Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales

Frank W. Bungardy narrative of events at Torrens Island Internment Camp, 1915 and Holsworthy Internment Camp, 1915-ca. 1919

MLMSS 261/Box 2/Item 15

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My experience as a Prisoner of War in Australia
(Written by F Bungardy) Sole owner for publication purposes No 1
I wishe to state hereby, that everything, are facts, wich happened previous, and during my internment. I write this without prejudice or bad feelings against the Australian Government.

I Capital

My life and experience after happy Schooldays.

As a lad 14 yeahrs old, I sayd "Good by" to the town, I wher reared in (a small Country town in the interior of Germany) becaurse I had chosen, a seamans life. Soon after my arrival in Hamburg I wher luky to find berth on board a German Mail Boat as Derkoboy. Ones of the blue Ocean I found my life not to be all Beer & Skittles, so I deserted in Phylladelphia U.S.A. After working in a Shipbuilding yard in Richmond, on the River Delawere for the period of about six months, I decided to have another try. I signed on board of a englishe Cattle tramps bound for London, with about 900 head of cattle on board. After being duly pay’d off their, I had a good view of the City of London, the City of laughter and tears. After making enquiries for work and wages, me not being than 15 yeahrs of age and hardly able to speak englishe, I sailed on board a coasting schooner to Bristol. From their I wendet my way across the channel to

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Cardiff, in Wales. I shipped on board a englishe Sailing Ship bound for the Island Mauritius, in the Indian Ocean, with a cargo of Coals. After a two months voyage we arrived their. After laying in the Port Luis Harbor for about seven weeks, discharging, we received orders to sail for Wallaroo, Australia. After another months sailing, I had my first glimpse of Australia, the Land of my adoption. Shortly previous to the departure of the Ship for Falmouth – England, with a cargo of Grain I deserted. After being in hiding for a few days in the Bushe, I seen the Ships setting sails. Knowing now to being free again, and not being looked for "by the Authority" for desertion, I ventured into town. I soon found lodging with private people, wich wher very kind to me, in fact I wher treated as one of the family. I worked in the Smelters thier for about a yeahr. Having found the australian population, so kind and generous, I decidet to remain in the Colonies. This being in the yeahr 1901. I worked in Australia untill 1909, when I left these shores, to have another look of the World, previous to me settling down. So saying Au revoir, I wendet my way first to London, than Hamburg. After a three month stay, I wendet my way back to sunny Australia via Canada and South America. Arriving

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in Adelaide, South Australia, February 1910. Three days after my return, I married my fiancée, an Australian born Lady. I wher employet in South Australia untill 1913 when, I wher called owing my proffession to Broken Hill New South Wales Australia. Being in the employ of the Britishe Mine, on the line of lode, found me their, when the War broke out between England and Germany. Owing me being married to an Australian Lady, the father of two Australian born children, also me arriving hier as a youth, made me think, I had lost my European rights, and so classed myself as an Australian citizen. This wher the reason for me failing to be naturalized, however at the time of me writing this, I am not sorry for me failing to draw my Citizen Papers, beccourse previous to receiving those sayd Papers, the Government under Oath promisses the Personall Rights equall to a British born, however I have seen during my internement that the Government looked upon the Naturalization Papers as "Scrap" only, and interned persons if naturalized or not. On January 8th 1915 I wher called upon by a Constable and ordered to the Police Station under arrest. On our arrival I wher informed, to consider myself in custody as a Prisoner of War. The reason for my arrest as stated wher "failing to report". This acusation wher a false one

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as I had reported myself weekly, my last report being 3 days previous to my arrest. The News to consider myself under arrest of course wher a great shork at first, especially as I had a Wife and Children at home, awaiting Fathers return from work. I wher permitted to goe home to get some personal effects. The time granted being half an hour. Owing the short time allowance, my "good by" to the dear ones I wher forced to leave behind, wher a short one. Heavy hearthed in charge of a Detective, I left my home, a weeping wife, and my weeping children, bound for the Railway station, to catch the Adelaide Express. Owing the short time granted, I wher hardly able to fill my travelling trunk with necessary wearing appearal, for use in the Concentration Camp. On me reaching the station I found twelfe more Prisoners of War – waiting under a heavy escort with Bayonets fixed. All those prisoners of war, had been taken out of employment, and worse than me, never had the privelege to goe home first, to get their wearing apearals or any personal effects. They wher forced to start a 250 miles yourney by train, and enter

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the concentration camp, with the clothes solely, wich they wore on their arrest. Capitell II.

The journey by train and our arrival at Headquarters.

Owing those 12 prisoners having marched under a heavy Soldiers escort with Bayonets fixed the Police to the Railway station, had given a crowd of about 500 heads the reason to follow, and await the departure of the train. However it wher a quite and orderly crowd. They seemed to know, that we deserved to be pillied and not blamed. Our escort consisted of six Guards in charge of a Collour Sergeant. We wher permitted to buy anything we wanted, at stationes, wher the train stopped – of course with our money, the military authority, not having made arrangements, to suply us even with a sandwich or cup of tea during our 14 hours journey. On our arrival at the Adelaide Railway station, South Australia, the next morning, our train wher meet by a reinforcements of soldiers from the Headquarters at Keswick. Having to have to change trains hier, we stood at the Platform forover an hour surroundet by the Guard. This made a

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Crowd gather again, wich viewed us with inquisitive eyes, as if we wher price Bulls from a Royal agriculture Show". Ones the suburban train arrived we rushed our compartement, glad to be out of the gaze of the Public. Owing the distant to headquarters being only 2-3 miles, we soon arrived at the station their. On us getting lined up on the Plattform, four abreast we wher led by the Guard to the Headquarters Building, a new, big, Brick building, one of the finest buildings in the City. Of course we all wher glad to be out of the enquisitive gaze of the publics eyes.

At Headquarters and their treatment.

Ones outside this structure, standing four in lines, a sergeant about 20 jeahrs of age came out with Paper and ledpencil, and taking our names. Ones our names taken, we wher marched to an outbuilding, also a new structure, wich had been build, to be a horsestable for the Light horse regiment, however never had been in use as such. Hier we wher suplied with the first meal in close of 24 hours, consisting of

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two fried sausages, with a slice of Bread, the Sargent telling us that this wher all the cook had left from the Soldiers dinner. Then we had given to each of us a Straw sack and two Blankets. Owing us not hawing had a wink of sleep the night previously, we soon slept, as only a worn out and weary traveler can. At 6 p.m. we got served our supper consisting of steak, tea, bread and jam. After hawing done our tea justice, we made a partie for a game of ccards. Those we had procured during our train journey. We played untill 10 p.m. when we wher ordered "lights out by the centry. We fixed our bed again, however sleep wher out of the question for me, becourse my home and the dear ones, wich I wher forced to leave behind, seemed allways to be in my memory. I wher glad when daylight came trough the glass panes. 7 a.m. we wher marshed to another structure to hawe a washe, thence to the convenience. 8 a.m. we had breakfast, consisting of sausages tea and bread. 9 a.m. we wher ordered to gather our luggage as we had to proceed to Torrens Island, the Island wich the S.A. Government has sett apart for Quarantine only.

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However owing the European crisis, this sayd island had to be the future home, for all Prisoners of War in South Australia. Previous to us leaving Headquarters, I wher permitted to send a Postal Card to my wife, wich I no doubt apreciated. We wher marched to the Keswick Station again 4 in line, and after changing trains at Adelaide we soon arrived at Port Adelaide. We wendet our way to the Wharf, at wich a Motor lunch wher laying awaiting our arrival. After hawing also taken the Provision for the Camp on board, we soon wher down the River bound for Torrens Island better known as Quarantine Island.

The arrival at the Island.

On our arrival at the Island the lunch wher meet by a Sergant, wich orded us to leave our luggage on the Beash and proceed to Camp, about 800 yards distant, with instructions we of course obeyed. We wher led to the Camp Comandants tent. After the Comandant asking for our names and luggage

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we were ordered under curses and most objectionable expressions, such as "you German B…….." and "blody Dutchman" to goe and get our luggage for research. Needless to say we followed the order meekly as a shoolboy, allthought the calling of those most objectionable names in the English Dictionary did not suit me. If I had been a free man, the honeur of my dear Mother would hawe compelled me, to strike this Man dead as soon as those words had left his lips. After hawing our luggage, I wher the only one, wich had any searched, also our Clothing, we wher issued a Cooking Pot, a tin Plate, tin Mug, fork, spoon and knife, also a Rubber sheet an empty Hessian bag and two blankets each. Then we wher marched of to what wher called "The German Lines".

The arrival in Camp and the life as a Prisoner.

Ones the gate closed behind us, we wher inside of the barbwire fence, our future home. After a lot of handshakes, we wher led to a round tent, and told seven of us had to occupy

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it. I wher surprised, as the space only permitts fot about 4 persones only to co-habit day and night. However we made the best of it, and layd hudled together like Pigs in a stye during the nights. As our bedding comprised of a rubber sheet, a pice of Hessian without any stuffing, and 2 Blankets to cover ourself with we did not require a Chambermaid to make our sleeping compartement comfortable. The Food rationes for each tent, wher dealt out to us daily at 3 p.m. Our rationes acording to Governement allowance should consist of 1½ lb meat per man. We wher mostly short in weight. The meat consisting mostly of forequarters of mutton, and shinbones of an Oxe, so mostly all bones. We recieved about 1 dozend potatos daily for each tent, ½ lb coffee 3 two lb loafes of bread a soupspoon full of salt, a teaspoon full of pepper, also a Melon as vegetable, ocasionaly a cabage, also about 2 lb of sugar. As we only wher suplied with one pot to cook in, boil our tea ectra, we soon found out this wher not sufficient, so we bought kerosene

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tines, through the Soldiers quartermaster made, Coffee Kettle, frying Pan, Water bucket and various other cooking utensils, wich wher necessary out of those tins. Acording to the Rules made at the Hague Convention and signed mostly by all superior nationes on October 18u 1907, a Prisoner of War shall receive desame Rationes, as soldiers of the Government who captured them, we did not get it half, as the weight given at the end of this chapter will show acording to the Books kept by our Quartermaster a Internee. All our complaints fell on deaf ear and never wher altered. The Officer in charge of our Camp hardly troubling about us. On several days, we found the meat to be bad, and unfit for human consumption. We returned same but never received the weight of the bad meat, as promised, the next day, but our usely daily allowance. The way the meat wher forwourdet unti us wher also in a very unsanitary way. It came in canvas bags about 3-400 lb in weight. Herein in layd from early in the morning untill the afternoon in the Quartermasters tent. We scrubbed

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the bags daily with warm water, but owing our soap rationes being insufficient, and soda wher a seldom article to be found, we wher unable to get the grease out of same. Yes even after those bags had had a good scrubbing, and through dried, they had a sour smell. As the Soldiers having allways first pick, they seen to it, they allways received some of the best out of the quantity, also pulling out all the fat and kidneys. Everything is fair in love and war, however the Bible also tells us destinktly." Think of your neighbour". This the soldiers seemingly forgot daily, for we never, or very seldom received any fat, for frying purposses. We wher permitted to buy stores, through ordering some through the Quartermaster in the Soldiers lines. The prices wher about 30-50% addet to the regular storeprices on land. Wher the money in proffit went to, I am unable to say. It might have been used by the Officer to swell the Patriotic Fund Belgian Relief fund or his own Pocket fund, for all I

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know. All I know, it has costed me personaly a tidy summe to keep body and soul together while their. After I had been on the Island for about 3 months, I wher suplied with a dungaree suit, two solt shirts, a linnen hat and a pair of Boots. This wher the only waering apperal suplied to us, during our eight months internment under the S.A. Governement. We wher all forced to idle the hours away as best we could for the Government had no ocupation for us, and so all of us, wher deprived of the chance to earn anything, to help us along to buy extra food, clothing tobacco ectra. We consideret ourself the "Guests of a very poor Government".

Our Kitchen and Dinning Room.

Owing our tent being smal, and very inconvenient to use it as Bedroom, Kitchen and Dinning Room combined, we wher forced to procure bags at 4p a pice, old Potatoe Bags. "Went out into the Bushe under guard, procured some sticks, and we soon had a rough and ready Bush Kitchen and dining room. Our Kitchen

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contained a fireplace, made out of a few stones and mudd, to wich a few Iron Bars wher addet, for the Pots to stand on, a rough bench for the Pots to stand on when not in use. The Dining Room contained two rough Benches, around a ditto table, with a Butter-box in one corner as a safe. Our cooler, owing the hot season, being another box wich we procured through the officer in charge for wich we paid, sunk into the ground. After being one month on this Island, and me not having received any straw, I asked for permission under escort to search the Beach for seaweed, to fill my straw sack. But owing the Prisoners wich had arrived, previously, had gathered it all, I wher compelled to nurse the hard ground, for the period of eight months, as I had nothing to fill my pice of Hessian with, my personal effects I had to use as a Pillow, like a shangheiad seaman. I would have procured a Stretcher, but the shmal space in the tent would not permitt it.

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The arrangement for health and discipline.

Owing our Camp being 800 yards away from the Quarantine Station, I consideret it risky for the Government to put an internement Camp so close by especially as, for about two months, several smallpox confinces being quaratined their. Our drinking water we procured also from this station, through the medium of pipes layd on from this sayd institution. We had a limit of the use of same. On several ocasiones, when the watersupply run short, we wher compelled, to carry it in kerosine tins and Buckets from the Rain Watertanks at the Quarantine Station twice daily. Not that I am afraid to drink rainwater, but I take it to be a risky job, to drink rainwater caught of a Quarantine Roof while patients wher inside, also being forced to carry it from their while the smalpox confines wher housing their. Our daily prayer wher "Dear Good, we don’t care how long our liberty gets taken away from us, but grant us our plea that we get liberated enjoying our health". We dug a hole

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into the ground about six feet deep by six feet wide close to the fence, for the receiving of the washe and refuse water. As the hohle generaly wher covered with Boughs, this acted as a Breeding Area in the daytime for Musquitos, wich helped us along to enjoy the sleep during the long weary nights on the hard ground. Our Urinals and W.C. also consistet of hohles dug into the ground, with a galvaniced fence on one side, to keep off wind and wetter and f out of decancy. As to the Washing of our Clothing we wher issued between seven men a 2 lb bar of soap every 3 weeks. These had to last also for washing faces and dirty hands. Prisoners wich could afford to buy wher allright, but wher it a wonder when those without the necessary cashe got vermins, as washing without soap will not take out the dirt. So vermins wher their in our camp in plenty, in fact the quantity wher allmost equall of Gemanys fighting force. The wood for our cooking, we had to carry miles on our shoulders, out of the woods.

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Now and again a small coasting Boat arrived, with about 3-5 tones firewood on board. The Soldiers using msotly all. Owing this smal amount of wood, their being close on 100 fireplaces, hawing to last for a certain period, we wher mostly without, so we wher compelled to carry it over sand hills for miles. About 9 a.m. we Prisoners used to fall in line, two men out of each tent, with our axes which we had to buy ourselfs, and under a strong escort we wandered into places wher the trees stood; the time allowance to gather dead wood being 30 minutes. At first only dead trees got felled, however, as they wher soon used up, live ones had to suffer, and many a shady tree, the pride of the Island fell victim to our axes, and carried back in pices back to our camps. On many ocassion, owing to the long distant and the heavy load, we wher unable to reach the camp, without a rest , this sometimes got granted and mostly not, on many ocassions I seen Prisoners being compelled owing the weight of the wood, and the sandy ground being forced to drop their load on the way, yes

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sometimes even 2-300 yards distant from our camps. We had to leave it behind and enter our camp without any fire wood, allthough on several ocassions, we asked permission to be allowed to carry it into our lines, however allways wher refused. Th soldiers using it for their fires.

The recreation of Prisoners of War.

Hawing mostly all the day laying idle on our hand, we used to pass the time at several different recreation. Firstly started an atheletic club, than a german football club, a mixture of britishe associansion and Rugby. Owing the german emperors Birthday falling due shortley, a reserve officer drilld some Reserve soldiers and recruits for a parade Marche wich we intented to hold, in honor of this festive day. Of course wher their is a mole, their bound to be gambling, cards und the game of two up getting playd at first from morning untill late at nights. We rose of the hard ground at 8 a.m. bar the cook wich we used ti take in turns, by weekly durations

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after hawing breakfast and those wich had nothing else to do wendet their ways to the gambling dens (tents). As the sums played for runninig into pounds and many an unlucky prisoner lost all his money, wich could easyly have been used for better purposses our comander issued a notice, forbidding gambling of any sort. This put a stop to the two up game, however card playing continued, such as Poker, Nap, Swedish Banker, ectra. The comandet tried his best to put a stop to this also, but without success. "Many a prisoner wher arrestet, and sentenced to a few days water and bread". Well it wher a common ocurence, for the guard to come in and arrest a whole mob out of a tent, if they had been playing a legal or unlegal game, both being a like, as long as the soldiers, seeing cards, that wher evidence anough to warrant an arrest. Allthough arrests being frequent, we wher permitted to buy as many packets of cards, through the commandant as we wished to pay for. The price being 1 shilling per packet.

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The barnd supplied being mostly "Kangaroo" wich wher procuable at any stationers for the price of 6d per pack, the comandant used to make 50% clear profitt. To my estimation the comandant dit not look for discipline, but looked for business.

German Emperors Birthday. January 27th 1915.

Weeks previous to this festivity, prisoners wich still belonged to the German Reserve and the Recruits wher drilled for the Parade March. The Recruits wher formed to line the cordon of honor. The rifles used wher made out of sticks and broom handles. Every Soldiers wher dressed alike. Blue trousers, white shirt, white cap. The caps were made out of white handkerchiefs. The only obstacle in our way, being the uniform for the emperor, the higher officials, patronising the Emperors parade, and the dresses for the curtladys, becourse at such a festiviys there are also allways Ladys present. We made the spiked Helmets out of kerosine tins, soldered together. Swallow tail coats and evening frocks cut off at the

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bottom part, with yellow painted buttones, suitable brocade and tin medals galore, substituted, the smart Officers jacket. White trousers made into Riding breeches, seaboots and spurs, borrowed from some civil interned boundary Riders, completed the Uniform. The dresses for the curtladys, wher cut by an expert Ladys cutter, also interned, the stuff we had procured through the stores. The necessary long hair wher made out of Manilla rope and dyed different collor. The hats wher made out of fencing wire with some clothing, and paper flowers. So six of our prisoners wher transferred into nice and handsome Curtladys. This brought many a prisoner the thought and the knowledge, that he had a sweethearth or wife somewher on this globe awaiting patiently his return. The night previous to this perticular day we marched according to German custom, around through our Camp with torches made out of broken bottles and candles. Our Band leading. Early the next morning at 6 a.m.

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we wher called by our regimental bugler of our Camp Band. 8-9 Breakfast. 10 a.m. Parade. After the Parade their wher all kinds of sports, with cashe prices. We amused ourself immensely all day. At night their wher singing and dancing on the sand. We fancied ourself holding a curtlady in our arms and walzing around the emperors palace untill the haevy sandy ground remindet us, that we wher on Australian soil, the handsome lady, a fellow sufferer like ourself.

The transference from Camp to Camp.

Owing our camp being so close to the quarantine station the Military authority thinking it advisable, to transfer our camp to somewher else. After a lot of prospecting the authoritys found a suitable spot at the top end of the Island. For two weeks previous to our transference to the new camp, we wher compelled to find one men of each tent, to goe to the new site daily, for cleaning land, cutting trees, levelling ground ectra. Neither of us prisoners had a penny payd for our focible labor by the Australian Government, allthough we all wher

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only civil internet. 9 a.m. we wher marched under heavy escort, loaded with all kinds of tools, to the new site. Our dinner we toke with us, returning about 5 p.m. Hawing the ground in level order, and well fenced in, we wher orderd to get raedy, for tarnsference. Knowing their would be no time for cooking our food on this day we cooked everything the evening previous. It wher hussle and bussle everywhere. Early the next morning after breakfast, hawing our luggage all packed, we downed tents, and carried everything to the jetty, close to the Quarantine station. It where a sight like Pettycoat Lane (London) on a Sunday morning. Everything layd their, kitchen, dining room, firewood, athletic gear, boxes, forms, tables, luggage, tents, in fact everything immagenable, even to the old bricks, as they would come handy for our fireplaces. Two Prisoners of each tent, had to load everything into a Barge, supplied by the Government. The rest of the Prisoners wher led around, under heavy escort, through the swamp and bushe to the new site. Me being one of those

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unfortunate ones ordered to do the heavy work on the Jetty. We loadet one barge in the forenoon, while these being getting towed to the other side of the Island we adjourned for dinner. But o horror, mostly had nothing, as everything cooked by us, the other five had taken it with them. During the afternoon, we loadet the second and third barge, than getting on board also, Soldiers, Officers and the rest of us prisoners we had a ride around. As soon as we arrived their wher hussle again, to get everything right and in working order. Our tent of course draw our first attention. This day I never forget. We build our fireplaces again, put the bags, wich wher getting allready full of holes around it to keep off the wind and weather from the cook, next our Dining Room we christened this Ragally "Kleine Marien Strasse" a street in Hamburg of ill repute having the same name (See photo of Kitchen). This new site wher a sandy place, the least bit of wind, blow the sand all over. The Cook only had to lift the lid

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of the cooking pot, when a hand full of sand wher laying on top of the stew, instead of the necessary pepper. As each tent containning 7 men we received also one tin of jam daily. We used to leave everything in our dinning Room during the night time. Many a morning we found the jam missing and the Bread gone. I hawe it personaly from the Soldiers on sentry, that owing the hunger and the long weary hours on Guard, they had taken our bread to make toast and also the jam. All our combined complaints never altered the fact so we were forced to take everything eatable into our tent at nighttime, to be shure for us to have something to eat the next morning for breakfast also to be able to have a Dinner.

Life in the new Camp.

Of course, as us all being forced to idle the hours away as best we could, except the cook, wich we used, as formerly stated in weekly turns, we nearly wher driven crazy. We wher not permitted to receive any Books or Newspapers. Our coresponde permitted us

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of 2 letters per week, wich we had to drop open into the Pillowbox, as they had to be censored first. Anything written, stating of our ill treatment, or us asking for money, never wher passed, but went into the wastepaper basket. We wher compelled to put a postage stamp on each letter. This is also against the Hague convention, as all post to and from a prisoner of war should be free of all postage due. If a letter arrived without the necessary postage stamps, the prisoner had to pay doppelt taxces, or else the letter never would be delivered. Also with our luggage, or parcels we received. We had to pay the freight on same. Many article we had to pay for got taken out of the boxes, some of the clothes wher missing as everything had to be searched previous to the delivery. This wher allways done in the absence of the Prisoner, it wher adressed to Tremeniber on one occasion, a Prisoner, a young German, missing several Jewellery. While being out in the Bushe for firewood, he noticed his Ring on

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the finger of one of the Centry. Becourse he asked for the return of same, he wher abused and thretenet, to get a bullet, if he did not keep his mouth shut. Also with any parcels send to us with fruit or smokes, mostly half the contents wher missing. If their happened to be any money enclosed in one of the letters adressed to a prisoner, the letter arrived, but the money never. All our complaints never brought any difference.

