Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales

Matthew Flinders journal on the Investigator, vol. 2, 24 July 1802-10 June 1803
Safe 1/25

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[Note: The text of Flinders' journal reproduced here retains his original spelling and punctuation]

Mrs Petrie
4 The Avenue
Blackheath St

8 Crescent Road
Bromley Kent

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[Saturday] - 24th. [H.M.S. Investigator] Along the east coast of N. Holland
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and fine weather with haze
Slanting in for the land, with the L. Nelson following us. At 4, So.most Brother S.46.W. and a low steep point also, the latter dist. 4 miles. At 5h.30' came up with a point, consisting of irregular small hummocks: it bore N70. to 32.W. distant one mile. Wore offshore and desired the L. Nelson to keep near us during the night.
   Strong breezes and squally. Under the top-sails standing back along the shore. Lost sight of the L. Nelson
   At 12, the No.most Brother, West. Wore ship and 3rd. reefed the topsails. Shewed lights and fired a gun. Lost a deep-sea lead and 30 fms.of line. On the ship lying in for the land, brought to. At 21/2, filled again At 6, wore ship, the point from which we tacked being dist. 3 miles. Made sail, and at 7, tacked in for the land. At 8, kept along shore: the brig not in sight. Passed near several projecting heads, between which are sandy beaches and low land. At 9h.55', a hummock [indecipherable words] rocky projection S44W. 11/4 mile [indecipherable word]
Noon, fresh breezes & fine, with haze. No.most brother S14W. nearest land, 2nd. humky. cape N50W 2 miles. A bight in the land N.39.W. Extreme N.14W.

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1802 July [Saturday] - 24 continued. Additional remarks P.M.
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

The three brothers are irregular hills being the extremity of a body of high land from the interior part: they lie from l1/2 to 5 miles from the shore. They seem to be well covered with wood, as does most of the higher land in their neighbourhood.
   The projection, off which we wore ship at dusk, is somewhat irregularly formed. At its northern part is a rocky lump of a sugar-loaf shape, and beyond it the shore falls back and seems to be low. The water seems to be shoal in this bight, and there are some rocks above water in the southern part of it. The coast for some distance to the northward of the three Brothers having been passed by captain Cook in the night, I wished to examine it closely; and for that reason we hauled to the wind, instead of standing on all night.
  The land along which we steered in the ni
  The Lady Nelson not being in sight after 10 o'clock excited some surprise, since from the shifts of wind in our favour we kept our situation own under the top sails only; but we concluded that she would be found somewhere in the neighbourhood of the point from which we hauled off in the evening.

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[1802 July Saturday - 24 continued]. Additional remarks A.M.]
 [Astronomical observations not transcribed]

On coming in with the same point which we had left at dusk on the preceding evening, I steered along the shore in prosecution of the survey of the part passed by capt. Cook in the night; it being rather more probable that the L. Nelson was to the northward than in the opposite direction.
  This part of the coast is generally a low sandy shore, but rocky projections break its uniformity every 4 or 5 miles. The land rises very soon quickly, from the waterside to hills of moderate height, which are well covered with wood, and give the country a pleasant appearance. The rocky projections being hilly but distinct from the hills inland, they generally make like islands on first being seen.
  The second hummocky cape which was the nearest land at noon, proves to be Smoky Cape, and answers captain Cooks description exactly. Its latitude appears to be 30.561/2S. The shore falls back on each side of it, and on the north side forms a large bight. Two rocks lie abt. 1/2 mile off the pitch of the cape, and another on the south side of it.

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1802 July [Sunday] - 25th. H.M.S. Investigator [along the east coast - Smoky Cape and Shoal Bay] [Navigational data not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and fine wr. with much haze and smoke over the land. At 3, a rocky, broken point S.45W. 11/2m. Smoky Cape S.20.E. -
At 5, the shore dist. 21/2 miles, a projection with a rock off it. Furthest extreme N.11E. - Steered off for the Solitary Isles, one of which was soon after seen. Took in T.Gt. sails and fore sail and 3rd. reefed the top-sails
Fresh breezes and cloudy with drizzling rain Clewed the top-sails down on the cap At 3, brought to: ships head towards the land, judging ourselves near abreast of Shoal Bay
At 6h.20', filled and stretched in for the land, which was at some distance At 91/2 kept away along the shore, the So. head of Shoal Bay S29W. 6 or 8 miles
At 10h., passed some dangerous breakers lying 21/2 miles off shore; and at 10h.1/2, passed a second patch, similar to it
Mustered ships company & saw them clean.
Noon, light breezes & hazy: spitting rain at times. Nearest shore WNW. 3 miles. No. extreme N.12E. -

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[1802 July Sunday - 25th. H.M.S. Investigator]
along the east coast - Smoky Cape and Shoal Bay
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

From Smoky Cape the land hollows back to the N.W. a little and then resumes its northerly direction. At intervals there are some high hills near the shore, and inland is a high ridge of mountains, which extends from abreast of our situation at 5h. towards the Solitary Isles. These mountains are irregular and rugged. On approaching the islands we come to the part seen in the day by C. C. [Captain Cook] as well as the Norfolk, which last saw it as far as Shoal Bay in lat. 29.26'So.
            
In the morning we came in with Shoal Bay, as I expected. The entrance of the bay is not distinguishable at the distance of even a few miles, but I knew it by a peaked hummock to the southward, and by the south head which is higher than the neighbouring parts of the shore. - Nothing remarkable presented itself during the mornings run except the two patches of dangerous breakers, which lie abt. 21/2 miles off the shore. - There are some hills of moderate elevation a few miles from the water, but the shore is mostly sandy, and rather low: vegetation does not seem to be luxuriant.

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1802 July [Monday] 26th. H.M.S. Investigator [along the east coast - Cape Byron and Pt. Lookout]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and fine wr. with haze
At 2, Abreast of some small projecting heads, on each side of which is a small open bay: Cape Byron bearing N.1.W. At 5, Cape Byron W5S. about 4 miles Extremes S7W. and N.28.W. Continued our course in order to pass round the reef off Pt. Danger. At 11, hauled more towards the land, judging ourselves past the reef.
Tble. weather with rain.
At daylight, hauled more up towds. the land, which bore W.N.W. 6 or 8 leags.
At 8, Mt. Warning S.5.W. or 15W over the land. At 10, Point Lookout S 57W 4 miles A vessel in sight to the EN.E shortened sail, supposing it to be the L. Nelson
At noon, Cape Moreton N.28.W. abt. 6 leags. Point Lookout S.1.E. 3 leagues
Light breezes and fine, with haze

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[1802 July Monday 26th. H.M.S. Investigator] along the east coast - Cape Byron and Pt. Lookout
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

The projecting heads near us at 2 o'clock have a tolerably fertile appearance. In the bight south of them, was a smoke close to the water side. The bight to the northward may probably afford shelter from winds at south. C. Byron makes like an island, the land immediately behind it being low, but it some rises towards that body of mountains at the top of which is Mt. Warning. - C.C. [Captain Cook] having passed this cape and as far as Point Lookout in the day time, I steered on all night towards C. Moreton; for the space from the point to the last cape had been previously examined in the Norfolk. - The hills about Mt. Warning are well covered with wood, and the country has a tolerable appearance even near the shore; but from hence to the northward, sand prevails more or less
   When Mt. Warning was seen it could not be less than twenty leagues distant and may certainly be seen some leagues further. - In the Norfolk sloop I laid down Pt. Lookout 201/2' to the south of capt. Cooks situation of it, and the observations this day at noon confirm the propriety of it. Our longitude agrees much nearer with his

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1802 July [Tuesday] - 27th. H.M.S. Investigator [along the east coast - Cape Moreton to Wide Bay]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine, with haze. Finding the strange sail was a ship, made sail. At 4, saw breakers, lying about 5 miles to the NNE from C. Moreton. Hauled out to pass to the eastward of them At dusk, took in lst. reefs. - C. Moreton S.50.W. The breakers out of sight, abaft the larbd. beam, having drifted past them, apparently, faster than by log. Hauled round towards the coast again with all plain sails set.
Much lightening in the south
Rove a new tiller rope, the old being carried away. - In T.Gt. sails & stay sails. At 3h.1/4, shortened sail to the topsails and brought to with the ships head to the southward. - At 6, bore away and made sail towards the land. Many hummocky peaks upon the land
Double reefed the top-sails. - At 9h.1/2 hauled round Doub. I. Point. Saw natives in the bight round the north part. - A rock lies N10E 2 miles from the point, wh. we left to the right. - At 10h.1/2, kept away to clear some shoals which lie off the mouth of an opening in Wide Bay. Much shoal water also, as far as three miles off the land. At noon, the point S16.E. No. extreme N4W. Hazy weather.

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[1802 July Tuesday - 27th. H.M.S. Investigator] along the east coast - Cape Moreton to Wide Bay
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

The strange sail I suppose to be one of the two whalers, which are fishing off this part of the coast. -
When going into Glass-house Bay in the Norfolk, I had not seen the reef which lies off Cape Moreton from its being nearly dark, and from hauling being so close to in round the cape. It This reef is the more dangerous from being at that distance from the cape, at wh. any vessel would judge herself to be in safety: it is fortunate for the Investigator that we did not pass Cape Moreton in the night. -
The neighbourhood of Double Island Point and Wide Bay, appearing to have been indistinctly seen by C.C. [Captain Cook] we brought to in the night that we might not pass this part without examination. The point is a steep head at the end of a neck of land which runs 11/2 mile from the main. The bight on the north side seems to afford shelter from the S.E.ly. winds as far as SE. - The opening in Wide Bay, I judge to be a large shoal place, but there seems to be a passage into it on the north side of the shoals for these seem to lie directly off the mouth.+ This neighbourhood seems to be well inhabited from the numbers of smokes, and the natives seen near the Double Island point. Numberless blubbers of a blueish colour fill the water, off the opening At Noon, offshore 5 miles

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1802 July [Tuesday] - 27th. continued Additional Remarks on [Double-island Point, and Wide Bay]

I find Dble. island Point to answer C.C.s [Captain Cook's] description exceedingly well, but I should call its latitude 25.56' instead of 25.58'So.; this however is only by corrected log, as the Endeavours must have been also. The rock which lies 2 miles off the point was not seen by C.C. [Captain Cook] - Wide Bay does not appear to be near so deep as in the form so deep a cut in the land as in his chart, if the opening is excepted, which was not then seen. Many natives were seen near it, to the number of 50 as reported, who followed the ship along the shore to a small distance; and about ten were seen near Double island Point. These facts, with the number of natives seen upon Indian Head, a little further on, when in 1770, seem to imply a greater degree of population in this neighbourhood than is usual in the more southern parts. - The white cliffs mentioned in Hawkesworth as lying in the north side of Double-island Pt., seems to be a steep front barrier of sandy land, of the same nature with that which extends towards Glass- house Bay. + The sides of the opening are low sandy land, but higher land covered with small wood rises soon from it, and seems to surround the bay or inlet.
     I much regretted, at this time,

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[1802 July [Tuesday] - 27th. continued Additional Remarks on] Double-island Point, and Wide Bay

that the Lady Nelson was not with us, since she might have worked up into it, and we should have gained all the intelligence concerning the opening which was requisite to its being made useful, if a good passage into it exists at all. - Had it not been that I expected to join the brig in Herveys Bay, which the delay of a day might have prevented, I should have endeavoured to get into the opening with the ship; but to have her assistance in the way to the Bay of Inlets was a more material object to me than the examination of an opening which makes so little promise of being accessible, as this in Wide Bay. - From appearances, I judge the opening to lead into a shoal bay, probably of considerable size, but which may be probably is accessible only to small vessels. The number of natives rather implies it to be shoal, since in such places they gain much subsistence of that required from the greater quantity of fish of that kind which frequent shallow banks and shallow places, where also they are more easily taken than in deep water.

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1802 July [Wednesday] - 28th. H.M.S. Investigator [along the east coast. Indian Head and Sandy Cape]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Mod. breezes & fine weather, but hazy. Steered along the direction of the shore at the distance of 2 to 4 miles At sunset, the extremes of the land through the haze N 1/2E to SSW.
Many fires all along the shore
At 10, hauled to the wind towards the land; and at 12, tacked off, the fires upon the shore dist. abt. 4 miles
Mod. breezes and fine weather
At 3h., tacked in shore, and at 4h.1/2, off again, finding ourselves very near it.
At day light, the land about Indian Head dist 11/2 miles, made sail and to steered along the shore for Sandy Cape
Saw many natives upon the shore, said to be waving to us.
At ll, being near Sandy Cape, lowered down the cutter and sent her the master to sound in a small channel, through the breakers, Followed her, but finding there was not 4fms. in it, tacked in 3 fms. stretched out, called the boat on board, and brot. to for her. Noon Sandy Cape S56W. 2 miles. Indian Hd.S. 20.E. Light breezes and fine wr.

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Abstract of observations taken upon the [indecipherable word] point of Sydney Cove for ascertaining the rates of the time keepers, and their errors from M.Greenh. time
[Pages 3-15 observations not transcribed]

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To Lieutenant Murray, commander of the brig Lady Nelson, I gave the following instructions of which he had a memorandum.
  To keep company with the Investigator, if possible, but in case of parting, he was to repair to Herveys Bay, which he was to enter by a passage said to exist between Sandy Cape and Break-sea Spit. In Herveys Bay he was to [anchor] near Sandy Cape and remain one day; when, if he did not meet with the Investigator, he was to repair to Thirsty Sound and remain at the [anchor]age at the N.E. end of Long Island, until our arrival. In case of our getting there before him, and quitting it, he was to look about the landing place for a pile of stones, in which would be a bottle and a letter for his further instructions.
[missing text]ay likewise what I intended [missing text] the way to Thirsty Sound; [missing text] attend to this remark in case [missing text] to make the best of his way.
 

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1802 July. From Port Jackson, to the northward
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Transactions and remarks P.M. as per log book No.l -
                    [Thursday] - 22d. A.M.

Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. Every person being on board belonging to the ship, as also the pilot: at 6h.1/2 we weighed, and steered to go out of the harbour, having the colonial brig Lady Nelson in company. When near the entrance lowered down the boat, brought to, landed the pilot and hoisted up the boat.
   At 8, passed from between the heads, and at nine, took our departure from the entrance of Port Jackson, bearing SWbW. 6 miles.
Stowed the anchors, and cleaned below. A long swell setting after us. Served slops to the ships company. At noon, fresh breezes and fine weather. Entrance into Broken Bay S55W 8 or 9 miles. A square topped hill N42W. Lady Nelson in company astern.

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1802 July [Friday] 23 H.M.S. Investigator [Along the east coast of New Holland]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Mod. breezes & fine wr. At sunset extr. of the land NE to SSW; soon after, the Coal Island at the entrance into Hunters R. bore NbW 1/2W. 5 m. Spoke the L. Nelson and desired her to go ahead and steer N.E.b.E during the night. Shewed a light occasonally, answering hers.
At 10, land abt. Pt. Stephens NNW 4 or 5 miles.
Running under the topsails, the L. Nelson being on the starb. beam At daylight, the brig not in sight Land visible on the weather quarter At 6h.3/4, brought to for the brig; Double reefed the F. and mz. Top sails. At 8, bore away for the land in company with the brig. - Fresh breezes & hazy.
Dble. reefed the M top-sails. Roused up the small bower cable, to secure it better in the tier. At noon, the Brothers N52 to 38W. 5 or 6 leagues. C. Hawke S60W. Many smokes upon the land.
Fresh breezes & hazy
L. Nelson in company.

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[1802 July [Wednesday] - 28th. H.M.S. Investigator]
along the east coast. Indian Head and Sandy Cape
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

The shore along which we steered this afternoon is of a moderate height, but very sandy, the patches of bare sand being large and frequent; but did not observe any thing to indicate the shifting of the sands, as mentioned in Hawkesworth There were smokes upon every part near the shore, the country seeming to be on fire; and at night the fires were useful in shewing us our situation.
   Indian Head can scarcely be found, there being only two small rocky projections in that situation
   From Sandy Cape, the breakers and shoals lie about 2 miles out when there is a break in them, which I expected was a good passage, as one was said to exist there and to have been sailed through by the Eliza, whaler; but the most water in the middle of it was 18 feet, so that it is impassable for a ship. However I yet hope to find the passage, supposing it may be a little further from the cape.

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1802 July [Thursday] - 29th. H.M.S. Investigator [along the east coast - Break-sea Spit]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Mod. & fine wr. with haze. At 1, bore away and made sail close along the eastern side of Break-sea Spit, altering the course occasionally. At 3, sent the master away again to sound in what appeared to be wide passage through the breakers. -
Saw two sperm whales going to the No. -
There being little wind and that foul, at 5, dropped the kedge and lowered down the sails. Found a tide coming out of the supposed passage. - Saw a strange sail near Indian Head, supposed to be the L. Nelson. At 6, the boat returned, reporting that there was not more than 14 feet through the passage. -
At 3h.1/2, on the winds shifting, weighed the stream and hauled upon a wind to the southward in order to join the strange vessel; but seeing nothing of her, at 7h. tacked and made sail for the end of Break-sea Spit. At 9h.1/2, saw the breakers.
Mustered the ships company.
Bore away & hauled up occasionally keeping the line of the spit, at a little distance. Mod. breezes & fine weather
Noon, Sandy Cape S14. to 2.E. End of the spit WNW. 2 or 3 miles

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[1802 July [Thursday] - 29th. H.M.S. Investigator]
along the east coast - Break-sea Spit.
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

In running along the spit, we saw that there were many small winding passages amongst the breakers. The first examined by the master was narrow, but seemed to lead into the bay with from 2 to 3 fms., the spit not being very broad in that part. The second channel was much wider larger, being abt. 11/2 mile wide, but it does not carry more than 14 feet completely through. The breakers in this part seem to about 31/2 miles broad, and are likewise intersected with small shallow passage. From former observation,
the *spit appears to be much more connected towards its extremity than near Sandy Cape. On the return of the boat I gave up all hope of finding any passage through the spit. -
    I felt some disappointment in not seeing the brig in the morning, since she now had had sufficient time to have arrived at this rendezvous.-
    About 10 o'clock we came in with the same part of the spit near which we had [anchor]ed; and then continued our course close to it*. I think it may be safely said that there is no passage through any part of the spit which is fit for a ship. There were no breakers towards this end of the spit, but the shoal water was plainly distinguishable from the mast head.- The spit may be passed over in 24.24'So. its length from the Cape being 18 miles only.

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1802 July [Friday] - 30th. H.M.S.Investigator [along the east coast Herveys Bay]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

At 40' past noon, passed over the tail of Break-sea Spit, Sandy Cape bearing S181/2E, when the water deepened suddenly. At 2, it shoaled again upon a bank; tacked soon after, and in standing back, found but 5 fms. upon the same bank, as we suppose. At 5h.30', tacked from the spit, seeing a rippling ahead, and the water getting shoaler, Sandy Cape bearing S.34.E.
At 8h., came to in 20 fms. with a kedge [anchor], there being very little wind
At 12h., weighed, on breeze getting up, and stretched towards Sandy Cape. At 2, tack the water getting shoaler and the wind heading
At 6, tacked the ship towards Sandy Cape, which was seen from the mast head bearing E.S.E.
Light breezes and hazy weather
Caught 2 porpoises, by harpooning Saw a vessel bearing E.b.S. without side of the reef near Sandy Cape; supposed to be the Lady Nelson.
Noon, light airs and fine. Sandy Cape, the N.E. extreme S.69.E. Large sandy patch S.54E. -

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[1802 July Friday - 30th. H.M.S.Investigator]
along the east coast Herveys Bay
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

The bank which lies WNW. from the end of the spit did not come within the notice of C.C. [Captain Cook] or of the Norfolk. I judge it to be a continuation of the spit, which curves round to the westward. The water was not at all discoloured upon it, as it is on the shoal water of the spit. -
    Many birds of the pelican species have frequented the ship during the last few days. One was caught in the rigging, and appears to be the kind of bird which C.C. [Captain Cook] calls a boobys; though it is a somewhat different in colour to what I have heard so called bird to the bird which I have heard so called, in Torres Strait; the difference seeming to consist principally in the colour.

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1802 July [Saturday] 31st. H.M.S. Investigator [in Herveys Bay]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Light breezes & fine weather with haze.
Lowered down the cutter and sent her ahead to sound over a bank; afterwards sent her to the Lady Nelson, whom we saw working through the narrow passage near Sandy Cape. At 4, came to with the best bower in 9 fms. sandy bottom, the N.E.extreme of Sandy Cape E.3.S. distant about 4 miles. The L. Nelson, having got through the spit was working up to [anchor] near us. Sent the whale boat on shore to sound the disposition of the natives whom we saw in numbers upon the shore, they did not, however, come down to the boat or give the naturalists any molestation
A.M. Fresh breezes and fine weather
At 3h.45' the half cable on the best bower parted; but the small bower being let go very soon, brought the ship up. Unstowed the spare [anchor], having the best bower bent to it -
    At 7, the L. Nelson got under weigh to cover the landing party, and immediately the Commander and several gentlemen left the ship in the whale boat.
   Sent the master to creep for the parted cable, which was got within the hawser, but slipped through all about noon on a squall coming on - Fresh breezes and fine weather.

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[1802 July [Saturday] - 31st.H.M.S. Investigator]
in Herveys Bay
 [Astronomical observations not transcribed]

The bank over which we passed in 31/4 fms. seems to run parallel to the spit, and probably is a part of the same upon which we had 10 and 5 fms. yesterday P.M. The deep channel between these seems to be of moderate breadth
     In order to give our botanists an opportunity of examining the productions of Sandy Cape, I determined to remain at an [anchor] here one day; and sent a boat on shore this evening to make a commencement in our acquaintance with the natives, in order to save time
    By the master, (whom I sent to assist the L. Nelson through the passage, though he was too late) I desired Mr. Murray to [anchor] near us and to come on board, that I might learn the cause of our seperation and to prevent the like in the future. In the evening he came, and it appeared that he had laid to off shore from Midnight to nine A.M. of the 24th. instead of tacking at midnight as we had done the wind being a perfect gale to them in the brig. From thence he had kept at a considerable distance from the shore to this place and had met with southerly currents setting to the southward; whereas we had met with them in a contrary direction, being close in with the shore, generally.

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1802 July [Saturday] 31st. in continuation - Additional re[marks upon Sandy Cape]

The Lady Nelson having [anchor]ed within a quarter of a mile of the beach in the morning, we landed abreast of her; and a boat from the brig came also and landed people to cut wood for fuel. We divided into three parties, besides those left in the boats. That with the naturalist consisted of 6 persons, who walked along the shore towards the upper part of the bay; - the second was Lt. Murrays wood-cutting party; and the party with me consisted of six, including the native, Bongaree. We walked to the N.E.ern part of the cape, near which several natives stopped and waved us to go back, having branches of trees in their hands. Through the medium of our native, who went to them singly, unarmed, and naked, a communication was brought on, and after receiving some presents and invitations twenty of them followed us to the boats. There being a large slice of porpoise blubber which had been put into the boat for this purpose, it was cut up and distributed amongst them, and they eat it with apparent satisfaction. Two natives from amongst our party went forward to meet the naturalist who returned soon after bringing some of the scoop nets which the natives use to catch fish. At 2h.1/2 P.M. we left the shore and embarked on board the Lady Nelson
   The natives of Sandy Cape much resemble in their personal appearance those of Port Jackson, but taken generally they seem to be more fles[hy]

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[1802 July [Sat.] 31st. in continuation re]marks upon Sandy Cape

which is most probably owing to the greater quantity of food, which, by means of their nets, they are able to procure. I observed, that upon the knuckle bone of the wrist of most, if not all, of them, there was a swelling, the skin of which was as hard as on the inside of the hand. If we understood them, this arose from the constant use of the nets, the stretcher of which came in contact with this part in throwing it. Our native could not understand any word of their language, certainly; nor did they seem to know the use of his throwing stick; for on one of them being asked to use it, he threw the stick and spear away together but better than one of us would have done in a not very awkward manner. The kind of pandanus which I had before found in Shoal Bay and Glass-house Bay, grows in abundance upon Sandy Cape; and a few other trees of different kinds are scattered about amongst the bushes, notwithstanding the extreme sandiness of the soil: the wood is large enough for fire wood. - We found fresh water in a [indecipherable word] pool near the shore, and as a ship may lie within 1/2 or 3/4 of a mile, both wood and water may be procured, but I doubt whether the former latter article would not fail in the summer months.- We saw nothing like a canoe; but they natives [The word 'natives' has been added in pencil] have some means of passing over the water to a small distance, since in 1799 I found the Curlew Islet, in the head of the Bay had been visited.

[Page 28]

1802 Aug. [Sunday] - 1st. 1802. HMS Investigator [along the east coast: Herveys Bay]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. Weighed the small bower, and warped up to the buoy of the best bower; but the rope breaking dropped the small bower again, got hold of the broken cable and weighed the [anchor]. Unbent the best bower from the spare [anchor] and bent it to the [anchor] recovered. Stowed the spare anchor. At 3, the L. Nelson came and [anchor]d near us bringing our boat and officers from the shore.
   A.M. Moderate breezes and fine wr.
At 7h.45', after washing and clearing the decks, weighed and made sail upon a wind for the west side of Herveys Bay; the Lady Nelson following us.
Handed T.Gt. sails to keep company.
Read the articles of war to the ships company, mustered them and saw them clean
Noon, fresh breezes & fine weather with haze. The land about Sandy Cape bearing east. High land seen ahead, indistinctly. - The L.Nelson a small distance astern.

[Page 29]

[1802 Aug.[Sunday] - 1st. H.M.S.Investigator]
along the east coast: Herveys Bay
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

The flood tide was making at 2h.1/2, when we embarked on board the brig, which is one hour after the moon had passed over the meridian; and it then seemed to be low water by the shore; from which it should be high water 5 hours before the moon comes to passes over the meridian and the rise of tide seems to be 6 or 7 feet.

I steered over to the west side of the bay, with the intention of coming in with the sloping hummock, and to continue the survey from thence to Keppel Bay; for I had before explored round Herveys Bay, from Sandy Cape to the hummock; the wind, however, would not did not seem to permit us to fetch that part of the land, nor could the hummock be seen at noon.

[Page 30]

1802 Aug.[Monday] - 2nd. H.M.S.Investigator [along the east coast. Herveys B. towards Bustard B.]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and fine wr. with haze Set T.Gt. sails and staysails. - Lost a hand lead and line
On the wind coming round, steered more along in for the shore; but coming into shoal water, hauled round off and at 51/2, came to [anchor] with the small bower, on a bottom of sand and mud; and the L. Nelson [anchor]ed near us. The Sloping hummock S.22.E. off shore abt. 5 miles where is the entrance of a small river. Veered to 1/2 a cable and furled sails
Mod. breezes and cloudy weather
At 6h.36', having weighed, made sail along the coast; the L. Nelson being ahead.
Spoke the brig and desired her to keep upon our bow nearest to the shore Made and shortened sail occasionally At 9, the land distant abt. 4 miles. Noon, Light breezes and fine, with haze. Furthest land, a sloping point N40W. Nearest shore S60W. 3 miles Made the signal to the brig to alter course as she saw us do

[Page 31]

[1802 Aug. Monday] - 2nd. H.M.S.Investigator] along the east coast. Herveys B. towards Bustard B.
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

About 2 o'clock, the sloping hummock was in sight through the haze, and the wind backing round allowed us to fetch sufficiently near to the shore to continue the survey from where it was quitted by the Norfolk. Very soon after passing the hummock, the water shoals so much that there is no coming nearer to the shore than about 5 miles, and some of the sands are dry. The shoals are perhaps occasioned by some small, shallow inlets drains of water about this part which bring the sand down with them, but there does not seem to be any opening of consequence, or which is accessible to ships. - In the Norfolk, I made the width of the bay, much less than it is in C.C's, + [Captain Cook's] chart. By the time keepers now, the distance from the center of Sandy C. to sloping hummock is 46 miles: In C.C.s [Captain Cook's] chart it is 62 miles. - The shore near the sloping hummock is low and broken, with many shoals off it: the land is covered wth. small wood. As we advanced, the shore seems to be more woody; and hills rise a few miles inland, and continue in an irregular chain to the furthest extreme, which I suppose to be near Bustard Bay.

+always write captain Cook instead of C.C. [This note has been added in pencil]

[Page 32]

1802 Aug. [Tuesday] - 3rd. H.M.S. Investigator [along the east coast - Bustard Bay
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Moderate trade with fine weather. Lost a hand lead, from the line breaking
At 4h.1/2, seeing we could not get round the No. head of Bustard Bay before dark, made the signal to the brig, and hauled up for the bay. At 5h.10'[anchor]ed in 41/2 fms. sandy bottom: the points of the bay bearing E11S11/2 m. and N.W.-
Light air and hazy weather
At 6h.20' weighed and made sail to the northward, the Lady Nelson being in company ahead
Finding that we drifted toward some rocks which lie out from the north head of Bustard Bay, and having no wind, sent the cutter to sound between the rocks, where she found 14 fms upon which we towed to pass between them. Noon. No. head S77W.21/2 miles. South head S.42.E 3 leagues.

[Page 33]

[1802 Aug. Tuesday - 3rd. H.M.S. Investigator] along the east coast. - Bustard Bay
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

The south point of Bustard Bay is rocky, and upon it is a roundish hummock. Until within a few miles of the bay 3 o'clock, the shore continued to be low and nearly straight, but it then becames higher and much formed indenteds, but not deeply. - The spit from the west side of the bay, upon which the sea broke, appeared to seen from be connected with the south point until we were very near it
Natives were seen upon the south point of the bay, and the wood there was on shore fire to a considerable extent.
   The latitude of the south point or of captain Cooks [anchor]age which are the same, he calls 24.4', but I should call it 248' In the latitude of the north point we agree much nearer: it is in 24.00' according to this days observation. From the greater increased distance between the points, the bay is extended beyond its limits in C.Cs + Captain Cook's [This note has been added in pencil] chart, and is indeed much unlike its in form there; his expression, however of its being a large open bay, applies exceedingly well to it. In the longitude of the north point we differ 10', our time-keepers giving it in 151.47' Et. - This difference seems to have been accumulating since we left Double-island Point, for at that place the difference was only 2', which our longitude was to the east, as it had been all along the coast before the watch A1736, gives the same, nearly.

[Page 34]

1802 Aug. [Wednesday] - 4th. H.M.S. Investigator [along the east coast. - off Bustard Bay
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Cabins. Soon after noon, a breeze sprung up; tacked from the rocks, and towed with two boats to seaward until the wind steadied. At 3, tacked, but finding we could not weather all, tacked off again, hoisted in the boats, and made signal to tack again at 8 o'clock. At 5h.30', the No. head of Bustard Bay S69.W. Round hill S4.E. At 8, bore down to the L. Nelson, tacked and spoke her.
Made and shortened sail occasionally to keep the L. Nelson in close company; and tacked ship every two hours
Winds light and variable, and the weather cloudy.
At 6, tacked towards the land, which was seen to the S.W.ward at a considerable distance: the brig 1 mile to the N.W. Set staysails.
People of the watch employed working up junk
At noon, light breezes & fine weather
The north head of Bustard bay S25 to 19 E, distant 4 leagues. A hill near the shore W.9.S. Land seen indistinctly as far as W.N.W.

[Page 35]

[1802 Aug. Wednesday - 4th. H.M.S. Investigator] along the east coast. - off Bustard Bay
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

The rocks which lie off the inner part of the north head of Bustard Bay, do not seem to form a continued reef. The outer rock is about 21/2 miles from the land, and there is another, above water also, at times, about half the distance to it -
The land immediately to the westward of Bustard Bay is rather high, but does not form any regular chain of hills: it may be called hummocky land.
This hummocky kind of land appears to continue further westward, in irregular short ridges of hills. Our distance off shore was too great for us to observe much of the fertility of the country, but the wood upon it did not appear to be large either on either side of the Bay, except at some distance to the eastward.

[Page 36]

1802 Aug. [Thursday] 5th. H.M.S.Investigator [along the east coast. Off No.1, port]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Hazy weather. Saw a small island from the mast head bearing N.b.W, from 4 to 8 leagues dist., On a breeze springing up at 2, steered in for the furthest land in sight from Bustard Bay. At 5h.45', [anchor]ed in 10 fms. with small bower, and the brig [anchor]ed near us an hour afterwards. North head of Bustard Bay S.69E. and northern land in sight N.58.W. Nearest land S.74.W. dist. 2 leagues, south of which is a small bight in the coast. - Light breezes and fine wr. with haze.
Thick, hazy weather.
At 6h.15', having weighed, made sail to the N.W.ward, along the coast, with the L. Nelson in company.
Light breezes and fine wr. with haze
At 9, saw a small opening from which the water had some appearance of communicating with the small bight. Steered in for the opening on seeing the water over the low land, and desired the Lady Nelson to look out for [anchor]age At 11, came to in the entrance in 41/2 fms. and hoisted out the boats. Et. point of entrance on with the line of the shore S42E. 2 bluffs on the opposite side N.39.W. Rocky island in the entrance S22W. 11/2 miles

[Page 37]

1802 Aug. [Thursday] 5th. H.M.S. Investigator [along the east coast. Off No.1, port
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

There is no mention made of any island in the direction of this seen at noon, in + C.C.s [Captain Cook] chart: but from its distance we can say nothing of what it is.
   The shore is rather low past our evenings [anchor]age, but at a few miles inland the same irregular hills are seen as before. The small bight did not promise any inlet worth examination, and therefore we steered along the coast towards Keppel Bay; but on seeing the opening 10 miles to the northward, and some appearance of communication I thought it proper to make some examination of it.
Many natives and some canoes were seen upon the west shore, to which a large party with the naturalist went, a little before 12 o'clock; and I prepared to make an expedition up the port after taking the meridional observation and bringing up the rough chart and log to this noon.

+ captain Cooks, always to be written instead of C.C's. [This note has been added in pencil]

[Page 38]

1802 Aug. [Friday] - 6 th. H.M.S. Investigator in No.1 [port, of the east coast]

On my leaving the ship in the whale boat, the L. Nelson got under weigh also, but on account of the strength of the tide which was running out she came to,, short of the rocky islet that lies in the entrance. From this islet I took angles, and then steered over to the west shore to a hill, called Hill View; from the top of which I saw, that the bight near our last nights [anchor]age communicated with this port No1, by a more considerable entrance than this northern one. The port was seen also from this hill, to extend considerably to the westward, branching into several small arms and forming containing several woody islands, which induced me to form a plan for its examination. On returning we sounded in the most considerable passage towards the vessels, lying which lies [The strike-through and last two words have been added in pencil] on the east side of the rocky islet, but found the bottom too shoal and irregular to admit the brig going up it, although she draws but six feet of water; I therefore desired Lt. Murray to weigh, and go round to the southern entrance by sea, and to examine and sound in it in the morning, during the time that I should be examining towards the head of the port.] We found the recent remains of a large turtle upon the rocky islet.
   The naturalist and his party returned on board at the same time that I did. They had met with natives, who had thrown stones at them, but retreated upon some

[Page 39]

[1802 Aug. Friday - 6th. H.M.S. Investigator in No.1] port, of the east coast

musquets being fired over their heads. Parts of turtle were hanging upon a tree near the natives; and they use the same kind of scoop net as in Herveys Bay. These people have canoes of bark, not less than 7 being seen.-
[A.M. The Lady Nelson having left this entrance into No.1 port to go round to the southern one, on the preceding evening, I left the ship at 7 oclock with the intention of making a general examination of the port to its head, as far as two days would enable me to do it. It being low water, I had a view of the shoals from the Rrocky Iislet, which appeared to be very extensive, occupying the greater part, if not the whole space to near the southern entrance. With some difficulty we made nearly a straight course for a low point on the southern shore, which I call South-trees Point]. After bringing a small peak upon the neighbouring western hills to the southward of the 1st. island, we carried from 23/4, to 7 fathoms and thence to 3, to within 3/4 of a mile of the point, and when close to the point it had deepened again to 6 fathoms. From South-trees Point [From which [The last two words and bracket have been added in pencil] the south head of Facing Island bore 108.15', distant about 4 miles, which and constitutes the southern and principal entrance into the port. Extensive shoals appeared to lie off the shore to the eastward of the point as far as the eye could rea[indecipherable word]

[Page 40]

1802 Aug [Friday] 6th.continued. H.M. sloop Investigator [Boat excursion up No.1 port, of the east coast]

On leaving South-trees Point to steer upwards for the 5th. island, having which has two small hummocks upon its south end, we had 8 fms. immediately on shoving off from the point,] the opening into a small inlet on the south shore being open. We carried a considerable but decreasing depth, until the 1st. island, rocky south end, came on with Rocky I. in the northern entrance when we had but three fms. being about an equal distance, or one mile, from the south shore, and the first island; but on hauling more to the southward the water deepened, and near the 5th. island south end, we had 7 fms. and 10 close to the rocks.
   Until this time At noon we had seen nothing of the brig, the wind having been too light for her to get into the entrance, but before we left the 5th. island she was seen steering directly into the port: this was about noon -

[Saturday] - 7th. After taking the necessary bearings, we steered in the afternoon for the furthest visible point of the northern shore, about 2 miles distance. In this run we had from 10 to 5, irregularly; being deepest near the southern points of the land; sufficiently so, apparently, for a ship to make fast to the rocks and trees. The small islet that lies one mile to the southward of this point is the 8th. counted besides Rocky Islet; and above this I counted on to the 11th.

[Page 41]

[1802 Aug. Saturday 7th. continued. H.M. sloop Investigator] Boat excursion up No.1, port, of the east coast

11th., and the breadth of the port or river being about 3 miles from this point to the westward, had not diminished in breadth. After [indecipherable word]] passing over the deep water in the neighbourhood of this point, we carried tolerably regular soundings from 6 to 4 fms. past the three upper islets, having passed very close to the 9th. or southernmost of them. On the 11th. islet, we attempted to land for the night, it being sunset, but we found the mud too soft for our purpose, and therefore steered over to the western shore keeping upwards, the river extending now in a north-westerly direction. Before it was quite dark, we had landed.] and pitched our tent - [By making a mark upon the boat hook, the tide appeared to rise 4 feet, and it was low water by the shore at 7 in the morning. The breadth of the river at this sleeping place was about 11/2 mile, and the greatest depth of water appeared to be 6 fms. at low water. On the eastern shore there appeared to be an was a small arm extending that way which I reserved to be looked at on returning. [After sailing about 5 miles further up I found 3 fms. to be the deepest water, and the river was here divided into two arms, the one continuing about N.W.b. N. the other running to the westward, but the principal parts of both occupied by shoal water. The top of some small reddish

[Page 42]

1802 Aug [Saturday] - 7th. continued. H.M. sloop Investigator [Boat excursion up No.1, port, of the east coast]

reddish cliffs, which were the 2nd. of the kind seen, was the uppermost station taken; from this, the small peak upon the highest of the western hills bore 18815'.] From a head lower down, where a small branch also ran off to the westward, the peak had borne 201. 30'.- [We now proceeded downwards, and by the time we had reached the eastern arm opposite to the sleeping place it was noon.

[Sunday] - 8th. In the mouth of this eastern arm I found 31/2, and 4 fms. water which induced me to row a little way up it, when we landed upon the southern shore amongst the mangroves, and I walked to the top of a hill about 3/4 of a mile distant from whence the ship was visible , bearing 81.30'. In passing the upper low mangrove islands in our way down the port, we left them to the westward, finding a channel of from 51/2 to 31/2 fms. close past two trees which stand by themselves At sunset, we reached the brig, where we staid all night. - [Lt. Murray informed me that he had had some difficulty in gaining the southern entrance from a shoal which lies about E.S.E. about 11/2 mile from the south head of Facing Island; and had met with two shoals between South-trees Point, and the south end of the 1st. island, near his present [anchor]age

[Page 43]

[Sunday - 8th.] Boat excursion up No.1, port, of the east coast

By an observation taking in the southern entrance, the latitude of the south head of Facing Island is 23. 53' So. -
   At daylight in the morning, I left the brig and landed upon the southern part of the 1st. island, and took bearings. In order to get to the ship afterwards, we rowed to the south-eastward round a considerable shoal which stretches in that direction from the 1st. island, and afterwards got into a tolerable channel of 3 fms. in depth, leading towards the passage north of the 1st. island, but whether it continues through I cannot tell. We kept a channel of the same kind, however, in steering towards the Rocky I. and which seems to pass between some black rocks and a sand, which are dry at half tide; and from thence close to Facing Island for a small distance; but the bottom being rocky all round the Rocky I. there does not seem to be any regular channel on either side; and there is generally but 4 or 5 feet. At 91/2h. we reached the ship. -
    The general remarks which occurred during this excursion are as follows. The natives appear to be more numerous about the lower part of the port and the neighbouring sea coast than in the upper parts.

