they were provided with every necessary to

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enable them to undertake a journey through the more unsettled parts of the Colony, and Beads and other Trinkets were also furnished them as conciliatory presents to any Natives with whom they might fall in.
The object the Government had in view in despatching these several missions was to convince if possible those unfortunate Beings of the friendly disposition entertained towards them by the white population if they would but cease their destructive and murderous attacks upon the

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the lives and property of the Settlers, and to endeavour to induce them to put themselves under the protection of the British Government in which case they would be provided with every comfort and also those articles of luxury which they then obtained only by pillage and rapine - and on the other hand to shew them the absolute necessity there existed for the Settlers to protect themselves by any means in their power should these people still continue their aggressions. -
In order to facilitate these

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these communications there were attached to each party several of those Aboriginal natives who had in a considerable degree been civilized by a residence at the Establishment on Bruni Island under the protection of the local Government and the concerns of which had been Superintended by Mr Robinson - this Officer having made a considerable progress in learning the Native language during his residence on that Island, and being of a persevering disposition successfully accomplished a friendly intercourse with some of the Tribes, and indeed several to place themselves under his protection - these with the others that had already been conciliated

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conciliated were removed to Swan Island in Basses Straits, and the charge of that Depot and the mission generally was given to Mr Robinson –
Upon this Island the Natives (as reported by Capt. Welsh who visited them shortly after their arrival) lived most happily, there being plenty of Birds, nearly their whole time was employed in catching, smoking, and cooking them, and when not so engaged they were dancing their native dances, and, in fact appeared to enjoy themselves in the greatest degree - This Island however was not of sufficient extent for their comfort after their numbers had been increased by

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Mr Robinsons successful mission, it was deemed advisable to remove the Establishment to another Island in the Straits called Gun Carriage Island - Here a temporary Superintendent was placed in charge during Mr Robinsons absence on his excursion into the interior and a Medical Attendant was also sent - Tea, Sugar, Flour, Meat, Blankets, and other articles were abundantly supplied to the Aborigines by the Government and a Colonial Vessel was almost solely employed in this service in order that the Natives might not feel those necessities to which in their original state they were very frequently driven to.

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So comfortable were they in this new abode that they evinced no desire to return to their former habits and haunts - Mr Robinson who visited this Island frequently during his campaign in search of the Natives reported that he had heard that some malicious and unfounded reports had been spread abroad to the prejudice of the Aboriginal Establishment to the effect that the Natives had been short of provisions but he positively denied that such an occurrence had ever taken place and affirmed that they had always had an ample supply of every necessary.
The Committee before mentioned as being appointed as a Superintending body over the affairs that related to these

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these people were unremitting in their exertions for the comfort and happiness of those thus placed under their charge all requisitions for utensils implements and other necessary articles were without delay submitted for the Lieutenant Governors approval who upon all occasions exhibited the most lively interest in the welfare of this uncultivated race and directed the supplies to be furnished with every possible dispatch –
At the end of the year 1831 the aboriginal Establishment was again finally removed to a still larger Island in the Straits called Great Island or Flinders Island - in consequence of the advantages it offered as the Superintendent reported that there was great quantities of game on the

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the Island, and what was of equal importance, a sufficiency of water
The Establishment was then placed upon a more respectable footing - an intelligent officer of the Regiment stationed in the Colony was sent as Commandant and mechanics of different Trades were also sent in order to construct the necessary Buildings for the health and comfort of the natives.
A Store Keeper was also appointed, and small gratuities given to the Soldiers wives to attend to and teach the native women the rudiments of domestic economy and management. About this period Mr Robinson who had been to visit the Establishment

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at Flinders stated that in the progress of his conciliatory mission he feels most materially the beneficial effects of those plans which had been adopted by the Government towards these people. The knowledge of the kind manner their brethren had been treated being carried to the natives still at large in the Colony rendered them anxious to meet him in order that they might be placed where they would experience similar kindness.
Mr Darling the Commandant in his reports stated that he considered the Island they were then on peculiarly adapted to the purpose to

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to which it was then assigned - as the game was abundant and of fresh and good water there would always be a plentiful supply.
The natives amused themselves by hunting and were in excellent health and spirits - Shortly after this report Mr Darling sent another equally satisfactory, at the same time requiring some articles for the use of the natives; - these things were sent directly and on their receipt, Mr Darling reported that the supplies were ample.
It had been the practice some years previously for the men engaged in the sealing Trade on the Island in the Straits to possess themselves of Native women and it

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it was considered by the Lieutenant Governor that many of these women were detained by these men against their inclination. The Commandant was therefore directed to ascertain that fact and in every case where the women were forcibly detained, to release them and take them to the Establishment. Several women were thus added to the number and great joy was manifested on these occasions by those who were already under the protection of the Government, particularly if any of their relatives (which was frequently the case) happened to be amongst those restored - The reports of Mr

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Mr Darling the Commandant were generally favourable as regards the health of the Natives, altho’ several deaths had occurred

Amongst them they were moreover getting gradually more civilized in their habits - they left off using the grease and clay to their hair and Scotch Caps were given them in place of such filth - and what was a still greater proof of their advancement was the fact of Natives of different

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Tribes who in their natural state had been most deadly foes were then associating together in the greatest harmony and conducting themselves towards the Europeans with the utmost cordiality - Mr Darling also reported that he considered the Natives were capable of great improvement and that they had already considerably advanced in civilization. That they took great pleasure in assisting in building their new homes, which were nearly completed, and would be

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be warm and comfortable, and also, that they would be supplied with Chairs and Tables, the comfort of all of which they duly appreciated - Just at this period Mr Darling reported that there was likely to be a scarcity of provisions at the Settlement as the usual supply had not arrived and urged the necessity of a Vessel being immediately dispatched - Upon the receipt of this communication the Lieutenant Governor immediately wrote over to the Port Officer himself to

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to give the requisite instructions and directed that the Assistant Commissary General should be furnished with such Returns as would enable him to supply all their wants beforehand, and to supply them by every opportunity.
Mr Darling, on receipt of these supplies reported that the promptness with which his demand had been answered had entirely obviated the difficulty he had apprehended from being short of provisions - The

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The Establishment about this period was increased by a number of Aborigines who had been brought in by Mr. Robinson and others attached to the conciliatory Mission, but unfortunately the increase was soon much lessened by a great mortality to the amount of twenty four amongst those that had recently arrived in consequence of the diseased state they were in before they joined the Establishment, which was clearly proved by the death of thirteen immediately after they had joined Mr.