Out of passtime we organised a Sailors Band, consisting of two acordeones, several mouth organes, a tin for Kettle drum, Maling spike as a Tryangle, and an empty Carbide tin with Canvas stretched around both ends as a big drum, later on we had also a Brass Band. Many a long weary hour during the hot evenings we amused ourself, laying in a circle in the soft sand enjoying German Ballats, dittis, Soldiers and National songs. If it hadnt been for this their would have been a few more driven mad.

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The fall of Antwerp, or the Comandants intention to force us all to Mutiny.

Owing our acomodation for cooking being very faulty two prisoners asked permission from the comandant to be permitted to obtain some galvanised sheet iron from an old sheet wich stood close to our fence. Having the necessary permission, they proceedet to get same. The rest of the Prisoners on seeing same hammering to get the iron of the roof, they wher of the impression anyone could get some, as every Kitchen and dinning room wher in an urgent need of a roof to keep the Cook and us all from getting welt, on a rainy day, especially as the wett season had sett in, they procured hammers, axces, ectra and scaled the fence to get their share of the iron and wood. The Soldiers on duty to guard us sitting in the quartertent enjoying a Game of "Napp" on hearing the tumping and hammering, they rushed to the scene; to save the sheet from destructioner. Five prisoners got cought in the act of demo

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loshing Government property, and marched off to the arrest Cell, those two prisoners wich had permission being amongst them. The arrest Cell wher about 10 by 8 feet. The soldiers than got ordered to search our Camp for wood, iron piping, or sheet iron. These instructions of course wher obeyed, and any of those sayd articles found in our wnclossure, we had to throw over the fence again. Many a pice of wood wich we had brought with us from the old camp, we were forced to part company with. Several Prisoners dug some boards into the soft sand, however the hiding places wher soon found by the Soldiers through the aid of their Bayonets wich they struck into the soft sand. This wher the start of what to South Australian Public got to hear as "the Mutiny on Torrens Island."

The Muting? "and the consequences".

Having five prisoners the comandant ordered to arrest more. This command wher obeyed wholesale for the slightest pertexts. Closing the Gate of the

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Recreation ground, but wich we wher forbidden to use as such, owing the lavatory, incinerator and other neccassery convinience being their, and Guard stationed all around the Barbwire fence "the cell" contained in two hours time 38 prisoners, and so taxed to its outmost. Me being one of them. I wher arrested for disobeying the order to stay in our trent, "but as I had to goe to the lavatory and used an overcoat, as it wher raining, I wher arrested also. As the space of our cell did not permitt of such a quantity to house their at one time we wher pickled like sardines". Of course we all enjoyed the joke, this being a change of our monotony. We also thought this only to be for one night, and to be liberated the next morning, as mostly had been arrested innoncent. While whe wher standing in this Cell shoulder to shoulder, me standing right behind the door in an corner, and singing a German song, I noticed our camp commandant

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through the crack of the door, drawing his automatic revolver, putting it behind his back, and advancing towards our cell, I told my mates to be quite wich they did at ones. The commandant stood within 2 paces of our cell door with the revolver behind him for about fully 5 minutes. I am shure he would have shot, through the door, if we had started singing again. That same would have hit one or two of my fellow prisoners been a certainty, owing us being packed so close together. About 5 p.m. we seen through the cracks of our hotel "the soldiers buisy laboring, driving iron posts into the ground and running Barbwire around it. Of course we all toke it for granted, that this should be only an excersise yard for prisoners of war sentenced for a long term in arrest. The space as afterwards proved to be 15 feet by 9 feet. We had guessed right, but wrong all the same, "like" Patty sayd, we had forgotten the sleeping acomo

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dation, as I further will prove.

In the sheep yard and my experients.

About 7 p.m. we wher told to come out, and get into the new yard wich we dit, without any grumbling. Previous to us entering the gates, those wearing overcoats had to hand same over to a Sergeant. After being searched, one by one, tobacco matches and pipes also cigarettes wher taken away from us, we entered the gate of our sheepyard in single file. Four soldiers being stationed to guard us one to each corner of our compartment under the open skye. The night turned out to be a cold one, with the seabreeze adding, and us allmost naked, without bedding or blankets, we shivered and huddled together to keep warm. Sleep being out of the question, owing to the cold night air the sentry amusing themselves in throwing cold water over us, becourse five did not follow their instruction to shut up and goe to sleep". Also the rain falling in showers, we remained awake all the night.

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At shortley after us getting into this enclosure, it being dark and cold, a young prisoner found a cigarette end and a match as somewher inside. On lighting same, the sentry observed the flashe, allthough we all circulated around him. This prisoner a lad of 19 wher ordered to hand over the cigarette. He denied hawing one, wherupon he wher taken out of our enclossure and marched to the back of the Commandants building. We seen a short struggle, and this prisoner being handkuffed, with his arms around a tellegraph pole. During the short struggle, the Soldiers tore of the Prisoners shirt, so he stood only dressed in a blue dungaree trousres, hatless, shirtless and boot less, their almost naked in the cold for hours, when we seen him colapse. After laying in the sand their for some time, I called a Sergeant and draw his attention to the lads unfortunate plight. After sying "I see what I can do" he left. About half an hour after, we seen some soldiers, undoing his handcuffs and

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carrying the prisoner, senseless into our enclosure. They layd him in the wett sand, and went away. We prisoners with hat coats on at the time of their arrest undressed, and covered this unfortunate lad with same. He draw our attention for about an hour, us chaffing his hands, and doing everything possible to get the lad back to his sences. On our attention proving without avail I complained to the sergeant again. Giving me desame answer as previously he left. Shortly afterwards two soldiers of the sanitary force came in, and toke him into the arrest cell, wher he layed on one blanket for the rest of the night. The next morning he wher addet to our quantity again. Owing the night being wett and cold, and sleep out of the question, a prisoner started a song, in wich we all started in the chorus. Ones the singing had started it never stopped untill morning. We sang German and english songs, in fact

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anything what came into our heads anything wher good enough to asist in making the time fly by. About 8 a.m. the next morning, we wher told to come out, to being led to the convinience, also to have a washe. Our escort consistet only of Officers and sub officers. Previous to us marching off, we seen as everyone of those Officer receiving orders to put cartridges into their magazines, also one in case of emergency into the Barrel, wich instruction they of course obeyed in our view. An old Sergeant advicing us not to speak a word to anyone, as they had orders to shoot the first one found speaking, we proceedet in funeral style to the washing place. Thance to the convinience. On ourway their our number wher addet by another prisoner, wich dared to say "good morning" to us. While at the convinience we heard 4-5 revolver shots. A prisoner remarking under his breath "He" meaning the Camp Comandant "is going

[Page 38]

going mad again". When we being led back, and arriving at the top corner of our internement camp we wher surprised to see a prisoner of war, getting chased by a soldier, and protted with the point of the bayonet when in reach, this soldiers name wher Jim Dinning of Adelaide, South Australia. He only obeyed, as stated by himself later on to me, his commands given by his superior officer, the Comandant. The order given wher "Goe and fetch him out, put the bayonet right through him. When we wher safe in our enclosure ones more, and hawing seen our guard unloading their rifles. We attendet to the poor fellow wich had been chased and stabbed several times. From him we heard that the Comandant had shot one of our prisoners in the leg. Those prisoner we also seen shortly being carried out on the shoulder of two sturdy soldiers to the hospital, with his leg hanging

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down. About 10 o clock the provision launch arrived hawing as passengers Col Irving and Capt Hardie, two of the highest Military Officials on board. Col Irving went shortley after the arrival to view the shet, wich had been slightly demolished. On his return Capt Hardie came in company of Lieut Parkes to our enclosure. After Lieut Parkes picking out six prisoners, those wher ordered to come out, wich they dit. They wher sentenced to 3 weeks imprisonement in the Adelaide Jail on half ration, for demolishing Government property,(an old stable, wich had not been in use for yeahrs previous) shurley a bad crime. Those prisoners wher marched off, some coatles, some bootless, some without a shirt on their nine mile journey by train to the Adelaide Jail. The woundet prisoner also wher asisted to this boat at the same time. We remainder wher sentenced to 14 days arrest without enquiry or deffence. On Capt Hardie enquiring if anyone

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had anything to say, I enquired why my sentence had been so severe, also that "I demandet to have a right to explain, previous to be sentenced": I wher told, "if you don’t keep quite, you goe to jail too". Not being eager to goe their I followed his advice. So we wher sentenced, some to jail, others to water and bread, for a long period, without hawing had the right, to defend ourself. However a Prisoners of War seems, to have no rights and not to be entitled to Justice. Only those wich are in charge of Prisoners of War or Civil Internet, have "Rights" by galore, as I hawe found out. We wher sentenced to remain in this enclosure, 15 feet by 9 feet, suroundet by a barbwire fence, without any protection from either side, also without a roof for 14 days water and bread. Horror. If I think back of those two weeks, it makes me shiver. I prefer to spend 2 weeks in a tomb, in company of a corpse, rather than hawe those two weeks in the barbwire over

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again. At the end of fourteen days we wher permitted to leave our compound and goe back to the Camp. As all our mails and priviledge of writing had been stopped during the 14 days of our arrest, I enquired for my mail, wich I expected from my dear home, wife and children. Fancy my surprise, when I wher told four letters awaiting in the office for you, however we are not allowed to deliver them for another month. "On me enquiring at whose orders I wher told, The Camp Comandant, Capt Hawkes". So I wher not permitted to send nor receive corespondence for one additional month. I consideret this a most and unjust sentence. As I had been in the habit of sending and receiving two letters per week from my dear home, wich I had been forced to leave behind, owing the European Crisis, and the Military suthoritys, being armoured with the new law made during the Crisis, in respect of Allien Enemy subjects, called the War

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precurtion act, can any reader wonder, when after one month, I received telegrams, registerd letters ectra of my wife, enquiring if I wher sick, dead, or if I thought it advisable for her to come to Adelaide a distant of 250 miles. Also if she should bring our children with her. Fancy yourself a poor innocent trough this World, becourse the head of the Family has been taken away from them, for no other fault, but that the Government of his Birth is at loggerheads with the Government of the land of his adoption. The only happiness these poor women has got, is the receiving of any news from her Husband, during her struggle. However even this little satisfaction wher taken away from her, and the thought and the fear, Her husband the father of her innocent Children might be dead, her sufferings are immangeenable

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This sentence of with holding the priveledge to send nor receive corespondence, I consideret the most severe, wich could have been inflictet on any married man, for neither of us wher convicts or criminals, or prisoners of war but Civil Internet, for wich the Hague Convention never made any rules, but Australia looked upon as prisoners of war and treated to a certain extent only acording to the Rules made by this convention, but mostly by their Rules made during the War, the Government called same ‘’The War Precoution Act".

A few months following my former experients. All Prisoners of War in our compound, looked upon the Camp Comandant with terror and disgust. We all wher afraid of our lives, as the visit of a bullet into our camp wher very frequent. We remained mostly in our tent during the day and night, only coming out for meals and

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(10/5 Those two prisoners wher forwardet to the Parkside Asylum

May 24th 1915.)

the forcible parade. We wher mostly like Rabits in a burrow. Hawing no ocupation and nothing to pass the time away with is it a wonder, one Prisoner went mad, another cut his troth with a racor, becourse he wher of unsound mind. At the time of me writing this there are two Prisoners of War in the Adelaide Mad house, becourse they hawe been driven mad during their internement on Torrens Island. On night after "Lights out" we heard the report of a rifle. On making enquiries the next morning, I wher informed, becourse a fellow, a inmate of the tent had lit his pipe, the guard had fired. The bullet penertrated the doppelt canvas of the tent, through both sides of an empty butterbox wich wher hanging in the tent and gused as a Safe, also through the Centre Post of the tent. Owing hawing lost its force the bullet on striking the slack canvas opposite

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of entering, it fell on a prisoners face wich layd on the Ground underneath. The hight of the traveling of the bullet being about 4 feet of the ground. If this misshap had happened 5 minutes previous, I would have had to record the death of a fellow prisoner, as this sayd prisoner had stood in front of the Butterbox undressing, previous to laying down for the night, to nurse the hard ground. The discharge of the rifles wher as stated previously of commin occurrence. A bullet passing my face within half a foot, the soldier in charge of the rifle not standing [indecipherable] feet away. And still the Australianes allways complain, that they wher short of ammunition, acording to our treatment on Torrens Island, their wher not the least sign of it, in fact, it seemed as if they had too much, and only wanted to waste some. One morning during parade, their wher 3 young prisoners missing. The Guard wher ordered to search the Island. As the Motorlunch of the Quarantine Station wher found to

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missing, they soon wher on their traces, and duly found in hiding in a unocupied Refreshment Booth on the mainland. The Prisoners wher ordered to "stand" wich they wisely dit. They wher than tied hands behind their backs, also from the shoulder to the hips with a stout cord and brought back to the Island. After being marched tied up around our camp as an "example", they wher put into the formerly explained enclosure. Owing this enclossure being without a roof, and it hawing rained for days and nights previously, it wher in no fitt state for any human being to occupy. About 5 p.m. it started raining again. They remained tied up and helpless untill 9 p.m. When they wher drenched to the skin a Lieutenat ordered to hawe the Ropes taken of them. They wher left in the open the rest of the Night. Owing their being 3 pices sheet iron in this enclosure they made themselves a sort of "dogkennel" to get out of the element of the Weather. Under these they

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crawled. However they wher hardly underneath when the Soldiers stationed to guard them, found this a place of amusements. Gathering stones, empty jam tins ectra, they amuset themselves in throwing it at the opening of this Prison-structure. Everytime a missle thrown found the opening their wher ammusement and mirth amongst the Sentry. The soldiers calling it, The Aunt Sally show. This fellows being in arrest without a trial for over a month on Bread and Water, now and again they received a warm meal. Owing our Comandant getting relieved by another Officer, Capt Buttler, this officer liberated them instantly. This Officer in Rank also a Capt. wher well liked and esteemed. Some wher strict but fair to both sides, Soldiers to Prisoners alike. His comand only lasted, sorry to state 14 days, as than our former comandant returned and toke charge again. Owing their being no convininece whatsoever, in our compound

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to dry clothing of any discription, we wher forced to hang same unto the Barb Wire fence, wich wher all around our Compound. But "O Pitty" if it had rained during the day, and we left it hanging out during the night. We only found rags in the morning instead of a good wearing appearal. The Soldiers on sentry during the night fancying themselves in the trenches somewhere in Flanders or Gallipoli, putting the Bayonet as often through the article as it would possible stand, thinking no doubt as the appearal belonged to a Enemy Subject they wher justyfied in hawing Bayonet practice. As the clothing supplied by the Government only consistet in 8 months of a dungaree suit, white linen hat 1 pair of trousers 3 shirts 1 pair of Boots and one sweater, all of poor quality. Many Prisoners wher forced through the actiones of the Soldiers to run about allmost naked. We complained to the commandant without ever getting justice, or having those wearing appearal replaced. All our complaints we had to direct to the second Officer in charge, as we only wher

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able to see the Comandant from the distant. Either sailing about in a Sailing Dinghy or else being under the influence of liquor. We prisoners of war wher permitted to receive one visit per month, from the Wife or Children only. The duration of the time varied between ¼ and ½ an hour, it all dependet on the amount of the provision on board of the Lunch, and the time it toke to get same discharged. As the Boat never lost no time in returning to Port, the visit wher allways a short one, Allways under close Guard, and allways on the Jetty irrespective of the Weather. On June 19th 1915 in the morning we wher surprised, to find out during the parade that two Prisoners had escaped again. Of course we all wished them "Good Luck One being a native of Sweden by names Hollman, and unable to speak any German, but Swedish and broken englishe the other a German named Gerthes. Many Reader will be surprised no doubt to read that Neutrals had been interned also. We had 2 Swedes 1. Dane amongst us also one Servian. Several German born colonists with

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Sons at the front, fighting for England in Gallipoli. Their wher also one, a father of 5 children, wich had arrived in Australia at the age of 2 yeares. These Prisoner wher also unable to speak German, but only englishe. All his pleadings did not give him back his liberty untill he had been interned for over a yeahr.

The return of two escaped Prisoners and the flogging. In the morning of June 24th 1915 we wher surprised to see on Board the Provision Lunch, the two escaped Prisoners, escorted back under "heavy guard". They wher marched off to the hospital tent. After passing the examination of the Military Doctor, they wher ordered to follow the leading Guard. Over 400 prisoners of war watched the proceeding. Those Prisoners wher marched to about 100 yard behind our fence, amongst the Sandhills, wher a clump of Maple trees wher going. All the Soldiers off Duty and the official wher their. The Prisoner Gerthes wher ordered to lift his

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hands above his head. These instruction he obeyed. His hands being than handkuffed to a Branch of a Tree, soldiers wher ordered to undo his top Garnements and lift same above his head, so that the unfortunate prisoner couldnt see. Than his lower wearing apearal wher undone, and lowered to the Ground. So stood these poor innocent Prisoner naked, in gaze of about 60 soldiers wich had gathered, when the strongest and sturdiest Soldier on the Island, a Resident of Mount Gambier wher handed a Cat of Nine tails with the Cords out of Rohhide knotted at the end, and ordered to deal out 20 lashes. After the first few lashes given, us hearing the yelling and howling of the poor Victim also the Soldier singing out, Give it to him drove us nearly to mutiny. As soon as the 20 lashes had been dealt out, his hands wher released, when he colapsed; the Soldiers adjusting the Victims dress.

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The next wher then the Swede; after being tied in the same fashion, and stripped also he received his lashes. The Verdict had been twenty lashes also, however he wher lucky, for the Cat of Nine tails broke, as the Comandant had no other to substitute he only had the alternative left, to be satisfied in seeing 10 strokes delivered. The Camp Comandants name being Captain Hawkes, Military District Adelaide South Australia. The Residential adresse Parkside, a surburban of Adelaide S.A. The Soldiers name is Thiele
of Mount Gambier South Australia. The Victims after the flogging wher led back to the Hospital tent, wher the doctor put some ointment on their cuts. They then wher admitted to our camp. Having a proffessional photographer in our midst they wher led to his tent, and after hawing the

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camera put into possision, their photo of the Backbody wher taken. While the Victims wher led to the hospital tent, all the soldiers laughing at us, becourse we wher standing in Groups about our camp,but being helpless to do anything, a sergeant major produced the broken Cat of 9 tails and showed same to us. This insult wher unbearable, one of our partie throwing the remark "Allright you australian B. We meet again, after the War, Men to Men. The Echo of those words hardly gone, when we heard the well known Order "Guard turn out" Every prisoner fled for shelter. I run to our Kitchen, I seen the Guard come in, goe to the Kitchen next to ours, and calling out to the cook to come out. When he came out, the sergeant toke a Rifle from one of the Soldiers, and with a mighty

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[indecipherable] ordered same to the gate, with instruction the inocent Prisoner obyed in Quickmarch. The sergeant however keept him allways in reach of the bayonet and keept prodding whenever the chance. After being led to the Comandant, he returned straight back to camp, bleeding profusely. The Photographer also toke the Photo of the part of his anatomy, wher the stabs wher showing. I complained about this to the Military Minister wich came into our camp to preach the Gospel. I demandet of this Minister to report the case to the head-quarter staff, however he declined, telling me he had nothing to do with the diciplinary work, so could not interfere. He wher only our spiritual adviser. I reported this news to the rest of my fellow sufferers. We decided unanimosly, not to patronice

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his sermon again, wich we also dit, becourse we sayd, if a Minister cannot asist in us getting Right and Justice, also to save our lifes, we dit not require his asistance to save our souls. One day about six weeks after this incident, some higher Officials Major Logan visited our camp, to inspect, during their inspection, one of our prisoners with the photos in hand, stepped in front of the highest official a Major, and begged of an interview, for a few minutes. Our camp comandant ordered him to depart but on seeing photos in the mans hand, the Major enquired, what they wher, the prisoner than handet same to the Officer and told our complain, about the flogging, also the Stabbing. With the promise to institute a investigation, also asking permssion to keep those photos he departed with the words "this is not British justice". Their has been a [indecipherable]

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enquiry on the Island, but I am unable to say with what result. Our life during our internment in South Australia wher a terror. This Comandant remained in charge of our camp, untill we wher transferred to Liverpool near Sydney New South Wales, Australia. We also send a letter previous to our departure, sealed, as permitted to us to do by the Headquarters, adressed to the Consul General of the United States of America, complaining of our treatment. This letter never reached its destination but wher confiscated soon after we had handet it over to the Lieutenant Hughes. So I wishe to state hier, the authority in charge of the Prisoners of War, in South Australia, wher very faulty, and needed a lot of investigation at the time of our internment. It wher amusing for us to hear of the Soldier, of the reports wich wher getting printed in Australia, complaining

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about english Prisoners treatment in Germany. If the reporter of the "Advertiser" or "Herald", two leading South Australian Newspapers had wendet his way on a fine afternoon to Torrens Island, and had taken the trouble to enquire about our treatment, he would have been astonished. He would have heard true complaints anough to fill a collum for a week of tru missery and sufferings, endured by Prisoners of War in their own land, wich would hawe put all the complaints about english treatment in Germany in Background. I heard that Prisoners in Germany get new Straw every six months well, I wher interned on the Island for the period of 8 months and never had been supplyd with straw or bedding of any kind, Also with Clothing Food,soaps,ectra, it wher dealt out in unsufficiant quantity and quality to keep sickness and vermin away.

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The News of our transportation and preparation.

When we wher officially informed to be transferred to another Camp, the place unknown, we all received the News with high spirits. We wher shure wherever we wher sent to, it could not not be a worse camp, as far as treatment and convinience wher concerned. Wher to nor how long the journey would last we wher left entirely in the dark, allthough I made several requests to be informed of my destination, so as to enable me to inform my family of my departure, wich I had to leave behind and a mercy to the World. My wife received 10 Shilling separation allowance from the Government, with 2 shilling six pence addet for each Child. I look upon this amount as a starvation allowance, especially with the high prices ruling for foodstuff. Especially if the Wife of a prisoner of war happens to be a frail and delicate person, and not hawing a Bankcredit to draw upon, in her hour of need, wich is very often

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or unable to do odd jobs, for other People better off than the working Class, for wich she gets poorly payd, I think, it is than mostly a case of "Everybody eats, but Mother". I consider the amount granted, by the Military authoritys insufficient to pay for the comodities to keep body and soul together, especially as the head of the family and Breadwinner has been forcibly been taken away from them and keept in idlenes and so unable to earn any money, wich would help his distant family along, at least to a certain extent. I have often pittied the poor australian Women who wher unfortunately married to an Enemy subject, also the offsprings of such a marriage. I am positive the Larder of these unfortunate Mother has been empty on many occasion during the European struggle, also the poor Children crying for Bread, and so adding to the pain pf a proud Mothers

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hearth, just becourse the Father happened to be born in a enemy country, and not in a country wich happened to be fighting side by side with Great Britain. I wher told on my aplication, that my Wife would be notyfied by the authoritys, in due course. My Wife wher notiyfied 2 weeks after my departure. I think it only fair for every married man that he should hawe had to privelege to inform his wife of the departure 3-4 days previously, so as to enable him to receive a visit, and say Au revoir" to his dear ones, trost the poor weeping Mother, as a mans health is allways stronger, and able to bear the pain more easyly, also to fix up anything in need of being attendet to. Owing the neglect of the department in tearing husband and father apart from his family, I am shure these sayd Government has broken many a happy home up for ever.