[Page 44]

1802 Aug [Sunday] - 8th. continued. H.M.S.Investigator [Boat excursion up the No.1, port, of the east coast]

We saw marks of them wherever we landed, but themselves were not seen. -
   Where I landed, the country was always stony, the country being overspread with loose stones of different sizes; but grass was not wanting and the trees were abundant and of a tolerable size. Quartzose granite, with red and black streaks, and sometimes pure quartz, formed the general body of the rock and stones, and was frequently cracked and broken in all directions, so that it was dangerous climbing up the rocky hills in some places for fear of their giving way. A slaty stone was not unfrequently found, and was stratified; and upon the 1st. island I found a softish white stone, which I thought might be calcarious, but it did not effervesce with acids on being brought on board
   The higher islands appear to consist of the same kind of stone as the main land, and they are also covered with wood and herbage. The lower islands are of mud or sand, but most probably upon a rocky foundation: they are thickly covered with mangroves as are the greater part of the shores of the river: The naturalist found 3 different kinds of this tree; but th[indecipherable letters] whose roots interweave thickly with each other seems to be the most numerous.

[Page 45]

[1802 Aug. Sunday - 8th.continued. H.M.S. Investigator] Boat excursion up No.1, port, of the east coast

The port itself may be of much utility, since its depth of water is equal to any want, and the shelter it affords complete. Wood it has in abundance, of the common kinds about Port Jackson, called gum-trees; and fresh water was found under the hill, called Hill View, at the back of the 1st. island; but it was in holes only. I did not find any water worth the attention of a ship during my excursion, but upon both sides of the northern entrance it was found by our gentlemen in various ponds and swamps; and there is little doubt but that a days examination for water would find it in sufficient abundance Fish appeared to be plentiful, and some were speared by the native in Bongaree who was always an attendant upon my boat. The natives inhabitants seem to get turtle, and 3 were seen in the water by different people. The shores abound with oysters, amongst which are the pearl oysters; but they are found in tolerable abundance higher up, than the entrance, sibut we were not able to get one with the dredge in the northern entrance. I saw no quadrupeds, and but few birds during the excursion, pelicans, gulls, and curlews excepted. - The tide rose but 4 feet up the river in the day time at the neap tides, but I should judge that at the springs it must rise double that quantity, from the appearance about Rocky Islet. The bottom is rocky, where the tides

[Page 46]

1802 Aug. H.M. sloop Investigator [In No. 1, port, of the east coast]

tides run rapidly, but otherwise it is sand, mud or clay, or a mixture of these.
   Mr. Murrays information respecting the southern entrance into the port was generally this. He did not find any passage on the south side of the shoal which lies E.S.E. from the south head of Facing Island but cannot say certainly that none exists. He thinks the deep water of the passage is not more than a mile in width, but about half a mile from the island there is from 6 to 10 fathoms, and the channel leadings fair up into the port. A vessel may lie securely just within the south head of the island, and may procure wood and water there according to Mr. Murrays account.

[Page 47]

[1802 Aug. H.M. sloop Investigator] In No. 1, port, of the east coast
[Navigational data not transcribed]

[Friday] - 6th. Moderate breezes with fine weather. - Got the small bower cable up on deck, cleared the tier, and coiled the cable against the sun. The Commander went away in the whale-boat to examine the port, and at the same time the brig got under weigh but was soon after obliged to come to an [anchor]. In the evening the boat returned, and the brig got under weigh to go round to the southern entrance. At night, light airs, and hazy thick weather. A.M. The Commander went away for two days to examine the port. - Sent the cutter and a party to haul the sein.

[Saturday] - 7th. Light breezes with fine weather. Heard the report of a gun, and soon after saw the L. Nelson entring the port from the southern passage - Boat returned from fishing without success. - Calm with fine weather. A.M. Light breeze. Sighted the [anchor], and finding it foul, cleared and let it go again. A party of gentlemen on shore as usual, examining the country. Sent the boats to fish, and to dredge for oysters, but they had no success. - Noon, light airs and calms

[Page 48]

1802 Aug. H.M.sloop Investigator, in the [entrance of No. 1, port, of the east coast]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

[Sunday] - 8th. Light breezes and fine weather. People employed working up junk Calm and light winds. A.M. Sighted the [anchor], found it clear, and let it go again. Saw the L. Nelson under weigh, and soon after the Commander returned on board Washed and cleaned below. Mustered the ships company and saw them clean

[Monday] - 9th. Light breezes and cloudy weather. Part of the ships company had leave to go on shore upon Facing Island, till sunset. On its threatening to blow in the evening, ranged both cables, and kept hands by the other [anchor]. At 81/2, heard a gun in the N.E. answered it and shewed a light, and at 12, the Lady Nelson [anchor]ed a little to the eastward of us. At daylight, up top-gallant yards, and On weighing the [anchor], we found one of the arms broken off, and the buoy rope having by some means held fast to it, was lost with the buoy. - Some swell rolling in from the S.E.ward. There having been little strain on the [anchor], and no chafe on the cable to indicate a rocky bottom we were at a loss to account for the [anchor] being broken; but on examining it, there was a flaw found through 2/3rds. of the iron

[Page 49]

[1802 Aug. H.M.sloop Investigator, in the] entrance of No. 1, port, of the east coast

The astronomical observations taken here, are as follows, by Lt. Flinders

[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

[Page 50]

1802 Aug. [Monday] - 9th. continued, Investigator [into Keppel Bay]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

At 6h.30 A.M. Made sail along the coast in company with the L. Nelson. -
Passed between C. Capricorn and the rocks lying to the S.E.ward of it, with from 8 to 11 fms.: the L. Nelson ahead. At 10, hauled round the cape for Keppel Bay. Hauled up to pass between C. Keppel and the rocks off it, but got into shoal waters, and the brig finding no passage, we hauled without the rocks and brought to. - Noon, C. Keppel So. 21/2 miles. Rocks S.W. 11/4 C. Capn. S.78E.
From Port No. 1 to C. Capricorn the coast is sandy and not high. Upon the cape is a very distinguishable round hummock. The passage between the cape and the rocks to the S.E. of it is very good in 7 or 8 fms. The small sandy entrance immediately on the west side of the cape is small and blocked up with sands which stretch out to a considerable distance to sea and extend along the shore all the way to C. Keppel. The shoal upon which we had 3 fms. does not seem to be connected with the shoal water near the shore, but the passage between seems narrow. There does not appear to be any ship-passage between C. Keppel and the rocks off it, but the rocks may be passed near to on the west side

[Page 51]

[Tuesday] - 10th. into Keppel Bay
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

Mod. & fine weather. Soon after noon, bore away, and at 0h.40' hauled up into Keppel Bay seeing deeper water. At 2, tacked, at about 11/2 miles from a point on the east shore and worked up to within one mile of it when we came to with the small bower, in 51/2 fms. soft bottom. Sent the cutter to haul the sein, but she had little success. The Commander went on shore and a party of gentlemen to take a view of the bay and to examine the country. - Steadied the ship with the kedge - Light breezes and cloudy, with vivid lightening to the southward
A.M. The Commander took the whale-boat and embarked on board the Lady Nelson in order to examine the bay, and soon after she weighed, but [anchor]ed 2 or 3 miles to the westward. At low water, a shoal nearly dry appeared between the two vessels - Employed getting the broken [anchor] down the main hatchway in the place of a new one taken up. Stocked the new [anchor] and got it into the fore chains
Moderate breezes and cloudy with spitting rain at times

[Page 52]

1802 Aug. [Tuesday] 10th. in Keppel Bay. - Boats examinat[ion of the bay and rivers -]

0n taking a view of the bay from a small hill near our [anchor]age, I saw three four different places where the water opened through the borders of the bay into the country; but these did not appear to be extensive; however I determined to make the circuit of the bay with the brig and boat; and as far as two or three days would go to make an examination and sketch of it. At 7, A.M. We weighed in the brig and steered W.S.W. for the 1st. Middle I. carrying from 6 to 9 fms. until a small south hill bore S141/2E when it shoaled to 2, but passing on, it deepened again to 5 and 7 fms. when the small south hill bore S.17.E. On its shoaling again to 2, we tacked when the hill bore S.25E. and [anchor]ed
On continuing the course in the boat, we passed over 5 feet, and then deepened to 8 fms. before we came to the shoal which runs off from the 1st. Middle I.; so that there are three different passages up the bay, which probably lead into different arms. The first near the eastern shore, which is the largest, seems to lead into the two south easternmost arms; - the 2nd., where the brig [anchor]ed, probably leads into the south-western arm, and the third into the western arm. Into this last river there are three openings; one of which is on the western shore between it and the first middle I. and is more than what has been mentioned; in it there is 3 fms. but the channel is very narrow and lies most on the island side. The 2nd. channel is between the 1st. and 2nd. Middle I. and in it I had 7 and 8 fms. but in mid-passage only 3: I suppose the deep water to lie on the 1st. island side. The most southern

[Page 53]

[1802 Aug. Tuesday - 10th. in Keppel Bay. - Boats examinat]ion of the bay and rivers -

southern channel into the western river was not examined, nor can I tell which of the first mentioned passages lead into it.
The small south hill being open on the west side of the highest of the short hills, seems to lead into the passage of the south-western river, for on their coming on, we were upon the shoal which runs from the 1st. middle I. eastward. After rowing back to the N.E.ward, round this shoal, we entered the small 3 fms. channel, and landed upon the west end of the 1st. Middle Island; from the small cliffy hill of which, I took bearings. The greater part of this island, is low and covered with mangroves, and the 2nd. and 3rd. island seem to be altogether so. -
From Leaving the 1st. Middle Island, we rowed along the northern shore of the western river, about 41/2 miles, carrying from 4 to 8 fms. close to the shore. After dining, I walked up to the highest hill near the shore, and took an extensive set of angles. From this hill I saw, that the western river did not run to any great distance, but branched off into arms, making various intersections in the low land to the southward and westward; the furthest parts being about 10 miles distant. Between the hills near the sea coast, and a range which lies about 15 or 20 miles to the southward and takes a NW.erly direction, the land seems to be low and swampy, with many branchs from these Keppel-Bay rivers intersecting it. The breadth of the main stream appeared to be half

[Page 54]

1802 Aug. [Wednesday] - 11th. Keppel Bay. Boat excursion to [examine the rivers &c.]

a mile at the distance of 10 miles up the western arm, and about 1 mile towards the entrance: from the various arms and swamps to be filled up, the tide runs with great rapidity in the lower parts.
   Upon the hills were some marks of natives and many of kanguroos, and several of the latter were seen. I met with a kind of palm, there which was new to the naturalist. It was so near to sunset on my return to the beac[indecipherable letter] that it was dark before we rowed back to the west end of the 1st. island, where we slept. +
   In the morning, we passed between the 1st. and 2nd. Middle Islands, with irregularly soundings from 8 to 3 fms. the 1st. island side seeming to be deepest.
   + Note. It was high water at 7 P.M. where we slept, and the difference in the height of the tide at that time and at low water in the night was 91/2 feet; but the high water of the next morning was 31/2 feet lower.
   The wind being southerly, we steered east from this 2nd. passage, having shoal water; but in order to get to the southern shore, we took in the sails and rowed to windward. At the distance of 1 mile from the shore there found was 5, and soon after 8 fms., being then in the stream out of from the south-western arm. The mud running out far from the southern shore, we were not able to land, but kept along it, until a shoal spit running out towards the middle of the bay obliged us to keep haul further off; and the lee tide being then strong, I thought

[Page 55]

[1802 Aug. Wednesday - 11th. Keppel Bay. Boat excursion to] examine the rivers &c.

it adviseable to run to the ship, and leave the more eastern arms for another day. There was not so much as three fathoms water until we were half way across, and the soundings then were irregular from 31/2 to 6 fms. to near the ship: there was then 5 and 6.-
[Thursday] - 12th. As soon as the weather tide made, we shewed the signal from the ship, for the brig to come within hail, and she accordingly got under weigh and [anchor]ed near us. - I landed in the afternoon and took a set of bearings from Sea Hill; from whence, as well as from which I had seen before, it was plain, that the brig could be of no material service to me in the future examination of this bay, and therefore I desired Lt. Murray to weigh on the following morning, and run to the hummocky island which lies to the north-eastward of C. Keppel where he was to collect as many turtle as might be he could in two days; and after making such remarks as would be serviceable to navigation, he was to return on the third day; or immediately, if the island afforded no [anchor]age. -
[Friday] - 13th. Having formed a sketch of such parts of the bay and its rivers as I had already seen, and brought up much other necessary work, I departed again at 2 PM. from the ship to examine the more eastern arms. -
Keeping from half a mile to 3/4 of a mile from the northern shore

[Page 56]

1802 Aug. [Friday] - 13th. Boat excursions to examine the [rivers of Keppel Bay]

shore, we I found but 4 and 3 fms. to the point which divides the eastern arm into two branches; the one running E.S.E. the other S.S.E. We took the former, and after rowing abt. 6 miles stopped on the N.E. shore, above three small mangrove islands which seperate the branch into different passages. The principal direction of the branch to this part was S.S.E. and its width about 3/4 of amile. The depth of water was various, between 6 and 3 fms. being deepest upon the eastern shore, until we came to the mangrove islands when there did not appear to be more than 2, at low water. - At this place we slept, as well as the mosquitos and sand flies would permit us; and after taking the bearings of the highest inland hill, and of the broad mount in the morning, we rowed upwards.-
   The rise of the tide at this place was from 10 to 12 feet, and the time of high water was about 9 in the evening, the moon wanting 28 hours of being full. We found The river to diminished both in depth and breadth as we proceeded upwards, and to divided itself ainto small channels amongst the mangroves, but apparently they all joining again further on Having advanced about 4 miles from the place where we slept the branch began to widen and to get deeper, having 21/2 fms. of water in it; and it soon became evident, that it communicated with No. 1 port. I took a station directly opposite to the 2nd. reddish cliffs which had been the uppermost station from No. 1 port, and from thence the small peak upon the highest inland hill bore 189.15', and the broad mount on the west side of Keppel Bay 292.15'
   From having found one communication, we were led to hope that the branch leading to the westward near the

[Page 57]

[1802 Aug. [Friday] 13th. Boat excursions to examine the] rivers of Keppel Bay

reddish cliffs might take us into some other arm of Keppel Bay, and finding four fathoms in the channel favoured the supposition for a little time; but at the distance of 2 miles up it became quite shoal and choaked up with mangroves, and obliged us to return by the way we came.- The tide having half ebbed before we came to the shoalest part of the communicating channel, where it is intersected by mangrove islands, the boat was scarcely saved from being left upon the soft mud 'till the return of the following tide; and until we came abreast of the place where we had slept, the shallowness of the water obliged us constantly to chuse look out for where it was deep enough for the boat. The space which is judged to be mostly dry at the last quarter ebb, is about 21/2 miles in length; but it is, however, possible, that some small stream of sufficient depth for a boat to pass at all times, may exist in some of the mangrove channels amongst the mangroves, but I think it doubtful. [The rise of the tide being from 8 to 14 feet, boats of any size may pass from one part to the other by suiting the tides, and both tides may be made to be favourable by taking care to be in the shoalest part abt. the time of high water.
 [Saturday] - 14th. Having nearly reached the point which divides the eastern arm into two branches, before the ebb tide was done, we stopped to dine, and to take bearings. Afterwds. we entered

[Page 58]

1802 Aug: [Saturday] - 14th. Boat excursions for the examina[tion of the rivers of Keppel Bay]

we entered the southern branch of this arm south east river, and rowed up it in a S.S.E. direction for 3 miles, finding about 3 fms. in it, nearest to the eastern shore, and the breadth of it near 3/4 of a mile. At this distance from the entrance it divided into two, but we pursued that which kept the general direction about 1 mile farther, where there was but 4 and 5 feet. On coming back to the other which led to the S.W.ward we found 3 and 4 fms. but it did not run furt more than 2 miles up before it became quite shoal, and our search amongst the mangroves for a place where to land at was fruitless; and therefore I returned to the ship at 11 at night. -
    The Lady Nelson had returned from the hummocky island, not having seen a turtle. The island does not appear to afford any good [anchor]age, or is there wood or water upon it worth the attention of a ship. {No islands appeared to the N.E.ward
   At 8 A.M. I left the ship to examine the middle arm, and after passing over the spit which runs from the east point of entrance found a good channel leading up on the eastern shore with from 4 to 51/2 fms. in it. We landed at the foot of the small south hill on the west side, which I intended to ascend in order to gain a better knowledge of the branches which intersect the land on the south side of the bay; this, however, the thickness of the trees and shrubs, and the strength of the

[Page 59]

[1802 Aug: Saturday - 14th. Boat excursions for the
examina]tion of the rivers of Keppel Bay

vines by which they are bound together, rendered impracticable. At high water, the tide flows in at the back of this hill and makes several small islands mostly covered with mangroves: at other times the seperations are muddy swamps. By a fatiguing walk amongst this kind of land, I gained a very little knowledge of the continuation of the middle arm, and suppose that it communicates with the next arm to the westward. These two and the western arm, ramify out into the land on the south side of the bay, and it is probable that some of them join and form islands. The task of pursuing these to minuteness and precision would have taken much more time than could be spared from the many more principal objects of the voyage and therefore I determined to leave Keppel Bay with the knowledge I had already gained. ( on next page
   The general remarks made during these last excursions are few.- No inhabitants were seen. The country seems to be divided into hills which are stony, and low land which consists either of muddy salt-water swamps, or is covered with impenitrable mangroves: there are very few places in the whole of the arms visited, where it is possible to land without walking some distance in soft mud and cutting through mangrove

[Page 60]

1802 Aug: [Sunday] - 15th. Keppel Bay. General remarks [during the boat excursions up the arms]

+ Three leaves forward
-groves.- The water in all the arms is very muddy, which seems to arise from the consistence of the bottom and shores, and from the rapidity of the tides. This prevented our native from spearing any fish, for they seemed to abound generally. Ducks, pelicans, white and other cranes, curlews, and sea-pies are met with frequently. - In the muddy swaps about the small south hill, the small fish mentioned by C. C. [Captain Cook] which leap about on shore, are very common; as also a small but pretty kind of red crab, which has but one large red claw which he carries as if upon his back.
( Belongs to last page
     On leaving this small south hill, in the boat, as soon as the tide floated the boat, which was not before 9 at night, I attempted to trace the deep channel out to the ship, and succeeded so far as to keep 3 fms. water, but I suppose there must be more in the middle of the channel: we arrived on board the ship at 11.
The south hill being thickly covered with shrubs, I offered a boat to the botanists to visit it which they accepted, but they did not find much novelty.
Speaking generally of Keppel Bay I think it to be of little value. Fresh water can be procured, but we found no place where it would not be attended with difficulty. Our [anchor]age seems to be as good as any other for a ship who came in only for a few days. Wood is easily procured and water may be found in small

[Page 61]

[1802 Aug: Sunday - 15th. Keppel Bay. General remarks] during the boat excursions up the arms.

ponds and swamps at the back of the beach the best place being at a hole at the upper end of the small hill on the point.
The country round the bay is about described as good for little. The grass upon the hills, however, feed some kanguroos, and emu's were seen near C. Keppel. Ducks are numerous in the lagoon ponds near that place and a small tract of country in thes neighbourhood is described as being superiorsuperior to any other seen. Some variety of birds are found in the woods and amongst others the emu and another large kind of bird; and we were fortunate enough to take a small supply of fish in our sein
   The oysters which are commonly found in some places upon the mud are of a very small kind. They do not adhere to rocks generally, but to each other, and form large bodies, in some places [indecipherable word] the mud banks. There are also pearl oysters, but seemingly not so abundant as in No1, port. The remains of large crabs are seen near the natives fire places.- I found several large holes scratched out, about the hills, the cause of which I did not understand comprehend; but we conjecture, that it is to get at a root which they natives eat, some being found near the holes where small fires had been also made.
   The rise of tide in the bay and its arms seems to be from 9 to 14 feet, and the time of high water is near 21/2 hours before the [new moon] comes to the meridian. The day tide seems to fall 2 or 3 feet short of that at night. The tide runs strongest at the last 1/4 flood and first ebb, and turns su[indecipherable letters]

[Page 62]

1802 Aug. [Wednesday] - 11th. H.M.S. Investigator
[in Keppel Bay]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy. The master away sounding in the cutter
Moderate breezes and cloudy, clear at night
A.M.
Moderate & fine wr. with haze.
People employed variously. Gentlemen on shore examining the country. The Commander returned on board with the whale boat
[Thursday] - 12
     Fresh breezes and hazy. Made the signal to the L. Nelson to speak and she accordingly weighed and came to an anchor near us. Sighted the [anchor], and finding it clear let it go again
Light breezes and hazy.
A.M. At 2 found the tide to have fallen 12 feet since the last high water according to the lead
   Moderate breezes and fine weather
The Lady Nelson got under weigh and stood to seaward to the largest hummocky island off Cape Keppel. Mustered the ships company and saw them clean. Boats employed carrying gentlemen to and from the shore

[Page 63]

[1802 Aug. Friday - 13th. H.M.S. Investigator]
in Keppel Bay
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy weather
The Commander went away in the whale-boat to examine the eastern rivers that fall into the bay. The cutter employed hauling the sein Served fish to the people. - Served out slops, and aired the rest before they were stowed away
A.M. Mod and cloudy. People on board employed occasionally The cutter employed hauling the sein - Do. weather
 [Saturday] - 14th.
Moderate breezes and cloudy.
At 3, the L. Nelson come to an [anchor] near us. In the evening served out the fish brought on board by the cutter. - The Commander returned.
A.M. The Commander went away to examine the middle arm which falls into the bay.
Sailmakers employed making a main sail for the L. Nelson Moderate breezes and fine weather

[Page 64]

1802 Aug. [Sunday] - 15th. H.M.S. Investigator [in Keppel Bay.]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Light airs and cloudy. The cutter employed hauling the sein. On broaching a cask of rice, found a part of it damaged. Mod. breezes and fine wr. a heavy dew falling. The Commander returned. - {Tide rose 12 feet this high water
A.M.
Fine weather. Loosed sails to dry
Expenditure of water last week 3 tons, remaining 46.
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean, and part had leave afterwards to walk on shore
[Monday] - 16th.
Moderate breezes and cloudy.
Saw several natives on shore for the first time here, with our people who were upon liberty. A mate and one man did not return on board Calm and fine weather A.M.
Fired two guns as signals to the two people on shore, and sent the cutter in search, but without success About 10, saw about 25 natives coming along the beach with our two people. Sent a boat and brought them latter on board. Employed putting a short service upon the working cable, and in occasional duties

[Page 65]

[Monday - 16th.] in Keppel Bay.

No natives having been seen in our neighbourhood, now for a week, I considered there was no danger in indulging the seamen with a walk on shore. They
natives made their appearance suddenly, to the number of 20, in the neighbourhood of Cape Keppel, with spears which they kept poised in a threatening attitude; but these they were afterwards prevailed with to layd aside, and many of them came nearly to the ships with the seamen, in a peaceable manner
  The masters mate and seaman who were left on shore, had incautiously strayed away by themselves although they knew of the natives being near, and when they should have been at the beach were entangled in a mangrove swamp some miles back distant from it. In the morning they met with the natives, who gave them some food and conducted them to the shore. - At this time I had taken the whale boat round to Cape Keppel to take bearings from thence, and partly to look after these two people men, so that I saw nothing of the natives but except at a distance; but they are described by the gentlemen who went to them as being a stout muscular people; having no arms, and apparently intending no offence. They seemed to understand bartering better than most or perhaps than any people we had seen. They had the same kind of hard tumours upon the bone of the wrist, as the people of Sandy Cape had, and the cause of it was

[Page 66]

1802 Aug. [Monday] - 16th. in Keppel Bay

attempted to be explained, but ineffectually, to one of the gentlemen. They did not seemed to be devoid of curiosity in some things, but what might have been judged to excite it most, frequently passed without notice. On Thursday morning, after we had weighed, a considerable party of them were seen again opposite to where the vessels had laid; so that we may hope that our conduct and presents have so far conciliated their good will and gained their confidence, that they will be glad #

+ three leaves back, to be inserted [The last three words have been added in pencil]
  The stone about Keppel Bay consists principally of a slaty greyish stone, of quartz, and of a whitish and soft stone. The two first ares frequently found intermixed, and the last is generally, if not always, above them. The quartz is of various colours, but some is pure: none was seen in a chrystalized state. The quartz is not unfrequently mixed with some other matters, and perhaps becomes granite in some cases.

# to have a friendly communication with the next ship that may visit their neighbourhood.

[Page 67]

Astronomical observations - by Lt. Flinders

[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

[Page 68]

1802 Aug. [Tuesday] - 17th H.M.S. Investigator in [Keppel Bay - East Coast]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Light airs with fine weather, but sultry. Cutter returned on board, after having had an interview with the natives At 3, the Commander returned with the whale boat, from Cape Keppel
Cut up beef No 39 - short 12 lbs. Weighed the kedge, hoisted in the boats and secured them, and prepared for sea.
A.M. Light airs and fine weather
At 6h.30' weighed and made sail for the Keppel Isles with the Lady Nelson in company.
     Made all sail, but finding at 91/2h. that we did not stem the flood tide, dropped a kedge under foot about 3/4 of a mile to the NW.ward of our former anchorage
A breeze coming in from the sea, lowered down the sails Sailmakers employed making a new M. sail for the L Nelson.
Made a new messenger, the old being stranded Light airs & fine, with haze.

[Page 69]

[1802 Aug. [Tuesday] 17th H.M.S. Investigator in]
Keppel Bay - East Coast
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

The absence of the two people who had staid on shore all night, making it necessary to wait, I took the boat early on Monday morning and went to Cape Keppel from whence I had a tolerable view of the neighbouring isles, and it was too late to move before I was able to return. - C. Cook had passed between the largest of the Keppel Isles, finding the water too shoal between them and the main; and on that account I purpose to pass further without, to gain as much knowledge of the navigation amongst them as may be. Lt. Murray had seen smoke upon the largest isles when he was upon the hummocky isle off Cape Keppel, which agrees with C.Cs [Captain Cook's] account of their being inhabited. -
    The water being very thick and muddy in all the rivers which fall into the Keppel Bay, and this water running towards the sea at the latter part of the ebb, is very deceiving in its appearance; for the deepest channels contain the thick water, whilst those places in which there is little tide will contain the sea water which is clear. The colour of the water, therefore, must be taken in a contrary sense in indicating shoals in this case, to what it is usually taken

[Page 70]

1802 Aug. [Wednesday] - 18th. H.M.S. Investigator [along the east coast - Keppel Isles]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Light airs with fine weather. At 0h.35', weighed the kedge, on the ebb tide making. Tacked occasionally keeping in the deepest channel out of the bay. At 4, the rocks off C. Keppel, S.b.W.11/4'. At dusk, made the signal to prepare to [anchor], and at 6h.30' dropped the kedge [anchor] upon a bottom of sand and mud. The hummocky I. bearing E.13.S miles, and the outermost is land N4.W. Light airs and fine wr.: water smooth. - At 7, the ship tended to the flood tide. At 1, A.M. found the rise of tide to be 8 feet. - Heavy dew Light breezes & fine weather At daylight, weighed and made sail to pass to the eastward of the Keppel Isles.
At 10, Passed along the east side of the largest I. - Saw natives upon it
Washed and cleaned below
Light breezes & hazy weather
At noon, No.most of Keppel I. in sight N.64W. Nearest I. south end S.22.W. dist 11/2 mile. The N.E.most, called lst. lump S.67.E. Extreme of the main N.21.W. - Hazy weather

[Page 71]

[1802 Aug. [Wednesday] - 18th. H.M.S. Investigator] along the east coast - Keppel Isles
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

Keppel Isles are a considerable cluster, if we include the various rocks and rocky islets which lie scattered about and amongst them. There are two islands of considerable size, the largest being 7 or 8 miles in circumference, and inhabited: we saw men also upon one of the smaller and more northern isles. -
   We did not find any dangers amongst them but what are sufficiently apparent; and they no doubt afford several [anchor]ages. The largest I. has some sandy bays in it, but the best of them seem to exposed to the easterly winds.
   The isles seem to have grass and bushes upon them and there are trees upon the second largest island. From the gullies upon the sides of the hills, I should judge that fresh water is not very scarce: the presence of natives confirms this. There does not seem to be much sand upon any of the isles, but they are all rocky, and some of them tolerably high

[Page 72]

1802 Aug: [Thursday] - 19th. H.M.S. Investigator [along the east coast - Off C. Manifold]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather Made signal to the brig to shorten sail, and then to steer in shore for an opening; but, finding the water shoal, and no good passage apparent, hauled off and steered along the coast. At 5, the wind dying away & finding the ship drifting towards the shore, dropped a kedge upon a sandy bottom about 11/4' dist from the sandy shore
1st. lump of Keppel I. S.50.E. An island near C. Manifold N.4.E. Two other small isles in the offing - {Cut up pork No.11, 3 pieces short of contents
Light airs and calms
Thick foggy weather, and heavy dew
At 7, made the signal to weigh, hauled up the kedge and made all sail along the coast. Light airs and foggy weather.
Mustered ships company and saw them clean
Served sour krout and vinegar to the ships company
Noon, light airs and foggy. Rocky point Two rocks near the shore S.47.W.11/2'. A peaked rock N.31.E. A flat islet N. 651/2E. Brig in Compy.

[Page 73]

[1802 Aug [Thursday] - 19th. H.M.S. Investigator] along the east coast - Off C. Manifold
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

   The little bay which the shoaling of the water prevented us from trying further to enter, is open to the S.E. and probably affords no water deep enough for a ship to ride in. Its direction is along the shore, of which it forms a narrow neck at its head with the sea.
   The shore from the Isles to past where we dropped the kedge [anchor] is sandy and generally low, but at two or three miles inland it rises to a considerable height. Natives came down to the beach where we [anchor]ed.
   The two islets in the offing are situated nearly as the Two Brothers of C.C.s [Captain Cook's] chart, but they are so altogether unlike in their appearance, that I am in uncertainty concerning them. The one is a small peaked rock, probably with some low land around it, whilst the other is a low flat islet, without eminences or trees. They appear to be equally rocky. - On seeing the peaked islet from the northern side, a perforation through it, in the lower part, was distinguishable. - Note. In C.Cs [Captain Cook's] account, I find these rocky islets distinguished, as we find them; but the name brothers is not there used: - perhaps the name may have crept into the charts improperly.

[Page 74]

1802 Aug. [Friday] - 20th. H.M.S. Investigator [along the east coast - Cape Manifold]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Light airs and hazy. Finding the ship drawing near the land, tacked at 30' past noon, and soon after a moderate breeze sprung up. At 3, tacked, a low rocky islet in the offing N.5 to 12E. 4 miles. At 5, tacked offshore, it being dist 2 or 3 miles - Hazy weather
At 7, the peaked rock N1/2W. 3' or 4' tacked in shore, and the wind being moderate and the brig much to leeward, dropped the kedge soon after 9 oclock about 21/2 miles from the land Fired a gun, which was answered by the brig. Kept a light all night
A.M. Fresh breezes & fine weather. At day light, the brig not in sight. Weighed and made sail as well along the coast as the wind would permit, supposing the brig had passed us by means of the shift of wind.
At 9, tacked towards the land, but it immediately became calm Hoisted the cutter within board to be repaired. Saw the L. Nelson to the E.S.E.ward. At noon, moderate breeze & hazy weather. Peaked rock in the offing S.711/2E. Hummock rock at the northern extreme N391/2W Nearest shore dist 3 miles to the S.W.

[Page 75]

[1802 Aug. Friday - 20th. H.M.S. Investigator] along the east coast - Cape Manifold
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

The island lying off C. Manifold is stony and not very low. The back land of the main is very hummocky, and of moderate height. The shore immediately about the cape is divided into rocky heads and small beaches, but elsewhere the shore is sandy. The country has but a barren appearance
   At the distance of 3 or 4 miles to the northward there are some small rocks lying at a short distance from the shore; and about the same distance further on, which is the land nearly abreast at this noon, the land seems to be much broken, into rocky islets, heads and intermediate sandy beaches

[Page 76]

1802 Aug. [Saturday] - 21st. H.M.S. Investigator [along the east coast - into No. 2, port]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and hazy weather 1h. Tkd. Ship}
At 3, the brig in sight, from the masthead bearing S.E.b.E. Kept standing off in order to get nearer to her. At 5, tacked towards the land, the brig not yet visible from the deck Light airs and hazy. Peaked rocky islet S1/2W. at dusk. At 8, fired a gun but received no answer from the brig
Light breezes and hazy. Tacked ship
At 2, shortened sail & laid the M.topsail to the mast, waiting for the brig to come up. At 5, filled on the wind permitting us to steer in for the land, and fired a gun, but heard no answer. At 6, the brig in sight to the southward. At 91/2, tacked off, being about 11/2' dist from some rocky islets. Saw an opening to windwd: and made the signal to the brig to steer in shore, she having now met us. At 11, passed close to an island in the mouth of the opening, and stood up, but finding the water become shoaler, tacked and [anchor]d one mile from the island, it bearing N26 to 69E - Point of the south entrance S.29E. Mod. & hazy wr -

[Page 77]

[1802 Aug. [Saturday] - 21st. H.M.S. Investigator] along the east coast - into No. 2, port
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

The land from which we tacked at 1 P.M. and was distant but 3/4 of a mile is of moderate height, and seem to be an island. The land a little farther on seems to be much broken and has some appearance of affording inlets. -
   On coming in with the land in the morning it appeared, that there was an opening at the back of several rocky islets, which seem here to form a barrier to the coast; there seems however to be deep water amongst them. It surprised us somewhat to see trees resembling the Norfolk I. pine upon the upon the islets, and some parts of the main. Generally, the country appears to be stony and destitute of any but very small vegetation. The hills are abrupt and appear romantic; being well suited to the purpose of ascent and of affording good views

[Page 78]

1802 Aug: [Sunday] - 22nd. H.M.S. Investigator [in No. 2, port, discovered on the east coast]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Mod. breezes & hazy weather. A party of gentlemen landed on the north side of the port to examine the country; and the Commander landed upon the island in the entrance. Carpenters employed cutting down pines to make [anchor] stocks. Sent the cutter to haul the sein, and in the evening she returned with moderate success; and having found a watering place on the north side
A.M. Light airs with hazy weather. The Commander took the whale-boat to examine the port. Sent on shore 45 empty casks to be filled on the north side, in a gully where the water comes down from the hills. Carpenters cutting pines upon Entrance Island, for planks etc. and for fire wood. - Lt. Murray reported, that the brigs main keel was so badly sprung as to be useless: this had been done when coming round from Facing Island, No. 1, port.
Fresh breezes and fine weather. Employed on board in the holds
[Monday] - 23. Mod. breezes with fine weather. There being some surf risen upon the small beach where the water runs, we had some difficulty in getting off the casks, and a considerable part were left on the shore, and sent men with a midshipman to get them filled as the water ran. The Commander returned at 7 P.M. from his excursion up the

[Page 79]

[1802 Aug.[Sunday] - 22nd. H.M.S. Investigator]
[Monday] 23 in No. 2, port, discovered on the east coast

port. A.M. Moderate breezes & fine weather. The boats employed towing off water casks, but on account of the surf, 12 still remained on shore. Sent a boat to fetch off pine logs from Entrance Island. Employed on board stowing away water - Do. weather


My excursion in the whale-boat was as follows. Upon the lst. Entrance Island, where a set of angles were taken, I saw, that the port divided itself into two branches, but that it had not the appearance of being very extensive. We had many empty water casks on board the ship which there was an opportunity of filling in this port here, and the rocky islets on this north side, more specially Entrance Islet, afforded the kind of pine found at Norfolk Island, which would be convenient to us for many purposes; I therefore laid down a plan of duty to be followed during my absence, and early on Sunday morning, rowed from the ship to the point of the southern branch. Until we came near the opposite shore the soundings were 5 fms., but it then deepened, and immediately off the inner south point, there is no bottom at 10 fms. From an eminence behind this point, I took angles, and then steered across, westward, for the end of a dry sandy spit, and to a hilly projection which proved to be near the head of the western arm of the port At this place, the observed latitude, from the artificial horizon was 22.30'.27" So. Entrance Island

[Page 80]

1802 Aug: Boat excursion in No. 2, port, discovered [on the east coast]

Bearing N.6412' to 6745'Et. by theodolite; and the sea was visible at 345 over ^a) shoal dry place into which it appears to flow when the tide rises. This appears to be the bight behind Island Head as marked in C.Cs [Captain Cook's] charts.
   From the inner south point to this place, we found no deep water, except close to the point. The great part of the western branch is dry at low water, but there are small irregular channels amongst the sands in which there is sometimes 3 or 4 fms. These sand banks are frequented by ducks, and the channels abound with flat fish, mullet, and sharks.
   In the afternoon, I returned to the southern branch and ascended a high round hill which stands close to the shore, on the east side, from whence Cape Manifold and the isles in the offing were visible as well as the whole extent of the southern part of this port. In coming across, the water was very variable in its depth, but on coming near the shore the water was it became deep as off the inner south point and I believe there is a channel, of ten or more fathoms along this shore, but it does not probably go far up the southern arm. I judge, that a ship might make fast to the trees or rocks on shore, and lie in a sufficient depth of water, having an [anchor] to the westward. As it was dark by the time that I had descended from the hill, it was too late to ascertain the

[Page 81]

[1802 Aug. Boat excursion in No. 2, port, discovered] on the east coast

the spot where this might be done, or to search whether fresh water could be found in a convenient place, which the neighbourhood of hills would induce one to suppose. There are some small beaches in this port well adapted for hauling the sein upon, and fish appeared to be numerous about them. I know of no difficulty that a ship would have to get at this part of the port from either side of the Entrance Island; but it would be prudent to [anchor] before passing round the inner south point, and then examine the shore and the soundings before with a boat before the ship was finally placed: and she would then be in sufficient security to undergo any refitment or repair that might be wanted. - insert, from next page
   We arrived on board the ship about 7 in the evening The general remarks that occurred in this short excursion as well as on board during our stay are as follows: We saw No pine trees were seen
any where in the port, but at the northern entrance. The country seems to be stony or sandy in general, and unfit for cultivation; but nevertheless, trees of considerable size, and grass in moderate abundance, are produced. Marks of kanguroos were not unfrequent. Hawks, and the black & bald-headed mocking bird of Port Jackson were more commonly seen than any other birds on shore. Ducks, sea pies and gulls frequent the shoals

[Page 82]

1802 Aug. Boat excursion in No. 2, port. discovered [upon the east coast. - Pine trees]

General remarks continued
      Fish seem to be more numerous here than in any port we have yet visited, Amongst these, sharks mullet and flying fish were most frequently seen. +
The shoals, and the bottom in most parts of the port, are of sand, and rather hard; but in the deep channel along this inner south head the bottom is soft. + Some turtle were seen, but could not be taken.
   We saw no natives, but the country on the south side of the port was on fire. They appear to visit the islets, there being marks of them upon Entrance Islet, but not recent. -
   The pines which grow upon Entrance Island, and the parts nearest to its neighbourhood, are perhaps the most valuable part of the produce of this port. There are trees of sufficient size and form to make topmasts for ships, or spars of any smaller size. The branches of the trees are very brittle, but it was our Carpenters opinion, that that the trunks were tough wood, and superior to the Norway pine either for spars or for cutting into plank. His judgesment from the trees holding till they are nearly cut through before they fall, and from the chips; but I suspect that like the Norfolk Island wood it will not prove to be durable. Turpentine exudes out of them in considerable quan-

[Page 83]

[1802 Aug. Boat excursion in No. 2, port. discovered] upon the east coast. - Pine trees

-tities, more especially from between the bark and the wood. These trees are found upon the main land on the north side of the entrance, and also upon the neighbouring islets, more or less, but they are most numerous upon Entrance Islet, and seem to be straighter than else where. -
During the latter part of our stay, we found some sea rolling swell coming in from the south-eastward where we lay at [anchor], about one mile within the island; probably we should have laid better in the middle of the northern passage, having the island to the south east of us if the water there is not too deep. The south easterly swell and this rolling directly upon the north shore rendered our watering there very troublesome and tedious. The place where we procured water will hardly be mistaken, since we sent there with the expectation of finding water. It comes down a deep gully from the hills to a very small beach, on each side of which are projecting lumps of land seperated from the main. There are pine trees in this gully.
   As near as I can judge, it is high water here about two hours after before the moon comes to the meridian, and the tide seems to rise more than nine feet, but I can not say how much

[Page 84]

Astronomical observations upon Entrance Island. N.W. end
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

[Page 85]