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Robinson and before they were placed under the protection of the Government - Those however who had been for some time domesticated at Flinders Island with a few exceptions remained in good health.
A Catechist was appointed to the Establishment in order to instruct these poor Savages in the principles of Morality and Christianity and to teach them and invite those that were inclined to read and write and the Commandant took considerable pains to instruct them in the

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the mode of Cultivating the Ground, and after some time they fenced in a considerable portion of Land and planted it with potatoes;- in fact no opportunity was omitted by the Commandant of leading these people into the civilised habits of Europeans, and from his reports it would appear that he was not by any means working on an unproductive Soil. Mr. Robinson recommended that the domesticated Aborigines who

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who had accompanied him in his Expedition should receive some Reward as well as the Europeans, it was suggested that it should be made in Sheep and Cattle, which were to be sent to Flinders Island and there remains as a Stock from which, in future, Might be derived the principal supplies required for the support of the Establishment. This the Lieutenant Governor very highly approved and gave directions for the purchase and transmission of the Animals to Flinders.
Mr. Darling frequently reported upon the state of the Establishment and although some few

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few deaths occurred yet the natives generally enjoyed a considerable Share of health and Comfort and seemed perfectly contented with their Condition.
Upon one or two occasions however a want of Flour was experienced which the Lieutenant Governor was perfectly at a loss to account for after the repeated and strict directions he had given to have a good supply constantly kept up - but it was ascertained that the Returns directed to be transmitted from Flinders

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Island had been omitted to be sent;- this however was remedied and the Lieutenant Governor’s former directions repeated, to keep the Establishment constantly and Regularly supplied with provisions,-
In September 1834 Mr. Darling being obliged to join his Regiment which had proceeded to India was relieved from the Charge of the Aboriginal Establishment;- and a Mr. Nichols sent in his place, as a temporary Commandant, until Mr. Robinson should be able to take

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take it under his charge.
This Officer suggested several improvements in the buildings and other matters that related to the comfort and happiness of the Natives, and the Lieutenant Governor, in approving of them remarked that, every thing that was necessary to the health or comfort of these people was to be immediately carried into effect. Mr. Nichols remained at this Station until Mr Robinson having completed his Missionary duties in the Interior took charge in November 1835.

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On Mr. Robinson’s arrival at the Settlement he reported very minutely upon its condition its wants, its resources and its capabilities.
By the first of these reports it was made to appear that altho the Natives were at that time in good health yet that they complained of having been obliged at times from a shortness of provisions to proceed to the neighbouring Island in search of food which they did not find without encountering much fatigue and hardship - that the water procured on Flinders

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Flinders Island was of such an unwholesome description as materially to affect the health of the Aborigines as also did the Salt Provision to which the Natives had a great dislike added to this the exposed situation in which the Settlement was formed and the wretched state of the houses wherein they resided might be considered as the leading causes of the Mortality which had taken place amongst these people, and the report concluded by stating that as Flinders Island did not appear a suitable

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place for the future permanent residence of the Aborigines of Van Diemen’s Land. Mr. Robinson recommended the removal of the Establishment to the Coast of New Holland as a situation more eligible.
In reply to this report it was remarked that it was the first time the Lieutenant Governor had heard of the want of a plentiful supply of good fresh water, and His Excellency much regretted that the Natives had to complain of having been at any time short of provisions which cold never have been contemplated as likely to occur after the repeated

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repeated directions that had been given upon that subject desiring that a constant supply should be kept up at the Station, but that the direction would be again repeated, and, as Mr. Nichols, the late Commandant, had reported the building used as a Store fit for the purpose of containing such as Stock, a Six Months supply should always be furnished; so as to deep a Constant Supply on hand - With respect to the ineligibility of Flinders Island as a Station for the

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the Aborigines the subject would be further considered after Mr. Robinsons should have had by a longer residence a better opportunity of judging upon that point - and that the Lieutenant Governor was most anxious for the welfare of the natives and would give the most attentive consideration to any measures that Mr. Robinson might suggest for their additional Comfort and happiness, and which might also tend to their civilisation –
Mr. Robinson in such a subsequent report stated very fully the measures he had adopted for the purpose of domesticating

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domesticating and rendering still more comfortable the people committed to his Charge, and also his proceedings in order to produce mortality and good order amongst them. In this, as well as in a subsequent report made in answer to certain questions that were submitted to him by the Government, Mr. Robinson stated that upon further consideration and observation he was of opinion that Flinder’s Island might be made available as a permanent residence for the Aborigines, - for

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with respect to the water he had found out a place near the spot where the Settlement was then formed where a Tank could easily be constructed to contain the water which fell from a neighbouring Hill, and which during the rainy Season flowed in such abundance as to make the securing of a sufficient quantity to answer all the purposes of the Establishment, a matter of certainty - as regarded the houses and the position in which they were placed he conceived that that

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that inconvenience might be remedied by Building neat and Substantial Brick Cottages which would resist the effects of the weather, and requested that Mechanics might be sent for the purpose of erecting such Buildings –
With respect to the Salt Provisions the importation into the Island of more Sheep and Cows would soon remedy that Evil –
Mr. Robinson also reported that the natives had much improved both in health and Morals, only one death had occurred and Three Births

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Births had taken place, and he anticipated when the plans he proposed were carried into effect that the results would be still more favourable –
Mr. Robinson also stated that the Aborigines seemed to evince a great desire to be instructed in the Arts of Civilized life - they no longer had recourse to their wild Native dance, called a Corroberry, for amusement: they were teachable to their teachers and great cordiality existed among themselves.
In consequence of this favourable report of the Capabilities

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Capabilities of Flinders Island as a Settlement for the Aborigines the necessary Mechanics were sent to erect New Buildings and every facility given to Mr. Robinson for him to continue his exertions in completing the improvement he had thus commenced - and to add still more to the peace and comfort of these people, a number of Sheep and Cows were purchased for their use and sent down as opportunity offered.
The further reports of Mr. Robinson were of a most satisfactory description, for by them it appeared that

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the Natives were making very visible advances towards a degree of Civilization which before the Government first formed the Establishment for their reception was thought impossible for them to attain - They were taught and seemed to understand the leading principles of Christianity - they respected the Sabbath and attended with great regularity and apparent pleasure the Public Worship which was celebrated by the Catechist - Schools were established to teach them reading and writing - and several of the Native Youths acted as teachers - They cooked their own

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own provisions after the manner of Europeans, made their own Bread, and took great pains in keeping their New houses, (the comfort of which they much enjoyed) in neatness and order, and their minds were gradually opening to the Knowledge of those institutions so essential to the well being of a Civilised Community - Such as the right of property. The Women also were becoming more neat in their persons and attended to the domestic economy of their houses, in which occupations they exhibited considerable Skill.