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The husband and father being disgusted with the Government, in forcing him away [indecipherable] from his family for a yeahr or more, has sayd "good by" to these shores, to look for new fields to earn an honest living. Owing the poor mann not hawing to Cashe to pay his family fare, he has been forced to leave some in Australia, a burden to the Government or Charity. Shurley in many instances their wher no need in tearing Husband and Wife apart, for the good book destinctly tells us "What Good has joined no man shall pull asunder. The australian defence department forgot all about this verse, and tore them apart by the tausend. A man, if proved to be a disloyal, is a menance to the Country, and ought to be interned, but a Man solely of enemy Birth after swearing not to lift a wappen, either for, or against the counrty and ought to be permitted, to

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enjoy his freedom, On Parole in Wartime as well as his freedom in Peacetime.

The Journey

August 10th 1915 we wher ordered to carry all personal luggage to the Beach ready for transportation. Blankets and Plat we had to keep in our possession. Everything in Camp, to remain as it wher. August 11th their wher hussle and bussle again. The Neutral Prisoners wich had been interned wher ordered to remain on the Island. The Swede, wich had received the flogging wher one of them. Through the medium of two powerfull Riverboats, we wher transferred under heavy escort from the Island to the Outer Harbour, the harbour wher all Mail Steamers bound for adelaide discharge and take their freight, Mail and Passengers. After being locked in one of the Goods shed for about 3 hours, we wher ordered to enter the train wich had to take us out of South Australia

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to Victoria, only to be transshipped again for New South Wales. We wher ordered eight prisoners to each compartment, allthough the Railway Regulation permitted for six persones. But as we wher Prisoners of War, and had not payd for our passage ourself, we had to be contented. Seven p.m., we had our first cup of tea issued to us, since morning, with 4 Biscuits and tin meat. During the journey we wher permitted to open the Window of our compartment, but while in a station, these had to be closed. Singing and shouting during the journey wher prohibited. No Prisoner being permitted to speak to any Person outside his compartement except the Guard and Sentry. No Prisoner being permitted to leave his compartment, without notyfying the Sentry. Any prisoner trying to escape would be fired upon. Each Carriage had 2 Soldiers, one stationed at each end. Owing the train being a through

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train with only the necessary stopping places, we reached Melbourne Victoria the next morning. Hier we wher issued tea again 1 Cup per man. Our food ration during the journey being 1lb Biscuits 1lb tin Meat, and two cups of tea daily. Owing our train stopping at a Plattform opposite to a train with we noticed to be filled with human freight also (Soldiers of a Reinforcement) ready to goe to Port Melbourne on board the Transport, the fun began. The Soldiers knowing in our train wher prisoners of war, also our Nativeland being at War with England, Australias Mother Country. we had signs thrown to us, representing all kinds of Death. Some tried to sign only to cut our troths, others lynching, still others, to gorge our eyes out. Through signs only we wher all dead allready. Us Prisoners mimiking backlike, Getting shot, bayoneted, returning

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blind or minus one arm or leg. This continued for a long time. When owing an insult thrown at our compartment by one of the Soldiers concerning our Birth and the respectability of our Mothers, owing my hasty temper, I disobeyed instructions, lowered the Window, and told this Soldier, not to disgrace our Mothers that he could goe wher he liked as a Government Servant, us however prefering to be the same Government Guest. Also that I know, I would receive my discharge at the end of this crisis healthy in Body and Soul, & him however not knowing if ever he had the chance to return, ot if he wher one of the lucky ones, not being minus one arm or leg, or a cripple in some other shape and form. So he should not be too cocky. I had a stule served out to me by the sentry of our carriage, with his Bayonet. Of course I admit I deserved a punishement, however a private Soldier, never has had get the right to punishe, but to

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report, however he toke the punishement in his own hands, their it finished, I never heard no more about the matter. We left Melbourne (Victoria), about dinner time for the other Staate arriving at Junee Albury the border of both states about 6.p.m. Hier we had served one cup of tea again, than we had to change into another train, belonging to the New South Wales Government; Those cariages had more Seating acomodation, in each compartment, so we had our first chance for a journey of about 36 hours, to straighten our legs more freely.

My escape.

In my forced departure from South Australia, the state I had residing in, as a respectable citizen for more than 10 yeahrs, and my forcible separation from Wife and Children, I made my mind up, to make a bolt dash for liberty, at the first oportunity offering, allthough "I would be fired upon", as treatened, however this

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later wher my own look out "During the first half of the journey I had layd my planes. During the second half of our journey I started to work to effect my release, and regain my liberty. Owing us nearring our destination, and nothing had happened wich could be classed seriously against order and discipline, made those in charge of us grow careless. As I had told the Official in charge of the transport, that owing the authority had treated me badly, in refusing me, to be permitted to say "good by" to my family previous to my departure to another staate, they never would get me to the other internement Camp, as a prisoner of War. The Officer gave orders to the sentry to keep a sharp "lookout" on me, and to watch one closely. I wher watched at every mowemement. However as we only wher about 150 miles away from our journeys end a run of 3-4 hours by train, made the guard get careless. About 120 miles from Liverpool the nearest Railway station to the German Concentration

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Camp, I wher permitted to enter the convinience, about 5 a.m. Lowering the Window, I clambered through unto the footboard at the outside of our carriage. Getting a glympsse of the ground, and seeing a white structure, like the entrance to a tunnel or Bridge ahead made me gather my mind quickly. I let goe off my hold and throw myself clear of the carriage. I struck with the face "downwards" I remained in this position, untill the carriages had passed me; I rose than of the ground, and after loosing the straps I had used in tying my overcoat close to my body, so as to prevent any obstacle of the carriage to get hold of any part of my clothing, and so drag me along and possible to my doom, I started to run back, the way the train had come. Fancy the fright I got when on looking back I noticed, the train slowing up. This made me speed for my life, as I thought the sentry had noticed my escape had pulled the

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emergency cord, and so notyfied the Enginedriver to stop the train. I thought it advisable to get away from the Railway line, so noticing a homestead in the distant, I made for it. After scaling a few hedges and fences, I soon reached the outbuildings of the farm. As I know, that the train had pulled up, to a "standstill" compelled me to loose no time in finding a suitable hiding place. This I soon found in one of the out buildings. Finding a tarpaulin I crawled underneath, and remained motionless for about five minutes, when I heard the Whisle of the train. This made me venture to crawl to the Door, to see if the transport had started on its journey again. But o horror. I noticed the train steaming back. Knowing the homestead would be the first to be thoroughly searched, I made for the open again, and run in a stooping position, as fast as my legs would carry me towards some hills about 4 miles away.

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Getting about halfway, I heard the Whisle of the engine again, and seeing the smoke, I know she wher on its journey again, however I dit not know, if their wher any Soldiers left behind to search and watch for the fugitive. Si I still keept on ahead. Ones I reached the hills, my escape wher made easier, as I could venture than to straighten myself. About 11a.m. I reached a deep ravine. While trying to get to the bottom of this, and so in a good hiding place, I slipped, and had a very narrow escape from a certain dead, as if I had not saved myself in holding on to a tree, while I slipped on a 70 degree I would hawe farllen amongst those Rocks at the bottom, and if it had not been a sudden dead, I would have been left their to die sooner or later, as their wher no human soul near for miles. However after an hour carefull stepping I reached the bottom. Not knowing my whereabouts, nor the Country, but being bent

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on putting as much distant between the Railwayline and myself, I walked along this Ravine through Water and over rocks for miles. About 3 p.m. I ventured out in the open again, owing the travelling in this ravine being heavy and rocks allways hadicapping my speed. Climbing the Hill again, and walking through the Bushe, I got to a Limekiln, wher a Limeburner wher buisy at work throwing wood into the lires. This Limeburner, taking me for a Sundowner or tramp, made me a Billycan full of tea, wich I enjoyed immensely, it being mt first warm drink since the night previous. He also gave me a cap, as I wher hatles, hawing lost my hat, while falling as stated previously. After enquiring about the road to get in the opposite direction to the railway line, I left, but made my way right opposite to wich I wher directed, thinking it adviseable, in case my escape should have

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been notified to the Police, and those might send a trooper to search the Wood. My suspicion turned out right. While walking through the Bushe close to the Road, I noticed a teamster with a load of wood coming in my direction. While hiding in a Bushe, awaiting his passing me, I noticed besides the driver, also a trooper in company of a lad of about 13 yeahrs of age, behind the Lorry. The trooper pushing a Bicycle. I consideret my lucky stare when they had passed, as my liberty would not have lastet five minutes had I been seen by any of those three, as the trooper wher armed with a revolver outside his Uniform. After running for miles, to put as much distant between myself and the Man of the Law, I reached the open again, a big sheep paddock. This being just sundown. Owing it hawing rained mostly all afternoon, my Waterproof Coat

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being unable to keep the wett out any longer I wher drenched to the skin. Owing it getting duske and me being tired and worn out, I strained my eyes, to find a resting place for the night. While being on this mission, I noticed a man coming riding in my direction. Owing hawing no covering near, escape wher out of the question. So keeping on my way, thinking it to be a trooper, and so shurly armed, I made up my mind, to try, to keep my liberty, through the medium of "Bluff" I admitt, I wher desparete at the time, and would have trespassed any law of the Land "if need had compelled me" to, to regain my freedom. However my fears wher groundless as the Rider turned out to be the "boundry rider"an employee of the Station, to watch the stock and the fences. This Boundary Rider had taken me for a Rabbit trapper, so wher goimg to forbid me from setting traps in this sayd paddock owing sheep grazing in same. After conversing

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very coutionously, enquiring of my wherabouts also the distant from the nearest Town or homestead I found out, that he could not be looking for me, or even that he know anything of my escape. However I keept a sharp "lookout" on my companiones, incase of any treachery, as I had lost all faith in Australianes, owing my last 9 months experience. However he turned out, to be a kind hearthed and generous old Gentleman. He offered to lead me in the Rain six miles away to a Shearing shead, the offer wich I very much apreciated I wher hardly able to keep pace with the Horse, he wher riding. On our way, he told me, I would find in the shead a fireplace wher I would be able, to dry my saturated Clothes, also wood to make a fire, as Shwagman used to reat their on frequent ocassiones during Nights. This enlightened my spirits again, and my hearth rose. Fancy when I got

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within 200 yards of the Sheth, I found out to be back at the same Homestead, on wich I had seeked shelter shortly after my escape. I must have walked in a circle all the day. Thanking the kind Boudary Rider, and wishing him "Good Night" I entered the Shet. I found a good fire allready burning and two shwagmen asleep on the floor. It had not five minutes elapsed from the time of me entering when I had all my outer Garnements hanging around the fireplace for drying. Finding one of the inhabitants awake, and me being hungry I enquired of same "If he could possible sell me some food. On being informed , that he only had a pice of bread to spare, I procured this for the sum of sixpence. Allthough it wher only a Crust, it wher better than nothing to a hungry Man. I must admitt, this pice of dry Bread at that time tasted better, then the best cake procurable, at any Bakery shop.

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Finding my waterproof coat drye, also an old newspaper I put the last named on the floor, and used it for matrace, a poor substitute no doubt. The waterproof coat, I used for Blanket. Owing me being dead tired, I thought sleep would befall me soon, however I wher mistaken. Finding the board of the hut extra hard, I kept on, turning over and over, I expected to be four cornerd the next morning. However knowing to have my liberty back, I wher willing to endure any amount of hardships imagenable. The next morning, after receiving a drop of tea, from one of my sleep companions, and after having enjoyed a washe in a creek wich flowed close by, I left on my 120 miles journey for Sydney N.S.W. I kept clear of all townships at first, and keeping to the Bushe as much as possible, buying food from farms and homesteads on my way. Mostly of my traveling I done during the night, by the

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light of the moon. I could have procured a Railway ticket, and so reached my destination by Rail, however I thought this inadvisable, as at every station, big or shmal, there is allways a Australian trooper to meet and look inside every compartment. So I might have been detected, and rearested again. So I preffered to walk or tramp as it is generally called in this Part of the Globe. Reaching near Moss Vale N.S.W. seeing a light in the Bushe about Midnight, I made for it. Hier I found a Rabbit trapper, just hawing finished his midnight round, looking after his traps, and enjoying a cup of tea. Being invited to a cup of tea also, needless to say, wich I gladly accepted, he offered to give me also a nights rest inside of his tent. The next morning, as this trapper had to deliver his "catch" to town, he gave me a "lift" a distant of about 12 miles. After driving me, at my

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request trough bacl streets, for safety sake, we arrived at the outskirts of Moss Vale. Handing him a letter adressed to my unfortunate home and asking him to post same, I wished him "good by" and started "per foot" on my journey again, towards the Capital City of New South Wales Australia, about 90 miles distant. Hawing passed through one town, I ventured to pass through the next, wich turned out to be a buisy town, owing its Quarry works near by. Being on a Saturday afternoon, and a half holiday for the Australian Workingmen, the Streets wher crowdet with Navies. After enjoying a good meal at a Restaurant, also two Pint of Beer, the first I have had in 9 months I wendet my way onwards. On reaching another town, I meet a trooper; Oeing my travel stained clothing, I wher asked, how far I had come. I suseceedet in bliffing him, that I wher a Citizen of Sweden, and had been in the employ at a

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Bridge, wich I had seen in course of errection some miles back. This trooper informed me that I resembled very much a German wich had escaped during transit from Melbourne to Sydney, however that if I wher a Swede, I could not be a German, with a hearltry "Good Luck" he left me. Little he dreamt that I wher the "right man" and even carried photos in my possession, of our ill treatment, while in Internement at South Australia, wich I wher trying to deliver in Sydney to be forwardet on to the american assembly and the German Government. Not knowing the Roads, and it getting dark, I wendet my way across paddocs ectra. Fancy the fright I received, when I wher called upon a soldier leveling his Rifle at me to "Halt". This instruction I obeyed at ones, I could see the cold steel of the Bayonet at the end of his Rifle. I wher asked "my business" and on me telling

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him, that I wher a Wanderer, on my way to Sydney, also that I had lost my way, he escortet me to a Road about a mile distant, leading to Campden. On me enquiring if I had tresspassed I wher informed, that I had been on the Water Race, or Reservoir, wich supplied all Sydney with Water. This is a sign, the Australian Government had taken precaution, in guarding the Watercatching Area very closely, and so prevented any enemy subject from veturing to near to do any misschif, like poisening the Water ectra. However acording my opinion the Government could have saved the expencess of Soldier Guards, for any purposses of this sort. As firstly it would have taken 1000 gallons of strong poison, previous it could do a slight dammage amongst those Milliones of Gallons of Water stored their in the Reservoir secondly, I think it impossible, that their would hawe been an Enemy subject alive, bad enough

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to stoop so low, as to commit Murder wholesale. However the Government thought it the safest policy, and closed the Well, previous to the drowning of "the Child". I reached Liverpool, wher the Soldiers Drilling Camp is situated, also the German Concentration Camp, wich contained all Enemy Subjects interned in Australia, about Dinnertime 4 days after my escape and 19 miles from Sydney. I toke it to be the safest to goe ones more through the Bushe, and steer clear of the town. From hier, I could see soldiers drilling by the tousends, previous to being sent to the Front somewher in Flanders, Gallipoli or Egypt, and be used for Cannonfeed. Being clear of all danger I ventured out towards the Main Road, wich I reached close towards the Warwick Farm Race Course. On this Race Course the Government wher also drilling Recruits. Ones on the Road, I sitt down to

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to have a Rest. While resting several higher Officials of the Australian Imperial Force, rode past me without taking any notice, of the tired out traveler. If they had only dreamt, that I wher a German, my arrest would hawe been shure and this Officer could hawe credited himself with a "great Victory" for wich no doubt he also advanced in Rank. After having a decant Rest, I observed a Motor Lorry coming from Liverpool, and going towards Sydney. I got permission from the driver to jump in and hawe a Ride, I toke my seat beside him. Of course we conversed together. I had ti Bluff again. I told him owing him knowing me being a foreigner, that I wher a Russian, born in Warsaw. I had applied to the Russian Consul at the comencement of the War, to be forward to Russia, as I wher a Reservist. Owing this being impossible to get me thar, and patriotic like I had tramped to Liverpool

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trying to enlist. Owing me being well build, young and healthy, the Driver of course made shure I had passed all examinations and being accepted in the Austrlaina Forces. I told him, I hads passed all examinations, but owing me not speaking perfect englishe, I had been rejected. This seemingly amused the Driver, and with the Remark "you speak englishe plain anough". He pulled up at an Hostelery. After a few drinks we proceedet on our way. He told me, he had delivered Bread to the German Concentration Camp. Also what fine time, they seemingly had. I sidet with him of course. In due course we reached Sydney, and I left him, thanking him for the ride, him passing the Remark "Never mind you harwe showed, you did not suffer with cold feet" what of course meant, you wher not afraid to fight. He wher right, I like to fight if there is a big gate. But when it comes to fight with Bullets, Worker against Worker, for the sake

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of gaining some territory, from wich I never receive an inch, I only follow, after my masters, and the higher socity class has left for the front. For I hawe nothing to defend, but my little Homestead and family, and this I am able to do with out the aid of Bullets, and Murder wholesale.

In the Capital of Australia and my experients.

Wending my way, to a friends residence, an australian I wher lucky in finding same home. I know he could be trusted, so I explained to him my experients. Owing some Soldiers of our transport hawing told him of my escape, he know all about it allready. I wher made at home, and after tea we patronised a Cinomatograph in company of his Wife. Me acting the attentive Husband, while away from Home lessened the riske. On the way to and from the Show, we passed several Gents of the Law, however owing me hawing a Lady, my wife on my arm, cast off suspicion. No one ever seemed to trouble the attentive husband

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Having my accomodation in a City Hotel under a Swedishe Name, I remained in the City 3 Weeks without ever even being suspected. Owing my friends Business being slack, through the European Crisis, we had plenty of time laying idle on our hands. So we viewed the City both during the day and the lovely summer nights, patronising Theathers, Concerts even Charitable Concerts in aid to help to swell the funds of several Socitys, as Australia had about 50 different funds, all claiming to do some good in this War. Their wher all begging for supscriptiones, and never getting anough. No doubt some wher with sence, others wher only to catch the unawhares. During these Outings, I allways acted the good kind and attentive Husband. The real Husband acting as our Guest untill we arrived back ay my place of acomodation, when my Friend had to take charge of his "better half" again.

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We allways enjoyed the joke imensely. One day I meet a Soldier wich had deserted out of Camp. He had served in the Light Horse Camp and still wore his Uniform. On him telling me his plight, of being also anxcious in getting arrested, as the Military Police wher looking for him. A chance and good idea struck me. I offered him Civilian attire, wich offer he eagerly asceptet. Wending our way to the Hotel at wich I wher residing, we soon transferred our Clothing. The Soldier in a smart Civilian attire and me a proud Australian Light Horse Soldier? We wher in close company for about one Week. Owing me being hardly detectible by my tomage to be a foreigner being taken mostly for a Welshe Man, I wher very cheeky.I never gave a liable arrest a second thought. I never thought I stood a good chance in getting two yeahrs in Government Jail, if caught masquerading in the Kings

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Uniform, and as shurley to be taken to be a Spy. My Friend, his Wife, the Soldier and myself being all young and on mischief bent, we turned out to be a lucky cloverleaf and a happy quartet. After a week in Uniform, acting on the advice of my friend, I discardet same, for civil attire again. I made my mind up to visit the Boundary Rider at Moss Vale and to give him a surprise with a visit, made me board the express bound for the country. Reaching the destination about midnight, I sleept in the Hotel close to the Station. After Breakfast I wendet my way to the Post Office to send a telegram for him to come into town. While writing the necessary form, a Police Constable entered to call for the Police Mail. This Officer of the Law recognised me, him having been in the Police force at Broken Hill previous to the War. As the Military authoritys wher hawing send issues of my warrant out Broadcast, bluff wher out of the question

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this time. I wher arrested by him and compelled to follow to the Police Station. So the saying of "the jug gets carried to the well, till she breaks", proves ones more true.

My arrest, Lock Up, and transpoitation.

I looked upon my arrest as a bit of stiff luck, but owing me hawing corespondence in my pocket, wich I had received during my stay in Sydney, under my alias, I still gave "Bluff" a chance and keept on continuing "pitching tails". During the afternoon I wher brought before the lokal Magistrate. Owing me refusing to swear that I never had been in an internment Camp in Australia, I wher ordered to be handet over to the Military Authoritys. I preffered to goe back into Concentration, and being relieved at the end of the struggle without a stain upon my Character, than commit perjury, and retain my liberty I wher led back to the Police Station and locked

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up in a Cell. Now I wher a prisoner ones more. I wher detained hier for 8 days, previous of the arrival of my escort. I wher glad when about 11 a.m., on a Sunday morning these came. As the Blankets in the Police Cell also the floors and walls wher vermin infested. My escort consistet of a Lieutenant and two soldiers. On me being handkuffed, I wher led to the Railway station, and had to await about two hours on the plattform, previous to the arrival of the train bound for Liverpool. While standing at the Station handkuffed, all eyes looked upon me, as if I wher a Murderer, or a well known Convict. I looked upon these, as the greatest humiliation possible. I know I had made a bolt bit for liberty, and so acted against the Law. However the Australian Government even acted against the Law also made at the Hague Convention and signed

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by Great Britian, in wich it says that any Government at War, is compelled to give Enemy subjects residing in the state, reasonable time, to quitt such state, or else being liable to be interned. The Australian Government, not even an official party of the declaration of War, but acting in defence of England (The Mother country) never give its Enemy subjects residing in the Colonies, not even 12 hour notice to quitt, but interned with out Notice. So when one party acts against Regulationes, to my esteunation the other is justified in doing the same. If any Resident in Australia can prove, that same ever heard of any Notification being issued requesting Enemy subjects to quitt the Staate in any certain time, I am willing to forfeit $pound;100 to any charitable Institution in Australia. So to my estimation, if a staate can view

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the rules of the Hague Convention, as a "scrap of Paper" I think I can look upon Rules made by this sayd Government during the War, with justification, as only a "Scrap of Paper". On arrival of the train, I wher led handkuffed to an open Cariage compartement, comprising Room for about 60 Passengers. Owing this compartemnt being containing about 20 Persons, all eyes during the journey, wher allways in my direction. Needless to say I wher glad, when the train reached our Destination. Being ordered to leave the Cariage, me being handcuffed all the while, a Soldier got on each side of me and the Lieutenant behind. Owing the concentration Camp being 4 miles away, and it getting dark the Lieutenant ordered a Motor taxi at the expence of the Government, we got on Board, and in less than half

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an hour, I sighted the lights of the Concentration Camp, my future forced home. On our arrival I wher taken before the Comandant, to account why I should not be punished for my escape out of detention. I told the comandant everything concerning myself. I told him of my arrival as a youth in Australia, that I wher married to an Australian Women, also that, I wher the father of two australian born Children, he pittied me. However being unable to release me alltogether, I wher put into the Concentration Camp, without punishment for the offence of any sort. Being led to the Stores, I wher handet a pice of Hessian, some twine, to make a straw sack, also seven pound of straw. 1 Plate tin mug, Knife Forke and Spoon, also a Firemans Rag. Previous to entering the gate, I wher ordered, to report myself the following Monday morning "to Work"

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I sayd "All right", however thought no power on Earth would me compell to work, as I could not be classed as a Prisoner of War, but wher symple a "Civil Internet" for wich their is no power given to any Government to enable same, to request them, to work against their Will. Previous to me stating my live in the Concentration Camp, I wishe to inform the Reader of an Enquiry held hier the first Week in March 1916, regarding our treatment while in South Australia. Same is the sworn evidence, word for Word, in acordance of the Copy wich wher handet to the Instigator of the Enquiry, a Prisoner of War also, by the board of enquiry.