1802 Aug. [Tuesday] - 24th. From No. 2, port
[Navigational data and Astronomical observations not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and fine weather
Carpenters on shore upon Entrance Island cutting pine logs for plank. - With much difficulty, received on board the remaining water casks, which completed the ship to 57 tons. - Received on board 4 more pine logs for plank
Moderate breezes and cloudy.
A.M. Light airs. Employed securing the logs and preparing for sea. At daylight, got up T.Gt. yards, weighed and made sail to the northward
Washed and cleaned below
On the ebb tide making at 9 oclock we found the ship drifting to the southward, the wind being very light and variable. Dropped the kedge [anchor] at 10 o'clock, and made the signal to the brig to do the same. Entrance island bearing S.5.E. dist 11/4 mile.
Light airs & fine weather, with some haze

[Page 86]

1802 Aug. [Wednesday] - 25th. H.M.S. Investigator [along the east coast. - Harveys Isles]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Light airs and fine weather. At 2h.30' a breeze springing up, and the tide beginning to slack, weighed and made sail, working to the northward. Tacked occasionally. At 4h.30' we were carried very near to a rocky islet, which we cleared with some difficulty. At 5h.30', stood between some rocky islets and the main and made the signal to prepare to [anchor]. At 7, came to with the kedge, one mile within some of Harveys Isles, which bore from N.E. to East. Other islets and the main from N.W. round by the west to S.E. Light breezes and fine weather. -
A.M. Moderate breezes and fine weather. At 5h.40' weighed, and made short trips working out from between Harveys Islands. At 7h.1/4 tacked in shore. C. Townsend bearing N.71.W. and the islets under which we had [anchor]d S.15.W. 4 miles At 9, tacked off, being 11/2' distant from the shore near Island Head.
At 10h., dropped the kedge near the 2nd hummocky rocks, perceiving the lee tide to be made. The Commander and some gentlemen landed upon the rocks which are a part of Harveys Isles. - Saw the L. Nelson at [anchor] near the main. -
Mod. breezes & fine weather

[Page 87]

[1802 Aug. Tuesday - 25th. H.M.S. Investigator] along the east coast. - Harveys Isles.
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

The islands which lie in the neighbourhood of Port No 2, from C. Manifold to Island Head, have the name Harveys Isles applied to them in the chart; but the discovery of the port seems to requ make a distinction amongst them, and I shall therefore call them Harveys Isles which lie between the port and Island Head. These isles have the same general character, being rocky, moderately high and steep. That side opposed to the sea is rocky cliffs, but on the land side they slope a little, and have a few scattered pines sometimes upon them, which shew their heads over all.
     Upon the highest part of the hummocky rocks; I had a view of several islands to the northward and observed the latitude as per column, after taking angles with the theodolite. - Several large turtle were seen about the rocks, and I struck one with large shot, but none were taken. - The rocks consist of a very hard stone of I know not what kind. A few shrubs and grass are produced upon the upper parts, and ants, grass-hoppers and lizards exist upon it. Small oysters adhere to the rocks below the wash of the surf

[Page 88]

1802 Aug. [Thursday] - 26th. H.M.S. Investigator [off Island Head; and in No. 3, passage to Shoal-water Bay]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Moderate breezes & fine. At 4 the gentlemen returned from the rocky islets, hoisted up the cutter. At 4 weighed and stretched in towards the shore, the lee tide being done.
At 4h.35, tacked being 1 mile from Island Head At 51/2h. tacked towards the bight between the head and C. Townsend, and at 7, [anchor]ed with the kedge in 18 fms. soft bottom. The brig being considerably astern, shewed a light to her. - Light airs & fine weather
A.M. Do. weather. At 5h.40' weighed and steered for an opening which bore S.52.W. into which the tide appeared to set. On coming near the rocky points of the entrance the water shoaled suddenly, the cutter being ahead at a considerable distance had missed it. Dropped the kedge, and sent the whale boat to sound near us, when finding the water deeper and the master reporting good soundings further up, weighed and drifted in with the tide, attended by two boats
At 8h.40' [anchor]ed upon a soft bottom, having passed the narrow part, and clued down the sails. Saw the brig rowing in after us. Sent the cutter to haul the sein. The Commander employing the whale boat. The L. Nelson [anchor]ed just without side of the entrance

[Page 89]

[1802 Aug. Thursday - 26th. H.M.S. Investigator] off Island Head; and in No.3 passage to Shoal-water Bay
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

In the bight round Island Head, we observed a canoe with two natives in it, but they made to the shore and hauled the canoe up. It appeared to be higher out of the water than any we had yet seen. - The country was on fire where they landed.
By the way of the opening left in the chart between Island Head and C. Townsend, I have expectation of getting into the Broad Sound Shoal-water Bay from what C.C. [Captain Cook] says, and from the information of the chart. -
  In the morning, we carried very deep water, until we approached the narrow parts of the entrance, which seem to be about 2 miles asunder, and are low, with scattered rocks off them. Here the tide carried us in with much rapidity, and for fear of being carried upon a rock, we dropped the [anchor] until further information was gained; for the master had been ahead some time, and made the signal for more than 4 fms. The tide being mostly done, and considering the ship to be in a place of safety, I landed to ascend a high hill on the western eastern shore, as did the botanical gentlemen, whilst the ebb tide was running

[Page 90]

1802 Aug. [Friday] - 27th. H.M.S. Investigator [in No 3, a passage into Shoal-water Bay - B. of Inlets]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Moderate breezes & fine weather. The cutter returned with sufficient fish for half the ships company. The L. Nelson came in with the first of the flood and [anchor]ed near us On hauling up the boats to hoist up at 6 P.M. the cutter was upset by the tide, and every thing thrown out The boatswain getting into the gig, to pick up the cutters boat-keeper, thought necessary to cut the cutter adrift to save himself from being washed out of the gig, (she being athwart hawse of the cutter) and then went after her in the gig. The boat-keeper and some things were picked up by a boat from the brig. At 7h.1/2, the Commander and gentlemen returned from the shore.
A.M. Calm & hazy weather. At 6, the gig returned having seen nothing of the cutter At 6h.1/2, weighed, and dropped up the passage with the tide, the L. Nelson being [indecipherable word] mile ahead, and the cutter whale boat nearer[indecipherable word]. Found both arms broken off the kedge [anchor], and the cable rubbed. At 7h.3/4, dropped the kedge, the boat having shoal water; but after weighed and towed into the deep channel. At 8h.1/2, [anchor]d with the kedge, near mid-channel, and the master sounded round the ship. Sent Lt. Fowler in the whale boat, upwards, to search for the cutter. - Washed and cleaned below. - Carpenters making a stock for the [s]tream [anchor] out of a log of pine - Moderate breezes and fine weather

[Page 91]

[1802 Aug. Friday - 27th. H.M.S. Investigator]
in No 3, a passage into Shoal-water Bay -
B. of Inlets

The hill which I went on shore on the eastern side of the passage to ascend, proved to be further from the water side and of a more laborious ascent, than was expected. Its height is considerable, and consequently it afforded a very extensive view. Almost the whole of Shoal-water Bay with its numerous islands was visible, as well as those in the offing. C. Townsend was seen to be an island, as conjectured by C.C. [Captain Cook] as also the piece of land on the west side of it, both being much indented by water, and of singular shapes. The northern extreme of the main, I judge to be at the entrance into Thirsty Sound; and what I took to be Pier Head bore 288.30' by theodolite. I took a tolerably extensive set of bearings all round, but the islands were too numerous to distinguish every one of them. Behind No. 2, the last port left, I saw distant water which I judge to communicate with Shoal-water Bay. - The hills are stony, but some of them are clothed with grass and wood, and the pine grows in the gullies between them. The low land is sandy or stony, but covered with wood & herbage. Fresh water stands in ponds at the foot of the hills. No natives were seen, and but one kanguroo.
Note. The tide of flood appears to have done running just 2 hours before the [moon] comes to the meridian, but the water will probably rise some time afterwards in this No. 3, passage

[Page 92]

1802 Aug.[Saturday] - 28th. H.M.S. Investigator [in No. 3, a passage into Shoal-water Bay.]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and fine weather. The carpenters sawing out a stream [anchor] stock.-
At 4h.10' weighed and dropped up with the flood, the brig and a boat being ahead. At 4h.1/2, the water suddenly shoaling, dropped the kedge, but the ship took the bottom. On her floating as the tide rose, dropped upwards, assisted by the breeze. At 5h.3/4 [anchor]ed in 51/2 fms. sand & shells; the brig having shoal-water ahead. The master sounded round the ship. The inner points of the passage S.57.E. and N.36.W., and the bay open before us. -
A.M. Light airs & fine weather.
Sent the master to sound into the bay for deep water, which he found in a channel running up leading apparently into a river to the southeastward. The Commander took the whale-boat to search for the cutter and to examine about the islands Carpenters employed fitting two stocks to the stream [anchor]s, and the men in jobs about the rigging
At noon, light airs and fine weather Launch employed hauling the sein

[Page 93]

[1802 Aug. Saturday - 28th. H.M.S. Investigator] in No. 3, a passage into Shoal-water Bay.
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

The irregularity of the soundings in this passage, will prevent any ship from following us through it; not but that there is deep water enough all the way through as I believe; but it does not seem to form any regular channel; and the rapidity of the tide will not let a ship chuse much what course she will go. Where we grounded this P.M. was near the mid-channel, and drawing near the inner end of the passage. The bottom is variable also in quality, being sometimes rocky, especially about the outer entrance, and in some places, sand, shells, or soft mud.
My excursion in the whale boat was directed towards the rocks and small islands which lie off the S.W. side of C. Townsend Island. These are all connected to the island by shoals which are mostly dry at low water and have small rocks and irregular shoals round them. From these I steered across to the western island, upon the south end of which I took angles, and observed the latitude as annexed. The soundings across were 5, 7, 4, 2, 2, 5, 7, 5 close to the shore; from which it appears that there is a shoal in the mid-channel of this passage; and I observed a large shoal 2 or 3 miles to the westward of my station

[Page 94]

1802 Aug. [Sunday] - 29th. 1802 - Investigator [Shoal-water Bay - Bay of Inlets]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Light airs and calms. The launch returned with tolerable success, and went away again after dinner. - People on board employed as in the morning. -
    At 6, the Commander returned having seen nothing of the cutter; and soon after the launch returned with more fish. Served to theh companies of both vessels -
Light breezes & fine weather
A.M. Do. weather with haze. At 6h.20' weighed and made sail into Shoal-water Bay, carrying soundings as per column, and having the brig and two boats ahead. At 9h.1/4, came to with the stream [anchor] upon a soft bottom - Washed and cleaned below .- Suspended Mr. Douglas - boatswn from his public duty for fighting with Wm Job, a seaman, and for drunkenness and punished Job with 12 lashes, after explaining the heinousness of striking a superior officer. -
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean. - The inner entrance of No. 3, passage N.E.b.E. 3 miles, from the [anchor]age. Light airs and calms

[Page 95]

[1802 Aug [Sunday] 29th.1802 - Investigator] Shoal-water Bay - Bay of Inlets
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

In the afternoon I steered in the boat up the channel between C. Townsend Island and that west of it. From a low projecting point I took angles, and the passage out to sea, but it did not appear to be passable for a ship, although there are tolerably regular soundings of 4 and 5 fms. thus far up. the passage was about 3/4' wide in the upper part. - From hence I returned to the ship, landing upon the round rock near the south end of C. Townsend I. in the way, in order to see the lay of the shoals in the bay; it being then low water. - The consistence of the islands upon which I landed was of a cracking, slaty stone, in which veins of quartz ran irregularly. This quartz was found very pure but in small pieces, scattered over the surface. The stone of the main on the Island-head side seemed to me to be a different substance. I saw no natives. but Three bats flew from the bushes upon the top of a little islet whose size was nearest to that of a crow: their form was to me very uncommon, but I only saw them flying. No pine trees appeared upon the islands.- The bottom was thickly covered in some places with different kinds of coral, sea-weeds, fungusses and other marine substances of various colours, and making a beautiful appearance

[Page 96]

1802 Aug.[Monday] - 30th. H.M.S.Investigator [in Shoal Bay - Bay of Inlets
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Light airs & fine weather. -
At 4h.1/4, weighed and made sail after the L. Nelson towards the south shore of the bay, with the launch ahead sounding. On seeing a shoal bank stretching up and down the bay, tacked ship, having shoaled the water to 3 fms. and came to an [anchor] with the stream upon a soft bottom of 5 fms. depth, it being low water. A round peak upon the south shore S.70W. that land being still further distant than the passage through which we had come
Light airs and hazy A.M.
The Commander went on board the Lady Nelson,whenupon which she weighed and stood to the S.E.ward up the river. Sent the launch to the south shore to land several of the gentlemen
Employed on board staying the mast and setting up such of the lower and topmast rigging as required it. - Carpenters sawing plank for making a new main keel sliding keel for the brig
Moderate breezes and hazy.

[Page 97]

[1802 Aug. [Monday] - 30th. H.M.S.Investigator] in Shoal Bay - Bay of Inlets

Being clear of No. 3, passage at the last [anchor]age, the object of moving this afternoon was to get near to the south shore for the botanical gentlemen to examine the hills there, whilst I took the Lady Nelson up the river for a tide, to examine it; but the shoal which stretched along parallel to it prevented us from getting nearer than 9 miles; but I nevertheless determined to put my plan into practice and made preparation in the evening accordingly
   The gentlemen who landed on the south shore had an interview with 19 natives, whose appearance they describe as being much inferior to the Keppel or Herveys Bay natives. Their canoes are not so well formed, but are better secured than at Port Jackson: they are of bark. In these canoes were instruments for striking turtle of the dart kind, and pointed with a piece of quartz neatly fitted in. The bones seen bespeak, that turtle are their principal source of food, added to shell fish.

[Page 98]

1802 Aug. Expedition up the river of Shoal-water [Bay, in the brig and whale boat]

[Monday] 30th. Early in the morning the brig weighed, and we ran very close along the north side of the middle bank very close carrying regular soundings. Towards No. 3, passage, there is a projecting part of the spit points, which is dry at low water, and the center of the passage bears from it about N.41.E. From hence the middle bank takes a mor[e] southerly course, and we left off steering along it, keeping more towards the eastern shore with from 6 to 8 fms.
deducting the rise of the tide from above low water being deducted. Our approach to the shore for some time was not nearer than 1 mile for some time, and we passed one small opening which had the appearance of communicating with another further on, forming an island of the intermediate piece of land, but this was not found to be case. The wind becoming very light and foul, I quitted the brig before the 2nd. opening up in the eastern shore was distinctly seen; but on opening it [indecipherable words] out we steered into it with the boat, having 61/2, and 71/2 fathoms, as I wished to see every thing on thise eastern shore in going down up the river, that the opposite shore might be attended to when returning
   The brig followed the boat into this eastern arm [indecipherable word], and [anchor]ed about 2 miles up it in 61/2 fms., whilst I pursued the principal branches of it, for it into which it soon divided itself. The first branch led me near the foot of some hills which

[Page 99]

[1802 Aug. Expedition up the river of Shoal-water] Bay, in the brig and whale boat

separate this river from No. 2, port, and which I was desirous to ascend, but the low shore being every where low and consisting of soft mud and covered with mangroves and it was impossible to land; and it was with difficulty that a landing was effected, about at noon, [indecipherable words] about two miles further up the main branch but I was too late where I proposed to observe the suns meridional altitude but was too late. At this part the arm principal branch divided itself into 3 branches, and there did not appear to be more than 3 fathoms in the deepest of them. This was about 5 miles from the 1st. entrance into the eastern arm, to which we found 6 fms. in the channel, and found no obstruction to a vessel sailing up. I now returned on board the brig, and she got under weigh to beat out of the eastern br arm into the main river, to be ready to proceed with the flood at daylight in the morning; but not being able to accomplish it before the ebb tide was done, Lt. Murray weighed again in the night and dropped out with the tide following tide. On Tuesday at daylight, we weighed to proceed upwards the river but in steering for the mid channel we were very soon got aground upon a spit which runs off from the south point of the entrance into of the eastern arm, and which I afterwards believed to communicate with the great middle shoal. The brig drawing but only 6 feet water when her sliding keels are up, a little rise of tide enabled her to

[Page 100]

Aug.[Tuesday] - 3lst. Expedition up the river of Shoal-[water Bay, in the brig and whale boat]
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

pass over, and the bottom being muddy no injury was received. About the middle of the river, and before the brig had cleared the shoal water, I quitted her to proceed upwards in the boat with greater expedition. The water soon deepened to 5 and 6 fms. forming a channel of about 1 mile in breadth, and of tolerably equal soundings: At the distances of 5 miles from the breadth of the river decreasing to one mile after we had advanced 5 from the east branch. Two-and-half milesfurther up above this contraction is a small rocky islet in the middle of the river, on the south side of which is 5 fms., but on the north side 3. At this place the river divides into branches, and seems to end in channels among the mangroves in the same manner as up we had found the eastern arm to do. Not seeing any place above this islet where there was a probability of being able to land, I remained until noon, and observed for the latitude in the artificial horizon, as annexed. -
   The brig had come to an [anchor] in the contracted part of the river, and after I had taken the bearings of every remarkable object in sight, I rowed with the first of the ebb to the eastern point nearer her, and whilst I took other bearings there, she got under to beat back towards

[Page 101]

[Aug. [Tuesday] -3lst. Expedition up the river of Shoal-]water Bay, in the brig and whale boat
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

 towards the ship, the wind being fresh from the N.W.ward Being the boat being able to advance faster than the brig, I rowed to a sandy beach on the west side of the river, opposite to the eastern arm and with much difficulty landed there and took a confined set of bearings; after which I went on board the brig then at [anchor] off the beach.
[Wednesday] Sept. 1st. [The wind still continuing to blowing strong from the N.W.ward we were not able to move until the ebb tide made in the afternoon. The latitude observed at [anchor] was as annexed, by from a bad observation.
At half past noon, we got under weigh with the first of the ebb tide, and beat downwards in the channel on the south side of the middle shoal; and which may be called the middle channel, since it appears that there is another bank and inner channel between it and the shore, from the report of Lt. Fowler. The soundings are not very regular in this middle channel, as the chart sketch will shew, there being some shoal water in the middle of it shoaler than at the sides. At half past four I quitted the brig to row on board the ship she being which was then distant 3 miles, and at sunset got on board
The general remarks that arose during this expediti[on]

[Page 102]

[indecipherable words] River of Shoal-water Bay - General remarks

[are] as follows. The river is divided by shoals of [cons]iderable extent into three channels, but the mid[dle] one only seems to lead up to the head of the river, the other [cha]nnels seem to lead into branches, the s on different sides but that [o]n the south shore was not examined. Each Two of these afford sufficient depth of water for ships, and probably the third also; and the bottom being soft and the rise of tide great there is not much danger to be apprehended. The shores are almost every where low and covered with mangroves, sometimes to the distance of miles from the water, and there are very few places where a boat can land without great inconvenience I do not suppose that there is any fresh water comes into any of the arms within the reach of a ship: b[ut] I found it standing in small ponds upon the west sh[ore] opposite to the little islet towards which is near the head of the river. At this place I walked about a mile inland and saw marks of natives frequently, but still m[ore] so of kanguroos, though neither that animal or a native was seen. Round the fire places were found the bones of turtle, and shells of crabs, and a kind of perriwinkles, and oyster shells of a small kind lay scattered about. I observed small holes in the lowe[r] grounds, as if the natives had been digging for [indecipherable words]

[Page 103]

of some kind. The little islet had been visited, and [page torn - words missing] trees notched for the purpose of being ascended [page torn -words missing] Port Jackson -
The stone was which is the base of the country, [page torn - words missing] kind with that of the islets in Port No.2, and [page torn - words missing] near Island Head, but there seems to be mo [page torn - words missing] veins in it, since pieces of it quartz were lying everywhere The soil seems shallow, stiff, and often stony. The vegetation consisted of two or three kinds of gum trees or eucalyptus and casuarina, - several kinds of shrubs, and grass, [a]mongst which a small kind of grass-trees were frequent. - The only animal killed was an iguana of between two and 3 feet in length, including its long tail. The black and pied sea pies, curlews and cranes frequent the shores and mud banks; and the water produces turtle, crabs, and fish, but the first of these [w]e have not yet been able to take.
   To search after the lost cutter was one object of the [ex]pedition, but nothing was learned concerning her. The time of high water appears to be about 2h.00' before the moon comes to the meridian, in the river, and the rise of the tide may be reckoned to be 12 or [indecipherable word] feet at neap, and 17 or 18 at spring tides. In the open I reckon the time of high water to be 2 hours also before [page torn - words missing] comes to the m[er]idian

[Page 104]

1802 Aug. [Tuesday] - 31st. H.M.S. Investigator [in Shoal-water Bay - [anchor] 2,]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Light breezes & fine wr. Carpenters sawing 3 inch plank. Cut up beef No.23, and pork No35 - right
At dusk, the launch returned with the gentlemen from the south shore but had no success in dredging for shells.
A.M. Light airs and hazy
Sent an officer into the passage No.3, to take another look for the cutter but without success
Armourer employed making [indecipherable words] stream [anchor] [car]penters employed about a sliding keel [for] the Lady Nelson
Mod. breeze & fine wr. with haze

[Page 105]

[1802] Sept. [Wednesday] -1[st.] [H.M.S. Investigator] in
Shoal-water Bay [anchor] 2,
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Moder[ate] breezes and cloudy.
Carpenters etc. employed as before
Light airs and fine
Do. weather
Fresh breezes and cloudy with haze
On the ship swinging to the flood she dragged the [anchor] towards the middle shoal Let go the small bower in 21/4 fms. and brought up, but not before the ship touched the bottom. Sent the launch to weigh the stream [anchor] which was found to be [indecipherable words] low water when the ship touched, the tide p[re]sently freed her, and the bottom being soft she appea[red] to have [re]ceived no injury. - Washed and cleaned below Carpenters employed making a sliding keel for the brig

[Page 106]

1802 Sept.[Thursday] - 2nd. H.M.S. Investigator in Shoal-water Bay - [anchor] 3,]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Mod. breezes & fine weather. At 1, weighed the [anchor] and stretched into deeper water under stay sails. At 31/2h. came to in 81/2 fms. with the small bower - Observed the L. Nelson working down towards us, and soon after the Commander came on board in the whale boat.
Light airs and cloudy
Squally
Fresh breezes and cloudy.
The brig came across the shoal in 21/4 F. from the middle channel and [anchor]ed near us. At 9h. weighed and stretched towards the round peaked hill on the south shore, the brig being ahead shewing soundings, and the launch sounding within hail. Passed over the tails of the middle southern shoals, and coming into shoal water near the shore hauled off and stretched towards island a, but the water not being deeper there stood back and [anchor] in 61/2fms. muddy bottom. Furled sails - Mod. breezes & fine weather

[Page 107]

[Friday] - 3rd. in Shoal-water Bay - [anchor] 3,
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Bearings from the [anchor] - A round peak on the south shore S.59W. No. end of islet a N.41W. Nearest part of the main S4W dist. 1 mile Having found the [anchor] to be frequently foul, from our arrival in Keppel Bay to this time, ordered the master in consequence of our situation to attend the ship when in swinging, constantly, when in a tides way and at single [anchor]
Light breezes & fine weather.
A.M. Nearly calm
The Commander took the whale-boat to an island near us, and the launch carried a party of gentlemen to the main to go up the round peak. Sighted the [anchor] and found it clear. Dropped it in the same place - Carpenters employed making a main keel for the L. Nelson -
Mod. breezes & hazy.

[Page 108]

1802 Aug. Sept. [Friday] - 3rd. continued - Additional observations [principally upon islet a, of Shoal-water Bay]
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

Not finding my health adequate to the expedition up the round peaked hill on the south shore, I landed upon islet a, and from the head eminence at its north end took a large set of bearings, and the from a place near it, the observations for the variation and latitude which are annexed. [I found the stone of the island a to be of 3 or 4 several kinds. The greatest quantity was of a slaty crumbling stone, in which were veins and lamince of quartz in a state nearly approaching to chrystalization, as also veins containing some mineral perhaps iron, and in one place it was in lumps like the bubbles of liquid metal. Besides these was a soft whitish earth or stone in the cliffs; and in other parts of the island the stone was hard and solid, something like porphyry, but in this also were thin strata of quartz.

[Page 109]

[1802 Aug. Sept. [Friday] 3rd. continued - Additional observations] principally upon islet a, of Shoal-water Bay

[A] part of the shore consisted of grains and small lumps of quartz and other substances, amongst which was coral, mixed and caked together into a solid mass; this however seemed to be superficial, the base appearing to be of that stone which may be a kind of porphyry - Upon the shores were thrown up a confused mass of different substances, amongst which I distinguished a great quantity of pumice stone, several kinds of coral, four or five kinds of shells, skeletons of sea snakes and fish, the fruit of the pandanus, and a piece of coconut shell without barnacles or anything to indicate its having been long in the water. These were mixed amongst a great quantity driftwood and weeds.
   The island a not being more than 1 mile in length, and narrow, is of little consequence. The soil is sandy, but affords both grass and trees. Our sein had tolerable success upon the beach at its south end. They caught mullet, a kind of horse mackerel, small fish [indecipherable words] herring kind, and a sword fish whose extreme length was about 4 or 5 feet, I preserved the sword. A fish something like a cavally, was also caught in tolerable numbers
   There does not appear to be any passage between the islet a and the main for a ship, the brig having found but 4 fms., (once 5) at high water, and the rise of tide is a [page torn - word missing] 18 feet. -

[Page 110]

1802 Sept. [Saturday] - 4th. H.M.S. Investigator [Shoal-water B. to Thirsty Sound]
[Navigational data not transcribed]
`

Fresh breezes and fine weather
The Commander returned from the island and the launch having been sent there to fish, returned with tolerable success
  Sent the launch to the south shore, but she returned without the party who had landed there
Mod. breezes and fine weather
A.M.
At 7, sent the launch on shore for the shore party, but she did not return 'till noon: they brought a large kanguroo with them.
Carpenters employed making the keel for the Lady Nelson
At 11h. 10', seeing the launch returning, weighed and laid to for her; the brig stretching ahead.
On the launch coming alongside, filled and made sail to go round some of the island towards Broad Sound

[Page 111]

[1802 Sept.] [Sunday] - 5th. [H.M.S. Investigator] Shoal-water Bay to Thirsty [Sound]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

[page torn - word missing] breezes and fine weather.
[page torn - word missing]ing through amongst the islands towards Broad Sound, the brig being ahead shewing soundings, shortened sail occasionally
Made the signal to prepare for [anchor]ing, & at 6h.3/4, shortened sail and came to with the stream upon a sandy bottom. [words crossed out and indecipherable] W.5[].S. dist. 3 miles. Note. This afterwards proved to be Pier Head, upon Long I.
   Moderate breezes and cloudy weather
At 5h.50' weighed to run into Thirsty Sound supposing it to be round the highest hill near the shore, but soon after seeing rocks and islands lying to the N.W. bore round within the hill, which is Pier Head, and steered into the sound, the L. Nelson being ahead shewing soundings At 7h.1/4 [anchor]ed in 61/2 fms. the points of entrance bearing N.10.E and S73E. 11/2 mile Sent the launch to the L. Nelson with her main keel. The Commander landed upon Pier Head to take bearings, and a party of gentlemen upon the main to examine the coast [indecipherable word] and afterwards the launch went to haul the sein
Light breezes & fine weather -

[Page 112]

1802 Sept. 6th. H.M.S. Investigator [along the east coast - Thirsty Sound]
[Navigational data and Astronomical observations not transcribed]

Moderate breezes & fine
The launch [return]ed from seining, with some success - Served out the fish to the ships company.
Do. weather
A.M. Fine weather. Having missed observing the latitude at Pier Head yesterday, I did not weigh this morning as had otherwise been intended, but remained until noon, to get the observation, and in the mean time to make some experiments upon the magnetism of the Head, which are annexed: -
   Cut up beef No. 51 in the presence of the warrant officers, being 56 lbs short.
  The launch employed hauling the sein with some success
The whale-boat employed by the Commander, at Pier Head. - Prepared to get under weigh directly after noon. Light airs & fine

[Page 113]

[1802 Sept. 6th. H.M.S. Investigator] along the east coast - Thirsty Sound

Having noticed what C.C. [Captain Cook] says of the difference in the magnetic needle in Thirsty Sound, after I had taken an extensive set of bearings from the top of Pier Head I moved the theodolite 3 yards to the westward, and found, that two well-defined objects differed 2.30' to the left in their bearings. I then moved 3 yards to the S.E.ward from the first place, and the bearings were 6.40' to the left; and on moving 4 yards to the northward it gave the bearing of the same two objects 3.30' to the left. From Extensive Mount and from islet a in Broad Sound in Shoal-water Bay I had set taken bearings of Pier Head, and the differences between which and those bearings and those back to them same places differed 4.35' and 4.45' to the right, so that it becomes necessary to allow 4.40' less [indecipherable word] variation upon these bearings than at the before-mentioned stations. - I observed that the stone of Pier Head is porphyry of a dark bluish colour, and the basis of which is most probably somewhat basaltic.

[Page 114]

1802 Sept. [Monday] - 6th. continued - Additional remarks [upon the magnetism of Pier Head]

    Early in the morning I landed upon a rock at the entrance into the sound, from whence the top of Pier Head bore N.50.W. 1/3 of a mile. Here I had the following bearings
    Extensive Mount, on the east side of No. 3, passage 108.30'
    Double Peak, on south side of Shoal-water B. 143.30: The first being exactly the same as set back from the mount. - In this situation azimuths of the suns east and west limbs gave, by the theodolite 8.2' Et. variation The dip of the south end of the needle was as under
[Data not reproduced - see original journal]
The needle stood vertical when the face of the instrument was S.2E.
From hence I rowed round the head, until the top bore S.S.W. about 1/4 of a mile; and Extensive Mount then bore 110.14' - The dip of the needle was as under
[Data not reproduced - see original journal]
The needle stood vertical when the face of the instrument was S.3.E.
Thus the difference was 13/4 in the horizontal and 1/2. in the vertical direction of the needle

[Page 115]

[1802 Sept. Monday - 6th. continued - Additional remarks] upon the magnetism of Pier Head

From hence I went to the top of the head with the instruments, and observed as follows
  Extensive Mount --- 113.50'
  a islet, station there --- 133.52
  Double Peak --- 148.32
The two first differing 5.20' and 5.22' from the back-bearings, both being greater; and about 40' greater than they were P.M. taken about near the same place
The dip of the needle was as under
[Data not reproduced - see original journal]
The needle stood vertical when the face of the instrument was at S.3.E
Thus the difference was 5.10' in the horizontal, and 2.30' in the vertical direction of the needle, from what it was in the first place of observation.
I now moved 10 yards to the S.SE. and observed
  Extensive Mount to bear 108.44
  Double Peak --- 143.25
[Data not reproduced - see original journal]
The needle stood vertical when the face was at S5.W.

[Page 116]

[Monday] 6th. continued. Magnetism of Pier Head

In this 4th. set of observations, the difference in the horizontal direction of the needle from the lst. place of observation is only a very few minutes, whereas the vertical difference is 1.28'.


From the top of the head I now moved 20 yards to the N.E.ward, and observed
           Eastward Mount to bear - 110.00
            Double Peak - 144.42
[Data not reproduced - see original journal]
Needle stood vertical when the face was S.3.W.
The horizontal difference from the 1st. observations being 1.1/3 and the vertical 16'; the observations agreeing nearly with the second set.
    Note. The distance of Extensive Mount from Pier Head is 34 miles, and of Double Mount 291/2 mile[s] The observed latitude in the artificial horizon, upon the top of the head, was 22.6'.54"S. as before given in its column

[Page 117]

7th. To follow the log Additional remarks - Northumberland Isles

Finding both wind and tide against our going out, at my return to the ship after noon from Pier Head, I embraced the opportunity of making a short visit to the islands which lie at the distance of 3 leagues to the N.E.ward of Thirsty Sound, intending to meet the ship in the offing in the following morning. I left orders with Lt. Fowler to get under weigh as early as possible and come to an [anchor] about half passage towards the isles. and About 2 o'clock I left Thirsty Sound, and until we came near a small cluster of rocks about half way over, found 8 and 9 fms., but after passing them, 12. A little before sunset we had rowed over, and along the shore of the nearest island to a sandy beach, where our hopes told us we should be able to turn some turtle during the night. The marks Proofs of natives having visited or being upon the island damped our prospects, and there being no marks of turtle on the beach still more so; although the remains of a turtle feast was were [the last word has been added in pencil] to be found under every tree near the beach.
   In the morning, we I ascended a hummock which was the highest part of the island, from whence I and took some bearings; but the haziness of the weather and the strength of the wind which had arisen during the night, prevented me from seeing any distant objects. [This island is No. 7 of the chart. It is almost

[Page 118]

1802 Sept. [Tuesday] - 7th. Additional remarks [in Thirsty Sound]

without trees, but is covered with grass. The 6th. island which is the largest of the cluster, and which I we likewise visited, has plenty of wood upon it, and amongst its trees may be reckoned the Norfolk Island pine [indecipherable words inserted in pencil], although they are not so numerous as upon some of the smaller islands near it - The rock seems to be granite of a greenish speckled colour, and having some veins of pure quartz finely inserted into it.-
   We did not find anything to shew that natives were upon the islands at this time, but they certainly visit them, and perhaps frequently.
   During fine weather, ships might [anchor] between the two largest islands and have a sufficient deep channel to run out east or west, and she would be sheltered to the north and south. So situated several ships might procure pines ['wood' has been inserted in pencil], some of which from their ['its' has been inserted in pencil] appearance I judge might be fit for topmasts. We found some water on the largest island, but not in sufficient quan[ti]ties for a ship.
    Having no provisions with us, I was induced to venture back with the whale boat, towards noon, when the wind was somewhat abated. She performed very well under reefed sails, and we got on board about 3 oclock P.M. of [Wednesday], by log. -

[Page 119]

[Tuesday] 7th. Additional Remarks] in Thirsty Sound
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Light airs with fine weather.
The wind and tide being against our going to sea, the Commander took the whale-boat over to the Northumberland Isles
Mod. breezes and fine.
Found the fall of tide to be 11 feet
Fresh breezes and hazy.
At 6, hove up to the stream and set double-reefed top-sails for casting; for but the ship driving too far were obliged to drop the small bower which parted at the clinch. Let go the best bower in 3fms. Sent down T.Gt. yards and masts; and by means of a hawser to the brig warped to windward and shifted the best bower into 4 fms.; then veered away two cables towards the stream [anchor] which in dragging had hooked the small bower [anchor].
Strong breezes and squally, with haze
Saw the whale-boat coming over from the Northumberland Isles.

[Page 120]

1802 Sept.- Thirsty Sound. General observations

The shelter that Thirsty Sound affords we did not find to be very secure, the winds from the N.Eward, th[indecipherable letters]ing in a considerable swell; it is probable, however that such a wind is rarely experienced to blow strong[ly] here. - The country about the entrance is clothed with grass and wood, the latter rather sparingly on the west side; but the soil is too stony to be productive
   Marks of natives were sufficiently abundant, but we did not see any men: turtle seems to constitute the principal part of their food. Our sein had tolerable success, but although many turtle were seen none could be caught.
   The rise of tide was from 10 to 12 feet, at the neap tides; and it is high water about 13/4 hours before the moon comes to the meridian.

[Page 121]

[Wednesday] - 8th. towards Broad Sound
[Navigational data not transcribed]

 Strong breezes and squally. Bent the sheet cable and unstowed the [anchor].- Got hold of the small bower buoy rope and hove in upon it and the stream together, the [anchor]s being hooked, and weighed them both. At 3, the Commander returned, and ordered 35 fms. to be cut off from the small bower cable, and the the cable to be then again bent. Returned the piece to the boatswain to be used as junk. Hove in to half a cable on the best bower, and waited till the weather tide made At 9h. weighed and ran to the eastward into 7 fms. and let go the small bower.
A.M. Moderate breezes & fine weather. Sent up T.Gt. yards and masts at day light; and at 6h.50' weighed and steered out of the sound with the L. Nelson in company. At 8, Pier Head S1/2.E. 3 miles At 9, brought to, and hoisted in the whale-boat to be repaired, she having been stove in hoisting up last night.
At 10, the water shoaling suddenly hauled out and brought to for the brig to come up. At 10h.1/2, desired her to lead round a cluster of islands and bore away after her under easy sail. Cleaned below. Carpenters repairing the whale boat. Noon, Pier Head S47Set - Mod. breezes & cloudy. Steering for Broad Sound amongst many islands.

[Page 122]

1802 Sept. [Thursday] - 9th. H.M.S. Investigator [at the entrance of Broad Sound - Bay of Inlets]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and cloudy weather A
P.M. Saw a rippling near us, and havi[ng] shoal water, hauled up. Desired the b[rig] to keep ahead, and stood towards the west shore of Broad Sound under sail - Saw a whale going to the west
At 4h.3/4, hauled up for a peaked hill intending to [anchor] under it, supposing it to be an island. At 7, hauled to the wind, the water being too shoal un[der] the hill.- At 8, tacked ship. At 10 [anchor]ed with the stream upon a sandy bott[om], the water having become much smoo[ther] At 11, the brig [anchor]ed near us. The round peaked hill bore N.76.W. dist. 3 miles
A.M. Light breezes and cloudy
At day light, hoisted out the whale boat and the Commander went on shore [indecipherable word] to the peaked hill -
Saw several hump-backed whales about the ship
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean - Served vinegar and sour krout as usual to the ships company.
At noon, light airs and hazy weather

[Page 123]

[1802 Sept. [Thursday] - 9th. H.M.S. Investigator]
at the entrance of Broad Sound - Bay of Inlets
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

The column of soundings will shew, that we found the s[ame] irregularity in the depth of water as was noticed by C.C. [Captain Cook] - The round peaked hill I had set from Pier Head and considered it to be a desirable situation from whi[ch] to intersect the bearings from that head. On approaching the hill, it had the appearance of being insulated and therefore I wished to [anchor] under it; but the water pr[oved] too beshoal, and indeed we afterwards found thought that the hill was joined to the main by a neck of land. - In the mo[rn]ing at daylight, I went on shore, accompanied by the scientific gentlemen, for the purpose of ascending the hi[ll] and taking angles, but the thickness of the brush wood and trees upon its sides deterred me from attempting it. Upon the north part of the point I took part, and about half way up the hill on the ES.E. side, the other part of a set of angles; and on the same side, near the water observed the latitude as annexed, in the artificial horizon.
  The stone of the hill is basaltic, with a few specks of quartz or feldtspar in it. On applying a piece to the needle of the theodolite it drew it 2. from its direction, but I found the bearing of Pier Head agree by allowing 8. east variation, which I believe to be the truth.