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Mr. Robinson also reported that they appeared perfectly contented and happy in the condition in which they were thus placed, and never seemed to pine after, or expressed any wish to visit their former haunts.
I have also the honor to attach copies of the two last Reports, upon the Settlement at Flinders Island, by Mr. Robinson together with a Statement shewing the quantity and cost of the provisions and Stores which have been forwarded to Flinders Island from the first formation of the Settlement there in 1831 up

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up to the present time - as well as the scale of Rations allowed to the Natives.
I have the honor to be,
Your Excellency’s
Most obedient
humble Servant
John Montagu

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Hobart Town
Octor. 27th 1835.
I have the honor to submit for the information of the Lieutenant Governor, the following particulars relative to the Aborigines who are domesticated on Flinders Island, and now confided to my charge; and being fully sensible that His Excellency is not only anxious, but desirous to be made acquainted with every incident, plan and proposition that can in any way bear upon this subject, and which is the more necessary and urgent, since His Excellency is now upon the Eve of taking his final departure from the Colony.
I beg therefore previously to entering there upon to premise, that, notwithstanding many of the points to be brought under consideration have been before adverted to in
[margin note: John Montagu Esqr.
Col. Secretary
&c, &c. &c.]

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in my previous communications, which I have had the honor from time to time to submit to the Government, yet from a recent communication made to me containing an Extract of a Despatch from the Right Honble. the Secretary of State, wherein it would appear that this subject is not fully comprehended, I feel impelled respectfully to bring it again under notice.
The points to which I would advert in the first instance, as being of the utmost consequence, is the translation of the Remnant tribes of the Van Diemens Land Aborigines (now domiciled at Flinders) to a central station on the South Coast of Australia.
It is now about twelve months since I had the honor to submit a Statement to the Government, containing a brief outline of a plan for the amelioration of the Aborigines of New Holland, and in my subsequent com-

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munications, which I have had the honor to transmit, I have also occasionally adverted thereto, yet, after the most intense reflection, and re-consideration I am still of an Opinion, that the most judicious course to be adopted is the one I heretofore had the honour to recommend, and, moreover, is one in which the greatest possible good would be comprehended.
I am quite unacquainted as to the ground of objection in reference to the removal of the Van Diemens Land Aborigines to New Holland, but presume that the only reason that can be urge in disfavor of the measure, is, the circumstance of their being foreigners, and the inimical feeling likely to accrue therefrom;- Another ground of objection might be also considered; namely, their decidedly hostile feelings towards the whites, which was so unequivocally marked whilst in their native districts;- he above being the principal objections, it will be quite unnecessary to advert to others of minor

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minor importance.
With reference to the above objections, I would observe, that the most hostile of the Aborigines are now defunct, and from the decidedly conciliatory feelings evinced by the residue, together with the paucity of their numbers, not the slightest apprehension need be entertained, as to their coming in collision; and, moreover, as the principal cause of unfriendly feeling and animosity has generally arisen from an improper interference with the Women of the Country no fear need exist of such a result, as the Van Diemens Land Aborigines have a preponderance of the female sex.
I would observe that in my frequent conferences with the Natives, they have not only shewn a willingness, but have expressed a most ardent desire to be so employed, and assure me that they would be able to propagate the principles of Civilization which they had acquired –

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and from my long acquaintance and knowledge of the people and their aptitude to acquire language the greatest possible good might be hoped for, and I feel persuaded that they would not only be willing, but efficient auxiliaries in this benevolent undertaking.
For the further elucidation of this subject, it may be necessary to bring under review the present Aboriginal population, now domiciled at Flinders, and proposed to be removed;- The entire number, including Men, Women and Children are about sixty Males;- forty nine of whom are Adults; several of them are aged, and the whole of them are now civilized. From fifteen to twenty of these Individuals have accompanied me at different periods on my Missionary duty on the

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main and the fidelity and attachment they invariably evinced, is assuredly a sufficient guarantee for their future good conduct;- for it must be apparent, that if they had been disposed to be unfaithful, and to abscond they would have been more likely to do so in their own Native Country than in a foreign land, where the natives are not only superior in prowess, but overwhelming in numbers.
I am by no means surprized that objections should be raised to the transplantation of the Flinders Island Aborigines to the Adjacent Coast of New Holland;- The hostile character evinced by the people at a former period is sufficient to justify such a conclusion, but, as it will be presumed, that I would not recommend a measure of doubtful character

Transcript of a1771313

or that I had not just grounds for pre-supposing it could be carried into effect, since the proposition on my part is perfectly gratuitous and unsought for, and one in which (in case of a failure) my reputation would be impugned.
I do hope that the measure I have now the honor to propose, or may her after submit, may be duly considered, and trust that it will be conceded that I have no other end in view than that of humanity.
There are other and numerous reasons that might be adduced in favor of this measure, both as regards the Van Diemens Land Aborigines, as well as those amongst whom they might domicile.
With reference to the Van Diemens Land natives it would be the greatest possible desideratum that

Transcript of a1771314

could be adopted;- It would enable them to pursue the pleasures of the Chace whenever their inclinations might lead them to do so, and which at Flinders they are now deprived of;- And the continued visits of the Australian natives to the Settlement would tend to beguile the ennuie with which in their present state they are liable to be affected.
Moreover, being far removed from their native land they would be less liable to mental irritation;- for, as at their present abode the Hills of Van Diemens Land are distinctly visible, and therefore are apt to kindle, and keep alive in their minds, recollections connected with their former habits and mode of Life, and which would be obviated by the adoption of the measure now under consideration.
I have the honor to be
Your very obedient Servant
G A Robinson

Transcript of a1771315

Hobart Town
Octor. 28. 1836
In reference to my communication of yesterday’s date relative to the translation of the Flinders Island Aborigines to the South Coast of New Holland; as well the adoption of a Scheme for their mutual protection, and general amelioration, I do myself the honour to submit the subjoined particulars in continuation, and which I hope may lend to the Elucidation of a subject, of all others the most Important, and, one in which the Interest and Welfare of a numerous and hitherto neglected portion of the human race is involved.
Having in my previous communication not only shewn, that no danger need
[margin note: John Montagu Esqr.
Col. Secretary
&c, &c. &c.]