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No. 3
The Internement Camp. Liverpool. N.S.W. Australia.
September 2nd 1914, about 100 Seafaring Members of German-English, American,& Scandinavian Ships, wich happened to be berthed in snook harbours of Australia, wher arrested by the Military Authority, and put into a Camp, surroundet by barbwire. The position of the Camp is the present light Horse Camp of the Australian Imperial Force. About 40 Members ocupied, seven, of the wellknown round Military Tent, the rest in 2 Marquees – Tent. The Soldiers & Officers, send by the Authoritys, to guard the Pris, ocupied the same ground ocomodation & food. We wher than a happy family nothing of the military disciplin, as we had to leave later. We wher like a picnic Party, Soldiers to Civilian Prisoners alike. We wher pittied by the Soldiers on more than one occasion, & told that, we would be following our former ocupation in about six months time, as Germany would be beaten by than, the Allies would have marched "Unter den Linden" on their way to the Emperors Palace to "dictate Peace-Terms" & Australia would get the Money payd back for our Maintenance, from the German Emperors, usually called "Kaiser Bill" the most hated Man in this Hemispher wich also got all blame for starting this War. But for these the Australian Newspapers wher solely to blame, for the

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During the afternoon October 4th, us all enjoying in a Sports festivity, wich we had made, to asist us passing away idle Hours, the first real Prisoners of War in Australia arrived at our Camp. These whersome Soldiers, taken Prisoners in New Guinea. The Nigts following, we wher informed by those Soldiers of how War "realy looks like so no wonder, we most of us" prized ourself lucky, for being in Camp. But I can honestly say, that if we had the option, to go and help Germany winning this War, the Camp would have been deserted everyone would have volunteered. Owing the Number of Internees quartered on the Ground allotted to us, being in excessive of the space, we wher all compelled to clear the ground of the present German Concentration Camp, wher there are about 5000 Enemy subjects interned. The Space of the Barracks wher a fruitgarden, belonging to the Farm. The Farm buildings wich are ocupied by the Military Officials are still in excistance, for it forms the Head Office of the G.C.C. The surrounding wher all dense scrub, as far as the Eye could see. All the surrounding Farms hawing being bought by the Australian Military Authoritys, to make a Manovour Ground out of same, gawe us Prisoners

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any amount of hard forcible work, for wich we wher payd at the rate of 2 shillings per day. When we wher forced to take Axes to "log" trees with & build our own barbwire fence made us scratch ourself behind our Ears, as these wher heavy work with scanty Payment for labor done. However as no one know anything about "Rules" in regards of forcible labor "for Civil Internees" we had to loose much sweat in clearing the Ground. Our present Prison & Ground of Excile. In the Old Camp, owing the site being close to the Road we used to see something of outside life. However hier nothing but Bush. So no Idleness. Work Boys and clear the site, so that we can see anything of outside life from our present site. So first trees fell on after the other the scrub got cleared, so we soon had light. After 1 Week streneous work by all of us to place our tents, ready for ocupation. Sunday morning October 24th we wher transferred to the New Camp. It wher a Picture never to be forgotten. For a sailor carrys evertything along, what might come handy in future, and everything possible seemed to come handy. Every morning, I could see Internees coming out of their tents early in

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the morning, to stretch their weary Bones, after a sleepless night on the hard Ground. So only through excerise they could get their constitution in proper working Order again. The read beams of the Australian Sun broke through the branches of the Trees & water in the darling River still flowing past. Everything wher peace during the early morning hours, only now & again the sounds of a few Cocotoos, wich flew from tree to tree disturbed same, to wich the "Laughing Jackass" or Kokoburah" the well known Australian Native bird done his best to asist. We wher permitted to hawe animals with us, so some had dogs others cats even some had their horses with them. However owing the later being expensive to keep in idleness, they soon wher sold , first they changend hands under us Internees, but later they got sold to persones outside of camp. We used to go to the River for our mornings toilet, inspecting our fish hooks, wich we had out their constantly and than back to camp for breakfast. While enjoying this, on many occasion I wandered back to my boyhood, when I had

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been sitting at a table in company of a loving mother, to enjoy a good breakfast, however those days, it very seldon tasted like it tasted hier. Hier I wher sitting on the hard ground with crossed legs, with the Plate upon my knies and still I fellt like a King. During our Working hours we wher closely watched by the Soldier guard, seemingly they had received instructions not to be with us so familiar, but to drive us to the work allotted to us. The daily Routine in G.C.C. Call 6 a.m. 6.30 a.m. for parade to goe to the River for a swim or wash. In those days the Watermain was not layd on from the nearest Township 4 miles away. These only got done about 6 months after we first wher transferred to the new Camp. The walk ocupied 10 minutes to get to the River, in the Centre of the scrub. We returned in a body to camp about 7.30. The Walk & Swim gave us a good appetite for breakfast. In those days we used to fall in line in front of the Kitchen to receive our Meals. The motto first come, first served wher very much in evidence than daily. The Row seemed endless. Those who, had been first seemed to be allways the

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last. This second "line up" to the Kitchen wher usually "capituliren". Owing the ration in the Kitchen issued by the Government being at the explained rate insufficient, this soon got remedied. So we had to fall in lines by the number of out tents. If than, when everybody had been served, their wher any food to spare, wich happened seldom, Internees wher than justified in applying for "Return" Two days during Week wher what got termed hier Hunger days. These wher the General Washing to the other the General bathing day. On those two days, work of any kind wher dispensed with. It wher the General cleaning days, to keep our body and Clothes clean from vermin. The washe & swim pararde : On the days of general cleaning we marched in file, of course under heavy escort with bayonets fixced to the River. At the place indicatet to us for swimming, their wher room for about 150 persones at a time. Owing the Government not issuing soap of any kind to the prisoners, the washing to keeping clean wher made very inconvinient for some of the internees.

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Those with Money would procure soap, but those without wher compelled to manage as best they could. Wher it a wonder when some of the poorer Internees, while the richer ones wher enjoying their bath, taking some of their wearing appearal, becourse it wher clean and left the dirty appearal in lieu of it. However these only lasted for a short time, for it soon got the habit to goe into the Water with all the clothes on their body. So it wher safe & out of reach of thiving hands, however who benefitt the most of the bath, if the Swimmer or the Clothes I leave it to the Reader to guse. Our routine wher allways desame week in week out without change of any sort. The Recreation Owing amongst the Internees being several with a musical talent, we soon had a rough & ready band together. We also build a Music pavillion for them to practise in, without hinderance. Every evening we had a Concert, to pass away the long weary evening hours. Well I might as well truly state, that if it had not been for ourselves many a internee would hawe endet his days in a lunatic Assylum. So we layd around the pavillion, nursing the hard ground, while listening to the Music. Our favorite melody being

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"Das Seemanns Los" translated "asleep in the Deep". The lighting of the Pavillion consisted out of some Carbide Lamps, made by some of the internees. The necessary Carbide the "Band" used to buy, out of the funds wich got collected nightly around the Pavillion. The funds wher inaugurated to procure Instruments & Music. The wher the foundation stone of our present "grand band". Those evenings I shall never forget: The australian clear evening sky with all Stars glimmering, looked like the prettiest carpet ever wowen. All around of us, as a silhuete, against the sky, wher the Scrub, wich we had not cleared get. The white tents of the Camp shinning like Ghost in the evenings. As says previously all internees wher to be found around the Pavillion during the Concert hours. Not a sound, bar those of the Music could be heard. Needless to say, at the end of each performance, our Band received such a healthy encore, as not a second one in the Colonies. For all Internees had their hearth & soul in the Band. So weeks went by, untill the Military authority granted us a big tent during the ende of November 1914. These tent wher big anough to acomodate 100 Internees

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So we made a "Recreation Tent" out of same. Quarrelling amongst the Internees being very seldom, we made the best of it, and lived like a happy family. Owing the disbandet German Club in Sydney sending us their books, we also had soon a nice little liberary. The arrival of a Piano, donated to us by a wealthy German Merchant, living in Sydney wher very much apreciated by all of us. Having a Piano, some Voudeville Artist soon gathered talent for a Theatrical company. Twice weekly we enjoyed "Theater" in the Recreation tent. These wher the foundation stone of our present "Theather". Owing the streneous work during the day with the adverse Recreation keept us all fitt and healthy, & our burden not made so heavy to carry. On December 3rd our quantity addet to by the German Officials taking Prisoner at New Guinea, the well known Island in the South Sea. Owing some sort of a "Declaration" made between Great Britian & Germany, those officials wher exchanged shortly after their arrival, via America. When they told us of this "declaration" we all looked upon those Officials with a certain amaint of jealousy. For who would not hawe liked to exchange places

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to enable us to return back to Germany, to enable us to asist with our little bit, to push back the numerous & greedy foe. However our luck wher not in this time. Our only hope wher "The ending of the War" soon – soon of course Germany victorious. Those Officials, started from the G.C.C. Liverpool the return journey via America on January 16th 1915. The evening previous we gathered in the Recreation Tent, (wich of course wher taxed to its outmost) to give those Officials numbering 65 a hearty send off. No doubt through those officials Germany got the first authentical news about the Australian Germen Concentration Camp. I don’t think their has been much wich could be much in favor of the australian Military, in regards of treatment towards their Civil Internees. During the time these Officials wher interned amongst our midst, our discipline wher much stricter, and our food much worse. The Newspapers reports wich got smuggled into our Camp for about 10 shillings a copy, vailing about the treatment meted out to Prisoners in Germany, wher no doubt bad, but ours wher certainly worse. We gladly would hawe changed places under guarantee of same treatment

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and some of the British "Tommy" would have seen what Britain calls fair play. To us internees it looked more like "Right" is might than anything else. Of course, out of passtimes plays got indulged in first they wher harmless, but ones it had taken Root gambling comenced. The stakes gused to be only Cigarettes at first, than Pennys, and later on I have seen much gold in those "shools" a sign that also heavy stakes got played for. These wher the first evil wich entered our camp. Many a Internee lost all his Money wich it had taken him months to safe in as many minutes at the "Roulette" The Bankers of course showed the Winning side daily. It has been a wonder to me that the Internees hawe stood the gambling evil for so long however my conclussion is, a Internees opinion being, owing you are a prisoner you must be satisfied with everything what comes along. We could all see that this saying must be true by the "Knosheugoulash" (Bracen-Shark) similar, with the hard Meat served out to us during dinner. It would hawe taken the teeth of a wild Animal to chew it. On many ocassion I went from the Kitchen straight to the Garbage tin and

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emptied my plate, becourse the food issued to us wher symply unfitt for human consumption. Owing the Gambling being carried on too heavy, the Camp Comandant seen fitt to issue a Notice prohibitting Gambling of any sort under penalty with arrest. However this warning dit not result in the gambling cease, nay it advanced daily, under close "Schurire" Outposts stationed at different places, to lookout for Military Police, to prevent them raiding the Gamble dens. I however I deal with the Gamble-Pest later. Owing the Winter setting in, allthough not a cold, but rainy season in Australia, compelled the Military authoritys to Build Barracks for our acomodation, as living in tents would have been allmost impossible. So during February to March the Carpenters (Internees) had a buisy time erecting Wooden structures wich wher finished by ende of March; However about the structures I deal later. The Work to Pay: As mentioned previously that we all wher forced to work, scrubcutting & cleaning for wich we wher payd the summe of 1 shilling for 7 hours work. I will endeavor to explain to the Public of the injustice meted out to us, as the Hague Convention distinctly tells

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explains that no Cdivil Internee can be forced to Work. Our Payday being ones every fortnight (2) Weeks) We received the summe of 7 shillings & 6 pence. 6d. being deducted for the cook & 4 shillings to be put into the Savings bank, to our credit, able only to draw it when released. We rcieved a stamped Receipt for bank money & deducted. At work we wher battaliones, under heavy guard in charge of a Lieutenant. Half the Pris. Worked the forenoon, the other half during the afternoon. It wher very hard work, with scanty payment. Building the barracks employed 150 Internees. Owing our number being over 400 Internees of course we needet a store to enable us to procure anything needet, to keep body & soul together, wich we wher unable to receive in our Kitchen. So the Camp Comandant installed a Canteen in Camp. The prices however wher, like in a Chemist Shop. Everything wher 50% in excess of outside Retail prices. Owing our pay being mostly irregular, we wher permitted a credit of 4 shillings in the Cantine every two weeks. If our Credit run above this summe, we wher charged 2d. writing expenses. Owing the Cantine being the only place, to enable us to procure anything like food, tobacco Matches ectra, no wonder the proffit this structure made out of us Internees, being imense. The proffit the Cantine made supossed to be for the benefitt of

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the Camp. Owing this "Shop" being under the charge of the Camp Comandant, while Internees wher selected to do serving, we Internees never know the Net results of proffit made thereof. I know some of it went to pay for eathen pipes, to assist in the drainage of our Camp also to buy a big "Lightn`ing Plant" to lighten the Barbwire fence, wich encircles our Camp, to enable the "Guard" to keep a closer watch on our Boundary fence. "Some of it also got used to buy 3 great Stoves" capable to prepare the daily food for 5000 Prisoners. However to better our Condition in Camplife or Recreation never a Penny got used. Gambling: Wher there is a lot of Men, their bound to be also a certain amount of gambling going on. Our Camp being no exception to this Rule. Their wher Card playing, Monte Carlo, Dice Games Roulette, in fact illegal chance games of any discriptiones. Any keepers of these "Shools" reaped Money in large summes. Money exchanged Hands allmost daily. I hawe seen a Internee loosing 15£ in two days. Owing the Instructiones being issued, Gambling prohibited under penalty made the "Bankers" carefull. They stationed Spys on several places for their safety, for wich service they got well payd, owing the risky work it was, as they

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wher liable for arrest, if cought "touting". If a Military Police managed to get near one of these "shools" without being noticed by the "Tout" wich was by no means seldon, he would rush in to confiscate all money found on the tables, sometimes they even arrested the "Banker" & some of his Clients, but mostly they let them off with a caution. All the moneys so confiscated supossed to be also used for the benefitt of the Camp, however none ever got handet to any of the Internees. I hawe it from good Authority, that the Police mostly kept same for their own use, sometimes they only delivered about 1/3 of sume confiscated to their superior Officers.

The Lock Up: The "Lock up" being one of the first building errected in the permanent Camp. It consisted of the stems of trees stuck into the Ground upright fashion, as close together as they would permitt, with Barb wire running all around it on both sides. The Roof wher of Galvanised Iron (second hand). A stoush Pole wher in the middle to wich a "dangerous" Internee could be handcuffed, or lashed, becourse he had been singing or letting his language loose with "plain english" for the treatment served out to him while under arrest. A Sentry being stationed outside the "Lock Up" day & night

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with bayonets fixced. The Treatment. Owing our forcible labor, made several Internees of the "better class" complain. This however dit not improve our condition, but made it more servere, and allmost unbearable. So two Brothers becourse they refused to swear "Neutrality, allthough allready intered wher send by the Authoritys to jail for the period of 6 months. A new Order wher issued to effect more stricter discipline. Any greater amount of money found upon newly interened Pris. Wher taken away from them, without ever a Receipt being given in return. On several ocassion I am awhare, only portion of amount so confiscated, got returned to the Owner. I have also seen a Internee got kicked by one of the Soldier-Guard becourse he did not work quick anough, to his licking. Owing the Pris. hawing lifted his hands to strike back, he wher imidiately arrested & placed in the "Lock Up". During the day this same Pris wher ordered to come out of the Lock up & pick up paper laying about the Soldiers Quarters. Owing same refusing to carry out these Order he wher fined the summe of 5 shillings to be deducted out of his wages. Our drinking water wher very scarce & many a hot day we only had issued to us a

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smal bucket of water to be dividet between 10 Prisones. In our midst wher a German Proffessor, whose pride was, his long locks of black Hair, reaching to his shoulder. A order wher issued to him to have his hair cropped short. These Order he naturaly declined to obey. He wher taken by the Military Police to the Camp-Barber, an Internee also, to have his hair cut and the Order of the Camp executed. These however wher refused to be done by the Barber, so the Pride of this proffessor wher saved. On Sunday morning we received Orders to strike our Tents for airing and cleaning pourposses. As it wher our day of rest, we in a body refused to do so, owing their being six working days in the week to do this. Owing this Order had not been complied with by breakfast time, this Meal wher taken away from us so we had to goe without. Owing 7 Internees wich had been ordered to strike their tent wher arrested at Breakfast time & placed in the Lock Up. After Breakfast hour we wher informed if we would carry out the Instruction imidiately, those 7 Internees would be liberated. To save those pris, we obyed the Order, however only 5 returned to Camp, two wher kept in the "Lock Up". Owing it being the custom in Australia

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to grant all Laborers 20 minutes "Spell" called usually "Smoke O" Lieutenant Eaton stopped us of this privilege. Owing 2 Internees, Residents of Australia for a number of yeahrs remonstrating with this Liuetenant, that this wher against the principle of Unionism they wher placed in the Lock Up for the period of two days. I wishe it hier to be understood Lock Up allways means "Separation from the Rest of the Internees quartered in the Loghouse formerly explained and fed only on a Water & Bread diet" with all privileges taken away from them like smoking, Reading, Singing ectra. Owing this Lock Up hawing no Convinience of any sorts, they had to apply to the sentry wich escorted the Internee to the Soldiers Convinience. Owing on one ocassion an Internee in the Lock Up aplying to be led to the Convinience and this Request wher not granted, these Pris wher forced to urinate inside on the Ground. For these offence, same wher sentenced to 4 weeks in the Government Jail on hard Labor. Our camp we considered a German Colony. So we allways flew the Hamburg City Flag at the Masthead or Flag Pole, wich we had errected. Owing this flag

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being forgotten to haul down one evening at Sundown wher left flying all night. The Sentry under orders came in, & pulled same down & confiscated it. This the soldiers looked upon another Victory for the Heroes of Australia. On our Route march to and from work if any Internee wher found to be walking too slow to the Officers liking, this Internee wher put for a day or two in the wellknown Lock up. On Decemb. 9 owing the meat ration issued to the Internees being short 180 had no Breakfast served to them. The next day Meat wher scarce again 30 Internees received no food of any discription of the Government, wich forcible keept us internet. On this day we Internees also found out that a Bag of Coffee wich had been issued to us by the Government for our Rationes, had found its way into the Canteen, & their sold to us for Cashe. Owing us being prohibited to hawe music of any kind outside the Recreation tent, made the long evening hours more unbearable, especially as the Evenings wher very close so inside the tents allmost unbearable. Any sick Internee had to fall in on Parade & march to the Hospital wher he seldom seen a doctor, but a

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Sanitary Sergant of the Medical Force. The treatement meted out to the sick Internees wher mostly of a careless nature. The best known Sergant name wher Meyer a German descent. These Sergeant wher so efficient in his work, that he finished of at the rate of 50 sick Internees per hour. Dec 16. The Slaate Medical Doctor on visiting the Camp ordered one Internee into the Garrison hospital, but hardly the Docktor had left the Camp, when Sergeant Meyer ordered the Parient to quitt the Hospital and return to our midst. So the unfortunate Internee allthough in a weak state, wher forced to linger in agony and sufferings amongst us more fortunate ones. Owing the Food issued to us by the Authority being inadequate and mostly unwholesome, whe wher forced to bring all our earings to the Cantine to buy food, to keep our body & Soul together. If I think back on those days, it makes my Blut boil. No doubt if this treatement had continued untill the ende of the War the Lunatic Assylum hier in Australia would hawe been taxed to its outmost & the Cemetery in Liverpool would hawe had to be enlarged. Whe all wher prepared for the worst. Out of our wages received every payday, a Officer collected of each Internee another

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3d. Whe wher informed, that this would be to pay the Horse Drivers their wages. One driver wher employed to cart rubbish ectra wich had accumulated about our Camp, however the other never carted anything for the Internees benefitt, but solely for the Government only. However owing us being Pris. Whe had to obey Orders. One night, Decemb 1914. We wher amused to see white objects running about our Camp making helter scelter for a certain tent. Of course this made us all enquisitive. So whe got out of our "Bed?" to find out what it all meant. Fancy us finding the Hospital Guards under the leadership of Sergeant Meyer, dressed in their Night-attire solely & barfooted. They had however their Ammunition Belt bucklet across their shoulders, scabart belt around their waist, and Rifles with bayonets fixed. When we got near, we heard them all curse & swear. On our making investigation, about the meaning of this Night-Carnival Episode, whe wher informed of the other Tent-Mates, mthat one of their numbers had been falling into Epeleptic fitt ao they had sumonsed the Hospital Guard for asistance. By all appearance the Giuard dit not like the idea, to being called out from away from their snug blankets for such a trivial case. Sergeany Meyer even tried to kick the senseless form on the Ground, with