[Page 124]

1802 Sept [Friday] - 10th. H.M.S. Investigator in [Broad Sound - Bay of Inlets - [anchor] 2 and [anchor] 3]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather. On the Commander returning, hoisted in the whale boat, weighed and made sail up the sound. On the water shoaling suddenly, tacked, but touched the ground and hung five minutes. On swinging off hauled more in shore, the water being deeper there - The launch ahead sounding, as also the brig. The water very smooth
Finding the ship drifting to leeward with the tide, [anchor]ed at 6 upon a sandy bottom; the Peaked west hill N.43.W. and several low islands from N.70E. to S.b.W. from 6 to 3 miles distant. Sent the master to sound towards the main, where he found a passage
A.M. Light breezes and cloudy. At 6, weighed, and after speaking the brig, made sail after her, working in a passage between 3rd. flat island and the main, the flood running strong - Tacked occasionally in the channel, the brig shewing soundings frequently At 8h.1/2, passed the narrowest part, it being 2 or 3 miles wide, but contracted by shoals -
At 11, hoisted out the whale boat, and the Commander and a party of gentlemen landed upon the 4th. island. Soon after [anchor]d in 7 fms. muddy bottom, it being high water; about 1 mile from the island; the east end bearing S.S.E. and the Peaked West Hill N.N.W. - Furled sails - Light airs & hazy

[Page 125]

[1802 Sept. Friday - 10th. H.M.S. Investigator]
Broad Sound - Bay of Inlets - [anchor] 2 and [anchor] 3
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

The shoal upon which we touched this P.M. lies between 3 & [4] miles to the S.E.ward of the round peaked hill; it does not appear to be of great extent; and except near low at high water may be passed over by a ship. By the ship From our swinging off immediately into deeper water, and floating, although the [ti]de had not quite done falling, the top of the bank must be rather steep to.
The channel through which we worked with the flood tide in the morning, between the 3rd. flat island and a low opposite point of the main, is not more than one mile in width, it being contracted by shoals on each side; but it is, nevertheless, a good passage. - The water being whitish everywhere, the shoals do not shew very plain unless so near the surface as that the water will make rippling upon them . On the flood tide having done running We [anchor]ed in 7 fms., but had only 4 when we weighed at the following low water.- My objects in landing were to observe the latitude in the artificial horizon (which is annexed), to take angles, and to give the botanical gentlemen an opportunity of adding to their collection; and these were all accomplished satisfactorily - The difference between the latitudes on board and on shore being nearly the same on two days yesterday and today seems to shew some error in the table of dip; for to the horizontal refraction it is that I attribute the difference

[Page 126]

1802 Sept. [Saturday] - 11th. Investigator, at [anchor] 3, 4 [Broad Sound - Bay of Inlets]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Light airs and hazy weather
The Commander and party returned from the island. At 5, weighed and made sail up the sound between the 4th. isle and the main, the channel being about 11/2' wide
The brig and whale boat ahead shewing soundings. At dusk, finding we had not time to clear the channel and get into the open sound, [anchor]ed upon a soft sandy bottom at the back of the 4th. islet, and nearly land-locked by land and shoals.
A.M. Moderate breezes and hazy.
By measuring the lead line, the fall of the tide appeared to be 32 feet, but I doubt the accura[cy] of them -
At 6h.25' weighed and dropped through towar[ds] the open sound with the tide, the brig and launch ahead. At 7h.1/4, [anchor]ed in 21/2 fms. to wait the rise of tide, the outlet from channel into the sound being very shoal and narrow. - At 9, weighed, and passed over the bar of the passage. On the water deepening [indecipherable word] 5th. island bore N.20.W. - Tacked occasionally working up near the west side of the sound but not able to come near the shore on account of the shoals - The L. Nelson ahead shewing soundings
At 11h.20' came to with the stream upon soft bottom supposing the flood to be done, but the ebb did not make until 11h.40'. - 4th. island, S.E. end bea[ring] N.35.W. Upper Head S.56.E. A small opening, apparently S61.W.off shore 4 or 5 miles - Light breezes & hazy weather

[Page 127]

[1802 Sept. [Saturday] - 11th. Investigator at [anchor] 3, 4] Broad Sound - Bay of Inlets
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

 The 4th. isle upon which I landed is surrounded by much shoal water, and by many shoals dry at low water, as will better appear by the sketch made of these parts. - As far as our [anchor]age in the evenings [anchor]age, the passage between the isle and the main is safe and the soundings not very [r]egular. It being then but little past low-water time we [sa]w the shoals mostly dry, and had no difficulty in chusing the deepest water, which is about mid-channel.
In pursuing the channel out into the sound, in the morning, we found a bank running across, which we were not able to pass over until the tide had risen a fathom from low water. After passing the bank or bar, the water deepened immediately, as appears in the column of soundings, but the shoal water seems to continue along the shore to the S.E.ward. not permitting us to come nearer than about 2 or 3 miles. -
The water of this part of the sound, even now at high-water, is discoloured in the same manner as we found it in Keppel Bay, so that the most muddy water is no certain sign of shoals, but frequently of the contrary

[Page 128]

1802 Sept. [Sunday] - 12th. H.M.S.Investigator [working up towards the head of Broad Sound]
[Navigational data not transcribed]

Light breezes and hazy. At 4h.20', found that the [tide] had fallen 23 feet since 11h.40'; and the ebb was still running - Weighed and steered along the western shore of the sound. Passed two shoa[l] openings from which dry banks extend[ed] far out. At 5h.50' tacked to get into deep water for [anchor]age, and at 6h.30' came to in 1/4 less 5, soft bottom, with the stream Furled sails and hoisted up the whale-boat S.E. end of the 4 th. isle bearing and Upper H[ead] S54E; distance off shore about 4 miles Fresh breezes and hazy. The depth of water at 12h. was 81/2 fms.
At 6, the depth was 31/2 fms. and the ebb was still running - At 6h.20' weighed and made sail along the western shore of the sound the brig being ahead, as usual shewing soundings. Passed an island, [indecipherable word] lying in the mouth of an inlet, in whi[ch] are many dry shoals. At 8h.35', tacked towards a head on the east side of the inlet (the 5th.) and at 8h.50' came to with the stream upon a soft bottom. - Lowered down the whale-boat , and the Commander and a party of gentlemen went on shore. Upper Head bearing S.45W.3/4 of a mile Mustered the ships company and saw them clean Mod. breezes and fine weather with haze

[Page 129]

[1802 Sept. Sunday -12th. H.M.S.Investigator]
working up towards the head of Broad Sound
[Astronomical observations not transcribed]

Between from the 4th. islet to the and Upper Head I count 5 inlets in the western shore, but at the time that we [anchor]ed this evening 4 of them appeared to have dry shoals across the entrance, and are probably little more than lagoons at salt lakes towards high water only. The 5th. opening has an island (apparently) the 5th. near its entrance, and at present seems to be more considerable. The shoals are dry as far out as 2 miles from the shore, and are but more extensive at the mouths of the openings than in other parts. -
The rise of tide in this sound seems to exceed any thing that we have before seen. I judged that some irregularity in the bottom had constituted part of the 32 feet observed on the preceding morning, but the 23 feet of this P.M. in 41/4h. seems to be correct: I judge that the tide would probably fall 3 feet more; The fall of tide, however, observed this morning, corroborates the 32 feet of yesterday, for it is probable that it would have fallen 2 more than the 30 observed: A considerable difference has always been observed between the night and day tides along this coast.
The object, principally, which induced me to [anchor] so early in the tide, was the being able to land conveniently at upon a head which promised to afford mea good view of the surrounding water and country; and this the upper head did ^to my satisfaction) effectually. Not withstanding the shoals that

[Page 130]

1802 Sept. [Sunday] -12th. continued. Additional remarks at [Upper Head, in Broad Sound - Bay of Inlets]

run off from these shores, we landed conveniently at Upper Head at this time of half tide. From the hill I had the Double and Round Peaks of Shoal-water Bay, Pier Head, Peaked west Hill, and 4th. flat isle in sight, all of which are fixed points in the survey. The observed latitude and bearings now satisfied me that Long I. is much too long in C.Cs.[Captain Cook's] chart; and he must have been wonderfully much deceived in his distance in rowing up Thirsty Sound, since its length is not above 4 instead of 8 or 9 leagues. The annexed observations for the latitude and longitude (that for the variation excepted) were taken at the shore under the head or rather hill; and when compared with the bearings, shew that the time-keepers have erred 1':38" to the east since leaving Pier Head on the 6th. P.M.
It being near high water during the time that I was taking bearings upon the head in the morning, I landed again,with difficulty, at 41/2h. in the following afternoon,but with much more difficulty and took the annexed observation for the variation of the theodolite and made some additions to of my set of bearings; the weather being clearer, and the shoals

[Page 131]

[1802 Sept. [Sunday] -12th. continued. Additional remarks at]
Upper Head in Broad Sound - Bay of Islets

mostly dry. I was sorry to see the greater part of the riversound upwards occupied by dry shoals, leaving various small channels only betwixt them. These shoals extended across the entrance of into Thirsty Sound and some middle banks were dry at no great distance from the ship. The 5th. opening had no appearance of a ship passage up it, and its shores seem to be occupied by low land and to leave no prospect of finding fresh water up it. An other The appearance of an opening about 3 miles further up leading being directed between two ridges of hills seemed to promise better, and as I plainly saw it would be impossible to move the ship much further up the river without an almost certainty of her grounding at every low water, I determined to move her to the mouth of this 6th. opening, and into it if it could be, and there leave her until I should have explored the river head of the sound with the brig and my whale boat; for the great rapidity and rise of the tide leaving me hopes of its running up to a considerable extent, notwithstanding the shoals. The width from this head across to the west side of Thirsty Sound is about 9 miles, and forming the entrance of this river at the head of Broad Sound.

[Page 132]

1802 Sept. [Monday] -13th. H.M.S.Investigator [in Broad Sound, at [anchor]age 8.
[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and hazy. The Commr. returned on board, and in the evening went on shore again. At 4, weighed anchor and shifted further from shore into 61/2 fms. and [anchor]ed with the kedge stream [anchor] as before. Furled sails. At 7h.1/4, low water.
Light breezes & fine weather
At 12h.2/3rds high water, having risen 4 fms.
Light breezes and fine weather
At 8, slack water, tide having fallen 4 fms. At 81/4h. weighed, and drifted upwards with tide backing and filling occasionally. At 91/2h, the brig took the ground very near to us, upon which we let go the stream [anchor], but before the ship swung to it, she took the ground upon a bank of quicksand, upon which there was but 11 feet. Clued down the sails and sent down T.Gt. yards, the ship heeling considerably from the rapidity of the tide upon her broadside. As the water rose, the stream [anchor] dragged: - let go the best bower [anchor], and on bringing up, the s[hip] righted afloat - The Commander went away to sound and to examine the shore - Light airs and fine weather

[Page 133]

[1802 Sept. [Monday] -13th. H.M.S.Investigator]
in Broad Sound, at [anchor]age 8.
[Tables not transcribed]

The opening in which I had hoped to find a secure place where the ship might lie during the time that might be necessary for the examination of the river, proved to be only a bight in the coast where there was no landing, for shoals and mangroves, even if there should be found a sufficient depth of water for the ship to lie within a convenient distance, which did not appear to be the case.
With the above considerations it appeared to be most advisable to return to the [anchor]age of yesterday, and there to moor the ship securely. The object of filling up with fresh water before we quitted the coast was therefore obliged to be left to chance. - One of the principal objects to be attended to during my absence was to get new rates to the time-keepers, which the observations of [Sunday] 12th. shew were very much wanted; and these observations I consider to possess sufficient accuracy to constitute the commencement of the necessary observations for ascertaining the new rates, which would be the means of saving some days. This piece of duty I committed, as before, to Lt. Flinders.

[Page 134]

1802 Sept. [Tuesday] -14th. H.M.S.Investigator [[Tuesday]14th. On board the surveying vessel Lady Nelson]

Light airs and hazy. On the Commander returning, hoisted up the whale boat. At 1; the tide having slacked, weighed the bower and stream, and made sail working downwards to our former [anchor]age. - Tacked occasionally. At 2h.30' came to with small bower in 61/2 fms. veered away and moored ship, 1 cable to N.W.b W. and 1/2 cable to S.E.b E. - Moderate and cloudy. At low water, had better than 3 fms. round the ship.
At 1h.30' A.M. Tended to the ebb: the height of the water being 7 3/4 fms.
Moderate breezes and cloudy with haze
The Commander and Naturalist embarked on board the Lady Nelson, to go up the river in her. -
Sent a marquee, and bell tent on shore, with a corporal and guard, a midshipman and the astronomical instruments, under the charge of Lt. Flinders. -
Employed getting up boatswains stores to be aired. Washed and cleaned below
Fresh breezes and cloudy weather

[Page 135]

[1802 Sept. [Tuesday] -14th. H.M.S.Investigator] [Tuesday] 14th. On board the surveying vessel Lady Nelson
[Tables not transcribed]

Embarked on board with the naturalist, and at 81/2h., weighed, but finding some necessary things had been neglected to be brought, [anchor]ed and sent the whale-boat back. At 91/2h., weighed, having on board Arnolds watches No.394 and 1736, whose comparisons with Earnshaws No.543 were as follows.
No.394 from 543 - 1h.57'49,3"
No.1736 - 5.54.44,8

Note. The longitude is reckoned from Upper Head, where the Astronomical tent is pitched.
Light breezes and fine weather
Sent the whale boat to sound for the channel. At 10h. 40', grounded in 8 feet: let go the kedge and swung clear off. Sent the whale boat to sound
At 11h.1/2, weighed and steered across the river towards the northern shore
At Noon, moderate breezes and fine weather. The Investigator bore W.N.W. distance 9 or 10 miles; the brig having been carried very rapidly by the tide setting up the river

[Page 136]

1802 Sept. [Wednesday] -15th. Brig L. Nelson [in the river of Broad Sound.]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and fine weather. Tacked occasionally, standing across from one side to the other, searching for a deep channel
At 2, it being high water [anchor]ed in 3 fms., not being able to find deeper water: bottom sandy. Veered away and moored that the vessel might not settle upon her [anchor] with the falling tide. Not being able to heave up the main keel The main keel being down and jambed, the vessel turned about up it, and dragging both [anchor]s she came broadside to the tide, and took taking the ground fore and aft. Found pieces of the keel floating away At low water, men went out upon the [indecipherable word] and found the best bower cable parted; but the [anchor] was so deep in the quick sand that it could not be moved. - [The brig was not left quite dry at low water. - [About 10, the [indecipherable word] came in about one foot perpendicular with some much violence, but did no mischief, and in a little time the brig was afloat; - upon which the best bower [anchor] was weighed by means of a hawser which had been bent to the crown and the vessel rode by her small bower [indecipherable sentence]

A.M. About 6 the brig again took the ground, and tolerably easy. At 7, I sounded towards the north shore, which was dist. about 1/2 mile, and found 4 or 5 fms. more water than what the brig was in, but no sufficient channel for her to pursue up the river sail in; I therefore determined to leave her, and advance upwards for a ti[me]

[Page 137]

[1802 Sept. [Wednesday] -15th.Brig L. Nelson]
in the river of Broad Sound.

within the whale-boat with the following flood tide, desiring Lt. Murray to move into the deepest water when the tide suited, and wait my return. - There being some time before the flood was expected we walked upon the dry flat sand which was dry over to the south shore, distant about 11/2 mile. A very few small shells and a little drift wood was all that was found upon the flat. The sand was hard, but seemed nevertheless to be a quick sand when wet, as in such places we could not remain upon it long without sinking into it appeared further from the [anchor]s sinking so deep into it. -

At 11 A.M. the flood tide set in rapidly as before, and we set off in the whale boat with wind and tide, keeping close to the eastern shore. It soon appeared that we outran the tide, for we were obliged to stop until it flowed sufficiently to be deep enough. About 2 in the afternoon we stopped about 7 miles from the brig above the Lady Nelson, where there was a landing place, and the only one found that was at all convenient. This was on the western shore closer to which the channel of from ran with 6 or 7 feet depth of water now ran in it. Here we proposed to remain all night, as the river seemed to have nearly finished its course, and accordingly pitched the tent; but accordingly - Before before dark we walked to

 some small hills about 3 miles distant, where I took interesting bearings of the few interesting objects

 that were visible. These hills consisted of granite, and appeared to have had some effect upon the needle of the theodolite, for I found it necessary to allow 12.

[Page 138]

Sept. [Thursday] -16th. In the brig and whale boat, up the [river of Broad Sound]

of east variation to make an agreement between those bearings and others taken near the tent. The place where the tent was pitched is an extensive flat which appears to have been sometimes overflowed, and consists of a stiff clay.

After passing a disagreeable night amongst mosquitos, sand flies, and ants, we embarked at 4 in the morning to return to the brig, the ebb tide having made a little before that time; but the depth of water was so small water was so low that we were glad to get near the shore again about half a mile below the former place, and landed our necessaries for remaining until the next high water.

The tide drained down gradually for some hours and then remained at a stand until about 2 oclock in the afternoon; ([Friday] 17th. by log) when the flood came up rapidly and in half an hour it was high water, the tide having risen about 4 feet. We embarked immediately, having made preparation before hand, and with some difficulty reached the brig about 5 oclock.

The bed of the river seems to rise so much upwards, that the common flood tides seem barely to reach to the hea[d] although it is not more than 20 miles about the ship where the ebb and flood run nearly equal; the brigs place of [anchor]age is about half way up, where it was high water in 21/2 hours after the coming in of the flood

About 6 miles above the ship, the sands are dry som[e]

[Page 139]

[1802 Sept. [Thursday] -16th. In the brig and whale boat, up the] river of Broad Sound

time before low water, apparently washing across the whole of the river, or nearly so. From this time

until the following rise of tide the river is dry except re is no water but in holes or small unconnected channels; but as soon as the tide rises above the front sand banks it rushes upwards with impetuosity, filling up every place which is accessible to it in a short time. There were evident marks of a previous flood tide having risen at least 5 feet higher in the upper part where we slept, than it did whilst we were there, so much were the tides now neaping. - It will be high water there about 1h.1/2, before the moon comes to the meridian and the rise of tide will be from 0 to about 10 feet; whilst at the ship, which lay below the shoals, it will be high water at the same time before the moon comes to the meridian half an hour sooner, and half an hour sooner - but the stream does not make downwards until more than half an hour after high water: the rise is from 18 to 30 feet the rise is from 18 to 30 feet. From what is said it will be evident, that the ship was taken as high into up the river sound as she could well lay afloat at low water, and that no sailing vessel can get much further

The banks of the river are every where low, and seem to be overflowed at spring tides. They are covered with mangroves, generally, to a quarter or half a mile from the water; but being stiff clay in the upper parts they may be landed upon there; lower down, both the bed of the river as well as the shores seem to be softer; and indeed, at Upper Head, where the tents were pitched, was found th[e] on[ly]

1802 Sept. River of Broad Sound - Brig Lady Nelson [Wednesday] -15th. Investigators log - Broad Sound]

[Page 140]

only tolerable landing place.

The holes and small channels upwards contain an amazing number of young mullet, and the shoals are frequented by curlews and many flocks of ducks. There are also some pelicans, and an extraordinary kind of crane, and a whi[te] bird something larger but resembling a curlew, were seen.
The country about the river seems to be divided between low swampy land, and hummocky hills of considerable height; which hills are stony as far as I saw them. To return to the brig -

At 3 A.M. of [Friday]17th. we weighed at slack water in order to return go down to the ship; but being dark night and the who[le] of the shoals not sufficiently covered to have 6 feet upon them, she took the ground upon one of the highest banks at 41/4h. and remained fast. The naturalist and myself then took to the whale-boat, and arrived on board the ship at 7; where I found every thing going on according to the orders which had been left with Lt. Fowler, but the time-keepers had been let down, to my great regret, and from which the observations of [Sunday] - 12th. consequently ceased to be of any use in determining the rates; and another commencement was now required to be made.

[Page 141]

[1802 Sept. River of Broad Sound - Brig Lady Nelson] [Wednesday] -15th. Investigators log - Broad Sound

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy. - Employed fresh rattling down the rigging, forward

The remaining scientific gentlemen went on shore for a few days to examine the country. - Cut up beef No. 36 and pork No. 1, to their contents

A.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy.

Employed getting up all the spare sails to be aired and made up better, and in airing the sail rooms. Found some holes in the sails eaten by vermin - Some hands fresh rattling down the main rigging - The gig searching along the shore for fresh water

[Thursday] -16th.

Fresh breezes and cloudy. Gig returned unsuccessful - Employed restowing away the spare sails.

Dark cloudy weather

A.M. Light airs and hazy.

Employed getting up the new spare rope upon deck to be examined and aired. Carpenters fitting a flying jib-boom

Washed and cleaned the ship.

Mustered the ships company and saw them clean, as usual on this day. - Light breezes and hazy weather

[Page 142]

1802 Sept. [Friday] -17th. H.M.S. Investigator [in Broad Sound]
[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and hazy. Employed getting up the new rope, some of which was found to be damaged from the platform in the block room having given way. Carpenters repairing the platform

Lightening in the W.S.W.

Light airs and cloudy.

At 7, the Commander returned in the whale boat, leaving the Nelson to follow on the next ebb tide: Roused up the cables upon deck to clean the tiers, and cleaned well below. - Sailmakers repairing sails. Carpenters about the platform

[Saturday]18th.

Moderate breezes and cloudy.
Employed paying down the cables and other necessary duties

At 7, the L. Nelson [anchor]ed near us.

Light breezes and cloudy
Scrubbed hammocks

Sent a party on shore to cut wood
People employed recoiling away the new rope upon the platform in the junk room.

Light breezes and fine weather

[Page 143]

[1802 Sept. [Friday] -17th. H.M.S. Investigator] in Broad Sound

As new rates to the time-keepers was an absolute requisite to the accuracy of our future) geographical labours, before we should sail from hence for Torres' Strait; and as no less than a week could be considered to be sufficient to obtain rates upon which dependence could be placed, I considered what could be done in the mean time for the advantage of geography and natural history; and I determined to leave Lt. Flinders with his tents, instruments, and party, and take the ship to the inner entrance of Thirsty Sound which is in sight. Here I might find a few days useful employment in adding to the accuracy and minuteness of the chart of these parts, the botanical gentlemen would have a fresh field opened to them, and we might be fortunate enough to meet with fresh water to complete the two vessels with, which I was desirous to accomplish before we went to the strait, having little reason to expect it there among the eastern islands in it which are generally low and sandy. - The brig having lost two sheets of copper off her bottom and wanting some repair to her main and after keels, I left Lt. Murray to get these matters completed, and to cut wood for himself and do such other necessary [du]ties as might be required before we finally quitted this part of the coast

[Page 144]

1802 Sept. [Sunday] -19th. In Broad Sound [ [Monday] - 20th. across towards Thirsty Sound]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather

Employed in the holds supplying the brig with 21/2 tons of water to complete her. - Sent the gig on shore to be hauled up, and 2 carpenters to repair her during our absence

Water remaining in the ship 43 tons

Mod. breezes and cloudy weather

A.M. Light breezes.

Unmoored and hove short upon the the best bower - The Lady Nelson hauled on shore upon the flat near the tent in order to examine her bottom. - Sent on shore a surgeons mate to remain with the party at the tents.

At 9h.10' weighed and made sail, stretching towards the inner entrance of Thirsty Sound - At 10h.20', tacked, near a dry shoal on the east side of the ship, having the whale boat sounding ahead

At 11h.10', tacked from off the entrance into the 5th. inlet towards the shoals.

At noon, moderate breezes & fine weather with haze

Upper Head S.3.W. - Tacked ship

[Page 145]

[1802 Sept. [Sunday] -19th. In Broad Sound]
[Monday] - 20th. across towards Thirsty Sound

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and hazy weather. Employed working down between two dry shoals. At 0h.45' [anchor]ed

with the stream between them. Upper Head bearing S4.E. - Sent the master to sound over the tail of the northern shoal, and finding the tide to have risen sufficiently to pass over, at 5 weighed and made sail over it, having the whale boat ahead Tacked occasionally, and at 6h.20' came to with the stream, furled sails and hoisted up the boat.

Light breezes and cloudy weather

Find the depth of water to be 6 fms. at high, and 41/2 at low water.

A.M. Light breezes and fine weather

At 8h.10', sent the master in the whale boat to sound ahead, and weighed, steering towards the entrance into Thirsty Sound. The boat making a signal for having shoal water, tacked at 8h.20' and afterwards occasionally between the shoals lying off the entrance and the middle dry shoals. At 10h.40' came to with the stream in 41/2 fms. about 1 mile distant from the south end of Long Island. - Upper Head bearing S101/2W and Double Round Peak S641/2E - offshore 1m. The Commander took the whale boat to examine the inner entrance into Thirsty Sound, and a party of gentlemen landed to examine the country

Light breezes and hazy weather

[Page 146]

1802 Sept. [Thursday] - 21st. H.M.S. Investigator at [anchor] 11, Broad Sound
[Boat excursion round Long Island]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy.

The Commander and party returned at 5 oclock

Lightening to the NN.W. Strong breezes and dull weather. Dropped the small bower under foot and veered upon the stream cable

A.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy.

The Commander took the whale boat to examine the west side of Long I. and a party of gentlemen landed upon the main, across Thirsty Sound - Weighed both [anchor]s and dropped the small bower again. Loosed sails, and replaced all the bad points in them.

[Wednesday] - 22

Mod. breezes & fine weather. Having put all the sails into order, and aired the first reefs, handed them again.

Launch returned with the party.

Fresh breezes and cloudy

A.M.

Mod. breezes

Launch employed with the dredge in Thirsty Sound. -

People employed working up junk and in getting provisions to hand

Light breezes and fine weather, with haze. Saw the whale-boat off the west side of Long Island.

[Page 147]

[1802 Sept. [Tuesday] - 21st. H.M.S. Investigator at [anchor] 11, Broad Sound] Boat excursion round Long Island

On [Monday] at Noon A.M. I landed upon a small island which is detached from the south end of Long I. and took a set of angles, but the view being much confined there, I went to a little distance up Thirsty Sound, with the intention of ascending a small eminence on the west side of it, and landed upon a rocky point at the foot of the hill but the thickness of the brush upon the hill deterred me from attempting it; and therefore I took angles upon the point and returned on board.

On [Tuesday] A.M. I left the ship in order to examine the west side of Long I. which I had yet seen but very imperfectly. About 1 mile from the ship an inlet shewed it self as we advanced, and I hauled up into it and found it to continue on to some distance, when it divided and the northern arm, which I followed, brought us into Thirsty Sound, not far beyond the station taken on the preceding afternoon. Its width was from 1/4 to 2/3rds of a mile, and the depth when reduced to low water from 1 to 9 feet. I landed upon the island which is nearly in the middle of Thirsty Sound, and took two sets of bearings; and from this station saw enough to induce a belief that I should find another passage out to sea besides than that of Thirsty Sound, which would make two islands of the already reduced Long I. The center of this N.W. passage bore from the island 346.20', and I rowed up it, carrying from 3 to 5 fms., and landed upon the west side of the outer part of the passage in order to observe for the latitude; but I found the altitude of the sun too great to be taken with a sextant [indecipherable word]

[Page 148]

1802 Sept. Boat excursion round Long Island

artificial horizon; by a set of bearings, however, I was able to fix the position of this station with tolerable exactness. Nearly in the middle of this north-west passage into Thirsty Sound lies a small but not very low island, on each side of which boats of any size may pass, but although there are 5 and 6 fms. in places up both of these passages and a sufficient depth of water within side, yet I do not think that a ship can enter the sound this way, the water appearing to be very shoal and irregular without side. Besides this island in the outer part of the entrance, there is another island in the inner passage where this passage joins the north-eastern one from Pier Head N that from the N.E.ward and reduces the width of it considerably, for except where the passage is reduced by these two islands it is a full mile in width. -

From Leaving the west side of this new N.W. entrance I passed round on the east side of [indecipherable words] and round the islet which lies in it, and then sailed towards the north west point of Long Island, finding the water to be shoal at the distance of a mile from the shore, notwithstanding that hills of some height coming precipitately down to the water side in this part could lead one to expect a steep shore. After passing round the extreme point of the island I landed, and ascending an eminence took angles the bearings of such objects as were necessary to fix the position of the station, and of such other parts in the neighbourhood as were not already laid down in their proper places in the chart.

[Page 149]

[1802 Sept. Boat excursion round Long Island]

At the distance of 2 or 3 miles from the north point of Long the Island, I entered a small bay where the surrounding hills seemed to promise that fresh water might be found; but although a small stream rivulet comes into the bay through a border of mangroves yet no fresh water could be found. From a hill on the south side of this little bay I took a circumscribed set of angles, after by which time the setting of the sun reminded me of the necessity of pitching the tent, and we stopped here during the night

On [Wednesday] morning we rowed to the southward along the west side of Long I. and I landed in such places as the formation of the hills seemed to bespeak that water might be found; but although the rain had cut channels in various places, they were at this time quite dry. - I found a tolerable depth of water in rowing off to a small island which lies about 11/4 mile distant from the west side, and very close to the inner end of this island, 10 fms. did not reach the bottom. A set of angles taken upon this island here and another upon a rocky projecting point of the west side of Long Island about half way to the ship, concluded the business of this excursion, and about 1 P.M. we arrived on board the ship. The depth of water off the west side of Long Island, from the small island to the ship, is very trifling, some of the shoals at and about the entrance of the back passage large shoals are dry at low water, and the shallows extend out far from the shore

[Page 150]

1802 Sept. Boat excursion round Long Island

Few general remarks occurred during this excursion. The marks of natives were not numerous or recent, and the length of the grass upon Long Island seem to bespeak that it has not been visited by natives during the last twelve months. - Long I. consists of two different kinds of land, in this respect resembling all the neighbouring parts of the main. The northern part consists of moderately high hills, generally round and seperated from each other; whilst and the southern part is low, and being mostly overflowed at spring tides consists more of muddy mangrove land than firm earth. The higher parts are stony, but thickly covered with grass and generally with trees The kinds of stone are various; - Porphyry, such as is found at Pier Head, is abundant. In some parts I found rounded, water-worn stones caked into a basis, seemingly basaltic, and constituting a solid heavy mass. A softish light stone which is sometimes red but more frequently white is more common upon the detached islands towards the southern end of Long I. Whether this stone is of recent formation or whether its is in a state of decomposition I know not: this stone is much given to forming caverns and holes in the cliffs, of which that at the southmost part of the small isles is the most remarkable instance which fell under my observation. - Curlews harbour in considerable numbers about the mangroves and muddy flats; and a few

[Page 151]

[1802 Sept. Boat excursion round Long Island]
[Tables not transcribed]

sea pies, white cranes and some other birds frequent similar situations. Hawks are seen everywhere of different kinds and sizes, as has been the case all along this coast. A few turtle were seen in the water, but we have not yet been fortunate enough to take one
[Thursday] - 23rd. Investigator at [anchor] 11, Broad Sound
Mod. breezes and fine weather with haze.
The Commander returns from his expedition round Long Island.
Cut up beef No.19, right; and pork No.5, 22 lb. short
The launch having been sent to place set a turtle net and to haul the sein, returned without success on board
A.M. Light breezes and hazy
Calm and cloudy.
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean. Returned Mr. Douglas - boatswain to his duty at his request, until such time as we arrived in some frequented port.
Employed in small jobs about the rigging -
Light breezes and cloudy.
  

[Page 152]

1802 Sept. [Friday] - 24th. H.M.S. Investigator
[Additional remarks made in the boat.]
[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes with hazy weather. Sent the launch to set a turtle net, and afterwards to haul the seine, but she returned without success -
The Commander took the whale boat to examine further about the entrance into Thirsty Sound, and returned with the naturalist at sunset
A.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy; afterwards moderate breezes with haze. Sent the whale boat to take up the turtle net, in which she found nothing
At 8h.20' weighed to recross the sound over to the tents near Upper Head, the master being ahead sounding in the whale boat. Passed over one shoal in 3 fms. and afterwards tacked occasionally, having light baffling winds. At 10h., [indecipherable word] the water having shoaled to 31/2 fms. dropped the stream until the boat could sound round the ship; then weighed and worked to the westward in order to pass round the middle shoals
Noon, light breezes & hazy weather. The ship under all sail, and whale boat sounding ahead

[Page 153]

[1802 Sept. [Friday] - 24th. H.M.S. Investigator]
Additional remarks made in the boat.

I again entered the back passage to the northward of the ship which leads into Thirsty Sound by two different channels. Upon some rocks on the south side of the passage, I took a small set of angles, and then took the southern channel which brought me to the inner entrance into the sound: the depth in this southern channel was from 1 to 3 fms. and its width a short 1/4 of a mile. From hence I steered for a head at the north side of the entrance into an inlet on the low eastern shore, but was obliged to go much to the southward before I could find a passage [indecipherable passage] through the shoals. I found from 1 to 3 fms. as far as the entrance, but from thence entrance head upwards the whole inlet is nearly dry at low water; and not withstanding its apparent magnitude at high water, it is a place of no consequence. The shores are covered It is surrounded with mangroves to a considerable extent from the water shores, and I question whether there is one landing place above the head, which is indeed a very bad one within the head from whence I took angles. The view to the westward from this station head presented a perplexing quantity of shoals which extend out from this east shore to the N.W.ward down Broad Sound, and almost shut up the entrance into Thirsty Sound. I have marked them on the chart as near as the forms and situation could be ascertained, but I will not pretend that they are exact; nor indeed is it very necessary that they should be so, since no ship can come amongst the[m]

[Page 154]

1802 Sept. [Saturday] - 25th. H.M.S. Investigator, in [Broad Sound; back to the former [anchor]age near Upper Head]
[Tables not transcribed]

Calm for a short time, and a fresh breeze then sprung up. In royals etc. At 1, the water shoaling to windward wore round, and as soon as the water deepened sufficiently, [anchor]ed with the stream, and sent the boat to sound across the shoal; but finding no passage, weighed at 43/4h. when the flood made, to beat up to that part where we had before crossed it on the 20th. PM.
At 6h.30', came to with the small bower in 51/2 fms. having another part of the shoal dry, about 1 mile to the southward of us. -
Shifted the bower [anchor]s to the opposite side, having the newest cable bent to the heaviest [anchor].
A.M. Light breezes and fine weather
At 6h.30', weighed and made sail for our former [anchor]age near Upper Head. Tacked occasionally working up to that part of the middle shoal over which we had before crossed: the whale boat ahead sounding. Before 8, the boat passed over the shoal having more than 21/2 fms.; followed her over having 23/4 fms. and at 8h.30' shortened sail and soon after came to with the small bower in our former place, about 2/3rds. of a mile from the tent on shore, and near the brig The scientific gentlemen landed to take an excursion into the country. Sent a party of men on shore to cut wood and brought off a load that had been cut before - Moderate breezes & fine weather, with haze

[Page 155]

[1802 Sept. [Saturday] - 25th. H.M.S. Investigator in] Broad Sound; back to the former [anchor]age near Upper Head

In recrossing the sound to our former [anchor]age, I intended to have passed round the middle shoals, but they appeared to extend so far out into the sound and the winds hung so much to the southward that I was unwilling to run to an uncertain distance to leeward, and therefore we crossed it above the dry sands, as we had done before, there being sufficient water over it at half flood.

On [anchor]ing, I landed at the tent and found to my surprise and regret that the time-keepers had again been forgotten to be wound up, and it had happened so lately that only one days rate had been taken since that had happened. On comparing this rate with those which had been taken before, it appeared that no material alteration had taken place in the rates, in consequence of the letting down, and therefore I determined to make use of those taken before together with those since for determining the mean rates of going of the time-keepers. - Twenty-five sets of distances of the [sun] east of the [moon] had been taken to correspond with an equal number on the other side, in order to fix the longitude of the places of the tents under Upper Head: these with the rates and errors of the time-keepers, follow hereafter

[Page 156]

1802 Sept. [Sunday] - 26th. at [anchor] near Upper Head in [Broad Sound, and from thence outwards towards the Offing Islands

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes with fine weather. Employed getting on board wood. Carpenters painting the gig on shore, which had been repaired.

At 5h.30', Swung flood in 31/4 fms.

At 12, swung ebb in 7 fms.

At 5.45 swung flood in 31/4 fms.

Sent a party of hands to cut wood, and received a turn about noon.

Mustered ships company and saw them clean. - Noon, swung ebb in [left blank] fms.

[Monday] 27 Fresh breezes & hazy. Received on board various things from the tents, and afterwards hoisted in the launch. At 11P.M. sent the whale-boat and an officer for the time-keepers, which came on board safe. The officer found it to be high water on shore at 11, although the ship did not tend until near 12.

A.M. Light breezes and fine weather.

At 7, weighed, but the breeze dying away, the ship did not stem the tide, and therefore we dropped the stream [anchor]. At 91/2h., weighed on the breeze freshening, and steered down Broad Sound, to the southward of the midd[le] shoals, the brig following. At noon, light breezes and hazy weather. Upper Head S42.E. Distance off the south shore 2 or 3 miles.

[Page 157]

[1802 Sept. [Sunday] - 26th. at [anchor] near Upper Head in]
Broad Sound, and from thence outwards towards the Offing Islands

[Tables not transcribed]

Both sides of Broad Sound having undergone some examination already, I purposed to sail out near the mid way of the sound, in order to learn what shoals may extend that way from the eastern shore about the entrance of Thirsty Sound, for I suspect that such do extend to some distance

Our course now lies out to the islands and reefs in the offing in our way to Torres' Strait; and first I propose to visit some high offing islands, or perhaps one large island, which lies about 6 leagues to the N.E.ward of those of the Northumberland Isles which I had visited in the boat when the ship lay in Thirsty Sound. This land appears to have been seen by captain Cook, but at too great a distance to ascertain more than that it existed in about that situation

Note in the log

From this [anchor]age, I take a fresh departure for the longitude from dead reckoning; calling it in 150.1.'36"Et. the same as upper head.

[Page 158]

Distances of [sun] east [moon] taken near Upper Head in Broad Sd.

[Tables not transcribed]

Mean longitude
But from the mean of these and of an equal number taken of the [sun] west [moon] see the table of page 2, at the end of this log [indecipherable words]) the longitude of Upper Head is 150.1'.35,9" which is used [indecipherable words] the time-keeper errors from mean Grh. time

[Page 159]

Abstract of equal altitudes taken near Upper Head in Broad Sound for ascertaining the rates of time-keepers, and their errors from mean Greenwich time - By Lt. Flinders

[Tables not transcribed]

[Page 160]

1802 Sept. [Tuesday] - 28th. Investigator - Broad Sound
[[Wednesday] - 29th. off to the outer Northumbd. Isles]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and hazy weather - Sent the whale-boat ahead to sound. At 3h.10, tacked towards the islands lying off the north point of Long I., on the wind heading

At 6, tacked again, and finding the lee tide to be made, [anchor]ed upon a bottom of rock and sand with the stream; the outermost distance bearing N.1.W. about 5 miles North point of Long I. N.E. dist. 2 leagues

Wetted decks as usual since coming within the tropic -

Bowsed in the slack cable until the ship swung

Light airs and hazy weather

At 5.40 weighed and made sail out of the sound, passing to the westward of the isles lying off the No. point of Long Island.

Fresh breezes and hazy weather, so that no distant object was visible

At 8,40 hauled round the isles, meeting a strong tide setting into the sound

Saw several whales, apparently spermacetic -

Noon, moderate breezes and hazy weather. A peaked island, h, N.361/2W. and the southmost of a cluster, f, S79.W. the latter distant near 3 legs. The outer distant isles coming in sight to the NEbE. through the haze

[Page 161]

[1802 Sept. [Tuesday] - 28th. Investigator - Broad Sound]
[Wednesday] - 29th. off to the outer Northumbd. Isles

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes & hazy weather - Several more whales seen in different directions. At 2, passed discoloured water, but found no difference in the soundings -

Whales seen from the mast head and first taken for breakers. - At 5, tacked towards the largest of the islands in sight, and at 7h.10' [anchor]ed under it at the distance of 2 or 3 miles, its extremes bearing E.b.N.1/2N. to S.E.b.E.

The brig being astern shewed a light to her

Light breezes and hazy weather

A.M. Light airs and fine weather

At 5h.50' weighed and made sail nearer to the island, but finding that the ship drifted to leeward came to with the stream at 6h.30' and the Commr. took the whale-boat on shore to the nearest islands. At 10h.30' he made the signal for the ship to follow; weighed and made sail towards the island. At 11h.30' the Commander came on board. Tacked ship to work up between some small isles and the large one, but the tide drifting to leeward came to with the stream 17 fms.; the large island N.4. to S.10. distant 1 mile. Small isles S.50W. 2 miles. After anchoring, the Commander went away in the whale boat to search for fresh water in a little inclosed bay. - Light airs and cloudy.

[Page 162]

1802 Sept. [Thursday] - 30th. Investigator at [anchor] under No 2 [of the northern Northumberland Isles]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather. At 3 P.M. the Commander returned on board, having found fresh water. - At 4, weighed and shifted our berth 3/4' to the southward, between No. 2 isle, and some small rocky pine isles to the west of it. [Anchor]ed with the small bower in 13 fms. Sent the whale-boat to haul the sein upon the beach, and she caught a considerable quantity of fish.

A.M. Light airs and fine weather.

Hoisted out the launch and sent Lt. Fowler an officer with 20 men to cut a passage to the fresh water. Sent the Carpenters to one of the small western isles to cut pine logs. Employed in the holds and in sending empty water casks on shore. - The Commander and several gentlemen on shore.

Mod. breezes & fine weather

Oct. [Friday] -1.

Squally at times. The ship dragged her [anchor] about 1/2 mile to the northward. Veered to half a cable. Employed in the holds and in sending empty casks on shore. Sent two tents on shore, and the officer with part of the people remained on shore all night to fill water.

A.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy

At 6, weighed and shifted our berth again to the southward. [Anchor]ed in 8 fms. sand, the south end of isle No. 2, S39.E. 1 mile. Sent the carpenters on shore to cut pine logs and fire wood; and sent another raft of empty casks on shore

Fresh breezes and cloudy weather.

[Page 163]

[1802 Sept. [Thursday] - 30th. Investigator at [anchor] under No 2] of the northern Northumberland Isles

The small bay in which my search for fresh water was directed on the 30th PM, is on the west side of the isle No. 2. The surrounding hills form a basin there into which the tide flows through a passage just wide enough for a boat to row into. At low water it is almost altogether dry, but at high water it is a pretty little bay. A considerable part of this basin is occupied by mangroves, in some places very thick and high, but in other parts they are small and thinly scattered. On searching round the feet of the hills which inscribe this basin, I found a gully water-cut gully, in some parts of which were holes of fresh water, and one in particular near the edge of the mangroves. The bottom being firm amongst the mangroves, I judged that by cutting through them we should be able to get the water casks rolled to the fresh water, and thus get the ship completed with this necessary article before sailing [indecipherable word] the coast for Torres' Strait. On the [Thursday] morning, therefore the lst. lieutenant and 20 men were sent on shore with saws and axes, and a smaller party from the brig; and during the day they cut through about a 1/4 of a mile of mangroves and made [a] rolling way for the casks; and we proceeded in watering as mentioned in the log.