Transcript of a1771316

need be apprehended by the translation of the Van Diemens Land Aborigines to New Holland, but on the contrary that a reciprocity of Benefits would simultaneously accrue. I purpose in support of this subject to adduce such considerations, as may illustrate this face, as well the measures to be adopted for its attainment.
I trust it will be conceded that the gathering in of the Remnant tribes of the Van Diemens Land Aborigines, - their ultimate removal, - the protection and provision afforded them, - with the astonishing and marked results that have necessarily be quite providential;- a fact which I think the most sceptical will readily admit, - and which I ------ ---- feel assured, will be to the mind of every Christian

Transcript of a1771317

Philanthropist a source of the highest possible gratification, and a refutation to the cruel and unjust calumnies propagated against this portion of the himan family; and established the fact, that those people, as well others of a Similar character are capable of mental improvement, provided proper and judiciary measures are afforded for its attainments - and, I would observe, that the result justifies the remark, that the measures of Government, in removing the Van Diemens Land Aborigines from the main-territory, were wise, polite, and humane –
It now remains to be shewn, that should the British Government still object to their removal, and continue them in their present situation, the probability is, that in a very short period of time they

Transcript of a1771318

will become extinct.
The following circumstances would justify such a conclusion;- Firstly, because the three principal tribes designated the Big river, Oyster Bay and Stoney Creek, have no children, neither have they had any since at the Settlement, and only one at the time they were removed; nor, is it at all probable, they will ever have any Children.
The cause of this unfruitfulness me be attributed to their intense anxiety and harassed mode of life, whilst perambulating the Settled Districts, and to other causes consequent thereon; - Those Native Women who have borne children are defunct, and others who are old and infirm must in the course of nature shortly die;- And, although it may be argued, that the

Transcript of a1771319

same events might happen, even were they removed;- Yet, supposing such should be the case, I would submit, (provided it be the Will of Providence to permit the race to die off) whether it would not be better for it to take place under such circumstances, than for it to happen in their present situation, where they will linger and where a gradual diminution of their numbers, will operate sensibly on their minds, providing a degree of mental excitement, and melancholy reflection, distressing to their feelings; and, I must confess, that I should not wish to be a Spectator of such an unhappy result.
Whereas, by the adoption of the measures proposed, they would be Amalgamated with the Native of the Country, and hence should the

Transcript of a1771320

same result transpire the excitement would not be felt.
I confess, I do not see what possible objection can now exist to the execution of this plan, fraught as it is with such manifest advantages; but should any doubt still exist, the precautionary steps I have recommended, would be sufficient to guard against contingent circumstances; namely, the removal of the people by Divisions, [indecipherable], and the occasional distribution of the Male Adults to the European Agents at remote stations, would I think be a sufficient preventative, to any, the slightest irregularities that

Transcript of a1771321

might be entertained.
Again, if a reduction of Expenditure were to be considered, I think it could be shewn that a material Saving might be effected by the Alteration, but, this I am quite sure is a proposition that would not be entertained, for one moment, especially by a Government proverbial for its liberality, and with a people who have such powerful claims on the Beneficence of the Country; Moreover parsimony is a subject which in matters of such character ought assuredly never to be recourse to –
In conclusion, I beg to state, that I purpose doing myself the honor to transmit a renewal of this Subject at the earliest possible opportunity.
I have the honour to be
Your most obedient
humble Servant
G A Robinson

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Hobart Town
Octor 19th 1836
In the continuation of the subject contained in my two last letters of the 27th and 28th instant, (In margin No. 1 & 2 =) which I have had the honor to transmit, I beg respectfully to advert to the measures requisite to be adopted for the protection and general amelioration of the Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Australian provinces; and without adverting to the powerful claims of the Original Occupants of that country upon the British nation, it only remains to be shewn; that a prompt necessity exists that some effort be made to carry into complete effect the aforementioned purposes, and
J. Montagu Esquire
Colonial Secretary
etc etc etc

Transcript of a1771323

and in connection therewith, the Flinders Island Establishment, if removed, would lay the foundation of an Institution which (if properly directed) would effectuate the benevolent purposes now under consideration
For the attainment of the above object, it has been proposed, that the operations be upon an extended scale, and that the principal station be formed on a central part of the South Coast of New Holland; and that other stations of a similar character but of minor importance be opened at every available spot, that might be occupied by European Colonists, and at which an Agent, with

Transcript of a1771324

Aboriginal Assistance should be placed, and that a regular, and constant communication be maintained with the Central Establishment; by which arrangement, the most extensive operations could be controlled, and brought under review.
Spencers Gulph, from its Geographical situation, appears well adapted for a Central station –
There are many and numerous objections to Kangaroo Island, - in fact, - to any Island for such a purpose, and I am sure it will be readily admitted that the removal of a people from their Vernacular Country ought never to be had recourse to, except through dire necessity, and, then only, by voluntary Expatriation, as in the Case of the Aborigines of this Country; and, that it is possible to conciliate the most savage tribes will

Transcript of a1771325

not be questioned, since there never existed a nation of their character possessing greater ferocity of feeling, and who had from a system of persecution carried on against them, been goaded on to the most dreadful and the highest pitch of excitement, and yet, they have been civilized.
If under such untoward circumstances, this has been accomplished, how much easier may it be effected with a people less incensed, and not under such particular excitement!
The measures that have been put in operation for the subjugation of the Aborigines of Van Diemens Land, and

Transcript of a1771326

which have proved so successful, are, I believe, quite unique; - History does not furnish a instance, where a nation has been removed by so humane, and mild policy.
The Amelioration of the Aboriginal Inhabitants of New Holland is a subject I have long considered, and, one that has engrossed a very considerable share of my attention
They have ever appeared to me an abused and sadly neglected race; they have been reviled, and persecuted, and the most marked and malevolent feeling has been propagated against them; Yet I think few people have less merited such treatment.
I do consider, that hitherto, little or no effort has been used to afford them