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his heavy nailed Military Boots. When us Internee seen this intention, whe in a body rushed Meyer & his "pet guard" wich thought it adviseable to clear our Camp in a hurry. On us complaining the next morning to the Camp comandant Major Sands, whe wher informed that we had no right to call the Medical attendants, for such a trivial sickness, as a epeleptic fitt. On January 10, 1915 owing a Internee Carpenter wich wher employed by the Military authoritys errecting barracks, for wich he received a good salary of 4 shilling per diem, not doing anough labour to satisfy the Military Overseer & Head Carpenters, wher sentenced to 3 days "Lock Up". As long as a Internee in our midst wher able to crawl he wher forced to do some sort of manual labour. So the sick & convalecent Internees wher employed by the Military about Camp, picking up Paper, Match boxes, Cigarette butts ectra. Owing the strict discipline (inhuman Rules) in our Camp, the Lock Up wher never empty. The Military Police seen to that. As all those sentenced wher allways used to pull the heavy Roller, to roll the ground with & making Roads, is it a Wonder, as every "free" Internee steered shy of this sort of horses toil. The Roller consisted of the trunk of a Gum tree 4 feet

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in diameter and about 5 foot long, with a Pole attached to same. To pull this about wher realy Horses work & not human, especially if those unfortunates wher driven by a constant Guard with the aid of a bayonet. Yes I even hawe seen this Soldier-Guard becourse he got tired walking on the Metal while Road making sitting on the frame of the Roller, to spurring the Internees on to continues work. Of course his Bayonet acted as a Whip. Febr. 13. Owing a young Internee while at work calling out to one of his friends "hullo Carl" He wher sentenced to2 dayslock up.On the same date another pris ,wher sentenced to 5 days for picking up an old pice of rope while on the Home March from work. The New Barracks. On January 18th whe entered in to the new barracks. Allthough the appearance looked like a "Well ventilated Stable" we liked them better than the tents. These wher wooden structures about 120 yards long 10 feet high at back & 9 feet high in front. The Roofing consisted of Galvanised Iron. The whole length in front of the buildings wher "Open" Through "Cross bars" each structure wher dividet into 10 Compartments called "Mess" each Mess containing 10 Internees. Their wher no furniture of any sort, only the bar walls & a wooden floor. As it is just as well to make yourself at home any

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whers, wher the Government forces to keep a inocent person in idleness at the "Working Mens" Expenses, we adhered also hier to this Rule "Make yourself at Home." To patition our Barracks into 10 Rooms, we used our Groundsheets Bags, private blankets, private tents ectra for Walls. Next we brought some timber along out of the Bushe, out of wich we made Stretchers, tables, chairs, ectra, so our Mess did not seem at all bare. Owing every Internees floor space being 2½ foot broad the reader can judge that we wher not permitted owing space allowance being insufficient to use to much furniture, as our boxes, trunks ectra also require some space under our "bunks". This sayd "Bunks" acted as Chest of drawers, Safes, well in fact allmost as anything. No doubt a reader might think this impossible, but let him messure out a floorspace 2½ foot broad by 9 foot high, to live & sleep in, and he will find out that he is forced to tax his Wits to its outmost, to enable him also to stow his personal belongings, Eating Material & food stuff. This room for 10 Person 25 foot long seven broad & 9 feet high wher our dining, recreation & sleeping Compartment. The "Stretcher" or ussually called Bunk drew our first attention, as the straw issued to us about Sept 1914 wheighing

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7 lb wher very much getting worn out, to sleeping on flooring boards is indeet no soft bed. The first few nights seeing us being compelled to "nurse" the floor during the weary, long, night hours, we keept on turning, over & over to prevent us from being four cornerd in the morning. In front of each Mess their wher a "Roller-Canvas Blind". These has to be rolled up during forenoon, winged out during afternoon through medium of two poles and tied down in front of our Mess during night. So this acted as front wall & preventet the rain coming driving in during the wett season. The Military Police seen to it, that this instructiones wher carried out properly, daily. However we had not taken possessiones of the barracks for long, when we found out some one else had taken possession of it also. These wher only tiny insects, wich however can give a person a slepless night if so inclined, wich they seem to be all most anytime. So the Barracks wner a harbor for Flys during day, Mosquitos at Night, Bugs & Fleece at all hours. During general search of Barracks by Soldier-Guard their wher found in one Mess a Cardboardbox containing some Pea Rifle Catridges 22. long also a £1 Note & 2 half Crowns. This wher confiscated by the Sergant in charge of the search. Although the Internee asked to hawe the

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money returned to him, on several ocassiones, it proved allways to be without success. He even complained to the Camp Comandant about to confiscating of his money, however under the most objectionable language & curses, he wher dissmissed, with the advice to get his loss restored by the Kaiser. The least breach of discipline wich wher very sever, wher allways fined with money deducted out of Wages due. What became of this money non of us Internees ever found out. If a Pris happened to walk or walk slow and detected, he would be sentenced to 2-3 days lock up. Anything found outside our barracks by Military Police be it private or Governement property wher allways burned by order of Sergeant Meyer. If the article happened to be Government property the Owner of same wher compelled to pay in full for same, & so deducted out of his wages so on many ocassion our "Washing" wher taken to the "Incinerator" & burned. Government Groundsheets & Blankets wich we dared to put out on the sun on fine days for airing purposes, wher allways confiscated & burned, us Internees however had to pay allways in full for same, to the Military Officer in charge of this Camp. Major Sands & Major Griffiths. Allthough no

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no notice had been issued to us, about that we wher forbidden to air our Bedding Material, whe soon found out that this wher against Camp Rules, becourse it keept us working for the Government & keept us poor, becourse all our Wages wher deducted in fines. If any Internee dared to complain about this "daylight" robbery he wher instantly arrested & placed in the Lock Up for a day or two under Charge of "Contempt". The Clothing A few days after my Internment Sept 1914, I received a dungaree suit, 2 shirts, a linen hat & a pair of Hob Nail Blusher Boots; During Working hours we only wher permitted to wear the Clothing issued. These Clothing owing the rough nature of our employment seldom lasted for the period it wher intendet to, namely 6 months, so the most of us run about in Rags. It wher useless to patch becourse the Articles after 3-4 months constant use consisted of all Patches. I would advice the nigger who sings the song "Every Race got a Flag but the Coon", to apply to on of the Internees for one of his Government issued Wearing appearal & he will have a Flag with all collorers of the Rainbow. So it a Wonder the Working parade allways looked like a Wandering Rag Shop. During February 1915 two Internees "fell in Line" at "Working Parade" only dressed

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in a shirt & boots. Coat & Hat. The trousers they had fallen of them in pices the day previously. Owing the Notice "Private Clothing prohibited during working haours, those unfortunates wher forbidden to use one of their private trousers. The Officer in Charge of the Working Parade enquired of the Internees of the meaning of "lining up" in such state. On being informed that the Government trousers had fallen off them the day previously while at work, & owing the Rules of private clothing being prohibited to use during working hours, they wher first photographed & then send to the Ordenance Store, to hawe a new pair issued to them. January 25. Owing a Internee, A active Marine of the German Cruiser Planet using the Soldiers convinience, while employed in the Soldiers Camp, same wher arrested & put in the Lock Up for 2 days. On same day because 5 prisoners wich had been singing on the home march from Work wher arrested & received 3 days Water & bread. Early in February 1915 we wher informed, that each Internee would be permitted to forward two letters weekly for dispatch out of the Camp, namely, for Overseas & for the Colonies. Each letter not to contain more than 150 words. Also to urge dispatch of letters we wher advised to write in Englishe.

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As their wher only a few Pris interned wich wher capable to write Englishe plainily, they reaped a little harvest. Each translation cost the Sender 2d. during Middle January 3 Internees while working in the Bushe"Scrubcutting", wher called by the Guard "You bloody dutch Bastards. Owing those pris defending their Mothers honour and Name in giving the Soldier a well deserved trashing, they wher arrested on their return to Camp & sentenced to 8 days in the Lock Up. These Soldierguard used his spite in future on us all Internees. Under allsorts of pretext & minor charges, he managed to allmost "fine" each & every on of us ranging from 2-5 days pay, also mostly in adition to the fine we wher sentenced to 1 whole day forced labor without payment of any sort. This soldier while workomg out his spite & looking for trouble ordered a young Internee, wich wher unable to speak ot understand English; togoe to another Working party. Owing this Internee not following out instruction he wher instantly arrested & sentenced to 6 days lock up "for disobying an Order & Contempt". We wher surprised to read on the Notice board a Notice informing us that all Barracks had to be scrubbed the next day (Sunday) Owing us not having been issued any soap by the Government, but had to buy all soap needet

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in the Cantine, at the rate of 4d per cake, also not having being issued a Bucket or Broom, and us being interned nearly for the period of 6 months made us complain in a body to the Camp Comandant Major Sands. Owing us knowing that the "Lock Up" could not harbor us all we got cheeky & demandet same. However we wher informed, that the Government dit not issue these articles, however he expected us to obey instruction & to do it as best we could under circumstances. So their wher nothing left but for each Mess-mate to contribute 6d per Men to enable us to buy a bucket & Broom. Of course we scrubbed without soap, as it would hawe been too expensive for us to waste such a precious article as 1 Shillings worth would have hardly been sufficient to scrub each Mess. On this Sunday while going around to see if Instructions had been carried out, Sergeant Meyer found 1 of the ground sheets issued by the Government being in use in 1 of the Mess as a table Cloth. For these offence they wher fined 3/6 each. Owing the pris refusing to pay this amount as the Groundsheet had not been damaged in the least they wher sentenced to 7 days in the Lock Up, for "Insolence. About Middle of February 1915 two Internees, German

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active Soldiers. Lieutenants in Rank managed to escape while being employed "Scrubcutting" Those names wher Sperht & Kartze. Lieutenant Kartze wher found a few days later in Sydney, the nearest City about 20 miles distant & shot on the spot. The day of his funeral six Australian & 2 German Internees (Official) wher admitted to follow the Hearse to the Cemetry & as pay their respect & tribute. The Victim had been released out of the Lock Up on morning of escape wher he had been for 3 days for "insolence". Our Camp possessed all sorts of Bird-Pets. They had been taken out of their nests when young & reared by the Internees. Among those wher a Starling wich used to follow its Master in to the Bush, while at work their and home again. He wher the pet of the Camp. He used to rest on our heads or shoulders on the out & home march. One day this starling wher missing & fancy our surprise when we wher shown a photo by one of the guards, in wich we seen "Jarky" sitting quite contently on a Soldiers Head in a Reinforcements Group, taking previous to their departure from these Shores, bound for the battlefront in Gallipoli. This "Reinforcement" had been presentented by the Soldiers hier with "Jarky" wich they had taken without our knowledge to use

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as their "Mascott" on their Journey. So our pet Star "Jarky" even went to the front in "Gallipoli", or "died somewher in Flanders". About middle February a wealthy German Merchant of Sydney wher interned in our midst. Owing Regulation to have all luggage searched previous to same being admitted to enter our Camp, he wher forced to leave same in charge of the Military Police, wich generally done all searching. On same being delivered the next morning to the Owner he found all his jewellery & a great quantity of money missing. He complained of his loss to the Camp Comandant & asked for a Reciept for same. Owing him not getting satisfaction of any sort, he thought of the management of this Camp, in plain englishe language. This wher too much for the Comandant becourse "Truth hurts" so he ordered the Looser to be arrested & put into Lock Up for 30 days. On February 19 while being employed falling trees in the Bush Partie a Internee sprained his ankle. Same wher asisted to the Camp hospital. The Hospital Sergeant Meyer "The Demon & Terror of the sick, received the Patient with

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curses & the most objectionable names & while painting the sprained part with Iodine he remarked "You bloody lacy German Bastard, if you wher now at the front, you would be still digging trenches for the German Kaiser. The next morning Sergeant Meyer visited the Patient in his Mess. Owing same being laying in his Bunk, he wher ordered to get uo instantly & goe to work, if not, he would fine him 1 shilling per day. The Patient owing being unable to walk, remainded in bed & had to pay 5 shillings for laziness, for being 5 days idle. The Soldiers gused to call us any objectionable Name, they thought fitt in the presence of their superior Officers, without ever being censored by this Official. However if we Internees ever dared to answer back, look sideways at them or complain to the Officer in charge, we allways wher arrested & placed in the Lock-Up. Our life wher allmost made unbearable. Each and every one of us made shure that neither of us would leave this Camp, mentally or phisicaly fitt for anything. Any Internee wishing to see the docktor, Sergeant Meyer gused to send the sick Internee back to camp with the notice that they wher unable to see the Doctor. Allmost all cases of sickness he attendet to himself & with such efficiency that he managed generaly

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to finishe off the patients, at the rate of 50 per hour. His favorite medicine being Castor Oil or Blank Draft. A Patient with an open cut or flesh wound would first receive a doze of Oil. During end of February those Internees confined in the Lockup, wher ordered to pull the formerly explained Roller. Owing the Diet in the Lock up being allways Water & Bread, one, by name of E. Steinboch however refused to do Horseswork on a empty Stomach. He wher driven to the Pole with the aid of the bayonet & stabbed several times with same, but he still refused while the Blood run out of 3 ugly wounds freely. He wher than handcuffed & let to the hospital for treatment. While on his way their, hand cuffed, than Captain Griffith II in comand of the Camp illtreated & knocked the Wittness about. On these day owing a Mess having failed to sweep their floor becourse they had no Broom wher fined 1 shilling each. Easter Monday, we wher ordered the Saturday previously we must work "Clearing" However our luck wher in, for it rained, & so we could remain in our Camp. If a Match, or Cigarette box, yes even a bit of Paper wher found laying about a Barrack, the whole inmates 100 in number wher fined 1 shilling each. Their wher

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no receptacles placed any wher in our Camp for us to put any Rubbish into, so we wher compelled to burn everything at the only open fire allowed in our Camp a good way off from barracks. On each second ocurence of any rubbish found about any one of the Barracks, the whole inmates would be fined 2 sh each. Early in March a Internee while on his homeward march from work in the Bushe, lit a cigarette; on arrival at the Camp gates, he wher arrested & charged with walking slow "He wher fined 7 shilling". This amounted to more than 1 weeks wages. On the next day Dieteman by name refused to work for nothing, so he wher arrested. While under arrested he wher ordered to pick up Paper laying about the Soldiers Barracks, wich he however refused to do. Sergeany Meyer calling the Sentry stationed outside of the lock up & with the Order "shot this bloody Bastard". This Order the Sentry however refused to carry out. Therupon Meyer produced his automatic Pistol & shot the Internee in the leg, the result of this shot that to this present day (day of writing) the Victim only can move about with the aid of a Stick. When the shooting toke place, the Sergeant stood 8 paces away from the

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victim. This outrage wher the result of a General strike in our Camp. Owing us all in a body refusing to work the next day, owing the allmost unhuman treatment we received at the Hands of the Military Authoritys, the Cantine Recreation tent & Coffee Stalls wher closed by order of the Comandant. Whe wher forbidden to join in any sort of Recreation. Our boundary fence wher doubled with Soldier-Guard with strict Order to shoot anyone not complying with rules issued to us. No Pris went to work during forenoon. About 2 p.m we wher ordered to "fall in on [arade". We wher spoken to by Lieutenant Eaton, wich gave us 5 minutes grace, to think it all over, if we still than refused to work, we all would be shot. While we listened to this order, Captain Schmidt of the Germ. Imperial Force wher arrested & led into the Bushe, escorted by a strong guard of Soldiers fully armed. This Capt wher looked upon by the Authoritys in charge of our Camp as the Ring-leader. While still all standing their, making use of the grace granted us, we heard a volly of ahots fired, from the direction of the Bushe wher they had led Capt Schmidt. So we all thought, the Captain

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had been shot. Especially so, when we seen the guard return, two of them carried picks, some carried shovels. It looked to us, as if they had been send by their superior Officers to do so, previous to Capt Schmidts arrest. This outrage made us more determined to carry the Strike to a successful issue. Yes, we even vouched that if need must be, we all would rather face the bulet, than turn "Strikebreaker" also we would not return to work until Capt Schmidt had been returned to our midst. Our other terms wher, that it should be made impossible for noncomissioned Officers, to fire or sentence any pris, without the sanction of the Comandant. Also we demandet of the Australian Military, to issue soap to us, while same keept us interned. We demandet at least, anough soap to enable us to washe ourself & to washe our wearing appearal. Our Strike, however, I am sorry to say, collapsed owing too many Internees wher frightened to loose their lifes. So rather than to be shot, they turned "Blagleg" & went to work. These "Blacklegs" never entered our Compound no more but wher quartered in the Soldiers lines in tents. These wher done to the Strike

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breakers own safety, as the loyal Internees would have shurley dome them so injury if permitted to enter again our Camp. In return for the "black legging" the authoritys however supplied them with the best jobs ably to be found about outside of our Camp. Owing the German Settlers arrested at Singapore, and transferred to Australia for internment hawing the sume of £42000 in their posession, this sume wher taken away from them without a receipt given in return allthough asked for same. They wher informed that they could draw £5 every 2 weeks for their personal. On us other Internees being informed of this fact & knowing the inhonest practice going on, on the other side of the fence made us demand in a body to have Receipts for Money taken issued to the Owners. We also demandet to have the 4 swords taken away from 4 Marine Officers of the German Light Cruiser "Emden" returned to them. Fearing another Strike the Comandant granted our fair request, minus one Sword as only 3 could be found, the missing one never wher returned. I wishe to mention hier that our Comandant has offered £5 for a

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Cap. Ribbon of the S.M.S. Emden. The gallant little Craft, wich had done so much damage to the Britishe Merchant Fleet, and to several Island. Also put up such a great fight against the Australian Battle Cruiser Sydney. A allmost new Vessel with about twice its size in demention & far superior in her Gun Mountings. Needles to see the Comandants request failed, as every Germ. Blue Jacket wher proud of the Name, so no one would disgrace himself to leave the Ribbon wich contained the name of his beloved Ship, in such a Hand as an Australian. For owing our treatment we received of the Australian Military being allmost inhuman & unbearable, wher it a Wonder, wher it a Wonder, we classed Australia as a Generation of Convicts. Well we even asked one another sometimes "Who wher Australians Forefathers to wich they would answer "Convicts, picked out by the wisest Judges in England & send out hier in Chains. So we came to the conclusion, what could we expect out of a "Convict Race " wich still flows Convicts Blood in its Veins. Shortly after our first Strike Sergeant Meyer "the Terror" fined the

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Ocupants of 3 Barracks with the Sume of 1 shilling each, that is 300 persones for having Water laying about in front of their Barracks. So Meyer had another single Hand Australian Victory, defeating 300 Germanes in punishing them combined with the sume of £15 wich no doubt went into someones pocket, on the other side of the Barb Wire fence. On many ocassion I have heard those Planters from Singapore say "How lonf is this going to last, are we going to remain in this open Horse Stable much longer. I also pittied them when those unfortunate rich Gentleman wher compelled to shoulder Pick Hoe or Shovel to goe to work into the Bushe, for their wher no class dedinction. Everybody wher compelled to work, if rich or poor, Consul, Tradesmen, Planter or laborer, all wher alike. I hawe seen hier Gentle Men wich never had the need todo any manual labor, also Mothers favorites doing their best to dissolve the Puzle of Bushclearing. No doubt many a hard Internee toiler wher glad, that his hands wher used to heavy manual labor, especially when he seen does Gentleman excamining the inside of their hands, for the Hoe handle protuced

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Blisters in those soft palms. However thanks to the financial asistance of the Singapore Planters, wher we Internees enabled to build a Theather capable of holding 400 Internees. This wher better than the draughty tent. April 26 owing the weather condition getting cooler we had another Blanket issued to us, this made 8 all counted. Of course those blankets wher not of the best quality, however they wher a little warmer than a Mosquito Netting. We also had 1 shirt 1 blue Cardigan Jacket 1 Cap 1 pair of trousers issued to us. These wher our second issue since our internment about 9 months ago. We also received on this day our first and for a long time our last Soap. This consistet of a Bar 2lb in weight for 10 Persones. On several ocassion the Military Police had raidet the Gambling dens. On my May 1 we wher notyfied that the American Consul would visit the Camp for inspectiones & to hear any complaints. Those who wished to lodge complaints to give their names in the Camp Office. The day of the visit the

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Complaint List wher filled. Their wher to be found allmost all the names of all Internees. Especialy the more wealthy ones. We wher surprised to see all those who had put their names on the sayd List to be forcibly marched, to work in the Bush under heavy escort. Those who had entered their names also but, hawing worked the forenoon wher taken for a Walk in the Bushe, also under heavy escort. One Pris Meyer by name, Secretary of the Sydney Fascical Union, a stornsh Socialist owing him refusing to goe for his Walk previous to same hawing seen the Consul & lodged his Complaint wher permitted to goe to Sydney with a Soldier Guard. The Guard of course seen to it, same dit not return until the Consul had left the Camp. The Consul Mr Britain visited the hospital & listened to complaints made by the patients with regards to their treatment & the treatment in Camp generally. He than visited the Camp in company of the Camp Comandet Major Sands. These Comandant tried to prevent any one from getting near the Consul to lodge any complaints. When we seen the Comandant tried to provent us from lodging our complaints, those remai

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ning in Camp, but not hawing their Names registered rushed the Consul in a body. So our Camp Comandant being unable to prevent us, several wher able to lodge their complaints. During this interview our Comandant admitted the embezzlement of several letters wich had passed the Censor in that Country wher that closely censored, that that mostly only the heading & the Writers Name wher all the Envelope contained. The rest had been cut out at our Censors Office. Several of the rich Singapore Planters wich wher laying in the hospital under docktors treatment, wher ordered after dinner to dress to goe for a walk in the Bushe. However this wher another clever dudge of our Comandant, to prevent them complaining about their forcible Labor. Our Complaints in Camp consisted mostly of our in human treatment, about the Food & our forcible labor. Also that owing the wealthy Singapore Internees wishing to lodge Complaints, they had been forced to take a walk, so as to be out of Harms way. So the Consul ordered the Comandant to have those Pris returned immediately, wich Order of course wher obeyed instantly. The all time between 2 p.m & 5 p.m.

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wher only ocupied by the Consul to listen to complaints. This wher the first visit of any Official, wich interested himself in the treatment of Pris. Of War & it wher about time two. During the lodging of complaints the Camp Comandant wher present with the Consul. He turned blue with rage & temper and he marked himself names of several internees, who had told the truth about his management of our Camp & those had to suffer in due curse for it. When the Prisoners wher led out for a walk to get out of the Consuls reach they passed a spot wich looked like a Grave. They enquired of the guard if that wher the spot wher the Captain Schmidt wher buried wich got shot during the strike. The Soldiers informed those, that the shooting had been only a farce & a invention by the Comandant. Lieutenant Schmidt had been transferred to the Internment Camp at Trial Bay on desame day, when arrested in Camp. This we found out after to be the truth. The Theather This is a Structure build out of Bush timber. The Roof & outside building wher secondhand, corugated iron. The Seats, Stage, well in fact everything wher made out of Bushtimber. The work to erect same, wher voluntary

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Every Pris doing his best, to asist, in getting the Building errected. The Curtain, Senery, Wings ectra wher artisticaly paintet by an Internee-Artist. Under the circumstances & condition however we wher all proud of the first Germ Theather ever build in Australia, managed by Germanes & German Plays staged. However I deal more definitely about this later under the Heading of Recreation.