After seeing the waterers set to work I ascended the high hill on the south side of the basin, and the day being clear, I had an extensive view which extended from the isles to the N.W.ward, round by the west to the mount on [indecipherable words] side of No. 3, the passage into Shoal-water B[ay]

[Page 164]

1802 Oct. [Friday] - 1st. on No. 2 of the northern Northumberland [Isles.]

of which I took the bearings, Having a theodolite with me, I took bearings of these objects, but those that were situated but those objects situated to the northward and eastward being were hid by higher land. In the afternoon I ascended the highest part of the ridge towards the north point of the island, and there nearly completed a circle, the S.E. part of No. 2, and No. 1 being only hid from me. The prospect to the north-eastward was quite clear, there being nothing but water visible in that direction. -

The length of the west side of this isle No. 2 is more than 3 miles, and the passage between it and the rocky isles which lie off it is about 11/2 mile in breadth. The depth of water in the narrowest part which I consider to be the best [anchor]ing place is 7 to 9 fms. and the bottom sandy. The island may be brought to cover 14 points of the compass to the eastward and the small isles to cover nearly 3 on the other side, so that with the general winds this is a good tolerable road-stead.

The rocky isles produce the same kind of pines that were found in No. 2, port, of this coast, and they are sufficiently abundant, are of a size fit for lower yards or top-masts, and are tolerably straight: pines also are found upon different parts of all the neighbouring islands. Other trees of the gum kind, such as are usual in other parts of New Holland, grow upon these isles also, but their [indecipherable word] is not large.

+ [The soil of No. 2 is either sandy or

[Page 165]

[1802 Oct. [Friday] -1st. on No. 2 of the northern Northumberland] Isles.

stony, with a small quantity of vegetable earth intermixed. The ground, however, is generally covered with long grass as we found it at Pier Head and other places. Some of the gullies at the skirt of the basin might possibly be made to produce vegetables, especially that through which the gully leads into the south side of the basin.

The stone rocks of the island seems to be of two kinds; the most abundant is composed of loose stones caked together into a solid mass, the other sort is light, clos[e] grained and splits like some kinds of slate, but not in layers, its colour is a yellowish gray. Of the former kind seems to be a remarkable lump of rock near the north end of the island, situated very high, where it forms a steep tremendous precipice to the sea on the east side. Pines grow about this rock, as they do in most other exposed and most barren parts of the island.

+ and in the gullies where the fresh water comes down from the hills, a good number of small cabbage palms are growing, different from those about Port Jackson, [indecipherable word] they are of which are the first kind mentioned by captain Cook, whereas these are the second.

[Page 166]

1802 Oct. [Saturday] - 2nd. At [anchor] under No. 2 of the offing [Northumberland Isles]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate and cloudy weather. Sent the whale-boat to assist the launch in towing up a raft of water, but not being able to do it, they boated it alongside the brig - Employed in getting provisions to hand and stowing away water.

Light airs & fine weather

At 6, weighed and shifted our berth into the mid-channel between the watering place and the small western pine isles. [Anchor]ed in 9 fms. and veered to half a cable on the small bower.

Some fin backed whales seen close to the shore

Recd. 12 casks of water by the launch. Employed on board in the holds. - The Commander away to some of the neighbouring isles in the whale-boat. Light breezes & fine wr.

[Sunday] - 3
Light breezes and cloudy. Received by the launch 8 tons of water, and 3 pine logs.

The Commander returned from the eastern islands - Mod. sea breezes & fine weather

A.M. Towards morning calm, as usual

Received a launch load of fire wood from the small pine isles, and 12 full casks from the watering place.
The Commander took the whale-boat to some of the northern islands -

Employed in the holds -

Light breezes and fine weather

[Page 167]

[Oct. [Saturday] - 2nd. At [anchor] under No. 2 of the offing] Northumberland Isles

After having shifted the ship into the berth which I considered to be the most secure, and also convenient for receiving the water on board, I took the whale boat over to No. 1 which lies to the S.E.ward and is the next largest of this cluster. The northern side of No. 1 affords good shelter from all winds between S.W. and E.N.E. and the isles No. 2 and 6, shelter it from N.W. to N.b.E, but it is exposed to the N.Etly sea breeze, which appears to blow frequently. - We found some fresh water upon it not far from the beach, but not so abundant as at No. 2. The island is equally barren as the latter and resembles it in most respects, but in an inferior degree. I found a sufficient depth of water between the isles, as also between No. 2 and 6, for I returned round by the northward end of No. 2 in order to observe the indentations of its coasts


My excursion this morning was to 3 isles, No. 3 and 4, which lie about 8 miles to the northward of No 2. They consist of three peaked hills and some lower land, but their relative forms and situations will best appear in the chart. There does not seem to be any shelter here from the sea breezes, but there is a sufficient depth of water and width of channel for a ship to pass east and west through between No. 3 and No 4, taking care to avoid a some rocks which lies near one mile from the former and which is are dry at low water. - Upon the neck of land which runs out westward from the peak of No. 3, I found some drainings of fresh water over the rocks, but none anywhere else. Pines grow upon different parts of thes[e] three isles, but they are not equal to those which we cut upon those near No. 2, or are they so conveniently situated.

[Page 168]

General remarks - Offing Northumberland Isles [1802 Oct. [Monday] - 4th. Offing Northumbd. Isles]
[Tables not transcribed]

In addition to the remarks which have been occasionally inserted, respecting these Offing Isles, I may add, that the [anchor]age under the lee of island No. 2 is better than any others of the cluster afford, and fresh water and pine trees are more abundant near it; but although I should judge this to be a dry season from the general appearance of the main land, yet it may be doubled whether the isle No. 2 or any other of the cluster would yield any fresh water at 3 months hence; but when the sun is on the north side of the equator I think they may be had visited with the expectation of finding it.
 I believe, but am not certain, that the flood tide comes from the N.E.ward. That the swinging of the ship on the west side of No. 2 should not coincide with the rise and fall on shore is not an object of much surprise; but that the time of high water should be so different from what it is in Broad Sound may excite attention. As near as I could ascertain can tell, it is high water 4 hours before the moon comes [to] the meridian, which is 3 hours earlier than in Broad Sound and the rise in the little basin appeared to be about ten feet.

[Page 169]

[General remarks - Offing Northumberland Isles]
1802 Oct. [Monday] - 4th. Offing Northumbd. Isles

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and fine weather. Received on board 22 casks of water which complete the ship up to 61 tons on this day. The Officer and watering party returned on board with the tents etc. Hoisted in the launch and prepared for sea.
At 9, the Commander returned from the northern isles. -
Mod. sea breezes and fine weather
                       Draft of water Forwd.14.0 Aft.13.9
A.M. The wind variable in flows off the island. At 6h.20' weighed and made sail to the northward with the L. Nelson in company.
A fin-backed whale seen
Not being able to weather the offing isles No 3 and No 4, tacked to the S.E.ward and afterwards occasionally between them and No. 2, the tide appearing to be against our working to the eastward
At noon, moderate breezes and fine weather with haze. The peak of isle No. 3. N.11.W. 2miles
 

[Page 170]

1802 Oct. [Tuesday] - 5th. Investigator from the [offing Northumberland Isles]
[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and cloudy weather. At 1, tacked ship not being able to weather the isle No. 2. -
At 4.30 tacked ship, having passed between No 3 and 4, and the rocks which lie off to the eastward. At 6 passed to windward of the rocks.-
Punished J. Draper (2.M.) for insolence to his officer with 12 lashes -
At 8, tacked ship, the east point of No. 2 S.W.1/2S. The L. Nelson 3 to 4 miles to the N.W.Wd.
Tacked ship every 2 hours during the night, and at 12 and 2 fired guns as signals to the brig
Moderate breezes and fine weather. A whale seen to the northward. At 61/2h. found by bearings that the No. point of No. 2 was distant 15 miles, bearing S.50.W.
At 8, the L. Nelson 4 or 5 miles astern, shortened sail for her, and at noon she was coming up.
Mod. breezes and fine weather
Saw a large bank or reef, nearly dry, extending from about N.N.W. to N.W.E. and distant from 5 to 7 miles, and having some dry rocks in the front of it. Another bank about the same distance bore about E.1/2 N and thence to E.1/2S.
   

[Page 171]

[1802 Oct. [Thursday] - 5th. Investigator from the] offing Northumberland Isles
[Tables not reproduced - see orignal journal]

I had intended to make that part of the reefs which are supposed to lie off this part of the coast, where Campbell and Swain commanding the Deptford and Eliza had seen them, and thence to have traced them across the Bay of Inlets previous to quitting the coast. On considering the situation of the easternmost reef seen this day at noon with the N.W.most seen by Campbell it appears to be in near the same situation both with respect to latitude and longitude; and therefore is probably a continuation of those laid down in my chart of 1801 from Campbells authority, and possibly it may be a part of the same reef. -
At this time of tide I do not observe any part of the reefs dry, but the water breaks round the edges of them, and looks quite white within. and there are some small dry rocks dry like negro's heads, upon the reefs
Of the relative situations and forms of these reefs the chart will give the best information

[Page 172]

1802 Oct. [Wednesday] - 6th. Investigator amongst [the barrier reefs to the Bay of Inlets]
[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and fine weather. At 1 shortened sail to the top-sails and bore away along the inner side of the reef, making the signal for the brig to go ahead.
Passed a second opening in the reefs, and at 5 hauled to the wind into a third At 6, [anchor]ed with the stream, but not holding, dropped the best bower, having the west end of a reef bearing East 21/2 miles, and a smaller reef N.W. 3 or 4 miles. The brig [anchor]ed near us. - Offing I. No. 3 bore S.2.W. and two other isles in sight to the westward.
A.M. Mod breezes and cloudy. At daylight hove up the best bower and stowed it. Sent a boat on board the brig with orders for Lt. Murray
At 6h.40' weighed and made sail through the reefs, the brig being ahead
At 10, saw breakers to the N.b.E. and others to the N.W. The brig being to leeward was not able to weather those to the northwd. and therefore tacked; but we passed about 1 mile to windward soon after 11, and at noon the eastern part of the reef bore S.W. about 21/2 miles. The outermt. breakers seen at noon bore N.N.W. 5 or 6 miles, being apparently connected to those passed at 11. We observe some small dry rocks upon the reefs
    

[Page 173]

[1802 Oct. [Wednesday] - 6th. Investigator amongst] the barrier reefs to the Bay of Inlets
[Tables not transcribed]

The instructions which I sent to Lt. Murray were to take place in case of his parting company. His rendervous was at island B of captain Blighs chart in Torres' Strait, where he was to remain 2 months, and afterwards to proceed according to the instructions (Order Book Dr. 4) if the Investigator did not arrive in that time. -
I expected to have been able to form some judgment from the set of the tides at the [anchor]ing place, whether the opening in the reefs which we were then in, would lead out entirely clear to sea; but from the different sets of the two tides, nothing very certain could be deduced; Upon the whole, however, I was inclined to think that it did lead out to sea, though the passage could probably not be found to be direct. On weighing, therefore, in the morning, we steered as much to the N.E. as the wind would permit; and until noon no reefs or any impediment appeared in that direction; although they seemed to be extensive to the N.W.ward.
The water did not break upon the whole of the reefs seen, but the principal part of each, seemed within this front line was smooth and white.

[Page 174]

1802 Oct. [Thursday] - 7th. Investigator amongst [the barrier reefs, off the Bay of Inlets]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and fine weather. At 1, saw breakers bearing North, and at 3 a reef with a high break upon it, extending from EN.E. to NN.W., with small patches within it. - At 4, tacked ship

Cut up pork No 41, to its contents
At 6, no breakers or shoals in sight from the mast head, but the water very smooth. Came to with the small bower in 34 fms. sand & shells, and the brig [anchor]ed near us soon afterwards

A.M. Moderate breezes and cloudy weather
At 5h.40' weighed and made sail upon the larbd. tack with the L. Nelson in company.

At 9, saw shoal water upon the lee beam and weather bow between which we passed

Mustered the ships company and saw them clean as usual on this day, when duty does not intervene

At 11, saw reefs on the weather bow with rocks above water upon them, and joining round to another reef to leeward. At 11h.30', tacked ship. At noon

Light airs & fine weather. A rock in sight bearing No., and reefs from near it, round by east to S.b.W.

Shoal water N.W.b.N. 3 or 4 miles

[Page 175]

[1802 Oct. [Thursday] - 7th. Investigator amongst] the barrier reefs, off the Bay of Inlets

[Tables not transcribed]

From the high breaking upon the outer reef seen this afternoon I conceived hopes that there could be no extensive reef to windward, and that as soon as we could fetch to the eastward of the reefs and shoals near which we tacked at 4 P.M. that we should get out to the open sea. At the [anchor]age, however, where the ship was quite from under the lee of those reefs, the water was still very smooth

The extensive shoals that lay to the eastward of us at noon, it is probable may have connection with those that were first seen and ran along on the 6th. P.M., particularly with the easternmostmost then seen which I judge to be a part of those seen by Campbell in 1797. Between these and those of 3 P.M. the set of the tide leads me to expect a passage out, as well as the high breaking of yesterday.

These reefs are the first upon which many dry rocks have been seen; they are very numerous and alike, and may be called negro-headed rocks. A dry sand surrounded by rocks was also seen at noon.

[Page 176]

1802 Oct. [Friday] - 8th. Investigator amongst [the barrier reefs of the Bay of Inlets]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and fine weather with haze

Cut up beef No. 52, to its contents

Some water-snakes and sharks about the ship. At 4, the rocks just in sight to the eastward. At 4h.30' tacked ship, and [indecipherable word] 1/2h. came to with the stream, having a dry sand or reef 3 or 4 miles to the S.E. and furled sails. Sent two casks of salt provisions on board the brig and hoisted up the boat again.

A.M. Light breezes and fine weather

At day light, the lee tide that was running prevented us from moving; but at 6.50 weighed and made sail on the larbd. tack for the outermost rocks yet seen, which bore East. At 7h.40' tacked from a rippling that runs N.W. from the reef of rocks, but at 9 tacked towards it having the whale boat sounding ahead, the brig being too leewardly and dull for performing this service. At 10 passed through the rippling and to windward of the reef, with unequal soundings as per column - Saw several other shoals nearly all round ahead. - At noon One reef from N.E. to S.E. 2 or 3 miles dist. and partly dry. Another reef not seen perfectly to be connected No. to W.bN. 3 miles, partly dry; and between these a further reef N.E.bN. 4 or 5 miles - Whale-boat ahead & brig astern
 

[Page 177]

[1802 Oct. [Friday] - 8th. Investigator amongst]
the barrier reefs of the Bay of Inlets

[Tables not transcribed]

From the observations of this noon, it seems that the [anchor]age at night was very nearly in the place of the preceding noon; which is materially different to my expectation the latitude from the [moon], therefore, must be erroneous.

The whole of the shoals passed near which we passed this morning are the same that were in sight from the mast head yesterday at noon; and at low water have aconsiderable portions dry, upon which small lumps of rocks stick up; and some of these rocks are conspicuous almost at high water.

There were many deceptions of shoals upon the water this morning from the shadows of white clouds, the ripplings of tide, and smooth places on the water; by sending the boat to sound upon these I learned to disbelieve all appearances, but those where something was above water, or where the water had some tinge of green; but with all these deductions there still remained a formidable mass, through which but one clear channel appeared to the N.Eward and that a narrow one.

[Page 178]

1802 Oct. [Saturday] - 9th. Investigator amongst the [barrier reefs of the Bay of Inlets]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes & fine. Sailing along a reef partly dry in order to pass round its north end. Patches of dry shoals on the weather beam & bow and an extensive one ahead. At 2 bore away through a narrow passage between the reefs, with soundings as per column; but finding the flood tide meet us, called the boat on board to tow, and sent the brig ahead by means of her sweeps. At 61/2h., nearly calm. Came to with the stream upon a bottom of sand and shells, and sent the master to sound round the ship. No reefs in sight but an extensive one from E.b.S. round to the N.W.; withoutside which are high breakers

A.M. Light breezes and cloudy weather At 53/4h., weighed and made sail towards the eastern point of the great reef, the L.Nelson being ahead. -

     Light airs and calms -

At 9h.33', the brig made signal for discovering immediate danger. [Anchor]ed with the stream in 18fms. and found the tide setting E.N.E. 11/2 knot. Sent the whale boat and master to sound in that direction, and at 10h.5' weighed and followed him At 11, the boat being about 1' ahead got upon a coral reef and made the signal, upon which we [anchor]ed immediately as did the brig

Noon, calm with hazy weather

[Page 179]

[1802 Oct. [Saturday] - 9th. Investigator amongst the] barrier reefs of the Bay of Inlets

[Tables not transcribed]

The southernmost of the two reefs through between which we passed at 3 P.M. is about 2 miles long and was mostly dry. The northern reef appeared to be very extensive to the northward, and a bank, from it apparently, was seen from the mast head to run out from it as far as E1/2S. from the [anchor]age. The two before-mentioned dry reefs were near two miles asunder, but the passage was reduced to about half a mile by shoal water from the northern reef, upon which the tide made much rippling.

The prospect this day at noon was worse than any preceding, there being nothing but reefs with and breakers upon the without side of them from No. round by the east to So. There appeared to be a point where the outer reef ended bearing E.b.S. and within side there appeared to be a deep channel leading round that point; but there were shoals nearer to us seemed to preclude all access to it except by a winding course which would carry us more into the body of the reefs and which would require a S.W. course to aclear them but the uncer[tain]ty of accomplishing the desired object by it point deterred me from doing this steering a course back towards the middle of the [indecipherable word]The breakers without side denoted the reef to be exp[osed] to the sea, and was indeed the only alleviation to the to the dreariness of the prospect. Upon the whole I judged it best to steer along the reef to the westward, and search for an opening sufficient for the ship to pass out by in that direction

[Page 180]

1802 Oct. [Sunday] -10th. Investigator amongst the [barrier reefs of the Bay of Inlets, at [anchorage] 5, 6, and [anchorage] 7.

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and calms with some haze. The Commander and some gentlemen landed on one of the reefs from whence they brought some large cockles. The reefs being dry within one mile of us, weighed, at 43/4, to shift further off, the master being ahead sounding. Got into a rapid tide setting S.W. from a small winding channel through the reefs. Sent the whale-boat to tow the ship over it, and at 6h. came to with the stream and veered 2/3rds. of a cable before it held. Furled sails & hoisted up the boats. - At 10, ship swung to the ebb, which is one hour before the moon passed over the meridian, the same as in Broad Sound.

At 5h.37' weighed with the brig in company, and sent the whale-boat ahead. Steered to the N.W.ward, looking for a passage between large shoals through which we had come and the great front reef, but on its apppearing to be all blocked up in that direction, hauled up along the west side of the reefs for the former narrow passage, but not liking its appearance passed through a more southern one. It being near high water at 9, and almost impossible to distinguish the reefs, I thought it necessary to stop until they sho falling tide should begin to shew them; and therefore we shortened sail, and came to with the stream, the bottom being good. Sent the master to sound round the ship.

Mustered the ships company and saw them clean

At noon, moderate sea breeze & fine wr. with haze

[Page 181]

[1802 Oct. [Sunday] -10th. Investigator amongst the] barrier reefs of the Bay of Inlets, at [anchorage] 5, 6, and [anchorage] 7.

 [Tables not transcribed]

I found the reef upon which we landed to be a body of dead coral of various kinds that appeared to have been washed up gradually to a bank, but in the numerous places where the water lodged, live branches were still grown, and amongst other sea productions in the same places were a large kind of cockles which I suppose to be of the same sort kind mentioned by captains Cook and Bligh. The largest weighed 471/2lbs as it was taken up, and contained 3lbs and 2oz of meat. The deeper water round the edges of the dry bank shewed corals of various forms, sizes colours and constructions, and we could not but admi[re] the beauty of the scene although so pregnant with destruction to seamen. The lumps of rocks which stand higher upon the reefs than others and sometimes looked black [I] found to be masses of coral caked together, or which ha[d] grown once upon each other, accumulating to their present size; for any individual coral as seen here alive is of n[o] considerable magnitude.

A.M. The very different appearance of the shoals at high and at low water made me uncertain whether the two shoals between which we had before passed were certainly the same, at the time we came to them; there was no appearance of a passage then, and indeed the resemblance of shoals was becoming so abundant, and the real shoals so deeply covered that I thought it unsafe to proceed until the tide should fall sufficiently to shew them plainer

The observations shew that it was the same passage, and that the discoloured water was not shoal.

[Page 182]

1802 Oct. [Monday] -11th. Investigator amongst the [barrier reefs of the Bay of Inlets, at [anchorage] 7, 8]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and fine weather with haze

At 13/4h., weighed and made sail after the brig under top-sails. At 4, passed a dry bank bearing West 11/2 mile. Other dry shoals at E.N.E.21/2', NEbE.3' and a projecting one from the great boundary reef, apparently, N.b.E. - At 5h.20' came to with the small bower under the lee of the projecting reef, its So. point bearing S.S.E.11/2'. An opening through the great reef N.W.b.N. and a smaller and more doubtful one N.E.b.E. - Inner shoals from NN.W. to W.S.W. 2 to 4 miles. Sent down T.Gt. yards

A.M. Mod. breezes and fine weather

At 6, weighed and made sail towards the supposed western opening, having the brig and whale-boat ahead. The brig finding reefs in the passage hauled to the southward & made signa[l] for danger; hauled up also on the west side of an inner reef. On the water shoaling and soundings becoming very irregular, came to at 7h.30' with the stream - Fresh breezes & fine

The tide running strong in ripplings, and the ship suddenly breaking her sheer the stream cable parted at the clinch. Dropped the small bower; but finding the bottom to be exceedingly bad, I was afraid to remain during the lee tide, and therefore got under weigh to work back into the passage where we had [anchor]ed last night.- Sent the whale boat to assist the brig who was unable to weigh her bower [anchor], having parted and lost her kedge - Tacked occasionally - Mod. breezes & fine.

[Page 183]

[1802 Oct. [Monday] - 11th. Investigator amongst the] barrier reefs of the Bay of Inlets, at [anchorage] 7, 8

[Tables not transcribed]

All the reefs passed this afternoon were nearly dry altogether and shewed themselves distinctly. The situation where we [anchor]ed in the evening is some miles to the eastward of the reefs upon which the sea was seen to break high on the 7th. PM; but we had the satisfaction to see it breaking here also, upon shoals a little over the great front bank. This and the appearance of two openings though they were small led me to the hope for the speedy termination of the time which I now consider us to be losing from more important employments.

A.M. On aproaching the opening which promised fairest to let us out to sea, it appeared that there were small patches of reef lying in it, and the soundings all about it were very irregular and the bottom bad. Out to sea the prospect was by no means so good as when it was less distinct; for although there were no dry banks visible, yet breakers appeared to a considerable distance out to sea beyond what I had supposed to be the front bank. The rapidity of the tide and consequent badness of the bottom makes the attempting these small channels to be very dangerous. and although risk was the principal part of our suffering We ran much risk in this attempt, and yet the loss of an [anchor] to each vessel is sufficiently serious to deter me from making any more such and not trifling to either of us.

[Page 184]

1802 Oct. [Tuesday] -12th. Investigator amongst [the barrier reefs of the Bay of Inlets - [anchorage] 9 -10

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. and fine. Having found a good bottom, at 45' past noon came to with the best bower, and furled sails. - Got up the other stream [anchor] to be stocked, and to replace the one lost; and the stock of the small bower having turned upon the shank, from being rotten, got the [anchor] within board, fitted another stock to it and put it into its place. Both [anchor]s were finished by dusk, but this work prevented us from weighing as I had intended to do, about the last quarter of the ebb - Lt. Murray informed us, that besides having lost his small [anchor] and part of the cable, he had also lost one palm of his largest [anchor] having now only one remaining perfect - Supplied him with 2 grap[indecipherable letters]

A.M. Mod. breezes & fine. At daylight, brought to, to heave up the bower [anchor], but did not make sail until 6h.30'. The L. Nelson ahead - The wind dying away, came to with the new stream [anchor], suspecting we did not stem the tide. -The brig [anchor]ed near us People employed making plat and sinnet for the cables

Saw the water discoloured about 1 mile to the N.W. and round to the N.E. much resembling a shoal, but it proved to be a deception, arising probably from the tide

At noon, light breezes & fine weather with haze

[Page 185]

[1802 Oct. [Tuesday ] 12th Investigator amongst]
the barrier reefs of the Bay of Inlets - [anchorage] 9 - 10

[Tables not reproduced - please see original.]

The loss of half another [anchor] to the brig, in addition to the small one parted in the morning, is a matter of ^the first) (serious) concern to the ^expedition); for our own losses in the same way do not allow us to supply the brig without distressing the ship, since ^no small [anchor] would then be left on board)(we had but one

 kedge remaining) wherewith to warp the ship, or to haul her off from any shoal, which our perilous employment makes us constantly liable to get upon -

At low water in the evening I saw a dry shoal about 21/2' to the northward of the ship which at [anchorage] 8,had borne west 2 miles, and from this shoal only could I be at all certain(ty) of (the identity) of our ^relative) situation, the tide which runs (had so carried us along) in these intricate and dangerous channels ^had so altered our course and distances from what is shewn by the log).

In the morning we weighed with the intention of proceeding further to the NW. until a safe passage to sea should be found, and ^until then of) keeping within side the large shoals and consequently in more safety than had fallen to our lot ^during) these few days. (but the wind did not permit us to proceed far this morning)

[Page 186]

1802 Oct. [Wednesday] -13th. Investigator amongst the [barrier reefs of the Bay of Inlets - [anchorage] 11, and 12.

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather. At 1, weighed and made sail, having the brig and whale-boat ahead

At dusk, came to with the stream, the wind having died away. Dry reef seen from the mast head N.W1/2N. to E.S.E. and two patches 2 or 3 miles distant, North and East but no others were seen during the afternoon

Light airs and calms during the night

At 4, light breezes. At daylight, found that the ship had driven about 2 miles to the N.E.ward; the two nearest shoals bearing then N.W. and Sb.W. the latter distant 11/4 miles.

At 5h.25' weighed and made sail, having the brig and boat ahead

Made and shortened sail occasionally, whilst passing through smooth places in the water

At 10h.20' - Calm. Let go the stream and clued down the sails. - A dry white sand bank, bearing N.W.b.W.1/2W: about 5 miles. No other object of notice in sight, the tide having covered the reefs, and before noon, the bank was covered also

Light variable airs and calms - Employed the people in making plat and sinnet for the cables

[Page 187]

[1802 Oct. [Wednesday] -13th. Investigator amongst the] barrier reefs of the Bay of Inlets - [anchorage] 11, and 12.

[Tables not transcribed]

The [anchor]age 11, is near the situation in which we tacked at 4 P.M. on the 7th., the reefs then seen being now visible, and also many others much more to the eastward which were then covered with the tide, but were now seen to be dry. These reefs appear to form a connection between the high breakers seen on the 7th. and the great bank of the 11th. and I have little doubt are connected with the easternmost part of the bank which we have seen. Through this great reef there seems to be no passage that a ship can attempt, but there are probably several at which a rowing boat might get out, if the ripplings and whirlpools arising from the strong tide did not prove fatal to her.

The dry sand seen from the 12th. [anchor]age is either near to, or is probably upon, the reef mentioned on the 6th. at noon as bearing N.N.W. Between this and the great bank to the northward I had little or no prospect of finding a passage, although there is a small space where no reef has been seen; and therefore, as well as that the winds were northerly, I determined to go to the S.W.ward round the whole of those seen about noon on the 6th.

[Page 188]

1802 Oct. [Thursday] -14th. Investigator amongst [the barrier reefs of the Bay of Inlets -]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and fine weather. At 1h.1/2, weighed and made sail, having the brig ahead; and soon after sent the whale boat ahead also. At 4, a dry sand N.W. and rocks from thence to N. 70.W - At 41/2h., saw the reef extending more southerly and steered along it. At 6h.1/2, came to with the stream, the reef bearing S.b.W. to N.30.W. from 2 to 3 miles, seen to be dry from the deck The brig [anchor]ed near us - Light airs and calms

A.M. Mod. breezes and fine weather At daylight, weighed, and at 5h.30' made sail in company with the brig. Steered for the S.E. point of the long dry reef to the westward, and at 61/2h. saw others dry from S.b.E. to S.E.b.S. On hauling round the S.E. point of the reef saw a cluster of small isles (K) to the S.W.ward and afterwards a larger one to the westward. No. 3 of the offing isles was also soon after seen also

Made and shortened sail occasionally to keep the brig ahead.

Mustered the ships company and saw them clean

At noon, No. 3, offing isle, bore S15.30'E. A cluster S.66.W. to N.63.30'W. distant from 2 to 9 leagues. These are the S.E.most of the Cumberland Isles, but the furthest of them only is laid down in captain Cooks chart

[Page 189]

[1802 Oct. [Thursday] -14th. Investigator amongst] the barrier reefs of the Bay of Inlets -

[Tables not transcribed]

The reef near which we [anchor]ed this evening is the same which obliged the brig could was obliged to tack in order to weather it on the 6th. A.M. We now see a great extent of it to be dry, but in the morning the uncommon wind which blew did not allow us to pursue it to the westward closely.

The cluster of isles to which the letter K is attached in the chart were first seen from No. 2, offing isle, and also from the top of the second No. 3; as well as the larger isle marked 1, which I judge to be the S.E.most of the Cumberland Isles laid down by captain Cook; but the whole may with propriety be included under that name, since they do more nearly belong to them than to the Northumberland Isles, and they are too insignificant to receive any additional name.

K is eseems to be bare of vegetation and rather flat at the top, but 1 is hummocky and at a distance has a better appearance; it is also and seems to be much larger.

[Page 190]

The frequent recurrence of danger to the ship amongst these reefs, being best obviated by great attention to the look out from the mast head, I thought it necessary to issue some orders in addition to those of July 18. 1801, relating principally to this important point. These orders have generally already been followed for the great part of the time that we had been near the coast or amongst dangers, since leaving Port Jackson; but I thought it best to define by a written order what was precisely expected from the officers of the ship, and therefore on the 10th. the following orders were given out.

                      General Orders
1st. When the ship is in the neighbourhood of land, reefs, or any other danger, the boatswain, gunner, and carpenter are to have the charge of the look out at night upon the forecastle; and under the officer of the watch are to be responsible for any unseen danger that the ship may get into during their look out. Also, in particular situations, which will be pointed out by the Commander, the said officers are to look out from the top-gallant yard in the day time, holding themselves answerable as before
2nd. When any land or danger is in sight, the officer of the watch is to visit the mast head at the end of his watch in the day time, and report to the Commander what is in sight from thence; and when a warrant officer is not there, the mate of the watch is to do the same

[Page 191]

same in the middle of the watch and report to the officer -
3rd. In situations where the ship is anchored at night and got under weigh early in the morning, the Commander excuses the officer and petty officers who have kept the middle watch from attending in the morning, if it is before eight o'clock, and the ship is in no immediate danger; but it is expected, that all other officers do give their strict attendance.
This order is not meant to extend to any thing beyond the getting up of the anchor and putting the ship about between day light and eight o'clock; in all other cases where the ships company are turned up to perform any evolution or to attend upon deck, either by night or by in the daytime, all the officers etc. are, as usual, to be present; such only being excepted whose attendance the Commander thinks proper to dispense with
4th. The officer of the watch is charged with the execution of the preceding order, so far as to see that the petty officers are present, and that the officer or officers are present, and that the officer or officers have early information of all hands being called and for what purpose
5th. The second lieutenant having undertaken to assist the Commander in performing the duty of an astronomer, the gunner is, until further orders, to take charge of his watch between 8 A.M. and 8 P.M. except at such times as the Commander orders the warrant officers to look out at the mast head; but this order extends to the ordinary keeping of a day watch only, the attendance of the second lieutenant in all other cases being required under the limitations of the 3rd. order
                                          Mattw. Flinders
To the commissioned, warrant, and petty
Officers of H.M. Sloop Investigator

[Page 192]

1802 Oct. [Friday] -15th. Investigator between the [Cumberland Isles and the barrier reefs]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather, with haze
At 1, tacked the ship. - Served tobacco to the ships company.
At 4, tacked ship - At 61/2h. came to with the stream, isle K S.711/2.8' dist. 5 miles leags - The brig being some miles to leeward was working up, shewed a light to her at 9, when she appeared to be at [anchor], 2 miles to the S.S.E. -
Light airs and hazy weather
A.M. Light breezes and cloudy
At 5h.30' having weighed, made sail towards the [indecipherable word] westernmost part of the reefs yet seen in order to find a passage through them to sea
At 6h.30' saw and passed by some reefs on the west side. At 8h.30' the brig made sigl. for having 17 fms. Saw reefs to the WN.W. and hauled up within them. Soon after saw a rippling like breakers bearing Wt. [indecipherable word] and after passing within them, kept away again to the northward
Towards noon, reefs came in sight as far as W.N.W. dist. 2 miles and they extended as far as to N.E. 21/2 miles Island K bore S.10.W. and the centre of 1 S.511/2.W
Fresh breezes & fine weather. Running under 3 top sails and T.Gt. sails upon the cap. A short swell rising.

[Page 193]

[1802 Oct. [Friday] -15th. Investigator, between the] Cumberland Isles and the barrier reefs

[Tables not transcribed]

The reefs first seen this morning are very near to those left yesterday, and most probably join to them; as also, I judge, do the whole of those seen on this day. It is likely, however, that there are clear spaces between them to the outer great reef such as we have found further eastward, and probably some small opening through; but the loss of time as well as extreme danger of hunting searching after these, and of passing them if found, induces me to push on to the N.W.ward, keeping all the reefs on our starboard hand: by which means we shall not miss any considerable break in the reef.
I am further induced to abandon the search after small passages from the observations of captain Cook upon the tides. To the south of the Cumberland Isles he found the flood coming from the northward, but after passing them, from the S.E.; whence I suppose that the tide comes in from some great opening which is near abreast of these Cumberland ilsles
  

[Page 194]

1802 [Saturday] -16th. Oct. Investigator amongst [the Cumberland Isles, and at [anchorage] 15, off 12,]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and hazy weather, with a jumbling short sea from the southward Hauled up to weather some reefs, and at 21/2h. still more for some of the Cumbd. Isles Saw smokes upon 1.
At 4h.20' kept more away for a smaller isle, 12, under the lee of which I proposed to [anchor] for the night - No reefs in sight since 2 o'clock. At 6h.28' came to with the stream upon a bottom of soft, grey, sand, about 1 mile from a sandy beach of island 12, its extremes bearing S.20. to 88.E Other islands to the westward as far as WN.W.
A.M. Light breezes and fine weather
Soon after daylight, the Commander went on shore to take bearings of the islands in sight, and the scientific gentlemen to examine the nearest island
Employed on board in making plat and sinnet for the cables
At noon, fresh breezes and hazy weather
The Commander and gentlemen returned on board from the island
Prepared to get under weigh, but the wind freshening and the weather tide causing the sea to rise, I determined to remain until the following morning and arrange my bearings and observations
 

[Page 195]

[1802 [Saturday] -16th. Oct. Investigator amongst] the Cumberland Isles, and at [anchorage] 15, off 12,

[Tables not transcribed]

I found the beach of 12, to be fronted by a ledge of coral reef, upon which were growing several kinds of live coral, forming as usual a beautiful scene, but even more so than at the reefs where I landed before on the 10th.
The haziness of the weather prevented me from seeing anything from the highest part of the island beyond a few miles leagues; so that although it was about low water and the reefs consequently uncovered, yet no nothing of the reefs was visible, at which I was disappointed part of them could be distinguished. I was the more disappointed in this, from having had a severe scramble through the brushwood and prickly vines in principally for the sake of learning something of their situation & form.
The natives seem to have visited this island some months back, and the fires shewn upon the neighbouring island 1, bespeak their presence there at this time
The rock which constitutes the basis of the island is of the porphyry kind, and although a small piece applied to the needle did not seem to affect it, yet a few yards difference of situation made a difference of 2.25' in the bearing of two objects. The island has but little vegetable earth amongst the loose pieces of rock which mostly compose the surface, but that little seems to produces a thick vegetation, and supports it in tolerable luxuriance: - The island has much of the general air and appearance of Norfolk I.; which is partly given by the pines, and the surrounding reef.
 

[Page 196]

1802 Oct. [Sunday] -17th. Investigator [1802 - [Monday] - 18th. Off the Cumberland Isles]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and hazy weather.
People making plat and sinnet for the cables.
Cut up pork No.36 to its contents.
Fresh breezes, but the wind soon after died away
A.M. At 5h.45', weighed and made sail towards the reefs, with the L. Nelson in company. At 8, saw a small dry bank N.E. about 4 miles; 12, the island left then bearing S.11.E. about 8 miles.
Moderate breezes & fine weather with haze
Punished Wm. Murray and John Marlow with 12 lashes each for fighting, after having read the articles of war to the ships company. Mustered the people and saw them clean
Noon, mod. & fine wr. No reefs in sight: 12, the island left S11.30' E and other of the Cumberland Isles as far as N. 74.W. A peaked isle (Pentecost of C.C. [Captain Cook])
S82.30'W. distant 12 leagues.