Transcript of a1771327

them Christian instruction, or to advance them in the scale of humanity, and civilization; for the limited means that have hitherto been made use of, have been unsuccessful, and have proved abortive, and, this in a Colony, that for a number of years had been established, and in which a dense population had been crowded together,
Still the ancient Inhabitants were overlooked; - and when the vicious propensities, and baneful influences that were propagated amongst them are considered, it must be admitted, that the situation of that people was far worse than when in their original state, before such contaminating principles were disseminated; Whereas, had

Transcript of a1771328

proper measures been resorted to in the first instance at the formation of the Colony, the melancholy effects that have been witnessed, and are now adverted to, would have been prevented, and the Odium which now rests on the British name, and nation have been obviated.
It is much to be desired, that prompt and efficient protection be afforded to the numerous tribes inhabiting New Holland; more particularly, as vast numbers of Europeans are now rapidly crowding to the shores of that Country; on which account the earliest possible measures should be had recourse to, and, which if acted upon, would guard against any collision, and prevent the effusion of Blood; - And, as

Transcript of a1771329

it has ever been found a matter of difficult tendency, to induce an erratic people to a settled mode of existence, particularly, the Van Diemens Land, and Australian Aborigines, it certainly appears to me (on that account,) that the Flinders Island Establishment, as it is now constituted, would, if removed to New Holland, be the foundation of and perpetuate an Institution, which unless so aided, must necessarily become a work of great time, and doubtful tendency; - In proof of which, it is only necessary to refer to the attempts that have already been made in New South Wales.
To induce an Erratic people such as the Australian Aborigines to a settled mode of life, is a work of no ordinary character.
In the Polynesian

Transcript of a1771330

Islands in the South Seas the Natives have fixed residencies and hence the work of Christian Instruction and Civilization has gone on and prospered but with the New Hollanders it is first necessary that their erratic propensities should be overcome ere any good could be hoped for, to which end the most intense application and determined perseverance is requisite
In conclusion, I would observe that no doubt exists in my mind that the Flinders Island Aborigines would remain and settle in one fixed abode, and hence the apparent comforts they would enjoy arising from their knowledge of civilized habits and acquirements would constitute a most pleasing example to the Inhabitants of the Country amongst whom they might settle, and as it is an Axiom that Example teaches before Precept it is the more applicable and more easily understood to an untutored

Transcript of a1771331

race than would any other mode of instruction, and therefore, it might be reasonably hoped that such strangers as might occasionally visit the Settlement would carry back the Impressions they had received, and communicate the same to other tribes who would be ultimately induced to adopt a similar mode of life, and be led to the formation of a Settlement of a similar character
I Have the honor to be
Your most obedient
humble Servant

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Downing Street
20th July 1837
Adverting to your recent recommendation of Mr Robinson and to the opinion expressed in your letter to Sir Geo: Grey of the 21st Ulto. as to the expediency of obtaining his Services as Protector of the Aborigines in South Australia I am directed by Lord Glenelg to state that from a despatch which has recently been received from the Officer administrating the Government of Van Diemens Land, there is reason to conclude that Mr Robinson considered himself unequal
(In margin - Colonel Arthur)

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to the task. Lord Glenelg would be glad to be informed whether you conceive Mr Robinson to be still in the full possession of his energies, and in every respect capable of undertaking so laborious and responsible an office.
I am
Your most obedient Servant
Jas Stephen

Transcript of a1771334

20th July 1937
Respecting the capabilities
of Mr Robinson

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Downing Street
2d November 1837
Her Majesty’s Government have decided on the appointment of four Assistant Protectors of Aborigines on the plan suggested in your letter of the 22d July last. and as Lord Glenelg attached much importance to a judicious selection of Officers, I am directed by his Lordship to request that you will have the goodness to state whether you
(In margin - George Arthur)

Transcript of a1771336

you are aware of any persons whom you can point out as well qualified to fill those Appointments. The Salary proposed to be assigned to each is £ 250 per annum.
I have the honor to be
Your Most Obedient Servant
Geo, [indecipherable]

Transcript of a1771337

London, 15 December 1837
My Lord,
In obedience to your Lordship’s commands I have taken the utmost pains to discover persons qualified for the Office of Assistant Protector of Aborigines, and have the honor to enclose a statement containing the names and particulars of such as have appeared to me most worthy of being brought under your notice -
From the information I have collected, and from my personal examination of each candidate I submit to your Lordship that the four applicants whose names are in the margin, (In margin - Mr Seivwright Mr Thomas Mr Dredge Mr Parker) appear to me to be highly eligible. (In margin - As the four Applicants whose names I have brought forward are married men, their living [indecipherable] be made highly [indecipherable], but, of course, [indecipherable] will expect same [indecipherable] remuneration) Mr Bromley, who is already in South Australia, your Lordship will perhaps, approve of being continued as an additional Assistant - it is possible, however, that further information may still be obtained, either in favour of or adverse to this gentleman’s qualifications.
I beg particularly to observe that
(In margin - The Right Honorable
Lord Glenelg
etc etc etc)

Transcript of a1771338

that I have been most guarded to prevent disappointment, in pointing out to each individual that I was only deputed to make enquiries, and to bring the result under your Lordship’s notice, so that there ought not to be any disappointed feeling expressed by the unsuccessful candidates.
The expense of the Establishment, divided, as it may reasonably and justly be, between the Government of New South Wales, South Australia, and Swan River, will be but trifling.
I have carefully explained to each person the nature of the duties to be required of them an assistant Protector and I enclose a memorandum of what that explanation has been; so that hereafter there might be no misunderstanding on this important particular (see insertion page 339)
I have the honor to be
My Lord,
Your Lordships most
obedient Servant,

Transcript of a1771339

(insertion) The more I have considered this subject the more important it appears to me to be, and in place of limiting the number to four assistant, I trust Your Lordship will be induced to extent it to at least ten - considering the extent of the Country to be [indecipherable]this number is but small - and the expense of Establishment, divided as it may reasonably and justly be, between the Government of New South Wales, South comprehending Port Phillip, South Australia & Swan River will be nothing. Your Lordship is aware that the first sale of a few Town allotments at Port Phillip [indecipherable] produced four thousand Pounds, & the first quarters collection of the Communal Revenue [indecipherable] produced about £ 500 [indecipherable]

Transcript of a1771340

The dispatch to Lord Glenelg
Aboriginal Protector
15th December 1837

Transcript of a1771341

I have seen Mr Parker and have pointed out to him the difficulties & possible [indecipherable] of the office which in [indecipherable] & he appears in all respects a very [indecipherable] & most [indecipherable] person & is apparently under the influence of an excellent feeling for such.