Early in May 2 Internees effect their escape from the "Bush Party" with the assistance of the others, of the Gang. Owing Guards being stationed all around, direct escape wher made impossible. Owing all Bush & Trees wich had been "felled" must be stacked in big heaps & when dry, burned, those 2 Internees crawled into one of the New Heaps, while the others piled up the dirkest Bushes on top, to prevent any one noticing from the outside that the heap also contained human forms. When work wher finished with & all pris fell in line, the outside Guard Circle closed in, & owing them not hawing seen any stray Internees, they proceedet the home march without counting the Internees, or to see if the full "tally" wich they had taken out, wher also their on their home march. As soon as it got dark those Internees would crawl out of the heap & by the light of the

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Moon, try to put as much distant between themselves & the Camp as possible. Owing the Internees only getting counted ones daily (Morning Parade) they generally managed to out distance the authoritys. For instance, those two Internees just mentioned, managed to get to Brisbane, a City in Queensland 800 miles distant wher they enjoyed their freedom for the period of 10 months. They would have enjoyed it longer, if it had not been for Military issuing more strict Regulation, concerning all enemy subjects in Australia. Those two wher arrested for being Enemy Subjects & interned again. However out of fear of being punished for escaping out of our internement Camp, they adopted a "Nom de plume" name. So those two wher brought back again to our Camp, the Military Authority non the wiser that the two escaped 11 months ago, wher cought & reinterred. Owing the Internees, sending letters of "Complaints" & complaining of our bad reatment, adressed to the Headquarter Staff Melbourne also several to America, but as those letters allways wher embessled by the Camp authoritys, one pris made up his mind to effect an escape, if only to manage to get to the nearest Post Office to drop

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some of the Internees letters, to be shure the letters containing complaints would reach the adresse. The unfortunate however got recaptured previous to same raeching Sydney. So all letters found upon him wher confiscated by the Camp authoritys & destroyed. On rainy days, whe wher permitted remain in Camp, & work wher dispensed with for that day at least. So the Motto "No work, no pay" wher hier also the Rule however the loss of 1 shilling made us wishe it would rain daily. End of May a Internee & his fiance a lady residing in New Zealand decidet to get married, allthough the daily Newspapers had never a good word to say either for a German personally or the "Hun-Race" in General. But owing thos two lovers hawing being enaged previous to the outbreak of the "European upheaval" & the lady knowing the better side of her Fianced German Husband, begged him to marry her, so as to show australia that their wher at least 1 women hier, wich did not beleave in Newspapers fairy tales & Gossip. So she came across the "blue water" to Sydney & engaging their the American Minister of the U.S.A. Church & wendet their way to this Camp wher the Ceremony toke Place. The Wittnesses to the Ceremony wher some of the Military Officers in charge of our Camp. The Camp Comandant granted the "happy couple" a

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few hours to converse, make planes, build castles in the air ectra, when the happy "Bridegroom" had to return to us behind the "Badb Wire" while the happy "Bride had to depart again" for her new home Alone. One June 6th we had our first Church Service in Camp. Owing us hawing been forced by the Military authoritys for such a long & considerable time, to do without the "Gospel" we looked upon this "offer" with contempt & hardly half a dozend Internees patronised same. At the finishe of the "Sermon" the officiating Minister informed us that he wher the "Bishop of Sydney". We in a body than complained, that seemingly the Military Authority had forgotten our existence & left us without Church service of any sort for a period of 10 months, we wher quite willing to wait untill the end of the present crisis, when we would patronise Church again. This Bishop there upon informed us that he wher not to blame, he had done his best for us, wich of course we all beleaved of the Rev. old Gentleman. He told us, that at the commencement of the War he had applied to the Minister of defence for permission to be allowed to come to our Camp to preach the Gospel & hold Service to the Internees, or else to be permitted

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to send a Represantive, also that the Minister of the German Church in Sydney, Pastor Schenk had applied for permission. But their applicaiones had not been granted untill now 9 months later. So ones the case explained & us finding the Church free of all blame we promissed "full patronage" in future wich he allways had. The Church Service wher held in The Thearther. A few days after this memorable Sunday, two Internee while being employed about the Camp, fellt like having done anough "labour" for the 1 shilling pay, so they decidet to hide. When the Guard missed those & the search begann for same, but without avail, however at the "Tea Parade" they wher detected & arrested. On the way to the "lock up" one of the Military Police struck one of the "arrestants". On us seeing this outrage, as it wher done right before our Eyes, made our blood boil, & we complained again in a body. The result of our complaining was, that our choosen Spokesman "Mr Burkhart, a well known Sydney Metal Merchant wher also arrested & placed in he Lock Up. About 1 hour after the "Arrest" we demandet of Capt Griffiths, ll in Comand of our Camp, as Major Sands the head official wher absent to have the Pris. Released. We however wher informed to

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await the return of "Major Sands" As these "Return" wher a "uncertanity" & meanwhile our fellow Internee had to suffer on Water & Bread diet, so we resolved unanimously to enter upon another "Strike" to better our condition. Us knowing that the "Strike breakers" wher no more in our midst, we wher shure of a victorious Result, & we decidet nothing but all our "fair demand" being granted would make us to declare the strike off. This strike wher our salvation & the result that we at least received human treatment for the rest of our Internment. The Strike. On this same Evening we compelled the Company Comanders to lay down their jobs. This wher, to look after their Company containing 100 Internees, that everything wher keept, as the Military demandet, for wich labour they received the honorary salary of 2 shillings per day & being on the constant mowe from 6 a.m. untill 10 p.m. We also decidet to do away with forcible labor & not to work again untill our Orders & Camp Regulationes had been revised by our Commandant. Well in fact we demander to have a human treatment. "Our orders wher anyone found to turn "Blackleg" would be severly dealt with & with force.

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The next day May 15 1915 no one fell in at Working parade. Our strike Committee informed the officer in charge of the working parade of our decission. The Soldiers wher ordered to watch our Camp closely & shoot any one not adhearing to rules. The Cantine, Theater, & all places of Recreation wher again closed instantly. Our Soldier Guard even wher reinforced. Our Huricane lamp, the only lighting issued to us by the Military wher taken away & all our Barracks wher left in darkness. A good saying is "Gitt for tatt". So all Internees employed driving the big Electric Lighting Plant wich lighted the numerous Globes outside our boundary fence, the Soldiers Barracks, & the Offices of the Headquarter building also dropped "tools" & owing no one amingst the Soldiers being capable to attend to the Motor, this wher all left in darkness also. However they made good with the Stable Lamps taken away from us. During the first afternoon the Camp Comandant called the more weathy planters from Singapore into his office, & gawe them his "Word of Honor" that if they managed to break the Strike, he would grant them a site for a separate Camp, away from the working-class Internees. The 800 Ric Internees asked

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for "time to think it over". This wher only as an excuse to get back to Camp, for who ever would hawe dreamt in our midst, to accept the "Word of Honor" from a man as our Camp Comandant had proved to be. They looked upon this offering as a "Swindel". They told us of their conversation with the Major on their return, & told us in a body, if rich or poor, we would stick together, & see some come out of this strike victorious. This gave more hearth to the poorer & working class. At 8 p.m on same day our Committee layd our demands before the Comandant in writing. At first the Comandant would not recognise the "Strike Committee, but would only recognise the Company Comanders. So some of the Company Comanders went before him & wher informed, that owing the position of Company Comander had been giwen to them by him, they had no right to drop their jobs at the Internees request, so he demanded of them to return to their post & to prove loyal. This they however declined to do. So the "Stike" wher in full swing. A "Strike" to do away with the brutal, inhuman treatment, & a demand that we should be recognised as Men, allthough "German" or as they wher usually called hier "The Huns".

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That evening the 3 prisoners, for whose liberty our "Strike" comenced, wher send away, to "Berrima" A old disused Government Jail, wher they wher keept in a dark & damp Cell in the Cellar for 3 weeks only dressed in the Clothes they wore at the moment of their arrest. Their bedding consisted their as I learned of the sufferers lately & of their own Lips of an old Strohsack & 2 threatbare blankets. Allthough they requested of the Authority in charge to forward their clothing, to enable them to dress warm & change their appearals, as they allready feelt Vermin. These request however got allways declined. We wher informed by the Camp Comandant, that in the event us refusing to work the next daiy, only half ration would be issued to us. He would force us with Hunger, to return to our duties. On us hearing of this intention we declared "General Strike" that is; all Internees employed by the Authoritys as "Grooms" for the Officers – Horses The cooks employed to prepare the Soldiers Meals, the Gardeners wich attendet to the lovely layd out Gaeden around the Headquarter Building and around the Fieldhospital ectra. All went on strike with the exception of our Cooks & the Sani-

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tary Workers, however they wher instructed only to attend to the Internment Camp Sanitary & not as previous to the Soldiers Convienience also. The 3rd day of our strike the notice wher issued on the Notice board: "That all orders in future must be carryd out, to any one refusing same the bayonet would be brought into use, to enforce same" if Pris wher not at "Working Parade" by 9 30 am only half rationes would be issued. All work to cease for the period of 2 weeks, all money due to us for labor don to be confiscated: Signed Sands Major. Comandant Germ. Concentration Camp, Holdsworthy, New South Wales, Australia. On us reading this notice we came to the conclussion to look upon it "only as a "Kangaroo Joke". As we wher determined notting short of granting of all our demands would starve or frighten us into submission. Owing us knowing that Pris of War caught on active service could be forced to work by the Government, who held them captives acording to Rules made at the Hague Convention, we told the few Soldiers of the German Imperial force, hardly numbering

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twenty, yo goe to work, if so demandet by the Comandant. However as the Rest of the Internees, wher "Civil Internees" whe could not be forced to work acording Rules made by this sayd "Hague Convention, & we demandet only voluntary labor wich the Military Authority seemingly wher not willing to grant us. The "Pris of War" at that time held by the Australian Government wher a few Marine & fireman of the German Light Cruises "Emden" & "Planet" When Those "Pris of War" fell in on "Working Parade" the next morning they wher dismissed by the Camp Comandant with the words: "You neednt work today, however I will pay you 1 shilling". The Comandant tried all sorts of ways & means, to divide the Camp into two parties but without result. We all stuck together like "Twin brothers" and one helped the other. However we found out that their wher some "Spys" between our Number, seemingly in the "pay" of the Camp authoritys. These "Traitors" allways managed to inform the Major of any intention or results come to by the Strike Committee with the greatest urgency to dispatch. These "underhound" dirty traitors

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managed to report, allthough all ways of communication & means of Converse wher underclose surveilance. Even the "Pillar Box" wher under "constant guard" any letter, send, got first inspected of the Contents by the Internee on Guard. However those Spies managed to do their "Dirty Work & done it well" without ever being detected. One June 16th 1915 On the notice board we read the following notice: "Representation hawe been made that a Number of Pris, would preffer not to work, & theirfore receive no Money, whilst They are confinees under this Command & providing that each & everyone returns to work as usual, I have agreed to dispatch a telegram to the Minister of Defence at Melbourne recomending these suggestion for aproval, wich will be certain of aproval Signed S. Sands Major. Below this, wher posted another note wich read as follows: "Money from the Commonwealth Bank of Australia will be stopped untill further Notice II All coresponde inwards & outwards will be discontinued III Rationes will be reduced comencing tomorrow at Breakfast IV Married

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Men will not be permitted to see their Wives Signed R.S. Sands. Major. We looked also upon these Noticesm as a clever "dudge", by the sayd "Gentleman" as our Comandant had proved to be to split our Camp into two parties. During that afternoon 20 new pris arrived from Sydney. These wher not quartered in our Camp on arrival put put into tents near the hospital. As they told us afterwards, they wher informed that our Camp wher under "Quarantine" owing a infections desease. I never know of a strike being infectious or else the whole "Colony of Australiasior" would be under constant Quarantine, as their has been nothing else but "Strikes" amomgst the Working Class & their Employers. During the strike our food rationes consisted of two 4 lb loafs of bread. Coffee only for breakfast. Any other times we had received a Warm Breakfast. Dinner ½ the ration of Meat & ½ the ration of Potatoes. For Evenings Meal we only received Tea – Water. Owing our food being of a very scanty nature at any time, I must honestly say, I never will forget these days of "Hunger" in our Camp. The active Soldiers

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interned went to work daily. Anything they wished to procure from the Cantine they could do so. These wher only done to cause illfeelings amongst us as many a pris run short on tobaco or cigarettes. Every eveing all "tea leaves" found in the Tea Pots wher taken charge off, by the Internees, to be dried so as to enable them to hawe a "Smoke". One morning a Notice wher issued to us to pack all our belongongs. The Clothing issued to us by the Government not includet. All luggage to be placed in front of our Messes wher it would be taken Charge of by the authority. The Soldiers would be ordered to carry same to the Ordenance Store. We of course obeyed these Instructions, the Soldiers however refused to carry out their "Order" giwen them by their superior Officers. Of course it would hawe been no easy taske to carry all personal belongings & effects stowed in Trunks Bags Boxes & Satchels belonging to close on 2000 Internees. These luggage remained in front of our Barracks during the whole day, at Night of course we carried same into our compartments. Our Strike Committee demandet allmost daily, to grant

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the Internees allmost daily. The only answer they received however wher, for all of us to return to work, only than would He be willing to despatch a telegram to the Minister of Defence, to see if same would be accepted. Our Committee however wher not satisfied with "promisses" of any sort, but demandet it in Writing wich however the Comandant refused to give. Owing our Cooks being also employed daily, they applied for permission, to enable them to procure tobaco or cigarettes from the Cantine. These priveledge however also wher refused by the Comandant, seemingly with the Idea, they would cease cooking for us "Strikers". If same should hawe calculated on this, he made however a grave mistake, for every Cook "stuck to his Gun & Stew Pott". During one evening the Strike Committee also the Austrian Officials wher called before the Major, wich begged of them, to turn the Strike in to his favor, under His Promise that he would do his best to get voluntary labor granted us by The Minister of Defence. On us Internee being informed of this, we called a Meeting in Secret at wich it wher decidet, that nothing else, but a guarantee in Writing would suffice

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no Word of Nonor could be axceptable from a "Schuft" as our Comandant had proved to be. During the following days, the food Rationes wher that scarce, that on several ocassion only 200 Internees had to depart without their Meat Rationes.

About a week after the comencement of the Strike a Notice wher issued to us, To voluntar for Work. No doubt he thought 1 week starvation Rationes would suffice to starve us into submission. All though we all wher no doubt hung up, however we wher prepared to face, if need must be another week or more, previous to us going back to forced Labor. As "Voluntary Labor" when one of our "Main Points" for wich we struck. Becourse we know, we wher in our Rights, as no Government can compell a "Civil Internee" to "Forced Labor" This Contract has been signed by Germany as well as Great Britain, at the special Tribunal called at the "Hague" on 18 November 1907. Owing the Major allways being informed of our Intentions & Resolutiones, we decidet to sett out Watches of Internees, to be on duty 2 hours daily as mentioned previously

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We found out the way & means of the Comandant & his Spies but never the Spy himself. We raidet the Pillar box on one ocassion, wich hung near the Gate for Letters to be dropped in for despatch. Herin we found a letter adressed to the Major, on us opening same, we found same contain a note written in "very good english" stating all our doings during the day also our future planes. That’s why we stationed special sentry at the Pillar Box for all letters dropped in same to be handet for perusal to the Sentery. This put a stop to the "communication" as the "spies" wher not game to bring a letter forward wich would not stand Inspection. So the Comandant lost one good allthough "dirty" service. The day following the following Notice appeared on the Notice board. I hawe heard several Pris do not intend to work & so forfeit their weekly payment of 7 shillings. Owing my "Word of Honor" has been refused, I hawe notice from the Melbourne Head Departement, to grant your request. So as to enable those willing to work, I have issued Orders, that the gates of the Paradegraound shall be opened after dinner, to enable all internees to report to work. All other Requests

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which led to this strike to be declared void. Signed R.S. Sands Major. The Major demandet of us to report to work, while we demandet "Voluntary Labor". The Spies reported to the Major that we wher not enclined to report to work on the afternoon as nothing but the granting of all our Requests would subdue us. So the Major called a well to do Gentleman, Mr Tenfert, the General Director of the New Guinea Company, Headquarters Rabaul to his Office. On his return he informed us his interview had been of a solely private nature, but previous to him departing from the Office, the Comandant had complained to him regarding our behaviour & the treatment we had meted out to him, also that Mr Tenfert should do his best, to get the Camp to listen to his proposals. To wich Mr Tenfert replied: No Internee will return to work untill voluntary work has been promised in writing. He also told us he would try his best to get the Written Promisse of the Major. So we left everything in his hands, as we wher getting "sick". Our stomach wher troubling us daily with pangs of Hunger, everywher we looked, we seen Soldiers standing with Rifle

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fully loaded & Bayonets fixed. The next day the Major issued a Notice to us, to fall in on the Paradeground the next morning in Company form. (100 men) in a line out of wich he would pick out 5 men for compulsory work. These wher necessary for him to do, to uphold his authority in the gaze of his inferior officers. To this Request we subdued. On him hawing picked out 5 Internees, we returned to Camp. This allmost endet our strike. Same hawing lasted 9 days. During afternoon we had our Jam Rationes issued also our Lamps wher returned to us. The Cantine got opened. Their wher a Rushe, as everyone wher short of tobacco, also to buy the necessary aditional Food.. Also our Recreation wher permitted to continue. During Evening the Strike Committee wher called to the Majors Office with regards of our Requests, put in at the comencement of strike. The next day our Notice board contained the following Notice I Voluntary Work & all requests granted, the rules for same shall be issued by me in due course. IITreatment The Guard has orders not to pass any insulting remarks, to pris of War. The enforcement of labor has been dropped, owing work in future to be Voluntary. III To save disputes arising

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Pris are requested not to converse with Guard or Sentry IV Sentences for less serious offences, the Pris will be noticed & the Comandant will punish same, as he thinks fitt. By more serious offences the Pris. must be arrested. However the Pris shall be sentenced by me or my representative with as much urgency as possible. V The Lock Up to be made more inhabitable. Floring shall be layd in same also walls build. The "arrest" shall not be detremental to the health of any confinee. However I do not warrant that "Arest" shall be a place for recreation. VI Police or Guards shall in future not take the Law into their own hands. Any complaints of these sort, will receive a urgent enquiry. VII Medical Attentance I cannot promise at present however garantee the visit of a Medical Doctor shall be at least twice per week. Meyer, Hospital Sergeant will mend wounds in future & not wound men. VIII The Canteen: Prices will be ones more revised, to fully gone into the outlay & income & prices made acordingly. The Canteen shall also be enlarged. IX Newspapers: Six Weeks old Newspapers will be sold in future at the Cantine. The price to be 1 d. each.

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X Provission. Rationes per day & per man shall be as follows. Meat 1 ½ lb Potatoes 1 lb. Vegetables ½ lb Sugar 3 ounces Jam 4 ounces. Salt Meat 1 lb per week. Coffee & Tea as required. XI Provision delivery. One Company Comander & 1 man to be present at the giving out of provisiones & will be freed from "Appell" if needet. XII Fat shall be the prooperty of the Camp in future. These can be sold. The proceeds of sale between the Camp & the Cooks theirin. XIII Jam & Bread Rationes: The now delivered tins are Armee-Service Tins of 2 lb in weight & will be issued 1 tin to each Confonee every 8 day. Every loave of Bread weighs 4 lb & 2 extra loaves will be issued to each Company. XIV Bank deduction, to be as before, in the interesse of the Pris to enable them to hawe ready cashe in hand, when liberated. XV The presentation of tobaco, matches, soap ectra to Invalids in Camp will receive further consideration, & the finding of the enquiry will be reported in due course. XVI Letters written in German language adressed outside the Commonwealth is only permitted ones per month. XVII Gambling is prohibited. The Police

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has the right to confiscate any money found on any gambling table. The money so confiscated shall be used in the interess of the Camp health or Recreation, as I think fitt. XVIII Complaints can be made by the Prisoner at any time. The Comandant is also willing to receive same in writing. XIX Re No 1. Voluntary Work. No Work no Pay. Any one voluntaring for work must bind himself for at least a Period of fourteen day. The Names will be taken by the Company Comander every 1 & 3 Sunday resp. in the Calender Month. One shilling will be payd for 4 hours work daily. Work shall be six days per week. If any prisoner wishes to work on Sundays, he will hawe to report to the Officer in Charge of the Work. The pay of 7s/6p shall be payd. ones per fortnight. Six pence has been deducted for Cooks pay employed in the Pris. Kitchen & the remaining 4 shillings, to put into a Bank sett apart for pris. credit, to be drawn on his release out of Internement.


[Page 162]

Hurrah: Now our future must be bright. No more starvation. No more bayonet, to spurr us on to work. Now we didn’t care if the War ended tomorrow or next month. The Strike wher hardly passed when we finished our New Theather. So on June 26th 1915 the Internees handet same over to the three Clubs. The Song-Club, the Orchester & the German Dramatish Verein. Owing in the old Recreation Tents hardly hawing Room for 100 Persones, without shure shelter of wind & rain. We had experience that this wher to smal for the patronage Nightly. So in our New Hall their wher seating acomodation for 360 Persones. The Stage wher much bigger, also Rooms for the Artist to dress in. With regards of our present Orchester I wishe to state. Untill May 1915 our Music Orchester only consisted of a Piano & a Violin. However Ende of this Month a new batch wher interned amongst those being some proffessional Musical Talent. These with some "Diletanten" soon made a good Orchester. The best Theather in Sydney could not boast of a better Orchester.

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At the comencement the Orchester howed 9 Instruments, this however enlarged soon to 20 Instruments. July 26 we decidet to have another strike: The reason for this wher the following: It hawing come to our Ears that those arrested on day of former strike named Steinborn, Cussirke, Papot & Weuzel wher being kept under the most horible & inhuman condition in a cellar, at the old disused Berrima Jail: Also that no change of clothing had been issued to them since they wher arrested. To compell the Major to return those unfortunate, innocent suffers to our midst we decidet on this day, that unless our request wher granted "to drop tools" wich we dit. As our discipline wher "sharpened" again and Soldiers stationed all around our fence, our Strike Committee, informed us, to be very carefull owing the Guard hawing strict "Orders" to shoot at the least sign of Unrest & to shoot, to kill. With this Order, the Soldiers done their best to irretate us prisoners so, as to hawe a chance to empty their Rifle amongst us defenceless pris. The Guard in those days wher "Soldiers? & Heroes. They had

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too much sense to volunteer for active Service" at the Front. However with the Class of our soldier Guard I deal later. Owing a Soldier calling one of us Internees the must objectionable Names on the memoryable morning of, I think, July 27th, this Internee demandet of the soldiers to cease, calling him a "Bloody Dutch Barstard" While they both remonstrated together, Captain Griffiths II in command happened to pass, & enquired the reason of the argument. The soldier of course painted the Storey all in his favor, with the aid of a good invented lie. So Lieut Griffiths ordered the Internee to stand, also told the Gurad to "keep him covered and shot, if he moves". So the Lieutenant left to call the Military Police to goe inside the camp & effect the arrest of the Culprit. While the Soldier keept the Internee covered, some one inside of the Barracks near by advised the Pris to, jump inside & clear out. The advice wher hardly given, when the Pris jumped inside of the Barrack. At desame time a shot fell, send by the Soldier wich had keept him covered. The shor however missed his mark, but while

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travelling right across our Camp, the bullet struck a Internee by the name of Arnolt, The Victim collapsed imidiately shot through the breast. Whe carryed him to the Camp Gates with the urgenest despatch, to see if the Medical Staff could save his life. He died however in our hands at the Gates. So another young life wher wasted. A lad about 24 yeahrs of age. Their has been a sort of an "enquiry" held hier, however who would hope, that a pris gets fair deal, or justice, while interned. So the Verdict given by the Corner wher the following "That Arndt died through the effect of a Bullet wound, inflicted by Private –-- while carrying out the discharge of his duty". We being behind the Barb wire, had to be satisfied with the finding of the Court, however we resolved to do our best, to see to it, that Germany would ones more demand an enquirey, wher both sides will hawe a fair hearing. Wher we will than prove, the private to be guilty of cold blooted Murder, through the following out of the Order given him by his superior Officer Captain Griffiths. The Corpse of the Victim being buried July 31.