[Page 197]

[1802 Oct. [Sunday] -17th. Investigator]
1802 - [Monday] - 18th. Off the Cumberland Isles

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and fine weather.
At 3, 1 north end S 8.E. Pentecost I. S.71.W. No.most Cumbd. I N81W.
At 5h.30' tacked and bore down to the Lady Nelson. At 61/4h. came to with the stream and sent a boat on board her.
At 12, fresh breezes and squally. Finding the stream [anchor] did not hold the ship let go the small bower and veered to half a cable
At day light, received on board from the brig a five-oared launch, and most of the stores before supplied her; and Mr. Lacey returned to the ship, with two men in lieu of two others discharged into her. +
At 9, weighed, and stowed the small bower and at 9h.25' weighed the stream, made sail, tacked to the northward and shewed colours to the Lady Nelson at parting, she being ordered to return to Port Jackson. We now hoped that we should get to sea without interruption from reefs, but at 10h.30' saw reefs from N.W.b.N to East, and bore away for it
At 11h.30' hauled up round them, the outermost of that cluster of reefs bearing N.N.E. A seperate patch NW.bN. 31/2 miles
Fresh breezes and fine weather
   

[Page 198]

1802 Oct. [Monday] -18th. continued - Additional remarks

 The trunk of the Lady Nelsons main keel being so damaged that the keel cannot traverse in it, and the after keel being broken, have so much reduced her former moderate rate of sailing, that she cannot be sent into any situation where her safety depends upon beating to windward, even in smooth water. This, and her late loss of [anchor]'s, as well as her present and future want of other stores, have determined me to send her back to Port Jackson. The following is an extract of my letter to His Excellency the governor, upon the subject
"The advantages to the Investigator arising from the attendance of the Lady Nelson appeared to balance against the disadvantages as follows
"1st. The Lady Nelson might keep ahead of the ship and give notice of danger: and probably save the brig ship from getting into it
"2. She would be useful to explore rivers and bays, whilst the ship remained safely at [anchor]; and also places where it would be unsafe for the ship to go.
"3. The brig might be of the greatest service in saving the people of the Investigator in case of a fatal accident happening to her.
"These were the whole sum of the advantages that could be rendered by her in her best state; and on the other hand, there were the following drawbacks and disadvantages.
"1st. For the brig to keep ahead, of the Investigator must generally keep go under very easy sail, which would frequently occasion much loss of time; especially in the
      

[Page 199]

[1802 Oct. [Monday] -18th. continued - Additional remarks]

run from hence to Carpentaria, which the expected monsoon requires should be performed as expeditiously as a due regard to safety will permit. Within the reefs, where the greatest danger is to be apprehended, we have generally found a boat to be of equal and frequently of greater service in this respect than the Lady Nelson

"2. There now remains but little prospect of any large rivers in New Holland, the whole south coast and the most likely places upon the east being already explored by us; but nevertheless the brig might be very useful to us in this 2nd. point of view
"3. In case of the loss of the Investigator it is undoubtedly of much consequence to have a second vessel; but in the present state of the brig the probabilities are that the ship will rather have to save the people of the Lady Nelson; and this brings me to another object of some consideration;-- should the brig be lost, she cannot certainly be of any farther service to us, but if she gets safe to Port Jackson, she may be of the greatest use in a future expedition, when her damages are repaired and wants supplied
"4. For the brig to perform any part of what is above mentioned it is necessary that she be supplied with at least one of the only two small [anchor]s in the ship; and she will soon be in equal want of the only hawser whh. I have to replace a worn stream cable with, or of which lower rigging can be made; she will also have occasion for much small rope and other small stores, and for three or four months provisions.
"Was I so desirous to keep her, bad as she is as to distre[ss]

[Page 200]

1802 Oct. [Monday] -18th. continued. Additional remarks

"to distress the Investigator for her in order to supply her wants; yet another loss equal to what she has sustained in this early part of the voyage would oblige her to run for the nearest port; in which case the Investigator would have been distressed to little purpose; and experience has already shewn me that we are liable to part company.
"Upon mature deliberation of the above circumstances I have given Lt. Murray orders to return; and as the Lady Nelson can spare her launch without inconvenience I have kept it until our arrival at Port Jackson to replace a six-oared cutter which the great rapidity of the tide in a passage between Island Head and Cape Townsend deprived us of, but fortunately without the loss of any man"
"I inclose to Your Excellency an abstract of what is already done, and such parts of it as you may judge material will no doubt be transmitted to the Admiralty for the information of my Lords Commissioners.
"I have the pleasure to add that the Investigators ships company are in good health and spirits"
The order that Lieut. Murray received was as follows
                            By Matthew Flinders Esq.
                      Commander of H.M. sloop Investigator

A concurrence of various circumstances
        

[Page 201]

[1802 Oct. [Monday] -18th. continued. Additional remarks]

having rendered it necessary that the vessel you command should return to Port Jackson, you are therefore hereby required and directed to proceed forthwith to that port, keeping between the barrier reefs and the main coast until you pass Break-sea Spit, and from thence as you shall see most expedient
Previous to parting you are to deliver to me a log book for the time you have been under my command, signed by yourself; and since the Lady Nelson can spare her launch without much inconvenience, you will leave it in charge of the boatswain of the Investigator
Upon your arrival at Port Jackson all the remaining charts, log-books or other accounts kept on board the Lady Nelson can spare are to be delivered to His Excellency the governor, and all orders that you may have received from me for His Majestys service are to be produced
             
Given under my hand off the Cumberland Isles this 18 day of Oct. 1802. Mattw. Flinders

To Lieut. Murray
Commanding H.M. brig Lady Nelson

[Page 202]

1802 Oct. [Tuesday] -19th. Investigator, between [the Cumberland Isles and barrier reefs]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes with haze. Hauled up and bore away to avoid patches of reefs too tedious to [be] enumerate[d].
At 2, Cumberld. I. S.W.1/2 S. to W.b S.1/2 S. Passing round a large shoal until 6h.20' when shoal water was seen from it round to S.W.b.S. Hauled to the wind and weathered it, passing through rippling water near the S.E. point of it. At 7h.20' being afraid to stand on, came to with the best bower and veered to a whole cable. Furled sails and sent down T.Gt. yards - Fresh breezes with a short swell on.
A.M. At daylight saw the reef to leeward, extending from No. to West, distant about 2 miles, and the center of the northern Cumberld. Island S.48.W. - Sent up T.Gt. yards and weighed. At 6h.35' made sail along the south side of the reef, which was now seen to extend to the westward - Fresh breezes & fine At 9, hauled round the reef to the northward: but at 10h.40', shoals were seen from north to W.N.W. which obliged us to haul nearer to the shore
At noon, the furthest reef W.N.W.31/2 miles extending from thence to N.E. - Land taken for C.Gloucester S.31 W. and the northernmost Cumberland I. S.18. E. - Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. Running under double reefed topsails etc. - People employed laying a 15 fm. plat upon a new small bower cable, from the clinch upwards.

[Page 203]

[1802 Oct. [Tuesday] -19th. Investigator, between] the Cumberland Isles and barrier reefs

[Tables not transcribed]

None of the various reefs passed today appeared to be near the outer part, there being but little break on them, and they lie mostly in unconnected patches.
The motives which governed our course today were the same as before; - to keep the reefs upon our starboard hand, and proceed on without attending to small passages, until a good and safe opening to the north or eastward should present itself. In cases where small patches lay off from the body and left a sufficient passage I did not go round them, but passed through between them. [Had the brig been ahead of the ship this evening without seeing the shoal water before us, as is probable she would not, it would have gone hard with her, for she certainly could not have weathered the point of the reef; and indeed to have lain at [anchor] where we did, with such a breeze and swell, and a reef under the lee, would have but ill suited with the want of a second [anchor].

[Page 204]

1802 Oct. [Wednesday] - 20th. Investigator, along the [east coast - within the barrier reefs. - Holborne Isle]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy weather, with a following sea. At 2, Hauled to the northward, no reefs being seen in that direction. Holborne I. bearing S.44 W. 3 or 4 leags.
At 41/2 saw a patch of reef WS.W. 3 miles, and high distant breakers from No. to E.N.E. Another shoal N.E. 4 miles, for which we hauled up. At 5, tacked to the southward. At 6, the patch of reef W.b.S. 3 miles, and Holborne I. then bore S.1/2 W. - Third reefed the F. and Mz top-sails - At 10, tacked ship. Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. Saw a light S.S.E. probably upon C. Gloucester
A.M. At 121/2 tacked ship. At 3 wore to the northward - Some sea running and the ship admitting 5 inches of water per hour - At day light, Holborne Isle S.2.W. Bore away and let out double reefs At 7h.30', steering to pass between 2 reefs, the No. one both of considerable extent. At 10, left another reef on the left hand, still steering along the south side of the long northern one At 10h.40', hauled up more to the northwd. but soon after saw distant reefs in that direction -
At noon. A reef N.E. 21/2 miles. One farther distant N.E.b.N. and extending to the northward. Another reef N.W. 4 or 5 miles and extending S.W.ly. - Other reefs just out of sight to the eastward. People employed bending a new small bower cable and pointing it - Fresh breezes & fine

[Page 205]

[1802 Oct. [Wednesday] - 20th. Investigator, along the] east coast - within the barrier reefs. - Holborne Isle

[Tables not transcribed]

The high breakers seen this afternoon had the appearance of being upon the front reef. and We were for a little time flattered with the prospect of finding a passage through; and it was half past 4, before the extending of the breakers to the westward undeceived us.
The wind was too strong and swell to high this evening to think of [anchor]ing as we had been accustomed to do; and therefore, notwithstanding the great risk, we were obliged to keep under sail all night amongst the reefs. I made a long stretch to the southward because that in the neighbourhood of the land we have hitherto found the sea clear of shoals; and our situation in the morning shewed that this practice was good, if not the best that could have been adopted.
The outermost breakers seen this morning had the appearance of being upon the reefs that front the sea, from the height with which they broke; but our prospect of finding any good passage through them seems to be still upon a precarious footing. at present. With respect to the various shoals passed today, it is useless and would be tedious to describe them individually otherwise than by a chart.

[Page 206]

1802 Oct. [Thursday] - 21st. Investigator, through the [barrier reefs, towards Torres' Strait.]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. Some sea running, but the water smooth under the reefs - Passed between various reefs, and at 3h. there were 9 seperate patches of breakers, which lay all round us; the nearest of which bore E.bN. 1 mile: no distant breakers in sight to the N.E. - At 6, strong breezes & heavy sea from the eastward, and no reefs in sight
3rd. reefed the top-sails. - Squally with rain. At 9, took in the main sail and jib to ease the ship
Strong breezes with variable weather.
At 1, tacked ship on her falling off
At 4, set main sail and jib, and tacked to the northward. Hove to and sounded as before every 4 hours
At day light, fresh breezes and fine wr. Out 3rd. reef of the top-sails and set the M.T.Gt. sail.
Got the anchors higher upon the bows
Mustered ships company and saw them clean as usual
At noon, fresh breezes & fine, with a considerable sea from the eastward From the mast head, saw breakers extending from west to N.W.b.N. distant 6 or 7 miles - Hauled as near to the wind as the ship could make good way.

[Page 207]

[1802 Oct. [Thursday] - 21st. Investigator, through the] barrier reefs, towards Torres' Strait.

[Tables not transcribed]

The shoals passed this afternoon were in smaller patches than we have usually seen them and the sea broke much higher upon then. At 2, the number of shoals that were in sight ahead made me debate whether I should keep on amongst them and trust to finding [anchor]age under their lee of one, or whether it would not be safer to steer westward and close in with get nearer to the land before night. Caution inclined to the latter, but the loss of time that would arise, as well as that an opening in the reefs sufficient to be passed might thus be missed, determined me to steer on. The last reefs seen consisted of small patches, between which are deep the channels are deep. We were successful, for and by eight o'clock I had no doubt left but that we had got passed entirely through them into the open sea.
Had the weather been moderate in the evening I intended to have stood backwds. and forwards during the night, but the strong wind and high sea made me prefer the danger of steering in into an unknown and suspected track, rather than lose any of the distance which we had gained from the reefs. At 1 in the morning however, the wind obliged us to chuse between known and unknown reefs and therefore we tacked for a few hours

[Page 208]

1802 Oct. [Thursday] - 21st. - Additional remarks continued. - Gene[ral remarks upon the reefs]

The breakers seen to leeward at noon were at too great a distance to form any judgment of their connexion with relation to the barrier reef of the coast, from their appearance; but from their distance from the coast to the westward, which is 21/4. of longitude induces me to think that they are separated from it in the direction where the reefs were seen, I should rather suppose them to be upon a distinct reef. It was too dangerous an experiment, with the sea that was running, to bear away run to leeward to examine this reef.
A few general remarks upon such of these reefs as have fallen under our inspection the reefs will not be an unappropriate addition to this days log
The greater part of these reefs which we have seen upon this coast will be dry at low water. At high water, nothing, or but the tops of small lumps of stone, will be visible; and thus circumstanced they are not very distinguishable in some kinds of weather. We saw some patches of dry sand upon the reefs, and captain Cook remarks that these are usually situated at the northern part of the reef, which I am inclined to think may be the case, and may possibly arise from the prevalence of southerly winds.
It has before been remarked, that the only reef upon which we landed consisted mostly of dead loose pieces of coral of various kinds, which seem to have been partly washed up and partly to have died there, thus raising the bank thus continually, though almost imperceptibly. A little below the surface I judge these to be caked into a mass and that they constitutinge a mountainous ridge of calcarious stone upon the sandy bottom of the sea. There were some small live corals growing upon the parts which the

[Page 209]

[1802 Oct. [Thursday] - 21 st. - Additional remarks continued. - Gene]ral remarks upon the reefs

water had left uncovered, but these bore no proportion in size or number to what was growing under the water; and I think it possible, that the size of the coral may bear some proportion to the depth of water with which it is constantly covered.
The kind of bottom which we found among the reefs was in every gradation, from live pieces which had been broken off by the lead to the fine white grey calcarious sand. The deepest water contained the best soundings for [anchor]age, and wherever the depth was much left than usual, broken coral was always brought up by the lead -
Captain Cook sseems not to have usually found a greater depth of water amongst the reefs further to the north than 20 fms., and very frequently not so much; and further to the south Mr. Campbells soundings were usually from 40 to 60 fathoms within the reefs. Our soundings in the intermediate space, but nearer to the latter, were commonly between 30 and 35 where the bottom was sandy; from whence it should seem, that the soundings amongst the reefs get less to the N.W.ward. The same thing seems to hold inTorres' Strait, the water being much deeper on the east than on the west side of it. Is this owing to the S.Etly. winds, or to the progress in the formation of coral?- [The time of high water amongst the reefs, as well as at 12, of the Cumberland Isles, is at 1 hour before the [moon] comes to the meridian, the same as in Broad Sound; and as near as could be ascertained at single [anchor], it rises between 2 and three fms. The flood comes from between the north and east.

[Page 210]

1802 Oct. [Friday] - 22nd. Investigator - East coast [ [Saturday] - 23rd. towards Torres' Strait]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and cloudy weather. Out 2nd. reefs and set the middle stay sail
At 2h.20', Saw breakers from the mast head N.W.b.W. 7 or 8 miles
At dusk, no land or breakers in sight
Many boobies, tropic, and man-of-war birds about
Hove to, to sound, and made sail again
Hauled up the main sail for the greater convenience of tacking in case of meeting with danger
Tacked to the southward; then hove to, to sound and made sail again
At 3, tacked to the northward
At day light, mod. breezes and fine weather Set M. sail & stay sails.
Cloudy weather
People making plat and sinnet for the cables - Carpenters repairing the L. Nelsons launch.
Noon, moderate breezes & fine wr. with but little sea running. Nothing unusual in sight
    

[Page 211]

[1802 Oct. [Friday] - 22nd. Investigator - East coast] [Saturday] - 23rd. towards Torres' Strait

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes with fine weather. People employed making plat for the small bower cable. Carpenters sawing up pine logs up for repairing the L. Nelsons launch - At dusk, nothing in sight from the mast head, but several boobies, man-of-war birds, gannets and tropic birds about. At 8, in M. sail and stay sails, and at 10, tacked to the southward, having no bottom with 120 fms.
At 2, tacked to the northward, and sounded with 110 fms., no bottom
At day light, nothing unusual in sight; - bore up and made more sail
Fresh breezes & fine wr.
Many birds about
Carpenters employed sawing plank, sailmakers making an awning, and people making plat. Got the swivels up in their places, ready for use
Noon, moderate breezes and fine No land or other remarkable object in sight

[Page 212]

1802 Oct. [Sunday] - 24th. Investigator - East coast [ [Monday] - 25th. Towards Torres' Strait]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and cloudy weather. Set the F. and F.T.mt. studg. sails
Light squall with rain
Exercised great guns, swivels and small arms, and fired one round of powder
In studg. sails, stay sails, T.Gt. sails, and main sail.
At 8, hauled to the wind, and sounded with 80 fms., no bottom - At 10, tacked to the southward
Fresh breezes with dark cloudy weather
At 2, tacked to the northward
At 5, bore away and set T.Gt. sails and studg. sails -
Fresh breezes and cloudy
Took in studg. sails
Gannets, tropic-birds, boobies and petrels abt. the ship
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean - Set the F.T. mt studg. sail. - At noon, moderate breezes and cloudy weather.
Spruce beer served

[Page 213]

[1802 Oct. [Sunday] - 24th. Investigator - East coast] [Monday] - 25th. Towards Torres' Strait

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather
Many boobies, some petrels and tropic birds about the ship
Lightening in the western quarter.
At 8, took in T.Gt. sails and hauled to the wind. Sounded, but found no bottom at 100 fathoms.
At 10, tacked ship to the southward
Fresh breezes and cloudy weather
At 2, tacked ship; and nothing being in sight at day light, bore away upon our course, and set T.Gt. sails and F.T.mt. studg. sail.
The old jib and F.T.Gt. sail being repaired bent them again.
Fresh breezes with dull weather
A shag came from the westward & flew round the ship. -
Exercised the boats crews at small arms with powder. - Carpenters repairing the small launch.
Noon, moderate breezes and hazy wr. A large flock of petrels seen.
Served spruce beer

[Page 214]

1802 Oct. [Tuesday] - 26th. Investigator. East coast [ [Wednesday] - 27th. Towards Torres' Strait]

[Tables not included - see original journal]

Mod. breezes and fine wr.
Set a F.T.mt. studg. sail
Many birds about the ship
At 4, hauled more to the northward, finding by the observations that a current runs strong to the westward
Cut up beef No.30, right.
At 8, shortened sail, and sounded - 130. Afterwards stretched on upon a wind until 10, and then tacked to the southward
Moderate breezes and cloudy weather
Light airs with rain. At 5, bore away upon our course, and made all sail
Light breezes and fine weather, with haze
Exercised great guns and small arms & fired two rounds of powder
Carpenters repairing the small launch
Noon, light breezes and dull hazy weather -
   

[Page 215]

[1802 Oct. [Tuesday] - 26th. Investigator. East coast ] [Wednesday] - 27th. Towards Torres' Strait

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes with close sultry weather
Set all studg. sails
Cloudy, with drizzling rain
A gannet seen
At 8, in studg. sails and hauled to the wind. Sounded with 120 fms., no bottom.
At 9, shortened sail and lay to under the top-sails.
Cloudy weather with squalls and heavy rain.
Rainy weather. At day light, bore away and set T.Gt. sails and fore sail
Mod. and cloudy weather.
Exercised great guns and small arms. - Aired with stoVes
A small land bird about the ship
Towards noon, it came on to rain again and no meridional observation could be obtained. - People making plat for the cable. Spruce beer served
   

[Page 216]

1802 Oct. [Thursday] - 28th. Investigator - East Coast [1802 Oct. [Friday] - 29th. Towards Torres Strait]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and squally with frequent rain
Took in T.Gt. sails and at 1, tacked ship
Dark cloudy weather, with rain
At 8, tacked ship. Sounded with 100 fms., no bottom
At 12, tacked ship. Weather steadier
At 3, brought to, till day light, then bore away and made more sail
Mod. breezes & cloudy with rain
At 8, saw breakers, extending from S.W.b.W. to N.b.E. dist. from 3 to 6 miles.
Hauled to the wind until 10,and then bore away round their north end
Served slops to the ships company, and afterwards mustered the people & saw them clean as usual. Spruce beer, sour krout, and vinegar served to the people. Aired with stoves. At noon, mod. breezes & fine weather

[Page 217]

[1802 Oct. [Thursday] - 28 th. Investigator - East Coast] 1802 Oct. [Friday] - 29th. Towards Torres Strait

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod breezes with fine weather. At 0h.30' passed through a rippling, but had no bottom at 3lF.
Set royals and studg. sails. At 2h.45', a small patch of breakers SW1/2S, 4 or 5 miles.
A booby caught. - At dusk, took in studg. sails royals & 2nd. reefs of the top sails. At 8, wore ship, hove to and sounded: lost the deep sea lead.
Filled on the starboard tack under top-sails & fore sail, having no bottom at 105 fms.
Moderate breezes and fine weather. Wore ship having missed stays.
At 4, shortened sail and brought to till day light
Sounded with 100: no bottom. At 5h.20', bore away and let out 2nd. reefs. At 6, two detached reefs seen bearing N.N.W. 3 miles, and W.b.N.31/2'.
A large flock of birds seen
Mod. breezes & hazy wr.
Exercised great guns and small arms & fired 2 rounds of powder.
At 11, saw breakers from W.b.S. to No. distant 3 miles
A dry white sand in the middle of the breakers. Hauled to the northward till noon, when finding the ship too far that way for the passage
Tacked ship. Sounded in 50 fms. fine S.
The reef S.W.b.W. to N.b.E. 2 or 3 miles

[Page 218]

1802 Oct. [Saturday] - 30th. Investigator, entering [Torres' Strait, and at isle B, or Murrays Isle]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and hazy weather. At 1h.30', tacked to avoid a rippling supposing it to be a shoal, but soon after tacked again and steered for B or Murrays I. which was seen bearing S.W.b.S. At 5h.30' shortened sail and came to with the small bower. The [indecipherable word] being on bore S39E to 30.W. nearest distance 11/2 mile. A reef surrounds the island whose N.E. extreme bore S.55.E. - Three canoes came along side bringing for barter and traded with some fruit and arms - Finding the ship drive veered to 2/3rds. of a cable - The ship made 4 inches of water per hour during the afternoon
At 1 the ship swung athwart - Fresh breezes and cloudy
At 51/2 slack water. Sent up T.Gt. yards - Seven canoes along side, containing about 100 natives; some of whom came on board
At 8h.50' weighed & made sail. Sent the whale boat ahead, but the wind freshening called her on board
Steered various courses between both small and large shoals, but the general channel not less than from 2 to 5 miles
Double reefed the top-sails
At noon, fresh breezes and hazy weather. B isle E4N (true East) B2, E3.S. Isle A (of Bligh) N.5.E. A reef distant 1 mile S62 to N48W. Further reef S.W. about 4 miles Hoisted up the whale boat

[Page 219]

[1802 Oct. [Saturday] - 30th. Investigator, entering] Torres' Strait, and at isle B, or Murrays Isle

On seeing Murrays I. I found that we had entered the passage between the great eastern reefs at 6 on the preceding morning, but we had not seen those [that form its] to the southward [side]. The sand bank seen at the preceding noon is laid down in C. Blighs chart, 2' No. of what I make it and 18' of longitude west of the [indecipherable word]; but relatively with Murrays I. it seems to be right. From that bank to the island we had reefs on each side of us almost all the way but the nearest approach of these being about 4 miles a sufficient ship passage is left.
The three canoes contained about between 40 and 50 men They came near, but not along side, exclaiming "tooree' ([indecipherable word]) and "mammoose" and [indecipherable word]. They brought old coco-nuts, unripe plantains, bows and arrows, & shells, which they exchanged with avidity for hatchets and nails. The exchanges were carried on by swimmers from the canoes. At sunset they went away, and one of them set a sail between two masts forward, and after a while was seen steering to the north-westward towards the isle A of C. Bligh
In the morning 7 canoes came alongside which must have contained 100 men. They brought many bananas and arms, and a few coco-nuts, and exchanged as before very honestly, and without impudence. Many of them now came on board in order to obtain the precious tooree, and just before we weighed I presented an elderly man with a hand saw, a hammer and some nails. On Our seamens going aloft to loose sails they quitted took as a signal to quit the ship, but they continued friendly to the last. They obtained several hatchets, knives, nails etc. from me, and various things from others, for the furor of curiosity purchasing was great.

[Page 220]

1802 Oct. [Saturday] - 30th. continued. Additional remarks at [isle B or Murrays Isle, and from thence westward]

The men were active, tolerably muscular, about the middle height, and had countenances expressive of a quick apprehension. They were naked; but a few of them had some ornaments of shell work, and plaited hair or fibrous bark, about the waist, neck, and ankles. The canoes are of the breadth of one tree and between 30 and 40 feet long, and are kept upright by small outriggers on each side. They have a stage in the middle of them, where upon which their mat sails of matting and arms are placed: the masts lie along the two gunwhales of the canoe
Upon the island we distinguished many huts, surrounded by pallisades, apparently of bamboo and the coconut trees were very numerous both upon the low and high grounds of the largest island. -
We saw many of the other natives on shore sitting in groups, who were probably women and children. If we suppose the canoes who came to see us in the morning to have contained half the men upon the three isles, and if to these 200 men we allow 150 women and 250 children, we shall have 600 inhabitants upon these three small isles, which is a large population. No account in this calculation is taken of the canoe which sailed to the N.W. in the evening. + [It appeared in the morning that we had [anchor]ed in the first place for being near best calculated for proximity to the shore, the shoals being found to run out much further on the west side of

[Page 221]

[1802 Oct. [Saturday] - 30th. continued. Additional remarks at] isle B, or Murrays Isle, and from thence westward

the largest island. The ground does not appear to hold well, although and we found the buoy rope much cut by the rocks. It will be high water at these islands about 2 hours before the [moon] passes over the meridian, but I know not the rise of tide.
The largest island being visible 6 or 7 leagues will serve as an excellent guide by which to follow any good track, if such should be found, from it onward. The latitude of it this isle which is 9.53' So. is also that of the opening into the reefs by which we entered, but it will be necessary to make a circuit round by the northward to avoid many reefs which lie to the east of it. The chart, however is the best guide, both for sailing to the island, and by it to follow our track by afterwards. Besides the shoals there is we met with much rippling water after leaving the islands, but if there was no discolouring, we paid little attention to this, except rather to avoid such places than not. Great attention to the lookout from the mast head is the principal requisite to going safely as far as we have got advanced to this day at noon. The island A is the Tates Isle of Bampton, where captain Hill of the N.S.W. Corps and others were murdered by the natives in 1793. One of the low isles in the its neighbourhood was also in sight at noon, bearing S.65.W. from the mast head.
+ Upon the reefs surrounding isle B are many small spars stuck up, which were at first taken for the masts of canoes; what the purpose of is which these are to answer I can only conjecture.

[Page 222]

1802 Oct. [Sunday] - 31st. Investigator in Torres [Strait, steering westward]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and hazy. Hove to and hoisted up the whale-boat; then made more sail
At 2, two low isles N25W.5' and N53W 7' or 8'. Nearest reef S.E. 1 mile. D d, a small isle S50W. At 2h.30', passed through a channel 1' wide between small reefs, and afterwards had clearer water. At 4, D d N72W. 21/2 miles. Bore up round the weather part of the reef that surrounds it and came to with the small bower 11/4' from the island, the reef bearing S15 to N. 75 [indecipherable word] D d center E.4S. Furled sails and sent down T.Gt. yards. The Commander and scientific gentlemen when went on shore till sunset.
A.M. Fresh breezes and squally.
Having weighed, at 6 made sail.
Passed between two dry sand banks, which at 7h., bore SEbS 1 mile and N.W.b.W. 3'.
At 8, dry banks S37E. 2' and S.b.E. 3 1/2'. A low islet NbW1/2 W. 3 or 4 leagues.
Strong breezes and hazy. Nothing visible beyond 3 or 4 leagues.
At 10, passed a dry sand N83W 21/4 miles and saw 2 low isles to the northward
Passed by 4 turtle
Mustered ships company & saw them clean
At noon, the York Isles visible through the haze; the highest part a flat top bearing S8.E - about 3 leagues
Strong breezes & hazy weather. Running under the two top-sails and jib since 9 o'clock. - The ship making 10 inches of water per hour, although the sea is smooth.

[Page 223]

[1802 Oct. [Sunday] - 31st. Investigator in Torres] Strait, steering westward

[Tables not transcribed]

When compared to the track of any preceding other navigator through this strait, our run this afternoon has been almost in clear water. I trusted to the judgment of my officers and myself for distinguishing the shoals from the mast head, and ran whilst the wind served us.
The little isle D d is occasionally visited by men, who obtain here the fruit of the pandanus, and the gigantic cockles from the reef. Numbers of these shells were placed under the trees, evidently for the purpose of catching fresh water; there being strips of bark round the trees to lead the water into them and the shade of the tree preventeds its exhalation in some measure: the shells were half full of water at this time. I brought two shells on board whose weight, now quite clean and bleached is 101 pounds. The island is covered by shrubs and trees, and partly impenetrable. There are many pigeons upon it, but very shy. The rock is coarse coral sand caked and hardened. The island is not many feet above high-water mark and about 1 mile is its greatest circumference
A.M. The clear run that we made this morning as far as the York Isles, being added to the former part of our passage through this strait, will tend to disarm this very formidable navigation of a great part of its terrors. The ground passed over this morning is every where fit to [anchor] upon, and much superior to what we have been accustomed to amongst the reefs of the east coast.

[Page 224]

1802 Nov. [Monday] -1. Investigator in Torres [Strait, and amongst the York Isles]

[Tables not transcribed]

Strong breezes and hazy weather. At 1, the N.E. York Isle S.40E. The No. Isle S.79.W. A hig[h] peaked hill N.21.W. - Squally with rain
At 2, hauled round the northern York I. towards the west side of C. York, intending to [anchor] under two small islands near the main, but seeing rocks and breakers to leeward of them, bore up and ran to leeward of one much larger. At 3h.20' hauled up between two islands and came to with the small bower. Veered to half a cable, furled sails and sent down T.Gt. yards. - The small launch being repaired hoisted her up on the quarter.
Fresh breezes and squally weather.
Bearings at [anchor]. Extremes of the island e N.88.E - S.18.W Northernmost York I. N67E. Peaked Hill N321/2E.
High land N.5.W. Breakers dist. 31/2' NWbN. to W.N.W.
Strong breezes and squally weather
At daylight saw a ridge of sand about 2 cable lengths south of us.
The Commander and a party of gentlemen attempted to land but found too much sea
Struck the mizen top-mast, repaired the rigging and swayed it up again
Employed in the holds trimming the ship
Carpenters securing the fore top down to the cross trees, and caulking in the ports.
At noon, fresh breezes and cloudy weather with haze. The sun scarcely visible at any time during the morning
 

[Page 225]

[1802 Nov. [Monday] - l. Investigator in Torres]
Strait, and amongst the York Isles

The Possession Island of captain Cook was what I wished to [anchor] under this afternoon that we might be to ready to proceed with the survey of the Gulph of Carpentaria on the morning; but the rainy squally weather coming on with an increase of wind made me anxious to secure the ship in the first safe [anchor]age. What is called the northern York Isle in the log does not appear to have been seen by captain Cook, or do I find the two small, but not low, isles for which we next steered, in his chart. From present appearances I apprehend, that the two isles between which we [anchor]ed lie directly off C. York, but as no isles of their size are laid down in that situation I am in doubt; we see, however, the main land to the extensive land which seems to be main land to the S.E. and S.W. at no great distance
The island e does not appear to have settled inhabitants upon it, but upon e1 smoke was seen. Upon the former we notice something like bell tents or whitish sentry boxes, and two huts were seen upon it, but the weather would not permit us to examine the island or to see far round us. - The ridge of sand near our [anchor]age appears to occupy a considerable part of the space between the two islands, and upon its southern part are some rocks which the tide leaves dry. {C.Blighs Wednesday Island seems to be either e or e1, I cannot determine which.
From our lead it should appears to be high water at this [anchor]age under e at 4 hours after before the [moon] comes to the meridian. The water begins seems to rise with the last of the stream from the eastward, but the tide from S.W. appears to make high water. The rise is not less than 12 feet. It will appear that the water runs from the eastward 9 hours out of the 12.

[Page 226]

1802 Nov. [Tuesday] - 2nd. Investigator amongst [the Prince of Wales' Isles]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and squally weather
Employed in the holds
Cut up pork No.12 - 4lbs short
Strong breezes and cloudy
Saw fires upon the isle to leeward of us (e1)
Strong breezes and squally
Fresh breezes and cloudy
Having weighed, at 61/2h. made sail passing round the isles e1, and e2, and having an extensive reef on the starb side, dist. 2 miles. At 7, C.York the [indecipherable word] end of a large I on with the N.E. end of e1, S.66E. -
Seeing other shoals to the S.W.ward which would lead us off the land to go round them, at 73/4h. came to with the small bower under the lee of e2 its distance 11/4'. The N.W. end of e1 N61E 5 or 6 miles and the western extreme of C.York the P. of W. Isles apparently, S.9.W. about the same distan[ce] The islands being shut on between these points
Sent the whale boat on shore to the island with an offic[er] and the scientific gentlemen
People employed making plat for the cables
Fresh breezes and squally at times
    

[Page 227]

[1902 Nov. [Tuesday] - 2nd. Investigator amongst]
the Prince of Wales' Isles

[Tables not transcribed]

On consulting captain Blighs narrative, I judge the north end of the island e to be his Wednesday I. for I can trace his narrative very intelligibly from his mountainous island which is the first York Isle seen by us to his Shoal Cape, which seems to be the west end of the southernmost isle e 4). Isles near which we [anchor]ed in the morning.
[Since no land is in sight in the western quarter, these isles ought to be the Prince of Wales' Isles; but the great differences in our longitude, not only from Greenwich, but also relatively with the first York Isle keeps me in doubt; for I make but 31 miles between these, whereas captain Cooks chart gives at last 46'; and 59' if it was the N.E.ernmost York Isle which we saw first.
[indecipherable passage]
Lt. Fowler, whom I sent on shore in the whale boat, reported that he had had a good view of that part which I suppose to look to Endeavour Strait. Marks of natives were seen upon the island but not very recent. A log of good cedar was lying upon the shore.
Having finished the necessary observations and my rough chart, I determined to go and sound in the channel, and from the hill to inspect into the shoals when it would be near low water.

[Page 228]

1802 Nov. [Wednesday] - 3rd. Investigator amongst the [Prince of Wales' Isles, and towards the G. of Carpentaria]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy.
The whale boat returned on board with the gentlemen and afterwards the Comr. went on shore in her, and returned at sunset.
Wind more moderate, with fine weather
Mod.& fresh breezes, with drizzling rain at times
At day light sent up T.Gt. yards, and began to heave up. At 6h.10', weighed and made sail to pass between the great northern reef, and Shoal Cape the whale boat ahead sounding. At 7, hauled up round the dry bank, but afterwards coming upon shoal water, kept away and hauled up occasionally trying to pass over into the Gulph of Carpentar[ia] At 8h.30' found no less than 3 fms. and passed over the shoal. Booby I. N60W. C. Cornwa[ll] S.62.E. e 2, the island left N501/2E: these bearings taken 10' after.- At 10h.30', the water again shoaled, C. Cornwal E4N. about 3 leagues. At 11h.36' tacked ship until the boat could go and sound, she being then on board. Tacked again and stood over the shoal. At Noon, Wallis' Isles N8l. and S70E. 3 miles. C. Cornwall N641/2E. Low main land S.46.E.

[Page 229]

[1802 Nov. [Wednesday] - 3rd. Investigator amongst the]
Prince of Wales' Isles, and towards the G. of Carpentaria

[Tables not transcribed]

From the highest western hill of e 2, I now saw that this cluster was certainly the P. of W. Isles, notwithstanding the great difference of longitude from Captain Cook. Amongst these isles there is a congeries of well sheltered roadsteds, and apparently a fine inclosed navigation, but I judge that the tides will run strong amongst them. The isles are all hilly, covered with thick wood, and have small beaches upon the shores. -

I found that the structures which had been noticed upon e as being like bell tents or white sentry boxes, were the huge nests of ants. They are of a conic form and some of them are 6, 8 or more feet high. The inhabitants are small reddish ants with black heads: some white ants are amongst them {these are probably the same noticed by Dampier and Pelsart.
At a distance beyond and over the Shoal Cape of Bligh some low land was seen which I judge to be Wallis' Isles. Booby I. bore 255.50' or 265.60 distant 10 or 12 miles. The tide was not sufficiently low or the weather clear to see much of the shoals, but there seems to be nothing between the great reef and the banks from Shoal Cape to prevent a ship from passing on safely into the Indian Sea -
A.M. It appears that the shoal from the cape extends to a distance not less than 3 leagues to the westward, although but a small part of it is dry; and to the southwd. There are several shoals especially about Wallis Isles and towards the main which is here very low and sandy in that part.

[Page 230]

1802 Nov. [Thursday] - 4th. Investigator in the Gulph [of Carpentaria - [anchor] 1 ]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and fine weather. Standing on under the top-sails after the boat. Bore away and hauled up occasionally, being forced from the land by the shoal water lying off it At 2, furthest point of the main S.75.E. about 5.
At 4, hauled more up into the gulph, having had deep water for some time.
At 6h.45', came to with the stream [anchor], but finding it did not hold dropped the small bower. Furled sails and hoisted up the boat. No land or shoals in sight.
Moderate and fresh breezes at intervals, with lightening to the S.W.ward
Mod. breezes with fine weather. At daylight weighed the bower [anchor], and at 6h.20' up stream [anchor] and made sail to the southward, close to the wind, under single reefs, T.Gt. sails etc.
Mod. breezes and hazy weather. Several land birds about the ship, some of which were caught
Mustered the ships ships company and saw them clean
Spruce beer and sour krout served to the ships company as usual
Omitted At noon, light breezes and hazy weather. No land or shoals in sight, but several birds about the ship and a turtle was seen

[Page 231]

[1802 Nov. [Thursday] - 4th. Investigator in the Gulph] of Carpentaria - [anchor] 1

[Tables not transcribed]

That part of the main seen this afternoon is low, and fronted by a sandy beach. There was a smoke upon it. Wallis's Isles are low and rocky, and the northern ones are destitute of trees and perhaps shrubs. -
At [anchor] 1, it appears to be high water at 21/2h . after the [moon] passes over the meridian, and if the flood tide does not come from the west, at least the ebb runs from the east.
From the above observations of the [sun] and [moon], it appears that the time-keepers have been getting more to the eastward since we left 12, of the Cumberland Isles, at which place where the survey shewed it to be 6'; but the true longitude at this time will still be to the east of Captain Blighs longitude in the Providence, which was 50' to the east of Captain Cook. These observations not being corroborated with equal numbers on the other side of the [moon], I do not come to any final conclusion until this takes place. - See the table and remarks at the end of the book

[Page 232]

1802 Nov. [ Friday] - 5th. Investigator
[ [Saturday] - 6th. in the Gulph of Carpentaria]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs & fine weather
On a breeze springing up steered in for the land, wh. was soon after in sight and at 4, bore E.N.E. to S.E. b E.
There being an appearance of a S.E.tly wind, at 4h.25' came to with the small bower the land bearing N.E.b.N. to S.b.E. low and sandy: its distance 4 miles. Furled sails - Saw fires on shore
Light breezes with dull cloudy weather
At daylight began to heave, and at 6, made sail along shore, to the southward. Obliged to keep further off shore for a short time to pass round a small shoal.
Standing along a sandy shore, at the distance of about 4 miles
Saw smokes, and some natives upon the beach.
On the wind dying away dropped the stream, finding a set to the No.wd.
At 11, weighed and steered along shore
At noon, the low land from N.35.E to S.10.E. Nearest shore S74E 4 miles A fire & natives S.79.E. - Dull, cloudy weather

[Page 233]

[1802 Nov. [Friday] - 5th. Investigator]
[Saturday] - 6th. in the Gulph of Carpentaria

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and hazy weather. On the water shoaling, lowered down the whale-boat and sent her ahead. An opening, apply., S18. to 2 E and a smaller N.60.E. At 2h.30' tacked ship, having less than 3 fms. At 3h.30', tacked towards the opening, but the water again shoaling, tacked off at 4h.30'. At 6, stood in again, & came to with the small bower, the opening bearing S.42.E. 5 or 6 miles - Light breezes and dull hazy weather; afterwards calm
At 12, a land breeze sprung up
At day light began to heave up the [anchor]; and at 5h.45' made sail along the shore to the southward, passing the 2nd. or largest opening, which is probably the Batavia River of the Dutch.
Light breezes with dull cloudy weather, and spitting rain at times
Saw some flocks of wild ducks going to the eastwd.
Employed working up junk and in occasional jobs about the rigging.
Spruce beer and sour krout served as usual
At noon, the west point of the opening before mentioned N.80.E. 6 or 7 miles. A clump of trees
N.86.E. Nearest shore distant 5'. So. extreme not further than S.S.W.1/2W.

[Page 234]

1802 Nov. [Sunday] 7th. Investigator in the [Gulph of Carpentaria: - east side]

[Tables not transcribed]

Soon after noon, a breeze sprung up, with which we continued our course along the shore, which is low and sandy as before; and there are some smokes upon it
Light airs with hazy weather. At 5h.47', it being calm, came to with the stream [anchor] and furled sails - Var. pin[?] Amp. 4.3' Et.
Sultry weather.
A.M. At 4, light airs.
After washing decks, weighed, and at 6h.10' made sail
At 8, it fell calm. Came to with the stream and the Commander accompanied by the botanic gentlemen went to visit a small opening which bore east 3 miles At 10h.1/2, the sea breeze set in, weighed and stood off and on. -
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean as usual
At noon, light breezes and finer weather. Distant off the opening about 11/2 mile, it bearing East
Tacked off shore, the wind coming more directly on Water expended last week 14 puncheons. Remains 44 1/3 tons

[Page 235]

[1802 Nov. [Sunday] 7th. Investigator in the]
Gulph of Carpentaria: - east side

The opening which I visited this morning is the third which we have seen upon the coast. It is a river stream of but small extent: we went about 11/4 mile up it and saw near 21/2 miles further, and probably to the furthest extreme. I left the ship with the tide coming from the S.W. and on entring the rivulet opening found a strong flood setting into it; this was about 10h.1/4, and at 2, when we rowed out of it, the tide was still flowing in strong: I judge imagine it would be high water about 3 o clock, or 5 hours after the [moon] passes the meridian, which is one hour later than I judged it to be amongst the Prince of Wales' Isles.
Sixteen natives were seen on the north side of the rivulet opening and 4 on the south side, but on rowing towards them they retreated out of sight. We saw no bows or arrows amongst them, but each had several spears, or what we took to be such, and a stick which we supposed was a throwing stick. On seeing the boat coming towards the shore a canoe crossed the rivulet water and took a man back from the opposite side. It was but a small canoe, but the paddle was used by two hands the rower used the paddle with both hands
About the shores we found many small cockle shells scattered, and the fruit of the pandanus was every where to be found: a dog and marks of kanguroos were seen. We left two hatchets on shore, one on each side of the opening, but in our sight they were not taken away whilst we were in sight. - The soil was every where sandy; some low rocks that were seen, seemed to consist of coagulated coral sand.