I have not seen Mr Dredge the Wesleyan Missionary Society from a very high [indecipherable] of his character.

[indecipherable] is a person altogether of [indecipherable] character that should his services not be engaged from the circumstance of his being unmarried I am

Transcript of a1771342

happy in this opportunity of having testimony that every thing I have learnt of Mr Reynolds is highly in his favour.

Transcript of a1771343

Mr. Seivwright an officer returned from the army

Served 20 years in the army last in the Fusiliers - was selected to be Military Secretary to Sir Frederic Ponsonby at Malta - has been recommended by Lord Duncannon to be [indecipherable] -

Also Lord Falkland has strongly recommended Mr. Seivwright to Lord Palmerston and to Lord John [indecipherable] - & he is also strongly recommended by Lord Fredk. Fitzclarence.

Has a wife and six children - is 36 years of age - healthy and is able to handle fatigue - would take an interest in the civilisation of the Aborigines and in their religious instruction.

Mr. William Thomas - has kept a school for 21 years & teaches privately also - his wife has also kept a school - has 4 children the youngest 4 - the eldest a son 17 - the rest girls - has been at Gibraltar for 9 months - his wife and children wd. go with him - his eldest son would be useful - is with an engraver but not out of his apprenticeship - a healthy family - wife attends

Transcript of a1771344

attends the ministry of Mr. Geo Clayton Walworth - an independent minister - is an independent - always attends [indecipherable] worship morning and afternoon - [indecipherable] to his own family - Is recommended by the Dowager Lady[indecipherable] & [indecipherable]of the Friendless Children School Society - would be able to [indecipherable] in the month of January.

17 Harper Street
New Kent Road

Mr. Thomas - 43 years
Mrs. Hannah Thomas 43 + or -
Master Jackson Thomas 17 yrs of age
Miss Susannah Thomas - 10
Mary Ann " - 8
Emma " - 4

Transcript of a1771345

Protectors of Aborigines

read these [indecipherable] –
the [indecipherable]
I shall return
[indecipherable] from

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The following is the explanation that has been given to the person who [indecipherable] to be appointed
Assistant Protectors
Of Aborigines
In South Australia
Of the duties to be performed by them.
The duties of the Assistant Protector, it is understood, will be as follows:-

He must attach himself, as closely and constantly as possible, to the Aboriginal tribes who may be found in the District for which he shall be appointed, attending them in their movements from one place to another until they can be induced to assume more settled habits of life; & endeavouring to conciliate their respect and confidence, and to make them feel that he is their friend.

He must watch over the rights & interests of the Natives; - must defend them, as far as he can, by his personal exertions & influence, from any encroachment on their property, and from acts of cruelty, oppression, or injustice;- and must
particularly represent their wants,

Transcript of a1771347

wishes, or grievances, if such representation be found necessary, through the Chief Protector, to the Government of the Colony.

If the natives can be induced in any considerable number to locate themselves in a particular place, it will then be expected that he should teach & encourage them to engage in the cultivation of their grounds, in building suitable habitations for themselves & their families, & and in whatever else may conduce to their civilization and social improvement.

The education & instruction of the Aboriginal Children, as early and as extensively as may be practical, is to be regarded as a matter of primary importance.

In connection with all these engagements,

Transcript of a1771348

and as affording the most efficient means for the ultimate accomplishment of them, the Assistant Protector must regard it as his indispensable duty to promote with conscientious & unremitting assiduity, to the utmost extent of his ability and opportunities, the moral and religious improvement of the natives, by uniting a regular system of christian instruction with all his other duties, by teaching, recommending, and exemplifying the obligation & privilege of the Christian Sabbath by persuading them to yield a cheerful submission to the salutary restraint of that the Christian Religion which is not only "able to save the soul", as experience has proved, is the surest instrument of effecting the real civilisation and of ameliorating the temporal conditions of barbarous tribes.

In reference to every object comptemplated

Transcript of a1771349

by the proposed appointment that it is exceedingly desirable that the Protectors should, as soon as possible, learn the language of the Natives so as to be able to freely & familiarly to converse with them, and to administer stated religious instruction to them & their children in the dialects most likely to arrest their intention and to [indecipherable] their hearts.

He must take charge of, and be [indecipherable] for any Provisions in Clothing which may be [indecipherable] placed under his care for distribution to the natives.

He must [indecipherable], as far as may be practicable the names, sex & age of the natives within his District [indecipherable] information as may contribute to a true exhibition of [indecipherable] regard to all the tribes that may be found [indecipherable].

Transcript of a1771350


My dear Arthur

Sir Fred [indecipherable] has applied to me to speak to you in favour of a Mr. Reynolds who is a Candidate for one of the Apps. in New S. Wales.

I have seen him and as far as[indecipherable].

Transcript of a1771351

Mr. Seivwright takes the liberty of enclosing for Sir George Arthur, a note received from Lord Duncannon - the latter part of which relates to the request Sir George made, relative to Lord Duncannon’s recommendation of Mr Seivwright

Transcript of a1771352

The Right Honorable
The Colonial Secretary

9 Brompton
Crescent Monday

Transcript of a1771353


Edinburgh 13 South Charlotte Street
23 Nov 1837

G.F. Angas Esq.