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The officiating Minister being Pastor Schenk of the Germ. Church in Sydney. During the Evening we had a service in "memory" of the Victim in the Theather. The Strike endet on August 2 1915. We again came out victorious in some of our demands. The unfortunate Pris. at Berrima had their personal effects forwardet on to them, also us Internees receiving a forged Letter, supossed to be written by Steinbohn, Berrima Jail telling us, that he wher treated well & had everything we desolved to return to our ussual Camplife. With the end of this strike whe had peace in our Camp. Owing the Camp hawing granted permission, by the Comandant to run same on decant & proper lines, by ourself we formed a Committee wich duty it whas, to see justice & fair deal for both sides. This Committee consisted out of 1 Representative for each Company – or Barrack, whose duty it wher to see to everything needet in his company. These Representatives wher choosen by the Internees themselves under the Leadership of a President with the aid of a Secretary choosen by the Pris in General. Now we had our own Committee under the able & just Leadership of Mr Burkhardt wich retained this position untill Febr. 1916. so we lived under much improved condition

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a bearable & at least a honorable Internment. The first work this Committee done to clare the Kitchen of some of the lacy Coorks, who instead of doing their best with the ration issued to us, done the reverse so as to save labor. Now we got sometimes also Roast Mutton or Roost Beef, wich up till than we only remembered by name, also the quality & quantity had improved.

August 15th 1915 about 250 Internees mostly of the "better class" wher transferred to Trial Bay, a smal harbour laying in a northerly direction from Sydney on the Tasman-Sea. Heer the Authority had seen fitt to empty a Penetinianary & make in furure a Pris of War Camp out of same. Of course it wher hard for us to part, as we had been living through life of Hell together, we expected to be also together now our treatment had improved a great extent. However as Orders must be obeyed, we sadly seen them depart under a "heavy guard" bound for the Railway Station 4 miles distant. These Room however got soon ocupied again for on August 19 about 350 Internees arrived from Adelaide, South Australia & the next day 320 more from Melbourne, Victoria. On the 23 August 160 more from Brisbane – Queensland. So all German Internees

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with the exception of those at Trial Bay, & some of the Ships Officers at Berrima in the one Camp. The German Consentration Camp of Australia The Pris of War "Females" wher stationed at Bourke about 800 miles in the Interior. On August 28th 1915 another batch of Internees arrived from Colombo (Ceylon) Amongst those wher about 40 Seaman of Germ. Light Cruiser H.M.S. Emden, wich had been on board of this gallant little ship during the fight with the Australian Battle Cruiser Sydney; and owing the most having suffered heavy casuality, they had been at Colombo under Medical treatment. Several Invalids & Cripples wher amongst those, all younf fellows & in the Prime of Life. When the Batch arrived it wher to our appearance, as if their wher "Females" amongst those Internees. We could distinguish Skirts for certain, so we all wher twice as happy, for having ladys in your midst, allways cheers a downhearthed Fellow up. When they got close to our fence, their wher many a Internee singing out "Why, there are women amongst them" and shurly it looked

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like it; We would not trust our eyes. We thought shurley they are Women – but this wher impossible for a Government to permitt half a dozend women, to Camp amonst 3000 Male Internees even for one hour. And this wher right for the Persones in Skirts, proved to be German Male Prisoners however "Budhist" by religion. Their Appearal looked like Womens Clothing in all collors of the Rainbow, mostly Yellow & broune. Gratula Germania! Fancy Germanes allthough Buddhist & Bramaishe Priests going about in such a Waering appearal. However as I know nothing about their Religion, nor Custom, I leave it to themselves, to know what suits them best. They are Men & capable to judge for theirself. As soon as the Emden heroes entered through the big Camp Gate, we received them with a "Hurrah" wich no doubt could be heard for Miles. Owing their being several Invalids & Cripples amongst those The Committee arranged to give them a benefitt the gross proceeds to be devidet amongst them during their hour of need & to make their burden

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as light in the Camp, as wher permissable. So on Sept 2nd 1915 this benefit toke place in our Thearther & realised about £125 in one Night. These sume wher dividet amongst 16 woundet & Invalides of H.M.S. Emden. The first few rows in the Theather the Pris payd willingly £2.10 & a few Seats at the last Bench realized "after american auction £11.6.6. The Programme wich got auctionered after the same style brought £13.10. The result of the sale of Coffee and in Camp manufacured Cakes addet another £6. These wher a shure sign that Germanes allways are willing to asist in the best of their ability, in case of need. I do not wishe the Readers to think that we all had a banking acount so could well afford to help. No. Allthough I give the wealthy all their Credit due, for they helped in a great Majority that the takings wher so high. However I also thank the Working Class wich brought all their hard earned shillings to the Ticketbox & so assisted to the best of their ability in the Susccess. These Evening of the Benefits" will be a "memory" to live in my Memmory for

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ever. October 24th the first Bulgarians wher interned in Australia. Those amounted to two. When they entered the Camp Gates we received our Allies with Music issued by our Camp-Band. We also presented them with a Bunch of Flowers. We also collected a sume of money, as those two belomged to the Working Class, and wher arrested from their work, at the Railway cutting close to Picton. N.S.W. So they had no reody cashe. The money wich had been collected for them, wher very much apreciated by both. Some Internees also presented them with a "Bunk" so they need not sleep on the floor the first few nights in the G.C.C. As seemingly the donors had had the experience, that for a toiler to sleep on a hard wooden floor, wher no bed of Roses. So we nearde towards the Xmass hollidays. Of course we all wished we could spend those days at liberty, however we wher compelled to make the best of a bad job. Soldiers of Australia: I wishe to pass a few remarks about the average Soldier wich wher stationed at our

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Camp to guard us Internees. Australia never has be a country wich could boast of a force of any sort. So when War wher proclaimed by Great Britain on Germany on that memorable August month 1914 Australia offered her Navy consisting of Cruiser 8 torpedoboat destroyers & 2 submarine to the Mother Country, also a division of 20 000 volunters. Owing the majority of the public being of the opinion that this War could not be for longer than six months, with Germany beaten, Volunteres rushed the recruiting Office in such a quantity that in lest than 2 Weeks the Military Office had this total of volunters & more. So it started to raise a II & III division. Owing the most young men thinking of having a trip abroad & see something of the world, at the Governments expence ecpecially as they mostly all wher of opinion to releave the Imperial armee in India & Egypt they segruply went mad at "Preying Soldiers" Yes I even hawe heard a Soldier the evening of his departure saying to his friends as farewell message. I am not going to fight, I am going to raid: I can

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name this soldier & station it happened. He left with the first Battalion from Keswick S.A. However I do not attempt to tar all Australian with the same Brushe. Their wher some good fellows amongst them, especially in the III Division, when mostly all Employers dissmissed all labor of Military Age withoutout dependants. However wher IV Division wher send the Public beginn to wake up owing the Labor shortage & turned the Compulsory Service Reffeerendum abroad down with a big majority. The big Casuality List & the Failure of Gallipoli wher mostly Australianes wher fighting told the Population the truth of modern warfare. So the Soldiers keept for "home defence" wher, at the commencement mostly mer Boys & inexperienced in any soldiers drill. No doubt some had two weeks "drill" previous them getting their uniform, some never had a day drill. Of course now & again their wher a "typical soldier" to be found amongst the guard, but this wher seldom. They seemed to play and take soldiering in a jocular manner. So shots

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wher fired allmost nightly. The reasones of it we Internees never got to know, only on 3 ocassion we seen two dead cows & 1 horse laying close to our Barb Wirefence, wich had not been their the night previous. So I have heard it of the Military Police during morning parade, that 1 of the Night Sentry thinking, their wher Internees, trying to escape & on him cdalling out "halt" but this objects still keept mowing, he fired, only to find out after, it had been a harmless domestic Animal wich had come close to our boundary fence, owing their being good growing ground. After every time a shot got fired "the well known Cry "Guard turn out" wher heard; Than wher a helter & skelter from the Guardhouse towards the direction from wher the shot got fired. I hawe seen soldiers at nighttime in all sorts of wearing apperal. Owing those being permitted to sleep wich had "Guardhouse duty" the Public can "gues" owing the time being urgent the most never take the trouble to dress. Knowing that 99% wher a "false Alarm" & they wher able in most cases to return without loose

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much time & of course their "bunk" wher the best place in Camp. While falling in one Night, after a "false Alarm" being fired a Soldier run his Bayonet into another soldiers shoulder. The treatment, they received of the hands of their Superior Officers" at the comencement of the Camp left much to be desired off. So the Soldiers escaping wher a comon ocurence. On Nov 8th 1914 Twenty One Soldiers escaped on the next two more. However one of the later got shot at & woundet by one of the Sentry. On December 16th 1914. When the releaving Guard went around at 10 p.m. to releave the Guard. The Sergeant in Charge found the Sentery at the Main Entrance missing. The Search Partie wich had been prdered out found him in the Mallee Bush nearby hawing in his Arms & cuddling a "Soldiers Sweathearth" in loving Soldiers Embraces. On December 17th 1914 A Soldier knooked his superior Officer, Lieutenant Eaton about for wich he wher arrested & punished with 5 days arrest. The Soldiers used to buy Civilian Clothes from us Internees to effect their escape. Owing the "Soldier Guard" stationed at our Camp

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being issued only one Uniform, it wher a treat to see them on washing day. They either run about allmost naked or dressed in Civilian attire untill their Iniform wher dried by the hot Australian Sun. During the many escapees of Soldiers, I only know of 1 Soldier being recaptured. He wher under arest in the Soldiers Lockup for 5 days, when he wher sentenced by a Military tribunal to 14 days Jail & 60 days "No pay". I have seen one soldier stationed at the hospital, laying on the Ground fast asleep minus his rifle, wich had been taken away from him in a jocular way by another soldier. I seldom heard of any soldier being fined or sentenced, for Neglect "of duty". I also hawe seen Soldiers & Pris on their way to & from Work, goe into the Vinegarden at the Farm close by & help themselves to the Grapes growing their, without ever being censored in any way by their superior Officers. One morning two Austriane Internees wich wher employed at the "Cinerator" to burn all rubbish, & had allways worked without a Guard, wher seen by a "Recruit". Wich thinking those two being "Escapees" fired a shot at 200 yards distant, the bullet striking the

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ground close by. He than run up towards them and when within 150 yards fired another shot. Wich also luckely went weit of its mark. Owing Lt Hurden being also close vicinity, he ordered the Soldier to cease firing. The Soldiers also wher very careless to handle "Firearms" between themselves. So one morning while cleaning his Rifle ready for inspection a Soldiers Rifle discharged. The Bullet luckely went through the brim of the Light Horse Hat of a Soldier, standing close by. The well known & much discussed Sergeany Meyer, on seeing a Goat one day close to our Barb Wire fired 16 shots at this defenceless animal, out of Browning Revolver.However managed only to "crack" the front Leg. This poor animal wher left limping away with the support of 3 legs only. During ende of November 1915 when another big Batch of Internees arrived from Rottnest Island, Western Australia, those consisting mostly of "Austrian Subjects". Their Luggage arrived the next day, but remained in the Soldiers Camp for two full days, in the Open only covered with a tarparulin at night

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when the Owners wher requested to carry same into the Concentration Camp 60% of the Trunks had been forcibly opened, & money, the total sume amounting to over £4 000 and all jewellery missing. Our Camp Committee protestet about this Robbery to the Comandant Major Sands without getting a satisfaction of any sort. Major Sands excused himself, that their wher no evidence if the Luggage had been robbed on board ship, by Stevedores in Sydney, on train journey to Liverpool, on Road to this Camp or while in the Soldiers Camp, so he wher powerless to do anything. When the American Consul arrived at our camp shortly afterwards, The Consul name being Mr Britain Consul of Sydney the Committee put the Case before him, & he viewed himself about fifty broken Trunks, wher the Locks had been forced, also toke a list of each & every one of Luggage, Property & Money missing to forward to Head Quarters Melbourne as a Protest & owing the Luggage being in Military hands during transit, the Loosers hold the Australian Military responsible for all Loss. The result of

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these complaint has never been made known to any Committee or Internee of this Camp. Allthough the President had enquired on several occasion for the result of this Complaint, however Mr Burkhart wher allways informed, that he had had no reply up till now. And at the time of writing this out of my "diary" keept daily December 1916 their has been no result of this complaint nor any loss refundet. Any "fines" issued as penalty wher deducted out of wages, after the Internee had signed for full amount due to him. I wishe to give the Public information of, clothing issued to us during our arrest. The first 12 months 2 suits dunfarees 2 pair of Hob nailed Boots 1 Cap 1 linnen hat 3 shirts the second yeahr desame. Soap never wher issued, but ones during the first 12 months. Socks or underwear wher never issued to us. So to see this wearing appearal being used, a Internee only wher able to see those precious warm article on the body of the "better Class", wich had a Banking account to their Credit in the Government Savings Bank of Australia. So fully 80% wher allways bar-

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footed & minus their underclothing. The Escapes & the consequences. A few days after the Melbourne transport had arrived hier in our camp, one of this transport by name of Meyer managed to effect this escape, on an unknown Road. He enjoyed his freedom for the period of 4 months when he wher recaptured working for a Farmer close to Albury & returned to Camp, wher he wher put into the Lockup & awaited the trial. In the Lockup he remained for the period of 6 weeks when he wher sentenced by a tribunal, consisting wholy of Military Officers to 9 months imprisonment with hard labor. Shortely after another Internee named Andree effected his escape while working in the "Bushe party". He also wher recaptured & put in the Lockup wher he remained for the Period of 10 weeks. Owing it getting to the Comittees ear, that Andree wher going nearly made in the Lockup it seen fitt to send a petition around the Camp for signature for the release of Andree. This wher signed by over 4 000 Internees & with this the President pf our Committee seen the Major begging him to release Andree, that owing Andree hawing being in the Lock Up for

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the period than of 8 weeks, & so punished allready for his Escape. However this wher refused. During the time Andree wher awaiting his trial & no sign of same taking place, so Andree decidet to gain liberty by force. Managing to make a kind of Rasp out of an old table knife, he filed the chain of the cell door through, & holding both links in one hand & Pepper & salt in the other, he called the Sentry on duty to the door, when near & the sentry thinking him to be safe locked up, the door flew wide open, & Andree threw the contents of Pepper & Salt in his Eyes & run in the direction of the Soldiers Barracks. Owing the Guard crying out for pain, the Sentery of the Bridge of the Headquarter building fired a shot. On hearing the report of a Rifle shot, the most of the Guard wich wher in their Recreation Hall enjoying a Concert

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this being on a Saturday Night, they rushed up & found the Soldier laying on the Ground, screaming, his Gun in front of the Lock Up Door, wich wher weide open. When the Officer in Charge of the Sentry had heard the Storey & visited the Lock Up, he of course found Andree missing. Owing the suffering Soldier being taken to the Hospital for treatment, the Officer put another Sentry in his place. These Soldier hardly stood on his "beat" 5 minutes, when also he fell in a faint & they had to carry him on the stretcher to the Hospital. On us hearing of Andrees escape we wished him good luck. About a week after this episode, whe found out 3 more Internees had effected their escape in broad daylight under the most extraordinary circumstances. These wher the following. These Internees while planning their escape cut up a Military Overcoat from one of the "Queensland Internees" wich they had brought & made a imitation Australian Military Uniform. So, one of the Pris, a young Chap wich spoke well english dressed one after

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noon in this uniform. One of his mates toke a wheelbarrow in wich they had put some of the article needet on way to reach Sydney while the other toke a shovel. So, making a party wich looked as if they wher working under a Guard, they wendet their way through the Main Road of our Camp towards the Main Gate opposide the Headquarter building, the Main entrance to our Camp. When they arrived at the Gate, the one dressed in Uniform, sayd to the sentry wich wher stationed their day & night "Right you are Sentry, open the Gate". The Sentery thinking them belong to the Working Party opened the Gate & let them through. So they wendet their way towards the Bush in the direction, pass the Hospital, & ones in the Bush the one dressed in Uniform undressed & put on his Civilian Suit wich wher amongst the Contents in the wheelbarrow, than the 3 made for Sydney 20 miles away as fast as they could get their wher they parted. However 2 days after while at the Sydney

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Railway Station awaiting the departure of the Queensland Express, one of the Partie H. Zollner, noticed by one of the Guards from this Camp on furlough in Sydney. This Guard reportet it to the Police stationed at the Railway Station wich arrested & send back. About 2 weeks after the Police cought the other "Wishelhous" in a Sydney Office, so also he came back, however the III Internee never got cought. We heard he had managed to get out of Australia, on board a Dutch Steamer bound for Java. Those two wher put in a special Compund, generally called hier "Singh-Singh" a horrible place to be in, a place I give more details over later. The saying his "leave the Birdcage open & the Bird will fly out". These wher also the Rule in the Germ C.C. The least chance to escape with out being fired upon, would be noticed & hardly a Night had gone when some one would be missing. So during the alteration on our Canteen 3 Pris seen a good chance to effect their liberty. So one Rainy Night when a Sentry generally is careless in guarding

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those three went through the hohle in the Barb wire fence & wendet their way to Liverpool, to catch the first train for Sydney the next morning. These wher a foolishe idea. Especially as the Australian Imperial Camp wher right close to the Railway Station. These Station wher under constant Guard of the Military Police. When these seen two persones at the Plattform with German faces one police started a Conversation with one of them & on hearing the foreign dialect they wher arrested and put into the Police Lock up awaiting the Camp authority to identify same. When the Police in Liverpool rung up the Headquarters Office at our Camp, they of course also know noth`ing of the escape. However they send a Lieutenant & Guard to Liverpool wich brought them back & they also wher put into Singh-Singh. These being a special compound errected for safekeeping, These wher a place about 50 yds aquare, & on each Corner placed a Sentery wich used to meet in the Middle of the Outside fence

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around this space wher a strong treble fence out of Barb Wire with Wire entanglements between each fence. To this wher empty Kerosine tines hung, containing a few smal stones. In case anyone trying to escape, & only touched one of the wires, those tins would make a noise & so the culprit at ones detetected. The Housing acomodation wher old & rotten Military Tents, full of Holes. So if it wher raining the water would leak through, their wher no floring boards in same. The cooking, they had to effect on open fire places, the wood for same got carted right into this compound. No Sentry or Internee wher permitted to speak to them. All personal effects wher taken away from them. No reading, smoking ectra permitted. The Sentry had strict Instructiones to shoot any one coming within 6 feet of the fence & to shoot to kill. The washing acomodation wher an open shower bath, very deterimental to a persones health in cold weather. So the Committee toke a pitty & forwardet the following application to the Camp Comandant

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We hawe been orered to forward to you the following Becourse the Pris of War Zöller, Prokora, Norkner, Bach. Von Höller and Weshelhous hawe been interned in the special Compound. The Camp has given us orders to enquire, if this has been the Sentence of the Court, wich has had the Power to investigate their Cases, or not. Also if you still think to uphold your version of the special Compound, as stated in your letter datet February 22nd 1916 directed to the American Consul Sydney, that the life of Pris of War in this special compound, shall be like a nightmare tothem, so badly shall be their treatment. We wishe to inform you that our "Rules" given by the Staate Governor shall only be givenby the "Visitor" after a enquirey by a Court, sett apart for this purpose. We wishe also to inform you, that it is our intentiones to report to the Minister of Defence through the American Consul general of Sydney (Mr Britain) that the Pris of these special Compound hawe been robbed of all their priveledges like smoking, reading, writing receiving mails parcels ectra. We beg of you to honor us with a

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written answer. Enclosed you will find a Copy wich we beg of you to forward on to the "Visitor" another copy we hawe forwardet to the American Consul Mr Britain. Signed The Comittee
E Mounies F. Schröder
President Secretary

These wher never answered, however it had the effect that 1 tent got a Wwooden Floor, also that we could send them some Reading Material & some tobacco. During April 1916 we wher surprised to see the escapee Andree being brought back to Headquarters under strong Guard, handcuffed Hand behind his back & Leg Irones on. Him hawing been recaptured near Bourke 800 miles away from hier right in the Hearth of Australior. A place more like a dessert than land fitt habituations. After being photographed with Leg Irones on, legs well apart he also wher put into the special compound. April 12 there wher a small tribunal sitting wich only dealt with the escapee H Zöller, the one wich had pushed the Wheelbarrow. The next day our Notice Board

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contained the following Notice April 12th 1916

Carl Zöller has been sentenced to imprisonement with hard labor, for a term of ten (10) months, for comitting the offence of escaping from this Camp. This should serve as a warnning to others, as perhaps a more stringent punishment will be imposed in the future for such breaches of my comands.
L. S. Sands
Lieut. Colonel

On May the iiird 1916 Whe seen another batch of High Australian Officers under the Leadership of Brigadier-General Ronnocottie, The Head Officer of the N.S.W. Imperial Force arriving. The trial of the other Escapees toke place on same day. The next day our Notice board contained the following Notice

G.C.C. Australia Liverpool N.S.W. May 4th 1916


Pris of War are herby notyfied that the following sentences wher imposed by Military Court on several of their fellow Prisoners, who wher

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convicted of escaping from the Camp. Andree W. 10 months hard labor Zoller H. 10 months Herkner F.H. 5 months, mPokora S.E.L. 5 months Wivhelhous H. 5 months Bach J.A.F/

Griffiths Captain
II in Comand G.C.C.

Now this sentences has been right against the Rules of the "Hague Convention" I will state the Rules to leave the Public to judge. Of course allthough I hawe tried to find any extra Rules, their might hawe been made with regards of Civil Internees however uptill the present I hawe been unable to find any. So I am under the beleave, that Interneed Civilians are coming under the Rules of Pris of War. However we Internees wher left totally in the dark with regards of Rules made at "Hague Convention" however Rules made in Australia they wher pasted full on the Noticeboard. The full Rules I state further in my Book.