[Page 236]

1802 Nov. [Monday] - 8th. Investigator
[ [Tuesday] - 9th. In the Gulph of Carpentaria]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes & fine weather. Stood [indecipherable word] on and laid to occasionally waiting for the boat, until 3, when the Commander etc. returned. Tacked and stood along shore to the southward
At 61/2, a light air came off the land, upon which we dropped the stream [anchor], furled sails & hoisted up the boat. Extremes of the land S101/2 to N34E. Nearest shore East about 4'.
Light airs & fine
A squall off the land with rain
At daylight, fine weather
Having weighed, at 53/4h. made all sail along the shore
At 8, a point (A) S.50.E. past which no land is visible to about S.15.E; which is at a great distance.
At 10, tacked ship towards the bight on the south side of the point
Employed repairing the hammock cloths and making sinnet for the cables. - Served spruce beer.
At noon, tacked ship. Extremes of the land N.20.E. to S.7.E. from the mast head. Low southern extreme of Point A, E.3N. 21/2 miles, behind which the land falls back to the E.N.E.

[Page 237]

[1802 Nov. [Monday] - 8th. Investigator]
[Tuesday] - 9th. In the Gulph of Carpentaria

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes & fine with haze. At 1, tacked towards Point A and weathered it. Saw three small inlets in the bight round it, but finding the water very shoal, and the sea breeze having come in, tacked at 51/4h. and reached out. At 8, Point A, west extreme, N1/2W. 4'. Mod. breezes & fine [moon]light night. The wind coming round off the land, steered along the shore towards the furthest point, until 10h.20' when we came to with the stream [anchor], and furled sails
Light breezes & fine wr.
At daylight, hove up the [anchor], and continued our course for the furthest land in sight, the west extreme of Pt. A, N.6.E. and B, the south extreme S.12.E.
Light land breezes & fine weather
People making sinnet
Sailmakers making a new jib
At 11, the sea breeze set in, upon which we hauled more off the land.
Noon, light breezes & fine with haze. B N77E 21/2', a low sandy point, to S27E, a point from which rocks run off. Nearest shore 11/2' S46E. low reddish cliffs, and a fertile-looking country above them

[Page 238]

1802 Nov. [Wednesday] -10th. Investigator - upwards - anchor 9
[ [Thursday] 11th. In the Gulph of Carpentaria [anchor] 10]
[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes with fine weather.
At 4, the extremes of the land No. to S.3.W. At 4h.30' tacked ship having shoal water: the shor[e] distant 3 miles.
At 6, tacked to the southward. B, N.3.E. The So. extreme from the deck S.18.E. Small opening S.55.E.
At 7h.20', obliged again to tack off shore, on account of shoal water
Light breezes & fine wr.
At 9, tacked, and at 101/4h. came to with the stream [anchor] & furled sails
Light breezes with rain At daylight, saw the land to be 5 or 6 miles distant: the extremes about N.20.E and S1/2.W. - Weighed and made sail along the shore which still continues to be low, sandy, and covered with small trees
Mod. land breeze and dull, cloudy, sultry wr.
Dried the small sails. - Spruce beer served to the people as usual lately.
At noon, the extremes N. 25.E.to S.10.E. Nearest shore S.67.E. 21/2 or 3 miles A large smoke upon the shore, the first we have seen since passing the projection marked A.
Light breezes & finer weather, the sea breeze having come in
 

[Page 239]

[1802 Nov. [Wednesday] -10th. Investigator - upwards anchor 9]
[ Thursday] 11th. In the Gulph of Carpentaria [anchor] 10.
[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes with fine fweather. Having come abreast of the projecting part set at S.10.E. at noon at 3.30 tried to get more into the bight on its south side, but the shallowness of the water would not allow us to come nearer to the shore than 5 or 6 miles
At 6, the So. extreme of the land S.b.E.; distant off shore 5 or 6 miles. Many smokes seen. - At 8, came to with the [stream] anchor, and furled sails. - Light breezes & dull cloudy weather. The water very smooth all this afternoon
At 12, Calm, with sultry wr. -
At 1, a fresh breeze set in, with dull cloudy weather
At 5h.1/2, weighed and made sail along the coast under double reefed top-sails etc. The extremes of the land from [anchor] 10, N48 to S.35.E. Off shore 4'
Cut up pork No.12, to its contents
At 8, obliged to steer further off shore, on account of shoal water. At 9, the water deepened quick, upon which we hauled more up for the land its distance being 7 or 8 miles but the trees only visible from the deck. Many smokes upon the shore Sailmakers making a jib, and an awning for the whale boat. - Sour krout, vinegar, and spruce beer issued.
At noon, light breezes and cloudy. Extremes of the land in sight from the deck N.26. to S.69E. off shore 5 or 6 miles. A smoke rising ahead which bears S.31.E.
 

[Page 240]

1802 Nov. [Friday] -12th. Investigator - upwards into [the Gulph of Carpentaria - [anchor] 11]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light sea breezes & cloudy. At 2, the breeze freshened so as to make us take in T.Gt. sail
At 4h.20'. Extremes of the land from deck S.4. W. to No. Nearest shore S55E 21/2 miles: tacked off shore On the ships falling off, at 6h.15', tacked towards the land until 7h.50', when the breeze died away, and we dropped the stream [anchor] and furled sails.
At 9, a light breeze came off the land.
At daylight, light breezes & fine wr.: weighed, and at 5h.30' made sail along the shore The nearest land being distant 6 or 7 miles. -
At 7h. a small opening bore E.S.E. 21/2 miles, having a long sand spit from its south point, running across.
Saw natives on the shore At 10, a light sea breeze set in with which we continued steering along the the shore until 11, when it shoaled quick to 2 fms. but by tacking immediately the ship passed over. Lowered down the whale-boat to go ahead and sound, and at 11h.40' tacked to stand on, but the boat meeting with 21/2 fms. tacked again at noon
Light breezes & hazy. Extremes of the land N38. to S.3.E from the deck. Nearest shore N.75E. 4 miles

[Page 241]

[1802 Nov. [Friday] -12th. Investigator - upwards into]
the Gulph of Carpentaria - [anchor] 11

[Tables not transcribed]

Since passing the low reddish cliffs on the 9th. at noon, the land has become still lower than before, and the shallow water extends further out, will not allowing us to approach nearer than 4 miles in general, and frequently not within 6 or 7.
In the neighbourhood of those cliffs no smokes were seen, but on this day and on the preceding, they have been very numerous; I do not however from thence infer, that the country there is uninhabited, and that hereabout the natives are numerous, for one fire spreading over the country might have been the cause of the whole of the smoke in this now seen.
As far as we can make observation, the country is not destitute of wood and shrubs, and it may, not improbably, be a fertile country behind the sea coast.
The small river opening seen at 7 A.M. is possibly the Staten River of the old charts, but the entrance is not accessible to vessels of any size, nor does the shore near it per admit of being approached nearer than 2 miles, by ships.
I cannot be certain whether the shoal which obliged us to tack at 11.A.M. is connected with the shore, or whether there may not be a passage between them. It is certain that we had got into a bight of it at 11, for we were obliged to keep from the wind and steer partly the same course back by which we had come in. This N.W. shoulder of the shoal seems to be steep, for in two casts the boat had from 4 to 21/2 fms.

[Page 242]

1802 Nov. [Saturday] -13th. Investigator at [anchor]12
[ [Sun] -14th. Gulph of Carpentaria - [anchor]13]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and cloudy. The boat having found deeper water across the bank, at 1. Tkd. to keep along shore; and at 3 called the boat on board. The nearest shore, then bearing E.b.S. 3 or 4 miles. Kept along the shore at about this distance until 7, when the wind dying away, we [anchor]ed with the stream, and furled sails - Vivid lightening in the S.E. and N.E.
At 1, a fresh breeze came off the land.
At 5h.17' weighed and made sail along the shore. Saw water over the low front land but no opening into it. At 61/2h. hauled off from the land for deeper water; [indecipherable word] hauled up and off occasionally, as the water would admit us to near the shore At 9, Furthest extreme from the mast head S.E.b.S. No land in sight from the deck - At 10, steered more in for the land, but at 11h.1/2 were obliged to keep off again. At noon, fresh breezes and cloudy weath. Nearest land, east about 9 miles. Trees above the water seen from the deck at S.55.E. and to N.65.E. Furthest land from the mast head S.S.E. Smokes rising from the land

[Page 243]

[1802 [Saturday] Nov. - 13th. Investigator - at [anchor] 12] [Sunday] -14th. Gulph of Carpentaria - [anchor] 13
[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. Passed over some discoloured water which I judge to be occasioned by a difference in the consistence of the bottom. - At 3h.15', tacked ship having less than 4 fathoms. The nearest parts of the shore bearing E.b.S. and S.40.E. dist. 8 or 9 m. The So. extreme S.b.W. from the mast head. -
At 7, the wind became very light; - dropped the stream [anchor] and furled sails.
At 10, squally; veered to the long service
A.M. The fore top sail being torn, bent another, and after washing decks, weighed at 5h.45' and made sail towards the head of the gulph, with a moderate breeze & fine wr.
At 8, the furthest land S.3/4 E. Nearest shore S80E. 6 or 8'.
At 10, Nearest shore S72.E. 3 miles. Furthest extreme bearing south. The shore continues to be very low and sandy, with small trees and bushes upon it.
Washed below. Mustered the ships company and saw them. -
At noon, furthest extr: S.1/2 W. North deck extr: N.33.E. Nearest shore (F) N54E. 21/2 miles in the front of which is a great dry flat running along. - Some turtle and flat fish seen. Light breezes & fine weather.

[Page 244]

1802 Nov. [Monday] -15th. Investigator - [anchor]14 - At
[the head of the Gulph of Carpentaria]
[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and fine weather. At 2, steered more in for the land, but shoal water soon obliged us to haul further off.
At 4, the nearest land S.E. 4 or 5 miles, very low and sandy. Furthest extreme S.W.3/4 S. which we suppose to be near the head of the gulph.
At 6h.30', the mast head extr. EN.E. to S.W.b.S. At 7. Tkd. ship for deeper water to [anchor] in, and at 7h.30' came to with the stream and furled sails. Soon after a strong breeze set in from the eastward with dark cloudy weather, but it gradually died away
A large fire on shore E.b S.
Mod. breezes and fine wr. -
At 5h.25' weighed and made sail towards the furthest land seen from the mast head; but at 7h.15' we were obliged to steer further off, having less than 3 fms. At 8, the furthest visible land S.S.W.1/2 W. 3 or 4 leagues, set from the mast head, no land being in sight from the deck. - Served out hooks and lines to the ships company. People being employed working up junk into various necessaries.
Spruce beer, sour krout and vinegar issued as usual.
At noon, light sea breezes & fine weather with haze. The furthest land to be seen from the mast head bearing S.b.W. being exceedingly low and having no large trees upon it

[Page 245]

[1802 Nov. [Monday] -15th. Investigator - [anchor]14 - At]
the head of the Gulph of Carpentaria
[Tables not transcribed]

The land which we have sailed along this day and on that preceding, has, if possible, been still lower than the more northern parts of the coast. The present direction which the shore takes, as well as the great shallowness of the water shew that we are at near the head of the gulph, and consequently also that the old charts have thus far given its form with tolerably accuracy. - Since we lost losing sight of the Prince of Wales' Isles, I do not think that we have seen any land so high as a ships mast-head, which is an extent of coast more than equal to 400 miles at the least calculation: - an instance that will scarcely be equalled by any coast in any part of the world; and as the same thing still continues, it may perhaps go on much further

[Page 246]

1802 Nov. [Tuesday] - 16th. Investigator [anchor]15,
[at the head of the Gulph of Carpentaria]
[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes & fine weather, with haze Saw the land from the deck, and at 5, the nearest part bore South, distant 3 miles G, a projecting part W.4.S. abt. 6 miles. Some natives upon the low sandy hills near the shore. Tacked ship, having less than 3 fms. At 6, tacked towards the land, and at 7 off again. At 8, having 41/2fms. came to with the stream [anchor], and furled sails.
Mod. breezes and fine weather
A.M. Light breezes and cloudy.
At 5h.30' weighed and made sail, stretching in shore close to the wind.
At 61/2h., tacked ship to northward, from whence at 7h.30' the wind set in.
At 8, the land seen as far as W.b.S. from the mast head, very low but woody. People employed picking oakam for caulkers. Sailmakers making an awning for the whale boat.
At 10, nearest land S.20.W. 6 miles, which is G. - Furthest land W.bN.
At noon, moderate breezes & hazy weather Furthest continuation of the land W.b.S. distant 10 or 12 miles. A seperate piece of land H N40W. somewhat higher than before

[Page 247]

[1802 Nov. [Tuesday] -16th. Investigator - [anchor]15,]
at the head of the Gulph of Carpentaria
[Tables not transcribed]

Between the bearings W.b.S. and N40W. no land is visible at noon, and was it not for the shallowness of the water one might expect to find here one of the several rivers which the Dutch charts contain so abundantly but which we have not been able to find. H should seem to be either a part of upon the Cape Van Diemen of the old charts, or possibly one of the isles off it. Although it is not higher probably than a ships main top mast head, yet it is amongst the highest land which we have seen upon the shores of this gulph.

[Page 248]

1802 Nov. [Wednesday] -17th. Investigator- [anchor]16, and 17: [Gulph of Carpentaria - the head]
[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes & hazy. At 2h.40' tacked ship having less than 3 fms. At 4, tacked again towds. the space where no land is yet visible At 5h.20' tacked off again on account of shoal water, and wind being baffling and light, at 7, came to with the stream [anchor], and furled sails; the land having been seen as far as N.b.W. from behind the small eminence H.
At 11, a strong land wind breeze set in from the land: - veered away to the long service
At 1, finding the stream [anchor] did not hold, veered dropped the small bower.
Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. At 5, weighed the small bower, and having also got up the stream [anchor], at 6 made sail towards the small eminence H, under the top-sails. Passed a reef, part of which was dry, and a small rocky islet, which lie off the S.E. end of the land H, which we now saw was upon a, an island. Found a strong tide setting to N.E.ward in the deep channel on the south side of the reef. Hauled up for the island, at the back of the reef and rocks, and at 8, came to with the small bower in a good [anchor]ing place about 1 mile from the shore island which bore N.40.E. to N.43.W. - After breakfast the Commander and scientific gentlemen landed. - Careened the ship and the carpenters began caulking the bends. People employed abt. the rigging and picking oakum. Mod. breezes and fine wr.

[Page 249]

[1802 Nov. [Wednesday] -17th. Investigator- [anchor]16, and17:] Gulph of Carpentaria - the head
[Tables not transcribed]

I found the little eminence H to be on the western side of a low island, a, whose form as well as of those in the neighbourhood will best appear upon the chart. The rocks which run off from its S.E. end are a strongly impregnated iron stone, but the higher parts consist of calcarious rocks, which is cut and honey-combed in the same manner as if it was exposed to the washing of a surf.
Before we landed, a native was seen upon the shore, and we found deep worn paths and many other marks of them, but they had secreted themselves so as not to be seen by us, although a considerable part of the is[indecipherable symbol]land was walked over. After taking bearings from H and the altitudes for the watch as annexed, I went to the westward to the next shore, b, crossing a channel of about 2 miles in width. In this passage, the depth of water was from 5 to 3 fms. near the middle, and the bottom soft, so that it is a good and secure [anchor]age for the ships; upon

[Page 250]

1802 Nov. [Wednesday] -17th. near H at the head of the Gulph of [Carpentaria - Additional remarks continued]

which account I searched along the shore on the western side as far inland for water, as far inland as casks could be rolled with any convenience; and towards the afternoon I recrossed to the east side of the channel to a steep sandy point of the island a, and followed up the search, but without any success. At this place, we found a squared piece of wood of 7 feet long which was brought on board, and according to the carpenter was teak wood, and had been a quarter-deck carling of a ship of considerable size.
We found no huts of the natives, but many places unde[r] the shade of trees where they had had fires, and where bun[ch]es of grass were lying; and a large hole in the ground was seen in which were two apartments (so to call them) where a man might lie down. - Round the fires were fish bones and shells of perriwinkles and small oysters, & fish bones, and some bones of turttle were scattered about. Upon the island a, I found several dried pieces of wood lying together with a cord partly wound round them, and a rude paddle lying by; these I judge to have been a clumsy raft, [u]pon which the natives had come over from the opposite shore; and since nothing like a canoe was seen, [I am] inclined to think that they have none.
[indecipherable letters]th upon a, and b the island and the land opposite, we found [ma]ny deep holes dug in the sand, most probably to ge[t] bulbous roots; and in a swampy place they natives had been digging [wi]th a pointed stick over a considerable space, which had the appearance of having been rooted up by [indecipherable word]: two sticks of this kind were left sticking in the groun[d]

[Page 251]

[1802 Nov. [Wednesday] -17th. near H at the head of the Gulph of] Carpentaria - Additional remarks continued

The bones of a whale were found lying on the shore. [The] soil of these islands both of the island and opposite shore is mostly sandy, and the wood upon it small; it is, however, tolerably thick in some places, and bushes being scattered about give some appearace of a tolerable vegetation, but not sufficient to bespeak even moderate fertility. Amongst the trees were found white cockatoos, pigeons, the cuckoo pheasant which we have frequently seen before upon this coast, crows, and some small birds. Upon the shores are gulls, sea-pies, ox-birds, sand larks and pelicans; but except the first not in numbers. Several turtle were seen in the water, as well as fish. From seeing natives upon the islands, we were at first led to hope that fresh water might be found, but from what is already said, no person will be induced to come here with that expectation. Wood sufficient for fuel may be procured easily enough, but I saw none that was calculated for superior purposes. The pandanus was met with every where, and our botanists make out a long list of plants which they found here, several of which were new to them.
From the time of our landing in the morning to leaving the shore about 3.P.M. the water was constantly though slowly falling, so that from 2 A M. to 3 P.M. the tide was running out

[Page 252]

1802 Nov. [Thursday] -18th. Investigator, at [anchor] 17, under H
[Friday] -19th. Gulph of Carpentaria the head]
[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and hazy weather. People employed about the rigging. Carpenters caulking the be[nd]s
The Commander and gentlemen returned on board
Light airs
Mod. & fine
At day light sent an officer and two boats to haul the sein between the isle and opposite shore. Carpenters caulking the bends. -
Fresh breezes with spitting rain. Sent down T.Gt. yards. People employed picking oakam. Sour krout vinegar and spruce beer served. Mustered the ships company and saw them clean. Dull weather with rain
The gardener and miner landed today upon the shore on the west side of the passage, and they reported having met with several trees which had been cut with a sharp [indecipherable word] instrument, apparently one or two years back. They saw several natives but could not bring them to any intercourse. Lt. Fowler who went with the sein, met with the seven human skulls of men and many bones; they mostly laid near where three fires had sometime been made

[Page 253]

[1802 Nov. [Thursday] -18th. Investigator, at [anchor] 17, under H]
[Friday] -19th. Gulph of Carpentaria - the head
[Tables not transcribed]

Varble. breezes with dull cloudy weather.
At 2, the boats and fishing party returned with more than sufficient fish for all the ships company. - In caulking the bends, the carpenters found two bad plank which required shifting, and one of the timbers entirely rotten. They, however, filled up and paid the seams, and thus finished the larbd. side, leaving the plank to be shifted at a future opportunity
Cut up beef No.45 - 12 lbs short
Light breezes and fine
At 5h.40', weighed and made sail up the opening: the weather cloudy
Keeping the northern shore on board, we had shoal water off the S.W. end of the land b, which appears to be a large low island.-
At 10, H hill, on island a, N.70.E. The S.W. rocky point of b (upon which natives were seen) North, 21/2'. A small isle b2, N.28.W. Farthest continuation of the southern shore W.b.S. low and sandy as before. Between the two last bearings other detached land-like islands are seen.
At 10, the sea breeze came in.
At noon, light breezes and hazy. Extr. point of the southern main N.W.b.N.
Center of c, an isle somewhat higher N24W. about 6 miles b2, the west end N25E. between which other low broken land appears - Some turtle seen this morning

[Page 254]

1802 Nov. [Saturday] - 20th. Investigator at [anchor] 18 and 19 [amongst the isles in the head of the G. of Carpentaria]
[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy. At 1, tacked ship having less than 3 fms. and lowered down the whale boat and sent her to sound towards isle c. At 2, tacked towards the boat, until she had less than 3 fms., then called her on board and tacked. Sent the boat ahead towards b2, but the water shoaling that way, tacked at b, back into deeper water and soon after came to with the stream [anchor]: - furled sails and hoisted up the boat.
Light breezes and cloudy weather
Mod. breezes and fine weather
Light breezes and fine. At 5h.30' weighed and made sail towards isle c, having the whale boat ahead. On shoaling the water came to with the small bower about 11/2' from isle c, its extremes N89. to 55W several low rocky and sandy isles from that to N.75.WE, the north-western extreme of the large isle b; its S.W. most part which is visible S.65.E. - Mod. breezes & fine wth. haze
The Commander and scientific gentlemen landed upon isle c, in the whale-boat and the small launch was sent to cut broom stuff - People employed picking oakum for the carpenters who were caulking the starboard bends Sailmakers repairing the main top-sail

[Page 255]

[1802 Nov. [Saturday] - 20th. Investigator at [anchor] 18 and 19] amongst the isles in the head of the G. of Carpentaria
[Tables not transcribed]

In sailing from the ship towards the isle c, the soundings were 31/2, 31/4, 31/4, 31/2, 5, 7, 7, 5, 5, 4 at 2 cables lengths from the east side. I found the greater part of the rock of the island to be strongly impregnated with iron, and small grains of ore were thickly scattered every where; such as abound upon the neighbouring isles and as were brought up by the lead on the 6th.
A.M. - Some fresh water was lying about in holes, but the shore being too rocky to admit of landing casks being landed, if sufficient water for the ship could be found, I did not search for water it in the neighbourhood, but after landing the gentlemen and taking a set of bearings I proceeded to the northward, intending to go round the island. On coming near the north end, I saw found that rocks and sands extending out to a great distance to the northward, and therefore, after taking bearings from some of the higher rocks (which also were much rocks were also impregnated with iron) I altered my course and rowed over to the isle c1, where upon which I saw a sandy beach of some length. The rocks and shoals occupy nearly one-third of the space between c and c1, but afterwards we had 2, 2, 2, 21/4 fms., about two-thirds over, when seeing natives upon the island who were dragging something down to the water and making off to the outer rocks, we rowed after them without stopping to sound further. There were three men dragging six ra[fts]

[Page 256]

1802 Nov. [Saturday] - 20th. continued. Additional remarks, upon [the isles at the head of the gulph]

after them, and we saw three other natives out upon the furthest rocks. Not being able to get to the rafts from on account of the shallowness of the water, we landed upon the beach and and walked round, making signs of friendship to them the natives They left the rafts as we came near, and brought their spears on shore with them, but at our signs they sat down until one of us went up, and presently a good intercourse had taken place between us. They accepted some red caps and bandage, as also a hatchet and an adze, the use of which they immediately comprehended on being shown. In return, I received two very rude spears and a throwing stick, of nearly the same kind as are in use at Port Jackson. The rafts consisted of several thick shoots of mangrove, quite very much dried, the thick largest ends of which were lashed together, as thus [Diagram]. From the bunch of grass placed towards the broad end of the raft I judge they sit there to paddle. Upon one of these was a short net with large meshes, most probably for taking catching turtle, and a very small shark was lying upon another, which, with their paddles and some spears, seemed to be all their earthly riches. Two of the thre[e] were natives were rather elderly men, and from their both of them being very tall and much alike in features, were probably brothers. My coxswain, who is five feet eleven inches high, found that the tallest was 3 or 4 inches higher, and although they were not remarkable for being stout, yet neither were they [torn page - word missing] being otherwise; but like all the New Hollanders

[Page 257]

[1802 Nov. [Saturday] - 20th. continued. Additional remarks, upon] the isles at the head of the gulph

which I have seen, their legs did not bear the European proportion to the size of their heads and bodies. Their features did not differ materially from others natives, but instead of one tooth, as at Port Jackson, these men had lost two teeth from the upper jaw. They wore no kind of clothing, but the youngest man had a fillet of network wrapped about his head, but and I saw no other ornaments. Their hair was short, but not curly, and the glans penis were bare of two if not of the third were uncovered, but whether from any thing like circumcision having been used I cannot tell. - After being five minutes with them, the two elder proposed to go to our boat, which we acceded to and proceeded together with them hand in hand; but presently they turned back, and after making a short speech which concluded with the word jahre, pronounced with emphasis, they returned to the rafts, and dragged them towards their three companions upon the further rocks. - I judged that these three were women, and that their going of the men to our boat was only a feint of the men to get us further from them; but I question whether the women were so much afraid of us, as on their account the men were seemed to be, for on walking back as far out as we could, I saw the three women, if they were such, very quietly knocking oysters off the rocks, although we were then much nearer to them than before.
We did not find any huts upon the island, but some bunches

[Page 258]

1802 [Saturday] Nov. 20th. Additional remarks continued [1802 Nov. [Sunday] - 21st. Head of the gulph]

of grass and fresh fire places marked their late residence. Near this were lying several very large spiral shells lying, which I suppose to have been the vessels in which they brought over water, for we could not find any, or had the island the least appearance of containing any this essential article.
Turtle bones and shells were plentifully scattered about and some which were quite fresh; marks also of these animals appeared upon the sand, and several turtle were seen in the water, but it has not yet been our fortune to take one yet of them.
The isle c1, is a bed of sand, upon iron-stone and rock of caked coral sand. It is very low, and except mangroves, has nothing larger than bushes growing upon it; but the opposite and larger isle c has some soil in places different parts, and produces some trees amongst the grass and bushes: it is also much higher than c1, the former, and its east end is cliffy, without any front beach. The deepest water between them two isles is 3 fms., but generally the depth [indecipherable word] is only 2.

[Page 259]

[1802 [Saturday] Nov. 20th. Additional remarks continued] 1802 Nov. [Sunday] - 21st. Head of the gulph
[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine wr.
People employed picking oakun for the carpenters
Rebent the main top-sail after its being repaired - The Commander and all the gentlemen returned on board
Saw a fire upon one of the islands
Light breezes and fine weather
At 5h.30' weighed and made sail back towards the channel between the isles a and b,
At 7h, tacked ship, having a shift of wind
Lowered down the whale boat and sent her ahead to sound
At 8, the S.W. point of isle b EbN1/2N.
At 9, tacked ship, having shoal water b2, the N.W. side bearing N.9.W. and the southern extreme of b, N52E.
At 11, the sea breeze came in. Tacked ship Mustered the ships company and saw them clean -
At noon, the hill H upon island a N76.E. - Moderate breezes and fine weather

[Page 260]

1802 Nov. [Monday] - 22nd. Investigator at [anchor] 20, be[tween isles a and b, at the head of the gulph.]
[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and fine weather. At 2, tacked ship, the hill H upon island a N.3.W. Small rocky islet N.29.E. - On approaching the west side of the passage between a and b, sent the boat to sound and tacked after her, and afterwards tacked occasionally working up into the passage. At 6h.35', came to with the small bower about 1/2 mile off the sandy west point of a: the east point of b, bearing N20W. 11/2 mile - Furled sails and hoisted up the boat. - Light breezes and fine weather Saw fires upon island b,
Light breezes and cloudy weather. Sent an officer to the island b to dig for fresh water, and the small launch to fish upon the isld. a. The former had none, but the sein had good success - The commander on shore taking astronomical observations, and parties of gentlemen upon both the islands
Roused both cables upon deck, and washed and cleaned the between-decks thoroughly - Carpenters caulking the starboard bends. - Fresh water having been found upon the island a, sent an officer to dig and to examine it: it proved to be a spring after digging to a considerable depth
Noon, light airs and sultry weather

[Page 261]

[1802 Nov. [Monday] - 22nd. Investigator, at [anchor] 20, be]tween isles a and b, at the head of the gulph.
[Tables not transcribed]

[Tuesday] - 23rd. at [anchor] 20! - Gulph of Carpentaria

Moderate breezes with fine weather. The Commr. went on shore to see the watering pit, and determined to water the ship there. Hoisted out the launch. The gentlemen returning from the west shore reported having found a small lake near the water side. - Carpenters caulking the bends and under the counter -
Cut up pork No.17 - short 6 lbs -
Light breezes and fine weather. At daylight weighed and stood to within 2 cables lengths of the sandy west point of a, and [anchor]ed there for the convenience of watering.
Sent Lt. Fowler with a party of men, tents, and other necessaries for remaining on shore to fill water; and a corporal and three marines for centinels.
Employed on board getting up empty casks and sending them on shore by the launch. - Sent the small launch to fish, and in two hours she returned with sufficient for all hands, having taken them at the nearest beach where the others had been also caught .- Carpenters employed taking out a rotten plank on the larboard bow On examining ten timbers which were lai[d] open, four were found to be quite rotten, and two others had but little sound timber in them
Moderate sea breeze and fine weather

[Page 262]

1802 Nov. [Wednesday] - 24th. Investigator at [anchor] 20, between [a and b, isles;- head of the Gulph of Carpentaria]
[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and fine weather. Cooper employed repairing the water casks. Carpenters replacing a rotten plank in the larboard side. People employed in the holds and in sending empty casks on shore
The Commander landed to take astronoml. observations
Mod. breezes and fine, with lightening in the N.E.
A.M. Cloudy.
Employed as before, as also the cooper. Carpenters replacing a rotten part of the bends on the starboard bow, where they also find the two timbers rotten which are next to the stem as also the inside of almost every plank which they have cut into. - Gunner on shore drying powder. Received sufficient fish from the shore for all hands. Served spruce beer
The Commander landed to take astronomical observations - Mod. sea breeze & fine weather
The main hold being clear tolerably low down this morning, I had those some of the timbers on each of a side bored into through the lining, which, as it was near the ground tier, would be into the first futtock timbers. On one side, two of the three were found to be rotten; and on the other, one of the three was rotten, one was sound, and the third mostly rotten but not quite rotten. - The two timbers next to the stem on the starboard side were quite gone, as also that part of the bends which covers them. We feared to look further, not having plank to replace more than what is already cut out. - The stem seems to be quite sound, as also is the stern post.

[Page 263]

[1802 Nov. [Wednesday] - 24th. Investigator at [anchor] 20, between]
a and b isles:- head of the Gulph of Carpentaria

On considering upon of the state of the ship, every part that was now examined being found to be worse than the other, I determined to have as accurate a statement of her condition as could be obtained without impeding the progress of our voyage; and accordingly I gave the following order -
To Mr. John Aken - Master
 Mr. Russel Mart - Carpenter of the Investigator

His Majestys sloop under my command having been very leaky for some time past, I judged it necessary that she should undergo a thorough caulking from the copper upwards to the cells of the ports. In doing this, some of the planks were found to be rotten, and on ripping off some of the worst parts several timbers etc. were found to be in the same state. - You are, therefore, hereby required and directed to make such an examination into all the material parts of the ship as can be done without delaying the service in which the Investigator is now engaged, and to report to me from under your hands your proceedings and observations hereon
Further, as I understand that Mr. Aken has commanded a ship whose situation was somewhat similar to that of the Investigator, you are therefore directed, in case you shound find much decay in the timbers or other mai[n] parts, jointly to state your opinion upon the following heads, and this is to be done upon due consideration

[Page 264]

1802 Nov. [Wednesday] - 24th. Additional remarks continued [1802 Nov. [Thursday] -25th. at [anchor] 20, between a and b, in the gulph ]

1st. Whether or no the ship is fit to encounter bad weather
2nd. Whether getting on shore is likely to be attended with worse consequences to the Investigator than to a sound ship
3rd. Whether in case of any accident happening, the ship would bear heaving down; or whether laying her on shore would do her much injury
4th. How long the ship may be fit to run, with safety to the crew, provided she is in fine weather, and no misfortune of getting on shore should happen.
In the above examination I recommend to you to take with you the most experienced of the carpenters mates, and to hear his opinion upon such points as you think necessary
               Given under my hand at anchor in the

              Head of the Gulph of Carpentaria this 24th.

              Day of November 1802

                                     Mattw. Flinders

[Page 265]

[1802 Nov. [Wednesday] - 24th. Additional remarks continued] 1802 Nov. [Thursday] - 25th. at [anchor] 20, between a and b, in the gulph
[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather
Received on board 19 casks of water, by rafting
People employed mostly in the holds
Carpenters employed repairing the ship, in some of the rotten parts
Light breezes and fine weather
A.M. moderate and fine
The Commr. took took the whale boat to the northward to examine the islands on each side, and the passage between, in which the ship now lies.
Received on board a raft of 13 casks of fresh water, which employed us on board in stowing it away.
At noon, fresh breezes and fine weather
The gunner on shore drying powder
In my excursion this morning, I first landed upon the N.W. part of isle a, and from thence walked the mile to the N.E. part, from whence the hill H and the rocky islet were in sight, as well as the whole east side of the island We found a fire still alight, and saw a native further on a native who ran from us, although he was then at a considerable distance. The stone rock of the north end of a, is mostly calcarious, being a mixture of shells, coral, and grains of iron ore, caked into a mass, but not a very hard one. This mixture forms a low cliff which extends nearly the whole breadth of the island, and the shore there seems to be

[Page 266]

1802 Nov. [Thursday] - 25th. continued. Additional remarks, upon isles [a and b at the head of the Gulph of Carpentaria]

[Tables not transcribed]

tolarbly steep to; but off the N.E. and N.W. points themselves there are rocks and shoals. The north end of the island is not so sandy as the more southern parts.
From the north end of a, I stretched across the passage to b, but the wind being at N.W. could not fetch near to its north end as I wished. Upon a part of the sandy flat, which lies off the N.E. side of b, I observed the annexed observation for the latitude; and then beat a little further to the northward, where was a small sandy hill upon near the shore, upon which I took bearings as at all the former places. + [Near thes hill, I was surprised to find the broken remains of an earthen jar, the rim of which was perfect, and was brought away; and at the water side abreast, I found the stumps of not less than twenty small trees which had been cut down with a sharp instrument, and from the depth of some of the strokes I should judge it to have been with an ax: the branches of a larger tree which stood near were also trimmed off. These appearances, joined to the piece of ship timber found before, and the small trees found to be cut near the east point of this same island, seem to indicate that a vessel has been wrecked not far off, and that the crew or some of them have been upon this island. I suppose passing by here; for I judge, that these small trees and branches have been cut down for making rafts in the manner of the natives; but which way these unfortunate people may have been going I can form no judgment, or can I to any

[Page 267]

[1802 [Thursday] - 25 th. continued. Additional remarks, upon isles]
a and b, at the head of the Gulph of Carpentaria

certainty fix the date of their being here; but from the cuts upon the stumps it cannot have been less than a year and half, or do I think it has been more than 5 years. The jar seems rather to bespeak its having been a vessel from the East Indies, in which where such things are in more common use, and this accordings with the piece of teak timber which is certainly East-Indian.
From this north east part of b, I steered off to get into the deep part of the channel with the following soundings, 9,10 feet, 10,10, 5, 3, 8,12,12,11,11,12,15; then 4F, b, the west sandy point of a and the S.W. point being on, 7, steered now for the ship, 6, 6, 7, 7, 6, 51/2, 5, 5, 5, along side; so that it should seem there is a ship passage through between these two isles

+ At the back of the hill a space of two or three miles in length was is occupied by a salt water swamp, which at spring tides is overflowed by means of a small stream which leads to it from the sea

[Page 268]

1802 Nov. [Friday] - 26th. Investigator at [anchor] 20, between [isles a and b, at the head of the Gulph of Carpentaria]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and fine weather. The Commr. returned from his excursion to the northward. Employed on board in the holds. Cooper repairing and setting up water casks and the gunner on shore drying powder. Received a raft of 18 casks from the tents.
Light breezes and fine weather
Boats on shore fetching off water. At 8, they brought a raft of 15 casks.
Gunner on shore drying powder, and the Carpenters repairing some of the worst parts of the ship
Light breezes with fine weather
The master and the carpenter having made the examination according to my order of the 24th., this day gave in the following report of their proceedings
  Sir
In obedience to your directions we have taken with us the oldest carpenters mate of the Investigator, and made as thorough an examination into the state of the ship as circumstances will permit, and which we find to be as under
Out of ten top timbers on the larboard side near the fore channels, four are sound, one partly rotten, and five

[Page 269]

1802 Nov. [Friday] - 26th. Investigator at [anchor] 20, between [isles a and b, at the head of the Gulph of Carpentaria]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and fine weather. The Commr. returned from his excursion to the northward. Employed on board in the holds. Cooper repairing and setting up water casks and the gunner on shore drying powder. Received a raft of 18 casks from the tents.
Light breezes and fine weather
Boats on shore fetching off water. At 8, they brought a raft of 15 casks.
Gunner on shore drying powder, and the Carpenters repairing some of the worst parts of the ship
Light breezes with fine weather
The master and the carpenter having made the examination according to my order of the 24th., this day gave in the following report of their proceedings
  Sir
In obedience to your directions we have taken with us the oldest carpenters mate of the Investigator, and made as thorough an examination into the state of the ship as circumstances will permit, and which we find to be as under
Out of ten top timbers on the larboard side near the fore channels, four are sound, one partly rotten, and five

[1802 Nov. [Friday] - 26th. Investigator at [anchor] 20, between]
isles a and b, at the head of the Gulph of Carpentaria

entirely rotten
We have seen but one timber on the larboard quarter, which is entirely rotten
On the starboard bow close to the stem we have seen three timbers, which are all rotten
Under the starboard fore chains, we find but one of the chain-plate bolts started, from in consequence of the timber and inside plank being rotten; and also a preventer eye bolt in the next timber, from the same cause
On boring into the second futtock timbers from the main hold close under the the beams of the lower deck, on the larboard side we find one sound and two rotten; and on the other side, one sound and one rotten
On boring into one of the second futtock timbers in the cockpit on each side, we find it to be sound on the starbd. side, but on the other side rotten: the inside plank on both sides is rotten.
On boring into one timber of a side in the after hold, we found them to be sound
On boring into one timber of a side from the bream room, one is sound, but on the larboard side it is rotten
The stem appears to be good, but the stemson is mostly decayed.
The lower breast hook is decayed within side
The transoms, sleepers, stern post and postson are all sound
The ends of the beams we find to be universally in a decaying state
The tree-nails in general are rotten.
After the above report, and upon due consideration we give the following answers to the four questions put to us
From the specimens which we have seen of the top-[indecipherable word]

[Page 270]

1802 Nov. [Friday] - 26 th. Report of examination into the state [of the ship. -[anchor] 20, in the Gulph of Carpentaria]

-sides and bends, we expect that the insides of them are rotten fore and aft; but that about one inch of the outside of the greater part is yet quite sound
After the above report, and upon due consideration, we give the following answers to the four questions put to us
1st. The ship having before made ten inches of water an hour in a common fresh breeze, we judge from that and what we have now seen, that a little labouring would employ two pumps; and that in a strong gale with much sea running the ship would hardly escape foundering; so that we think she is totally unfit to encounter much bad weather
2nd. We have no doubt but that if the ship should get on shore under any unfavourable circumstances, she would immediately go to pieces; but with a soft bottom and smooth water she might touch for a short time without any worse consequences than to another ship, if she did not heel much; but altogether, we judge it to be much more dangerous for her to get aground in her present state than if she was sound
3rd. It is our opinion that the ship could not bear heaving down on any account; and that laying her on shore might so far strain her as to start the copper and butt ends, which would make her unable to swim without vast repair.
4th. Mr. Aken has known several ships of the same kind and built at the same place as the Investigator, and has always

[Page 271]

[1802 Nov. [Friday] -26th. Report of examination into the state]
of the ship. - [anchor] 20, in the Gulph of Carpentaria

always found, that when they began to rot they went on very fast. From the state to which the ship now seems to be advanced, it is our joint opinion, that in from eight to twelve months there will scarcely be a sound timber in her; but that if she remains in fine weather and happens no accident, she may run six months longer without much risk.- We are, Sir,
                       John Aken - master ) of
                        Russel Mart - carpenter)

                       H.M.Sloop the Investigator

To
           Mattw. Flinders Esq.
            Commander of H.M.
             sloop Investigator

The condition of the ship being according to the above statement, it surprised me that at the some discovery of it should not have been found out made when the ship was in dock at Sheerness, or when she the ship was caulked at the Cape of Good Hope, or at Port Jackson when the barricade was removed:- but this is accounted for to me as follows.- that two years back when the ship underwent repair in dock, she could not be a quarter part so bad as she is now is, and that the shipwrights did not examine her with a view to such a voyage as the present, but to common short voyages near home. - When she was caulked at the Cape, she was not then near so bad as at present; and as nothing was done to her but caulking, and no suspicion entertained of her being rotten, it is no wonder that it was not found out, since it is probable that it might not have been now discovered, if the rottenness of the plank had not

[Page 272]

1802 Nov. [Friday] - 26th. at [anchor] 20. Additional remarks continued
[ [Saturday] - 27th. at [anchor] 20, between a and b, in the gulph]

begun to affect the outer parts. At Port Jackson the barricade was removed and many timbers consequently laid open, but these were what had been let in to support the barricade which was built only when the ship was taken into His Majestys service, and were no part of the ship in her original construction
From the above dreadful state of the ship, I find the complete examination of this country, which is one of the nearest objects to my heart, to be greatly impeded, if not destroyed. I have hitherto considered that my business is to make so accurate an examination of New Holland, that there shall be no necessity for any further navigator to come after me; and with this view we have hitherto [till now] kept close to the shore and run many other risks that we might not miss to see every thing frequently at considerable risk; and with the blessing of God, I would not have left any thing of import to be discovered hereafter upon any of the shores of this great country; but with a ship which cannot encounter bad weather, - which cannot be repaired if her bottom meets with the least accident, - and which, if we could command constant fine weather and be certain to avoid accidents, will not run more than six months, - with such a ship I do not know how to prosecute what so great an undertaking.. - For the present, however, I determined to go on in the examination of this gulph, if the N.W. monsoon does not prove too great an hindrance, and afterwards to act as circumstances shall most require

[Page 273]

[1802 Nov. [Friday] - 26th. at [anchor] 20. Additional remarks continued]
[Saturday] - 27th. at [anchor] 20, between a and b, in the gulph
[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes with dull, cloudy, and sultry weather - Received 13 casks of water - Carpenters repairing some of the rotten parts of the ship - Gunner on shore drying powder
At 51/2, a breeze set in from the southward, in which quarter there is thunder and lightening
Light airs and calms
The gunner sent on shore with more powder to dry, and a party to haul the sein which had tolerable success - A party of men wooding.- Carpenters securing the hooding ends to the stem, the stemson being rotten
Men on shore getting off water
Noon, light airs with sultry weather

[Page 274]

1802 Nov. [Sunday] - 28th. Investigator, at [anchor] 20, between
[the isles a and b - Head of the Gulph of Carpentaria]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy. Received on board two rafts of water from the shore Gunner brought on board the last of the powder, the whole of it having undergone drying on shore
Mod. breezes with fine weather
A.M. Do. Weather.
Received 16 more casks of water on board, which completes the ship up to 63 tons - Employed on board finishing the stowage of the holds
Boats employed getting off every thing from the shore, and in other duties
Mod. breezes and fine weather
I have but little more information concerning these islands; only that + fresh water is much more abundant than upon them islands than their appearance bespeaks, or than we had any expectation. The middle of the northern part of a, it seems, is occupied by several swamps and holes which have water in them at this time; and yet according to the course of nature, the time which nearest precedes the setting in of the monsoon from the sea, which is this time, should not be the wet time of the year, but rather the driest

[Page 275]

[1802 Nov. [Sunday] - 28th. Investigator, at [anchor] 20, between]
the isles a and b - Head of the Gulph of Carpentaria
[Tables not transcribed]

In addition to the account of the tide as given in the log each day, I have the following observations upon it on shore from Lt. Fowler who commanded the watering party.
From either of the accounts it evidently appears that there is but one tide in 24 hours; and by the shore, the time of high-water takes place 93/4 hours before after the moon passes over comes to the meridian; but in the passage stream the tide from the northward has done running at least three hours before that time. This tide does not run more than 10 hours, the remaining 141/2 being taken up occupied by the ebb and the slack water. From the shore as well as the ship account, the greatest rise appears to be 12 feet.
There is no doubt but that a considerable effect may be produced from the bight having other openings into it and more considerable openings into it than the passage between a and b; but not sufficient to make it run ebb regularly when it ought to be flood tide
+ bustards and sever ducks of several kinds may be added to the number of birds and that

[Page 276]

Result of altitudes taken in the artificial horizon upon the S.E. of isle a, for ascertaining the rates of the time-keepers [and]

Observations taken upon the a, west point, to ascertain the dip and variation of the needle

[Tables not transcribed]

[Page 277]

1802 Nov. [Monday] - 29th. at [anchor] 20 and 21 between a and b,

[Tables not transcribed]

Calm with hot sultry weather. Hoisted in the launch; and afterwards gave a large part of the people leave to go on shore to wash their clothes. At sunset hoisted up the boats and wetted the decks as usual.
Light airs. Ships draft of water {F - 13.9

                                                 {A - 13.8

Mod. breezes and fine weather
Strong breezes & fine. Sent Lt. Flinders on shore to get observations for the rates of the time-keepers, and a boat to haul the sein during his stay.
At 9, the boats returned and we weighed and made sail through between the isles to the northward having the whale-boat ahead. Soon after, the boat had very shoal water, upon which we [anchor]ed immediately in 4 fms., being in a bight of the shoals which extend from each shore in this part. Sent the master to sound further on, and at noon he returninged not being able to find any good passage
At noon, moderate breezes and fine weather

[Page 278]

1802 Nov. [Tuesday] - 30th. Investigator
[ [Wednesday] Dec.1st. Head of the gulph.]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes & fine weather. At 1h.45' weighed, the weather tide running strong. Tacked occasionally working down the passage back to [anchor]age 17, near hill H.
Light breezes and fine weather. At 51/2h, being near [anchor] 17, tacked off a little for deeper water and came to with the small bower, a smaller rocky islet bearing S.70.E. - Furled sails and hoisted up the boats.
Fresh breezes and fine weather
Strong breezes and fine weather
Veered to half a cable. Not being able to cast clear of the shore on account of the direction and strength of wind, did not weigh at day-light as intended. The Commr. took the whale-boat on shore, to in order to take observations, and soon returned. The wind becoming more moderate as the day advanced at 9h.40', double reefed the top sails and hove short; and at 10 made sail hove up the [anchor] and made sail, just weathering the rocks which lie off the land, as we stretched to the southward.
The wind still moderating, out 2nd. reefs and set small sails. At 11h.30' tacked to the eastward. At noon, H, hill N181/2E. Light breezes and fine wr.