You may remember that some months ago I applied to you while in London to know whether I could hope to obtain a suitable employment in the New Colony of South Australia under the Company of which you are Chairman. Encouraged by the favourable reception you gave me on that occasion, I venture to present myself again to your attention as a candidate for the office of Protector of the Natives in that Colony which I have been given to understand is still vacant. I am not completely acquainted with the precise nature of the duties of that office but it is thought by those that know me that my character and disposition are suited for the successful discharge of the duties which naturally seem to belong to it. I can conceive that the person who occupies such a situation, if he gains the confidence of the natives, will enjoy a most favorable opportunity of introducing amongst them the knowledge of salvation through Jesus Christ and it is a powerful inducement to me to undertake an office so responsible, that it might thus afford me the means of promoting the glory of our Lord & Saviour.
My character and qualifications are known to the Rev.d Dr. John Brown & the Rev.d Christopher Anderson of Edinburgh, the Rev.d Dr. Wardlaw of Glasgow, Mr. John Capper of Gracechurch Street and Mr. Thos. Roberts of Threadneedle Street, London to either of whom I beg respectfully to refer you.
I am Sir
With much respect,
Your most obedient Servant.
(Sig?) John Wardlaw.

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Park House, Dawlish
28th Nov. 1837
My dear Sir George
I beg leave to hand you an extract from a letter just received by me from Mr. Wardlaw It is a little singular that he should have written to me as I did not intimate to him what was going on with respect to the office of Protector to the Aborigines. It appears that Mr W. is very willing to accept the appointment should the Government offer it to him. His letter indicates good principles and I have no doubt he will afford the utmost satisfaction to the Government in the discharge of his duties.
I have just received a letter from one of the officers of the South Australian Camp who sailed in the same vessel as the Gentleman whom we have appointed to superintend the schools in the Colony; of whom he writes " I think I may venture to say, that Mr Shepherdson is a choice character as an Instructor of youth in the British Schools, I hesitate not to say, his superior has never come before me: the young people are already benefitted by his instruction. So modest & unobtrusive, thoroughly well informed , & with his heart and soul in the work of training in Christian Principles our youthful Colonists." The writer, Mr Giles, is a man of very superior principles & mind, well capable of forming a correct judgment of character. I trust Lord Glenelg will afford us some encouragement in " the School Society for South Australia." I have the honor to remain
My Dear Sir George Yours most Truly
George Fife Angas.

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Col. Sir George Arthur
United Service Club
(stamped Dawlish, dated 30NO30, 1837)

Transcript of a1771356

9 Bouverie St. Edgeware Road
Nov.23rd 1837.
I have exceeded the time allow'd me for the consideration of your kind offer, but have done so in the hope of obtaining the advice of a friend who has done everything for my children & without whose opinion I shd scarcely like to take any step which might effect their future disposal- as I have not however heard from her I fear she is from home, I therefore no longer delay in saying that at my time of life I fear I should scarcely be found eligible for the important situation which through your kind intercession I have no doubt but I might be appointed to; & this added to the breaking through of those ties which I must of course make my mind up to,

Transcript of a1771357

must I fear force me to decline your intended goodness; tho' believe me Sir, it is with pain & reluctance that I do so, desirous as I of course am of being raised again a little in the world, & of thus recovering, in a Measure, from those sad reverses & misfortunes which I lament to say have long borne me down.
It may however perhaps be in your power, if not in this, in some other way to serve me & if so, I venture to hope, from the kind feeling which you have so greatly shewn towards me that I shall not be lost sight of by you & in this hope together that I have of obtaining an appointment through Sir Charles Lamb, I shall endeavour to make the best of the Situation I now hold. & I shall hope to surmount those small tho' serious embarrassments to me, which long continued difficulties have caused.

Transcript of a1771358

I beg in conclusion to undeceive you as to Sir Charles Lamb's Interest, which I do not conceive to be equal to yours, particularly with the present Ministry, & I therefore hope that you will not relax with the Idea of its being otherwise or from anything I have said as to my prospects here, in any endeavour which you might benevolently feel disposed to make for me.
I beg of you to pardon my delay under the circumstances which I state to you, & in the assurance of my lasting & most heartfelt gratitude believe me. Most respectfully to remain Sir,
Your Most obliged
& obliged
& obent. humble Servant
R.J. Routledge,
To Colonel
Sir George Arthur

Transcript of a1771359

9 Bouverie St Edgeware Road,
Nov. 28th 1837

It will be with surprise that you again so soon hear from me & that particularly in contradiction, it may be said, to my last address to you; but a communication this day from my friend, whose opinion I told you I so much desired to have, has effected this change, & allow me then to say that with her decided approval of my availing myself of your most kind offer, particularly as it regards the future welfare of my Children- ( two of whom it was her intention shortly to sent out to Australia) I now would desire to accept your offer & may I hope at least say that as a primary qualification, I [indecipherable] to possess that benevolence of character requisite for the undertaking I should engage in; & for the rest, tho' long borne down by

Transcript of a1771360

adversity of the severest sort, I would hope that my feeling myself again a little raised in life, might yet restore me in that energy & activity required for my arduous duties. In studying the welfare of my Children I wave all other ties of family connexions, & let me say Sir that it has not fallen- Is my lot yet to undertake what I have not been able to perform & be assured that in my wishing to profit by your goodness, I would not do so, did I think that either you or I should have cause to regret my having done so, or that I should in any way make you a bad return. Let me then hope that if not too late your services will yet be kindly afforded in forwarding me the appointment & in the belief of you not repeating of your

Transcript of a1771361

patronage of me, believe me most respectfully to remain Sir
Your obliged
& most obedient
humble servant
R. J. Routledge
I beg of you to excuse haste as it was very late this Evening ere I heard from my friend.

Transcript of a1771362

77 Hatton Garden,
London. Dec.2.1837.
I have the honour to inclose a List of Four Persons, whom my Colleagues & myself judge to be qualified for the office of Assistant Protectors in South Australia. Our personal acquaintance with them has not been very intimate; but they are known to us by their general character, & have been strongly recommended to us by those, on the integrity of whose testimony we can fully rely. We have been & conversed with them all. Of their established moral & religious principles we are well assured, as well as of their ability & readiness to afford important aid to missionary operations, as far

Transcript of a1771363

as it may be desirable, & compatible with the more direct & primary duties of the office, that they should render such assistance. The three first on the List are accredited Local Preachers in the Wesleyan Connexion. They appear to us to be men of good address, of truly christian temper, and of active habits, & likely to fill the proposed situation, as far as we understand its nature & probable requirements, with prudence, kindness, and firmness.

I regret that we could not sooner submit the List to your attention; but some time was necessary, first for private enquiry, and then for examining the persons recommended to us, for making a selection of the four who seemed best adapted to the purpose, & for their

Transcript of a1771364

our consideration of the proposal, before they consented to be named as candidates.