[Page 191]

Attachment to Bungardy’s diary.

[Page 192]

22/1 1917. Ill treatment of a Internee while in the Lockup at the G.C.C. Internee Name Kruger, late of Brisbane. Dr Major Wally made the examination Capt Sampson was the Medical Doctor at the Hospital. A Soldier named Gietz Orderly. The Charge of arest was Asult in Camp against Police Private Clofford. I wher acused of hawing hit at him with Handcuffs. A Lieutenant ordered me in the lockup & advised to quiten me. If I wouldn’t bequite to knock my head off. When I had been a quarter of an hour in the Isolation Cell 5 Police came in. I recognised Corp. Chessier Corp Foote one nicknamed "Swede" one nicknamed "Tiny or lonf Tom" The later kicked me in my stomach & I fell in pain. Chessier than ordered to handcuff me, also put leg irons on. Than I got gagged with the aid of a Broom handle. During the Gagging process, I forfeited 3 front teeths. When I lay helpless all 5 Police asulted me with Hand & Feet. After about 20 minutes immercifull beating, they left me senseless on the ground of the Cell. When I came to my senses, I wher nearly suffocating on account of the "Gagg". After some time I managed by rubbing the face against the wall, to disclose the Gag. Their upon I kicked up a noise, to come & undo my fetters. The Police came in & when seen I had shifted the Gag they rebound same & I had to go through another immerciffull kicking & beating. During this process, I received a severe kick of Chessier in the stomach saying "I have no more to do with this F. Bastard" & walked out. I remained when the other Police had been called outside in this Cell

[Page 193]

without any assistance on Water & Bread for 5 days. When the bruises had disappered of my body, I wher taken to the hospital & admitted suffering with severe lung trouble, on acount of my Rips hawing being pressed upon the lungs, during my ill treatment. In the hospital, I remained 6 months. Am still weak & never able to do strenious manual work anymore, on acount of my ill traetment. I hawe made several Complaints to Comandant Hollman & Major Allsopp, concerning my ill treatment, without any notice being taken, Major Allsopp informing me verbal "If you received this punishment, you must hawe deserved it". In the Hospital Records Book, I am recorded "Suffering with Lung trouble".

[Page 195a]

Recomplaint of irregular clothing & boots suply to Internees following reply wqher received by the Camp President: four letter of the 5th inst inviting attention to the inability to secure boots & clothing has been duly received. On investigation I find that certain amount of irritation has been caused owing to the fact that large sizes wher not available when required and allthough this would naturaly cause a temperoray inconvinience, the climate condition are so favorable, that no serious hardship would result. Arangements hawe been made to lelieve the pressure & it is anticipated that providet no aforeseen circumstances arise the usual periodical issue of this article will be regularily carried out Signed Holman.

During March the following letters wher forwardet to the Visitor Justice Harvey & the Consul General for Sweden Von Gves: Sir the undersigned Company comanders the present Camp Representation, beg to report to you the following complaints wich hawe often been voiced to those responsible for the wellfare of the Civilian Internees in Australia without altering much the condition giving causes for these complaints (I) There is still no proper supply of clothing boots, trousers, jackets & overcoats. Never at anytime since the existence of this Camp 3½ years, has their been such "insufficient" state of affairs as far as quility & quantityof all articles. Certain men hawe been putt off at every issue for want of at every issue for want of filling sizes, some are waiting for more than 12 months for the issue due to them. Never a single company of Internees can be supplied at the same time with Clothes for small & big men. To remedy this we again propose (A) to fix the date of the issue of Winter clothing on the 15 April. The summer issue 15 October each year, to every Internee throughout the Camp, (B) to provide for the right kind of goods to be issued I.E. to give all men in winter moleskin trousers & not summer trousers unfitt for winter time without underwear (C) Replace every overcoat after 2 years use

[Page ] No number

(D) Replace every Cardigan Jacket after 1 years use (E) To replace every (F) replace every Strohsack after 6 months use (II) There is any amount of building being don in the Campbut the bathplaces & washing stand are still uncovered. The bad season of the year is imminent with its wind & rain. There are after 3½ years no public hot watershowers. The shower baths are still uncovered & only souroundet by a rough fence with a very insufficient & not lasting canvas lining. No wooden gratings are suplied. The Internees must stand on the concrete floring with the bare beet when using the shower. III We are awhare of great building activity in this Camp is the enlargement of the recreation ground all ready under consideration if the Camp population is to be increased? We beg to draw your kind consideration to the complaints & hope that through your help we shall see the improvements carried out wich after all are only the very urgent requests of the Internees. Thanking you we remain

All Company Comanders

[Page 195b]


Head Quarters



Es wurds mir gemeldet, dass dis Kriegsgefangenen unter meinem Kommando dis Kazpregeln nicht befolgen.

Joh habe dieses Kamps und den ichgebeden ausdruecklichen Befehl diesen Regaln zu gehorchen oder es werden die aussarst strengstens Massregeln getroffen.

Wenn die Kriegsgefangenen morgen Mittwoch 9 Uhr 30 nicht an der Arbeit sind wird rur ¼ dar gewochnlichen Rastion susgeteilt, Kantine und Spielplatz gescglossen.

Die Arbeit wird fuer 14 Tage gestoppt. Die faeldig Loehnung wird Zurueckgshalten oder Konfiszhert.

R.S.Sands Major

Comandant G.C.C.

[Page 195c]

Preparations will be made to extract only the bare necessities such as Government clothes from all sea kits bags andd boxes as when the arrangements are complete all this kit will be removed.

By Order

R.S.Sands Major


German Concentration Camps N.S.Wales.

[Page 197a]


Absender :-

F Bungardy
41/10 G.C.C.

Service Des Prisonniers de Guerre

Prisoner of War Letter – Free

Mrs Ida Bungardy
Waite Street
Port Adelaide

[Envelope crossed]

Return to Sender – Censor

[Page 197b]

Nicht zwischen die Zeilen schreiben!

Monday April 7th

Dear Ida & my little Bolshevicks.

Your wellcome arived Saturday last. Am still allright? See & trace the parcel, if it is not for the value of it, I like to know, wher it wher confiscated, if outside, or at the P.C. hier. Want be much bother to get it signed by a J.P. So am, I sorry, the parcel never came. Money is very scarce hier now, every day, since the last row, you read of, time is getting worse, allmost everybody is "catching" for a smoke. Indeet will I be glad when this is over. When it will be, god knows, Pris from Germany arive hier daily, but we are still hier, Australia is the last to release Internees, for reasones better not for me to write, else you wont get this. But still the world will get to know it, sooner or later. I laugh when I read accounts of Prion Camps & life in Germany, why hier it is worse. Tell the Children to hawe patience, as I must hawe. The treatment, food, & clothing besides housing at Dry Creek is far superior to this. One thing Ida, I hawe found out since 1914, that I hawe lived in a fools paradise, & I hawe woke up to my sorrow. I keep myself to myself hier & keep out of mischief. I have my Club to pass the time away, as I don’t wishe to goe into the Madhouse. I know why life has been wasted & this last 4 years we it the knockout. Young lads turn grey hier, so you can gues I am not dark anymore. The life is too severe. But we live in hopes. Close with love & kisses to all your lov Hust & Dad xxxx

[Page 198]



Returned for truthfull statements

[Page 199]

Tele: Liverpool 95 Concentration Camps, Australia When Replying
(2 lines) Head Quarters Please Quote

Liverpool, N.S.W., 7th February, 1918

Concentration Camps Australia

Prisoner of War
Frank Bungardy

With reference to your wife’s allowance, Head Quarters 4th Military District, requests me to inform you that same has been increased by 2/6 per week as from 30th January, 1918.

F.P. Allsopp Major for
Comandant, Concentration Camps.

[Page 201]


Absender :-

F Bungardy
41/10 G.C.C.

Service Des Prisonniers de Guerre

Prisoner of War Letter – Free

Mrs Ida Bungardy
Waite Street
Port Adelaide

[Envelope crossed]

Returned to Sender – Contain prohibited matters.

[Page 201b]

Nicht zwischen die Zeilen schreiben!

April 8th

Dear Ida & littleones!

Yours wellcome received Saturday last. Answered ones, bur Censor returned same, because I wrote something not to his liking, though it was the truth. Re the lost parcel, get the paper signed by J.P. & trace it, if possible, I want to find out, wher it went astray, if outside or hier. Tobacco very scarce, also money, as allmost the whole Camp is idle, only about 1 dozend work, the rest wants more money, but want get it, so they preffer to do nothing. I be glad when I am out of this. Dry creek is a dozend times better, I laugh when I read Pris of War accounts in the local papers. Censorship prevents anything apearing, regarding us, if it’s the truth. Tell the little ones to have patience, like their dad must hawe. I hawe lived in a fools paradise, but I woke up. I keep myself to myself & so out of mischief. Pass my time excercising or playing Cards, is the only way to keep out of the Madhouse. Young lads hawe turned grey in hier, so you know, I am not as dark as I used to be. 4 years behind the wires, tell a silent tale. The rest will keep untill we mwwt as I cannot write, as I wishe to, as I shurly will offend the Censor & get it returned, I hope this finds you safe & sound enjoying best of health close with love to you all your loving Husband & Father xxxxxxxxx

[Page ]



Returned by Censor for stating the truth.

[Page 203a]


Absender :-

F Bungardy
41/10 G.C.C.

Service Des Prisonniers de Guerre

Prisoner of War Letter – Free

Mrs Ida Bungardy
Waite Street
Port Adelaide

[Envelope crossed]

Returned to Sender. If this offence is repeated your correspondence will be surrended. Censor.

[Page 203b]

Nicht zwischen die Zeilen schreiben!

Saturday April 12th

Dear Ida & my little ones.

Replying to letter received yesterday. Indeet Ida, I keep myself as well, as circumstances permot, becourse if we relied on civilication & humanity, we would all be padded cells long ago. Life behind wires are the most nerve trying one, of any other, Patiently we all await "The Day" the sooner the better. Indeet Ida Nigger has been a honorable Pal. They asisted me in Sydney, also while hier. Your parcel hasn’t arived. Some B. if they steal of a Internee, they shake the Babysmilk. The majority turned us down, becourse the Press instigated & teashed hate. Still it is the biggest lieing paper, I ever read, in everything & in years to come the people find it out themself. It is similar to the Bible. "Thou shall not separate Men & Wife, not steal, not kill" Still anything you do for your country is honorable & no sin. "Even if a Women turns a prostitute to gather foreign secrets, she is a lady. If she poisons woundet enemy soldiers & get shot, she is a martyr. Why doesnt the world wake up. When you have seen & spoken to Vi Anderson, you will find out she is very respektable & not what you might have thought. Close with fondest love to you all xxxxxxxxxxxx

[Page 204]



Returned by Censor for stating the truth.

[Page 205]

In reply to a request to state income during certain year I wishe to state that, as a Boscer & Braces Man, I earned about £6 weekly until January 3rd 1915, when I wher called upon by he Aust Police to enter Camp as a Internee. As I consider myself a "Paying Guest" of the Aust Government I hawe not done any work while interned. So my income since my interment has been nil.

As I have not any account book in my possession I am unable to state my earnings up untill 1915. However since 1915, as I consider myself a "Paying Guest" I have not done any manual labor, so have not had any income, but am £17.10 in debt through me being compelled to buy additional food & wearing appearal.

Answer to tax aplication by Writer.

[Page ] No Number


On His Majesty’s Service

Federal Commissioner of Land Tax

[Page 207]



Prisoner of War Letter - Free

To The Secretary
Minister of Deffence

[Envelope marked]

Your letter will not be forwarded in view of its insulting offensice tone.

[Page 209]

January 9th A.T/Loyd. Sir, Surprised to hawe a envelope returned without the contents same contained when posted. Insist on hawing same forwardet unto its destination as [indecipherable] requests concerning myself & injustice shown towards my family this past 3 years. You state that same would not be forwardet in view of its insulting & offensive tone. I wishe to state hereto, that all the contents remain facts eich no one can deny & so it is the outcome of former corespondence with the adress not giving me the answer. I have requested of same I hold the Camp Auth responsible if letter dated 9th J. is not answer within 1 month from date. I refuse to rewrite the aplication wich are the contents of this note so I leave it entirely in your hands. F. B.

[Page ] No number

[Note on reverse of envelope]

Gen No 2660 4th M.D.
Writen by writer, returned by Censor

[Page ] No number

[Note on reverse of envelope]

Letter written by writer to Censor to wich no reply was given.

[Page 211]

[Note on reverse side of scrap of paper from parcel]

A proof that Internees are forced to pay postage though International Law says otherwise

[Page 212]

[Part of wrapping from parcel]

F Bungardy
Prisoner of War

From F Bailu

[Page 213]

Letters to Prisoners of War must have the full name and address of the sender written on the outside flap of the envelope, and must not refer to the War or current polotics. Letters must be short and must be written in ink on one sheet of paper and on one side only, and not more than twice a week.

By Order

R.S. Sands, Lieut.-Col.
Commandant, Concentration Camps

These instructions must be carried out in their entirety otherwise the letters will not be devivered. *

[Page 214]


The Camp Offices to be filled by the forthcoming elections will be those of,
Seven (7) Committee men and
Two (2) Auditors,
Whilst the Camp Secretary will be appointed by the new Camp Represenation out of candidates, nominated to the Camp Representation for that Office.


The seven Committee men and the two Auditors will be elected by the Camp, on the principle of one man, one vote.
The voting paper will be divided into two sections:
(A) Committee Men,
(B) Auditors.
At least 75$ of the Internees must record a valid vote or the election will be null and void.

A voting paper is invalid, if it shows the name of more or less than seven candidates underA.

Each voter will be supplied with a printed ballot paper in the voting hall.

Candidates for A and B will be elected by simple majority; in case of a tie, lots will be drawn.

Only such candidates who have full command of the German language are eligible for the position of president. Of these, the one who obtained the largest number of votes is elected President of the Camp Representation, provided that at least two thirds of all valid votes are cast in his favour. If he has not obtained this two third majority of votes, a second ballot is to be held seven days after the first ballot between him and the Committee member who polled the next highest number of votes.

The election is to be held on Saturday, the 14th September, 1918 at the "Turnhalle". The hours will be from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.

Each candidate has the right to appoint two scrutineers who may be present in the election hall and at the counting of the votes.

One officer will be detailed by the Comandant to supervise the election and be present at the counting of votes.

Nominations close on Thursday 12th IX. 12 noon. Nominations must be in writing, must contain the full name, company and mess of the candidate, and of the person who nominates him, and must be endorsed by the candidate in the presence of a witness who must also sign his name and address. It must furter be clearly stated on the nomination paper whether the nominated person is a candidate for the committee ot the position of auditor. Nomination papers are to be put into a box provided for that special purpose at the pay office. All nominations are subject to the approval of the Comandant.

DURATION OF OFFICE: Members of the Camp Representation and Auditor are elected for the term of six months. Retiring members and ausditors are eligible for re-election. In case a member resigns or does not fulfil his duties for a period longer than a month, the defeated candidate who polled the next highest number of votes, automatically takes his place. In case of absence of the President the member of the committee who is next in voting strength takes his palce, provided that he has full command of the German language.

All written or printed propaganda must be submitted to the Comandants approval.

1. Intelligence Officer will supply roll showing names of members of each company.
2. Ballot Chambers: Two entrances – one exit.
3. Company Commanders to be present at each entrance with their respective companies, with the above rolls of their companies, and to strike off the voters passing in.
4. Two companies enter at the same time.
5. Time table to be worked out and published on Notice boards as f.i.

9 a.m. – 10 a.m. Company 1-10
10 am – 11 a.m. Company 11-20
11 a.m. – 12 noon Company 21-30
12 noon – 2 p.m. Company 31-40
2 p.m. – 5 p.m. Remainders and stragglers.

6. Supervision by a Military Officer.
7. After striking off names, Company Commanders to hand lists to supervising Military Officer.
8. Stragglers to pass in presence of their respective Company Commanders.

[Page 215]

Holdsworthy, 3rd September, 1918

Major Holborrow


Referring to the interviews we had with you and with Capt. Fitzhardings to-day, and referring to your orders regarding the rules for the forthcoming election, we beg to lodge this protest against the following decisions given by you :-

(1) that you deny the Camp the right to decide upon the question of payment or otherwise of its representative committee and upon the source from which such payment, if any, is to be drawn,
(2) that you declare that the election will not be recognised by you as valid if less than 75$ of the whole of the internees record their votes and
(3) that in case of the election being declared invalid by you for the reason set out in the foregoing section, you will appoint a person or persons to conduct the internal administration of the camp,
(4) that a military officer will be present to supervise the election and the counting of the votes,
(5) that the nominations must be put into a special box at the Pay Office to be opened there by one of your officers, in the presence of the returning officer appointed by this committee.

If the supervision of the election, as set out sub. (4) and (5), were not against all precedents in the history of elections in this camp, we would have welcomed it, as we certainly have nothing to hide or to fear. So far, it has unfortunately resulted in the resignation of the returning officer, Mr Farquardt, for whom we shall have to find a substitute; but as matters stand, your decision means a direct expression of suspicion against the members of this committee, bwsides involving a doubt of the integrity of the returning officer. In spite of this, we have considered it our duty to the Camp to remain in office, pending an appeal to the Honourable Mr. Justice Harvey, to whom we shall forward the copy of this letter. We also protest against the remarkable fact that Dr. Lohde, though he and his staff had already resigned at the time, was in a position to announce in the Camp your decisions, sub. (2) and (3) already the day before yesterday, whilst they wer not communicated by you to the election committee until to-day.

Regarding the separate representation of the Croatians on the Camp Committee, which you refused, we and the very large section of internees who appointed us, are of the opinion, that this concession would only have been a fair and reasonable one, considering the language difficulty.

With respect to the carrying on of business of the Camp Representation, we made an offer to the Provost-Marshal last Sunday, through Mr. Kersten, to the effect that – in case the late Committee should refuse to carry on – we would reluctantly, assume charge of the routine business. We herewith repeat this offer, because complaints are being made in this Camp that the business is not being carried on.

We request your permission to publish this letter on the Camp Notice Board.

Yours faithfully
The Election Committee
A. Kersten 40/1- P.M. Baerwald 34/11
Dr. Finselbach 23/5 K. Forster 10/6 M. Preston 26/10

P. S. Der Wahl-Ausschuss behaendigte dies Schreiben dem Kommandanten am 4. Sept., der jedoch jeglichs Aenderung seiner Beschuesse verweigerte. Die Wahl-Anschlaege und –Regeln werden von den Militaer-Behoerden vorgeschrieben und angeschlagen. Der Protest an Justice Haevey ist bereits abgegangen.

Erlaubniss diesen Brief an den Anschlag-Tafeln zu verseffent-lichen wurde uns nicht gewaehrt.


[Page 216]



London. Tuesday – Mr. H.C. Mahoney’s book, "Sixteen Months in German Prisons," narrates a harrowing story of German brutality. The author was arrested before the war on a false charge of spying. He was sent to Sennelager prison, where he was half-starved.

Many wounded from Mons, mostly British, were also confined there, and were subjected to barbarous ill-treatment. The men were ordered to remove their bandages in the open air on a hot, dusty day. When the bandages adhered to wounds the doctor roughly tore them away from the wounds. Exposed to the dust, the wounds became clogged, and blood poisoning and gangrene often followed.

Major Bach, camp commandant, devised tortures and annoyances, and raised false hopes by telling the prisoners that they would be repatriated.

Offenders against discipline were tied to posts for four hours, the ropes biting deeply into the flesh, causing intense pain. Insenseibility occurred after two hours, and the victims had to be revived with buckets of water. The period of insensibility was not included in the period of punishment. Commandant Bach meanwhile would be joking and jeering at the victims. A colonial soldier from the Gold Coast was sentenced to eight hours’ torture of this description, and he begged to be shot.

Bach turned the prisoners out from the barracks, forcing the majority to spend a night in a rainstorm. Many were found unconscious from exposure, some went mad, and one committed suicide.



London. Tuesday – The Employment Exchange is advertising for 8000 women between the ages of 18 and 40 to fill shells. The wages are fixed at about 28s per week.



London, Monday.

Captains Ranson (53rd Battalion), Keay (32nd Battalion) and Anthony (7th Battalion) have arrived in London from Holland.

Sixty Australian prisoners have arrived at Ripon.

Among the reptriated men are Sergeants Stewart and O’Shea (20th Battalion); Corporals E.T. Dyke and A. Bowen.

The latter states that while in the prison camp at Stuttgart typewritten notices were [lacarded alleging that the Australians had barbarously ill-treated German prisoners at Torrens Island.

It was stated that a certain major of a "notoriuos Australian regiment," when asked by a German prisoner for a cigarette, shot him with a revolver, and wounded another German standing by, and shot a third dead. The notice further alleged that for picking up firewood without orders 30 German prisoners were forced to stand in all weather for 12 days and nights in a small barbed wire enclosure, foodless, bootless and sockless.

The notice concluded: "Seeing our brave crew of the Emden in the hands of these peoples, we are about to make reprisals on all Australian and British in the camp, and thus bring these sons of convicts to heel."


The Fifth East Lancashires discovered at Homont the graves of 800 British prisoners who had been starved by the Germans.


Danish ships have arrived from Sassnitz carrying 1500 British prisoners from Ruhleben Camp. They were enthusiastically welcomed. The Danish crowds singing the British National Anthem, and throwing flowers. A Danish medical staff, with nurses, awaited the ships, and were astonished to find prisoners in good health and well clothed, a fact due to the food parcels from England.

The prisoners were of all classes and ages, from septuagenarians to schoolboys. They include the crews of the ships captured by the Wold.


The New Zealand authorities have established a depot at Dover to provide comforts for war prisoners arriving via Calais. It is estimated that there were only 330 New Zealand prisoners in Germany.

Lady Mackenzie entertained the first batch at tea at New Zealand House. These were chiefly from prison camps in the vicinity of Lille. They generally agree that, apart from the scarcity of rations, they were well treated, although the enemy did not fulfil the arrangement not to employ prisoners within the fire zone. Some were even engaged digging German first-line trenches.

One relates that he was sent to a German hospital containing 1800 enemy wounded. He received equal treatment, also a special diet to suit his case.

Private Wells (Otago Rifles) got through the German lines just before the armistice. He escaped from the prison camp some time ago. He secured civilian clothes, and being a good linguist, lived as a French civilian unmolested until he found a chance of getting trough the lines.

[Transcriber's note: On pages 142/3 reference is made to a wedding in the camp. There is a photograph in the collection of the Australian War Memorial of the couple, Johanna Wieters and Fritz Haarstruck on their wedding day (20 May 1915) at Holdsworthy. Reference No AWM P00595.108]

[Transcribed by David Lambert and Betty Smith for the State Library of NSW]