Of Mr Bromley, whom you mentioned to me, I have seen nothing. He has never called on me, as I expected, & I had not his address. If you still think it advisable, I can easily call on Mr Alex. Gordon for his character.

A Gentlemen has been named to me this morning, as a very suitable person. His name is John Creswell. He now lives at Camberwell, but for many years was a considerable Agriculturist in Leicestershire, and a Captain of Yeomanry in that County, where he is said to be much respected, as a man of talent and high character, who could easily obtain strong recommendations from leading Noblemen and

Transcript of a1771365

Gentlemen. He has a wife & four children; & from reverses, occasioned by some expensive suit in Chancery, would probably desire such an office as that now contemplated. I am informed that he is a man of decide piety, & a liberally-minded Member of the Established Church. If he should be disposed to make application, by himself and his friends, should that application be addressed directly to Lord Glenelg? We do not include him in our List, because we have no personal knowledge of him.

I have the honor to be, with
the highest respect,
Your very obedt.
and humble Servant
Jabez Bunting

To Colonel
Sir Geo. Arthur

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77, Hatton Garden:
December 10. 1837

Mr Alder & myself called on you this morning, but had not the pleasure of finding you at home. Our object was, to request the favour of a few minutes conversation with you, for the purpose of fixing a time when, according to your kind permission already given, the Rev. Peter Jones, (alias [indecipherable]) the converted Chippeway Chief, might have the honour of waiting upon you.

I take the liberty of stating, that, in the judgment of myself & colleagues, Mr Dredge of Salisbury is likely to prove, if he would be appointed, on of the most efficient persons, known to us, in the Office of Assistant Protector for South Australia. He could not be got to Town in time to see you this

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morning but I ventured to write to him, as soon as I received your obliging note of yesterday, and to advise him to call on Thursday Morning at 10, in 4 St James’s Street. I have little doubt of his coming to London to night for that purpose.

Unfortunately, the paper which was given me respecting Mr Bromley has been mislaid by a Gentlemen whom I employed to make some additional enquiries, but whose endeavours were not successful. But I believe that the Paper contained simply the following addresses of the parties:
1. Mr Bromley, St John’s Chapel, Brick Lane, Spitalfields.
2. Alex. Gordon, Esqr. Solicitor, 57 Old Broad Street.

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I believe that Mr Creswell, formerly mentioned to you in a note from me, has made application to Lord Glenelg, with a recommendation from Earl Howe. I know little of him personally, but have heard a high character of him.

Permit me to say how cordially I rejoice in your Appointment as Lieut. Governor of Upper Canada, and that I earnestly pray that the best blessings of Divine Providence may rest on yourself and on your Government.

I have the honor to be,
Your obed. & hble. Servt.
Jabez Bunting

Col. Sir Geo. Arthur

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17 Harper St
New Kent Rd
12 Decr. 1837

The Hon Sir Geo. Arthur
Hond. Sir
I trust that you will pardon the anxiety of a parent in taking the liberty of addressing you on the present occasion.
Not receiving any communication from your Honor or from My Ld. Glenelg, encouraged me humbly to anticipate that my character & abilities are approved of, & that the hopes held out to me in the early part of last month is likely to be realized.

I feel Hond. Sir a more that ordinary desire for a situation like that under consideration, more so since the condescension of your Hon on the 2nd inst. in conversing with me on the duties of the situation, among the duties was that of blending religious instruction with civil duties.
My Son a fine & a serious young man (If not too great a liberty, I would present him to your Honor) would heartily join with his Father not only in endeavouring to domesticate & civilize but to evangelize the object of our watchfulness & care - And from the active life I have been accustomed to lead, feel confident under
the blessings of God that I should perform my various duties to my own credit & to the satisfaction of my superiors

At this season of the year I could dispose of my Lease & School without much inconvenience

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& perhaps to better advantage than in the middle of any other Quarter

Under the circumstances mentioned I feel assur’d Hond Sir that will not feel offended at my intruding upon your valuable time in the perusal of this letter, & that the liberty taken will not in the least prejudice my interest - tho’ a stranger to your Honr. earnestly entreat your kind interest in my behalf, I have a Brother in Canada who has been the means of very much goods among the poor Indians, & I should feel anxious to vie with him tho’ in an opposite part of the world, your Kindness & My Ld. Glenelg’s I have myself & remain
Much Hond. Sir
Your Most Obdt. Servt.
Wm. Thomas

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Edinburgh, 13 So. Charlotte Street,
5th December
My much respected friend, Mr Angas, Chairman of the South Australian Company, has informed me that he has mentioned my name to you, as a candidate for the appointment of Protector of the Aborigines in the new colony of South Australia, and recommended me to your notice as qualified to undertake the duties of that office.
Circumstances have occurred since I requested the kind offices of Mr Angas in regard to the office in question, which would render it improper in me to leave this country at present, and I therefore beg leave most respectfully to withdraw my application.
I have the honor to be
with the utmost respect
Your very humble Servant
John Wardlaw
Col. Sir George Arthur
&c &c &c

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Col. Sir George Arthur
&c &c &c
United Service Club

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Downing Street
5, May - 1851
I have laid before Earl Grey your letter of the 29th Ult. enclosing a Memorial which you had received, addressed to Lord John Russell, by Mr Robinson late Protector of Aborigines in new South Wales & formerly in the employment of the Government of Van Diemens Land
That Memorial had already
[margin notes: Major General
Sir George Arthur Bart]

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been received through the Governor of New South Wales & the Lieut: Governor of Van Diemens Land, & on a full Consideration of the case it has been decided to Grant Mr Robinson a retiring pension to the amount of two hundred & - £ 220 twenty pounds from the Land Revenues of New South Wales, & one Hundred - £ 120 & twenty pounds from the Land Revenues of New South Wales, & one Hundred - £ 100 from those of the Van Diemens Land.
I am directed to add, that Lord Grey is glad to receive such assurance of the value of the Services rendered by Mr Robinson to the

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Colonists of Van Diemens Land in quieting the Natives during the period of your administration of the Government
I have the honor to be
Sir, your Obedient servant


Transcribed by Lynne Palmer, Peter Mayo, Donna Gallacher, John Brooker