[Page 279]

[1802 Nov. [Tuesday] - 30th. Investigator]
[Wednesday] Dec.1st. Head of the gulph.

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather. Drawing near to the S.E. reefs, at 1 wore ship, having missed stays. At 2, it became nearly calm, and a lee tide having then made, came to with the stream [anchor] and lowered down the sails. H, hill N.9.30'E. The S.E. rocky islet N.3l.30'E. - No wind springing up with which we could stem the tide, at 51/2h, furled sails - Light breezes and fine weather
Do. weather. Took a fresh departure from H, at the S.E. end of island a, calling its long. 140.2'.20". E
At day light, moderate breezes and fine. Weighed the stream [anchor], and at 5h.15' made sail round the S.E. reefs to go and hauled to the northward after passing them. At 7h.30', met with shoal water off the north end of isle a, and hauled further off, for half an hour.
At 8, a, north end, S.S.E. 3 or 4 miles - Moderate breezes and fine weather -
Served tobacco to the ships company.
Saw more land to the northward, low like the former
At noon, the outermost land, a rocky point islet N.6.E. 4 or 5 miles. Land from N3.E. to N.75.W. distant from 4 to 6 or 8 miles, seen from the deck, but whether it is an island or the main we cannot tell: but there is a large smoke rising from it. From thence to S.20.E. the north end of b, isle, no land is visible, but two smokes are seen. Light breezes & fine wr.
 

[Page 280]

1802 Dec. 2. [Thursday]. Investigator along the
[south side of a, Gulph of Carpentaria - S.W. part]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather. - Cut up beef No.10, being 36 lbs short of weight - At 1, bore away Sailing along a low shore, which has with many ledges of black rocks lying along it -
Sent the whale-boat ahead to sound, and at 5, tacked from a ledge of dry rocks, having then but 3 fms. Finding the ship drift to leeward, at 6 dropped the stream [anchor], furled sails and hoisted up the boat. I, the extreme northern point N.56.E. I1 a part of the shore somewhat higher than the rest N.22.W. 3 or 4 miles. Land seen at intervals, by the west, to S.S.E.
Light airs and fine weather
At day light, weighed the [anchor]; and at 5h.15', made sail to the westward, with light baffling winds
Saw a small opening, and wide spreading water beyond it, towards which we endeavoured to steer.
At 9h.30', the sudden shoaling of the water obliged us to tack; and from the mast-head it appeared that our progress to the westward was blocked up by reefs and shoals, and therefore we steered back to go round the eastern point I. Set royals and T.Gt. studg.sails
At noon, I, the extreme point N45.E. I1, N.46.W.
Light variable breezes with cloudy weather
Sour krout and vinegar served as usual.
 

[Page 281]

[1802 Dec. 2. [Thursday]. Investigator along the]
south side of a, Gulph of Carpentaria - S.W. part

[Tables not transcribed]

The cape or point I, is fully as high as other parts of this land, but a long ledge of rock runs off from it to the N.E. and others lie off at different distances along the shore to the westward. The country is well clothed with wood and from the smoke on it seems to be inhabited, but no natives could be seen upon our
part of the shore
with our glasses. The trending of the shore is W.b.S., but it curves about, forming several indents, one of which may almost be called a bay.
When we tacked at 91/2h. in the morning, the isles c and c1, were in sight, and it appeared that the extensive rocks and shoals which lie off their northern ends are connected with those which run off from the southwestern part of this land. The water appeared over this south-western part, and beyond it other land which I take to be a continuation of the main from the back of c: so that from whence it should seem that this long piece of land is an island, which is called d. Between a and c, is Off its S.W. end lies a1, extending towards c and surrounded by much dry reef, seemingly of iron stone. The passage between c and c1, is mostly, if not altogether, blocked up on this east side by shoals and I much doubt whether any passage to the westward, sufficiently deep for a ship, exists between any of these islands.
        

[Page 282]

1802 Decr. [Friday] - 3. Investigator - [anchor] 22
[[Saturday] - 4th. S.W. part of the Gulph of Carpentaria]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather. The water having shoaled very quick, at 1.25, tacked ship. Light baffling winds, which at 3 o'clock sunk into a calm.
Cut up pork No.18 - short of weight 8 lbs
At 6, a breeze sprung up with which we steered for l cape. At 6.30 the highest extreme part of it bore N.23E. and at 8, we came to with the stream [anchor] and furled sails I cape the extremes W1.S. to N.33W. 3 miles. Further land N.27.E.
Mod. breezes and fine weather
At day light, weighed, and at 5h.30' made sail to the northward
At 7, saw an opening round the cape I, which makes it probable that I is a seperate island. Continued steering along the south side of this land. - At 11, land like islands was seen to the eastward, at a considerable distance from the main part. -
Employed working up junk, airing slops, and repairing the old fore top-sail - At noon, moderate breezes and cloudy weather. K, the extreme point of the continued land N47.E. distant 3 or 4 miles. e, a woody island, N.55.E. abt. 3 leagues. The eastern isles not in sight from the deck

[Page 283]

[1802 Decr. [Friday] - 3. Investigator - [anchor] 22]

[Saturday] - 4th. S.W. part of the Gulph of Carpentaria

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes & fine weather. At 1h.40', passed over a narrow strip of a bank, having 13, then 4 fms. At [?1]h.30' bore away for the two islands to the eastward At 3h.30' hauled round the rocks which lie off the north end of f, and sent the boat ahead to sound
 At 4h.20' came to with the small bower about 11/4' off the S.E. side of f, the extremes of the rocks and islands bearing N.37E to S.72W. - The Commander and scientific gentlemen landed on the island, and on their return in the evening, brought on board three turtle
Sent an officer and party on shore to turn turtle during the night
Mod. breezes and fine wr.
At day light sent two boats on shore for the turtling party, and afterwards hoisted out the launch and sent her also
During the morning, recd. on board 25 turtle, the smallest of which weighed above 250lbs.
Many tiger sharks about the ship, of which seven were caught, of from 5 to 9 feet long.
Sailmakers repairing the F. top-sail -
At noon, light moderate breezes and fine weather. Employed in various duties principally in securing the turtle

[Page 284]

1802 Dec. [Saturday] - 4th. continued - at island f - Additional remarks
[1802 Dec. [Sunday] - 5th. S.W. part of the gulph]

[Table not reproduced - see original journal]

In rowing to the island f from the ship, I found 51/2 fms. for the greater part of the way. We saw several turtle in the water, and their tracks had been noticed upon the sand from the ship, so that we now began to hope that at last some of these fine animals would fall to our share. It was too soon for the turtle to come on shore, but before at sunset they were creeping towards the beaches, and we turned three in the water and brought them on board.
The highest parts of the island are ridges of sand, which are thinly covered with coarse grass, but there are no trees upon these ridges, and but few on any part of the island. The basis is partly a loose sort of iron stone, consisting principally of the particles of ore and sand caked together; but in other parts; a streaked softish stone of the ochrey kind appears, and is generally, perhaps, below the iron stone.
Many bustards of a small kind were seen about the island, and many gulls, pelicans, and other water fowl frequent the rocks which lie off at different distances from the island
No marks of natives were seen, and the great number of turtle almost sufficiently evince that they never visit the island. Above high-water mark, the sand is full of holes where they turtle have some time probably laid their eggs A swarm of young turtle ones was found in one of these, and eggs in another; and in the two turtle that were killed this morning, vast such numbers of eggs were found that every body had enough. In some that were killed afterwards, from 4 to 700 eggs were found.

[Page 285]

[1802 Dec. [Saturday] - 4th. continued - at island f - Additional remarks]
1802 Dec. [Sunday] - 5th. S.W. part of the gulph

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes & fine wr. Received on board 18 more turtle by the boats, and afterwards hoisted in the launch The number of turtle received amounts to 46, whose average weight may be 300 lbs each Employed stowing them in the hold, in the launch, and about the upper deck: after which it was too late to get under weigh
At 4, fresh breezes, with rain, thunder, and lightening.
At 6, weighed, and ran round the south end of f1, and afterwards hauled up for island e as near as the wind would permit
Wind more moderate with fine weather At 10h.15' tacked to the eastward from K point, its distance being then 2'.
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean. - Turtle served out to the people and as usual lime-juice and sugar in their grog -
At 11h.40' tacked ship. Some breakers bearing N.58.E. 2' which I judge to be a part of the shoal passed over on the 3rd. PM - At noon. Under single reefed top-sails etc. Island e, center, N 31.E. Island f, station there S.62.E. Moderate breezes and cloudy weather

[Page 286]

1802 Dec. [Monday] - 6th. Investigator at [anchor] 24
[ [Tuesday] - 7th. at [anchor]25, and onwards, in the gulph]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes with hazy weather. At 0h.35', tacked ship from point K, its distance 1 mile. At 1h.50', tacked from a middle shoal between K and isle f. At 3, tacked again, and soon after [anchor]ed, the wind dying away and lee tide being made. e N.E.bN. 5 or 6 miles - Stayed the masts forward and set up the rigging. - At 6, weighed, having a moderate breeze, and steered to pass between e and e1. At 7h.30' came to with the stream [anchor] and furled sails. Island e N.51. to 57.E. e1, being shut on with the main N25 to 61W. - f, station S.44.E.
Light breezes & fine wr.
At 5h.25', weighed and made sail to the northward, intending to pass between e isle and e1, but seeing breakers ahead hauled more to the westward, and sent the boat to sound. At 7h.20', the boat had less that 3 fms., upon which we tacked to the westward, and finding no deep water between the islands, steered to the southwd. of e and at 8h.15' hauled up to beat round it. At 9h.10' tacked and weathered island e and the rocks round it
Turtle served to the people in abundance At noon, light airs and hazy weather; a swell from the northward. Island e S4.E to 21W dist. 1 mile. Furthest visible land N.77.W. beyond e1. Breakers from between the islands to N.W.b.W. - Many tracks of turtle upon the beaches of island e, but no signs of men.

[Page 287]

[1802 Dec. [Monday] - 6th. at [anchor] 24]
[Tuesday] - 7th. at [anchor] 25, and onwards, in the gulph

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes & fine weather. Finding that a lee tide would prevent us from weathering the breakers, at 0h.50' came to with the stream [anchor]. e bearing S.2.E. 11/2 m. Bent the old fore top-sail, and set up the main and M.T.mt. Rigging - The commander and botanical gentlemen landed upon the small woody isle e, which they found to be much frequented by turtle - At 51/2h., furled sails, the Commander having returned, and finding that we could not gain much before it would be dark, and that there was a passage between e and the breakers.
Mod. breezes with fine wr.
At 5, weighed and made all sail, to weather the before-mentioned breakers At 6h.50' bore away to close in with the shore, and at 7h.30' hauled more up, seeing a bank and breakers lying off the shore
At 8h.30', kept along the shore. At 9, K5 a cliffy head bore South 21/2 m. and low woody land L2, from the mast head bore about S.62.W. Kept steering along the shore, which is very woody, and higher inland than usual. At noon, moderate breezes and fine weather The low woody projection, L2, S40E 2 miles A small rocky islet, about N1/2 W. 3 or 4 leagues. Furthest land from the mast head S.W.b S. -
No smokes or inhabitants seen this morning

[Page 288]

1802 Dec. [Wednesday] - 8th. Investigator along the west side [of the Gulph of Carpentaria - [anchor] 26]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and fine weather. At 1, hauled more to the southward as the land trended, keeping at the distance of 3 or 4 miles from the shore. At 4 P.M. the S.W. end of this great island d (for such it now proved to be) S.35.E. and the further part of d1, S.10.E. - At 41/2h., the water shoaled quick, upon which we hauled up to the wind, and afterwards tacked to the eastward. At 5, tacked and stood to the westward, towards the main land, which was visible in patches as far as W.S.W.
Punished John Mc Donald, seaman, with 24 lashes for quarrelling with and striking a boatswains mate. At 7h.30' came to with the stream [anchor], and furled sails.
Moderate breezes and fine weather
At 5h.20' weighed and made sail on the larbd. tack
Variable breezes with cloudy weather. The main land in sight from the mast-head to the S.W.ward
At 10, saw heavy clouds and a water spout coming up astern. Shortened sail, and on a squall of wind and rain coming on, double reefed the topsails
Served lime-juice and sugar to the ships company in the form of sherbet, instead of mixing it with their grog as formerly. At noon, dull cloudy weather, with clear breaks in the sky: the wind moderate. The mast-head extremes of the land S.E.b.S. to West. Nearest land about South, 6 or 7 miles distant - low and sandy with wood at the back

[Page 289]

[1802 Dec. [Wednesday] - 8th. Investigator along the west side]
of the Gulph of Carpentaria - [anchor] 26

[Tables not transcribed]

Having come round to the S.W. point of the land which we had ran along on the 2nd., it is thereby proved to be an island, whose circumference is about 90 miles: its form will best appear in the chart. - From the remark made upon it on the 2nd., and from finding the water to be shoal at such a distance from the land as we did this evening, there can be no hope of any ship passage existing between this large isld. d, and the main land
The N.E. part of d is the C. Van Diemen of the old charts; the distance which it projects from the west side, and the islands lying off the cape make this evident, independent of its latitude and its relative situation of in the gulph. - On comparing the old chart of the gulph with what we have seen thus far, I judge, that the gulph has really been examined, and that the examination is faithfully delineated; but it certainly no claim for minuteness can be made for it.
The main land was seen distinctly from the mast head, at noon, and seems to the the same low woody land, with sandy beach before it, that we saw so constantly on the east side, and at the head of the gulph. A large smoke was rising from it

[Page 290]

1802 Dec. [Thursday] - 9th. Investigator - [anchor] 27
[Friday] -10th. Along the west side of the gulph]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and cloudy. Lying along the same low woody shore as before
At 4, the extreme W.b.S.; the nearest shore dist 4 or 5 m: At sunset, saw land as far as W.b.N.1/2N. Nearest shore dist. 6 or 8 miles, and a ridge of hills inland behind it. At 6h.50', tacked ship to get into deeper water for [anchor]age, and at 7h.30' came to with the stream [anchor] and furled sails.
Mod. breezes and fine wr. -
At 5h.25', weighed and made sail as near to the shore as the wind would permit
At 8, the land seen as far as W.b.N. from the mast head
Light airs and hazy. A smoke seen upon the land to the S.b.E.
Mustered ships company and saw them clean
Sherbet served to the people as yesterday
At noon, moderate sea breeze with hazy weather Furthest land ahead W.b.N. - Nearest shore S.S.W. 5 or 6 miles; - low and sandy as before, but some hills at the back are faintly seen.

[Page 291]

[1802 Dec. [Thursday] - 9th. Investigator - [anchor] 27]
[Friday] -10th. Along the west side of the gulph

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather At 1h.40', hauled to the wind, wh. just permitted us to lie along shore -
A range of higher land seen continuing to run at the back of the front trees - At 4h.55', Tkd. ship, the nearest shore dist. 2 or 3 miles from S.b.W. to W.S.W.
The furthest land N.58.W. from the deck. At 6 tacked towards the land, but at 7, tacked back to get deeper water for [anchor]age. At 7h.30' came to with the stream [anchor], and furled sails.
Mod. breezes and fine weather At 5, weighed and made sail along the shore, at the distance of about 4 miles
At 8, light breezes and fine wr. At 9, tacked, lying along the shore with the sea breeze which then came in. The shore still sandy, but not every where so: the wood smaller and less abundant near the shore than before. A range of higher land still continues running along at the back At noon, light sea breezes and fine weather. A low point at the furthest extreme N.57.W. The shore from So. to West distant about 3 miles
Turtle issued to the ships company as usual

[Page 292]

1802 Dec. [Saturday] -11th. Investigator [anchor] 29
[ [Sunday] -12th. along the west side of the gulph [anchor] 30]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and cloudy weather. Tacked ship and at 2, stood in shore again. At 3h.50', obliged to stretch off again having shoal water.
The nearest shore S.W.b.W. 21/4 miles and the furthest point, M, N.56.W. off which lie rocks and shoal water. At 5h.30' tacked again towards the land, but the water becoming again very shoal, tacked for deeper water to [anchor] in and at 7, came to with the stream [anchor] and furled sails
Light breezes and cloudy.
Veered to the long service
At 5h.40' weighed and made sail along the shore, with a light land breeze & fine wr.
At 9, tacked ship, the wind having shifted to sea-ward
Turtle served to the people as usual every day; as also sherbet
A little before noon, shoal water obliged us to tack At noon, the extremes of the land from the deck bore S.23.E. to W.3.S. A smoke seen bearing W.b.N. A bight in the coast which seems to be a small opening with a dry sand bank before it bore S.2.W. near to M. The nearest shore S.W.b.S. about 3 miles.
The shore continues to be low and sandy as before, and woody inland but not so much upon the water side. The inland range of hills still continues to be visible

 

[Page 293]

[1802 Dec. [Saturday] -11th. Investigator [anchor] 29]
[Sunday] -12th. along the west side of the gulph [anchor] 30

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and fine weather. At l, tacked ship towards the shore, which the wind did just permit us to lie along, at the distance of 2 to 3 miles. At 5 passed a small channel, which winds inland towards the hills, and afterwards saw three others at the distance of 11/2 to 2 miles from each other, and also water at the back of the low sandy shore. At 7, a woody point - N, S.76.W. and the furthest land W.N.W.: the shore distant 2 or 3 miles. At 7h.45', the water shoaled quick from 1/4 less 4 to 1/4 less 3, and before the helm was put down we felt the ship touch, and the bottom was now rocky. As the ship hung abaft [we] kept the sails full, and she went over into 3 fms., but in 5 minutes she touched and hung again. Sent a boat to sound round the ship, and on laying the sails [indecipherable word] aback, the ship she came round and payed off the rock, [indecipherable words] stretched back, and after a another slight touch, got clear; and at 8h.30' came to with the stream [anchor] in 41/2 fms. soft muddy bottom; furled sails and hoisted up the boat; the ship appearing to have received no injury
A.M. Light breezes & fine weather. The time-keepers having been let down, we did not get under weigh until the Commander had taken altitudes of the sun to find their errors again. At 7h.20', up [anchor] and made sail to the northward
Mustered ships company and saw them clean - Turtle and sherbet served to them as usual
At noon, light airs and hazy weather Tacked ship to the westwd. The back range of land in sight from the deck, and the tops of the trees on the front shore also, to the southward. Extreme from the mast head W.b.N.1/2'N.

[Page 294]

[Sunday] -12th. continued. Additional remarks - Time-keepers
[1802 Dec. [Monday] -13th. West side of the gulph [anchor] 31]

[Tables not transcribed]

The time-keepers having been neglected to be wound up at noon, when I began to take altitudes f of the [star] Rigel for the longitude of the [anchor] 30, they were found to be stopped. The difference of longitude from the preceding altitudes of the 11th. A.M. up to this [anchor]age being 18'18" West, according to the log, corrected by the latitudes and some bearings along shore, the longitude of the [anchor] 30, will be as under; from which, and the annexed observation for the time, the errors of the time-keepers from mean Greenwich time are deduced

[Calculations not reproduced]

The errors in longitude that the time-keepers may have had before, will still be continued, and - the rates will also be continued, and in every respect they should go on as before they were let down

[Page 295]

[ [Sunday] -12th. continued. Additional remarks - Time-keepers]
1802 Dec. [Monday] -13th. West side of the gulph [anchor] 31

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine wr.
Saw several smokes upon the shore. -
At 5, the nearest shore, dist. about 6 miles. At sunset, the furthest part of the main N79W. from thence an open space to about N.58.W. where higher and more distant land appears, and reaches to N.W.b.N. from the mast head: this land looks at present like islands.
At 5, sent the whale boat ahead, on the water becoming shoaler, and at 7h.30' tacked ship off shore. At 8, came to with the small bower [anchor] and furled sails. Hoisted up the boat. - Light breezes -
A.M. Light breezes and cloudy. At 5h.15', weighed the bower [anchor], and made sail towards the open space to the N.W.ward, but the shallowness of the water obliged us to steer more off shore
At 8, light airs and calms Extreme of the northern land N.W.b.W.
Squally weather, with spitting rain at times
At 11, the wind came from the seaward.
At noon, light breezes and cloudy weather. Two hummocks at the extreme of the northern land N.31.W. Highest back land N.62.W. Southern part of this land S711/2W. behind which the low main land runs from O, which is a projecting sandy part bearing S18.W. dist. about 6 miles

[Page 296]

1802 Dec. [Tuesday] -14th. Investigator - W. side of the gulph
[ [Wednesday] -15th. off the isles called C. Vanderlin [anchor] 33]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and cloudy weather. On drawing near to the northern land, which appeared to be an island, g, At 11/4h., bore away for the passage between it and the main, having the whale boat ahead; but the water shoaling, hauled to the wind off shore, and tacked occasionally during the afternoon working to the northward. Saw an opening or bight in the island, and a canoe and natives near it.
Strong breezes until sunset, when it died away, and at 7, we came to with the small bower and furled sails. The [east] point of the island N.70.W. 2 or 3 miles.
Light breezes, with thunder and lightening in the south-western quarter.
A.M. Light breezes and fine weather. Some swell remaining from the N.E.ward.
At 6, having weighed, made sail on the larboard tack - More than 30 natives seen upon the island g. -
At 9, tacked ship towards the north-east end of the island g to look for [anchor]age, which there was some prospect of, between it and several rocks which lie along the east side of the island -
Turtle served to the ships company, and sherbet as usual
At 11h.45' tacked off shore, having sent the master to examine within the rocks for [anchor]age
Soon after he made the signal for shoal water. At noon, g island east end S.3.W.
The N.E. end N.47.W. Outermost rocks N.28.W.
Distant off shore 11/2 mile - Hazy weather

[Page 297]

[1802 Dec.[Tuesday] -14th. Investigator - W.side of the gulph]
[Wednesday] -15th. off the isles called C. Vanderlin [anchor] 33

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and fine weather. At 0h.30'noon Tkd. to pick up the boat, and at 0h.30' stood off again
At 3, tacked towards the land, the east end of the island bearing S.32W.
At 5h.25', being near the outer N.E. rocks, and not able to weather, tacked off until 6, and then in again and passed to the northward of the rocks. Stretching on for the N.Wt.ern. land looking out for [anchor]age, but the water becoming shoal before we came near the shore, tacked back into deeper water and came to with the small bower. Furled sails and hoisted up the boat. From the outer rock at E.22S. many rocks and islets lie to the southward. P a northern point of g N.76.W. - Light breezes with fine weather: lightening in the southern and western quarters
A.M. Mod. breezes & fine wr.
The Commander went on shore to examine for [anchor]age for the ship and to take bearings, and the botanical gentlemen to collect plants. - Repaired the M. and Mz. topsails and bent them again
At 10, the Commander etc. returning there being no shelter for the ship.
Weighed and at 10h.40', made sail on the larbd. tack
Carpenters repairing the small launch which is hoisted in for them. At noon, mod. breezes & fine Three-hummock Point S.43.W.

[Page 298]

1802 Dec. [Wednesday] -15th. continued - Additional remarks [ [Thursday] -16th. Off the isles called C. Vanderlin]

This large piece of land which I suppose to be an island seems to answer in position to the Cape Vanderlin of the old chart, which is most probably constructed from the 2nd. voyage of Tasman from Batavia. Along the east and north-east sides there are a great number of rocks and rocky islets lying off at different distances, but not beyond 2 miles; these appear to be mostly or altogether calcarious. I had hoped to find [anchor]age between some of these and the large island, but the water seems to be much too shallow. - The point where we landed this morning has three hummocks upon it. It is joined to the main by a low and narrow neck of land. Sandstone seems to be at the basis of the island, but the hummocks and rocky parts are calcarious, much like the hill H of island a. There were marks of men, dogs, kanguroos, and turtle upon the sand, and indeed I should judge this island g of piece of land to be more thickly inhabited than usual, since 35 natives were seen together, as mentioned yesterday morning.
To the N.W., two small low islands were visible, and over P, the northern point of g island, I saw extensive water and more land which appeared rather to be another island than a part of g. There was now a good prospect of obtaining shelter for the ship, during one or two days; for I began to fear, that like d, or Cape Van Diemen, we should have this island circumnavigated without being able to give the botanical gentlemen an opportunity of examining its vegetable productions; at Three-hummock Point however they found several things in the short stay we made.

[Page 299]

[1802 Dec. [Wednesday] -15 th. continued - Additional remarks]
[Thursday] -16th. Off the isles called C. Vanderlin

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and fine weather. At lh.30' tacked towd. P point, and finding we could weather it, bore away at 4 to go between it and h a large western island; but a small rock and breakers, which lie N35E 2 miles from P west north part, obliged us to haul up again, and we afterwards kept on towards the small isles h1 and h2. - At 6h.20', tacked ship and fetched up under h2, where we [anchor]ed at 7h. with the small bower, and furled sails; the island bearing N15.E. to 16W 1 mile. Sent an officer on shore to look for turtle, but finding no tracks, he brought all the people back: The water was found to be deep close to the shore
A.M: Light breezes and cloudy.
The Commander and botanical gentlemen landed upon the small island h2, and returned on board at 91/2h. What appeared to be a sandy beach, was of pieces of bleached coral thrown up upon the shore free stone, of whi[ch] the rocky shore consists. No marks of natives were seen
Hoisted the small launch up again on the quarter, and hoisted in the gig to be repaired
Weighed on the return of the whale boat and made sail into the passage between g and h, having the whale boat ahead.
Passed between h3 a small island, and h east point, and at 11h.30' came to with the small bower in a bight round the east point, which bore N.24.E. and the S.E. part of h S.22.W. distant off shore 1/2 mile and 3/4 from h3, which lies to the S.E.

[Page 300]

1802 Dec. [Friday] -17th. at [anchor] 35. Island h east side, being of
[those called C. Vanderlin - Gulph of Carpentaria]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes with sultry weather
The Commander and scientific gentlemen visited the shore
Light breezes and cloudy.
A.M. Squally with rain at times.
Sent a party of hands on shore to cut wood, and another to haul the sein; the latter had some success.
The Commander took the whale-boat to survey the shores of the island, and the scientific gentlemen landed.
Sent the small launch to another beach to haul the sein, but she found the bottom rocky
Carpenters securing the fastenings on the rudder
Turtle served to the ships company, and sherbet as usual - Squally variable weather, with frequent heavy rain.
From the bay where the ship was at [anchor], I saw that the [water] continued up into the island, and therefore went away this aftern[oon] to examine it. We first landed in some places near the shi[p] looking for fresh water. In a cove were lying the remains [of] two canoes, of bark; but unlike any I have before seen they consisted of strips sewed together, like being placed [like] the plank of a clinker-built boat. Their length of the can[oe] could not be ascertained, but the breadth appeared to h[ave] been near two feet. A pole was set up amongst the ro[cks] in the same place, which had been cut by an instrument so sharp, that I should suppose it to have been a large and

[Page 301]

[1802 Dec. [Friday] -17th. at [anchor] 35. Island h east side, being of]
those called C. Vanderlin - Gulph of Carpentaria

sharp knife, and set up above the high-water mark, considerably, was lying a piece of black rope, made of stuff resembling hair which is in use in the East Indies, especially amongst the eastern islands, and called gummoston. It was 21/2 or 3 inches in circumference, and seemed to have been laid with a top, so that upon the whole I think it could not be of native manufacture, but was probably left Several cabbage trees were found which had seemed to have been cut down with hatchets, to all appearances, probably by the same people, who had cut the trees upon island b, and from whom left the broken jar there found. had come I found the water of the small inlet to turn to the northward, about one mile further than could be seen from the ship, but the depth in it is not more than 6 or 8 feet, and no fresh water could be found upon its shore for a ship to procure. - The rocks consist of a hard sand stone, nearly the same as about Port Jackson, and the land is as barren as the worst parts there; but it still produces many trees and shrubs, the principal of which is a small palm cabbage tree which grows every where in great numbers, [but] the cabbage is too small to become an object of refreshment to the ships company. -

In the morning, I found, that round the S.E. point which [is] 3 or 4 miles from the ship, a passage led to the westward, [sep]erating h from other islands to the southward. The first [en]trance of this is about 2 miles wide, and to it the water [is] sufficiently deep within half a mile of the northern [sh]ore. I examined every place for fresh water to which casks [cou]ld be conveniently brought, but without success. Marks of natives were seen, but none recent.
The rainy weather prevented me from getting an observation for the latitude, or from doing more than taking bearings from the south and south-east points of island h

[Page 302]

1802 Dec. [Saturday] -18th. Investigator between isles g and [h,
making the Cape Vanderlin of Tasman]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light variable breezes with frequent showers of rain. The Commander returned on board. Party on shore wooding - The 2nd. lieut. on shore taking observations for the Time-keepers rates.

Dark cloudy weather.

Squally, with heavy rain

Mod. & cloudy. At daylight, hoisted out the launch and employed her in bringing off wood. Sighted the [anchor], and finding it clear, let it go again.

Sent an officer and party to haul the sein, who caught a few fish

The Commander away surveying, and taking observations. - Turtle served as before

Noon, cloudy weather with showers at times

This morning, accompanied by the 2nd. lieutenant I landed on the east point of the island to take angles from the top of the cliffs there, and to look for a situation where a base line could be measured with convenience. The last I did not succeed in, but took the bearings, and having a clear interval at noon, observed for the latitude on both meridians, as annexed.

[Page 303]

[1802 Dec. [Saturday] -18th. Investigator between isles g and] h,
making the Cape Vanderlin of Tasman

In addition to the marks of other people than natives having been here, which are already mentioned, a piece of barracade work of bamboo was found at high water mark upon the island h; which I judge to have belonged to such a canoe as those of Murrays Island in Torres' Strait were; and in another part was found a piece of large bamboo, such as is used at that above ment island for containing water, and this had evidently been cut with a knife or other sharp instrument, though the hole was not at the end, as they cut them, but in the side of the bamboo. To these may be added a shed small shack made of palm leaves sewed together with cotton thread, and appears mostly like the top of an umbrella, or such hats as the Chinese are represented to wear; and near this was lying a thickish cane, at the high water mar These had been washed on shore, and laid at high-water mark upon the small isle g2.

Upon h a sort of monument was found. Under a shed of bark were set up two water-worn stones of about 18 inches long, and partly shaped like a nine-pin. Upon these were two black circles, towards the ends, and between were four oval black patches seemingly done with charcoal, and all the intermediate spaces were covered with the white down and small feathers, probably stuck on with the white of a turtles egg, a shell being found near the place. Whether this was done by the natives or not others, or what the intention of it might be, I cannot determine: nothing was found under the stones

[Page 304]

1802 Dec. [Sunday] -19th. Investigator. Isles g and h [anchor] 35 - 36
[ [Monday] - 20th. - near the old C. Vanderlin - [anchor] 37]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes with dull cloudy weather, and towds. the evening heavy rain

Having received two launch loads of wood, hoisted in the boat, and soon after the wooding party returned on board.

Hoisted up the boats and prepared for getting under weigh in the morning

Squally weather with heavy rain: lightening from all quarters

Do. weather until 71/2h., when it cleared up.

At 91/4h., weighed and made sail across the channel towards the opposite isle g, having the whale boat ahead. - On attempting to pass the isle g2, found the water was too shoal and therefore we came to with the stream [anchor] about 1/2 mile from its west side. - The Commander landed to take angles and observations, and the scientific gentlemen to examine the country Light breezes and cloudy weather

I first landed upon the isle g2, and from the westernmost of its rocks took the annexed observations, and a few bearings From g2, I crossed over to the north point of isle g, which is marked P in the chart, and from the highest of its sandy hummocks took an extensive set of bearings.

The botanical gentlemen found here the nutmeg tree in plenty, and the fruit seemed to be of a good kind though small -

I found that there was deep water between g2, and P, but the shoal water about the south end of the island is extensive

[Page 305]

[1802 Dec. [Sunday] -19th. Investigator. Isles g and h [anchor] 35 - 36]
[Monday] - 20th. - near the old C. Vanderlin - [anchor] 37

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy weather. Mustered ships company and saw them clean. On the Commander returning, at 31/2h., weighed and steered for the south point of h, the island left in the morning, the boat being ahead sounding. At 4h.30' brought to, and the 2nd. Lt. landed upon the isle h3, to take observations On his return made sail again. At 61/4h., hauled up round the south point of h, and soon after came to with the small bower and furled sails; the point bearing E8S. 11/4 mile. Land at different distances all round, except about 1 point to the W.N.W.

Strong squalls with rain and vivid lightening

Mod. & cloudy

At day light, sent an officer and party to haul the sein, and another officer to search for fresh water The first had but little success, but water was found in a cove of hh at the back of a small isle hh2.

The Commander & master went to examine the watering cove, and finding 3 fms. sufficiently near the beach, weighed on their return and steered over to it. Soon after noon came to in 3 fms. about 1 mile E.S.E. from the beach; and having land at different distances all round us. Moderate breezes and cloudy weather.

The officer who went to search for water found upon the shore three rudely-made rudders, and a small wooden [anchor] of the Chinese or Malay fashion; as also two pieces of frame work, which we suppose to be have been a part of the shed which these people usually erect upon their boats. The work was partly teek, and partly violet wood whose scent was still very strong and the cutting about it was still very fresh; one of the rudders appearing not to have been in the water. Afterwards, was found, part of a pair of cotton trowsers, of the form called moormans, and which are worn by Chinese.

[Page 306]

1802 Dec. [Tuesday] -21st. Investigator, amongst the isle[s]
[which compose the Cape Vanderlin of Tasman]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes & cloudy. Hoisted out the launch & furled sails. The Commander took the whale-boat to survey the east side of the island - Sent an officer and party to the watering place, to dig the hole out; but they found that the water did not flow into it as was expected; and therefore the ship could not be watered here. - Variable squally weather with rain at times

Strong breezes with heavy rain, and lightening in the S.W. quarter

Moderate with rain at times

Light airs and cloudy. At 6h.15' weighed and made sail back to the last [anchor]age, having the launch and whale-boat ahead towing. After passing over the narrow deep channel near the south point of h, the water shoaled very suddenly. Tacked ship and at 7h.45' came to with the stream [anchor]. The Commander went away to survey and to search for a watering place People employed in the holds getting provisions to hand - Light breezes & fine wr. -

This P.M. I examined the coves from the ship to the east point of hh. This point is steep, and from its top I took angles and went along shore to the S.W.ward and to into a bay there of considerable size, but the depth of water across the entrance was not so much as two fathoms. Upon the south point of entrance were placed several piles of stones, which in another place I should have taken to be put together by children in imitation of forts. In each collection of stones there were two or three embrasure-like divisions, which I rather suppose to have been places for cooking, since there was charcoal in those that were examined. Near there were lying the remains of three small earthen jars, and the wood about which grew near was cut with some

[Page 307]

[1802 Dec. [Tuesday] - 21st. Investigator, amongst the isle[s] ]
which compose the Cape Vanderlin of Tasman

sharp instrument of iron. I apprehend the whole to have been done by strangers whose numbers might either have been 6 or 8, equal to the number of piles; or perhaps from 12 to 20, the number of the small divisions. A great quantity of cockle shells not at all decayed, were lying behind these piles

The botanical gentlemen had been collecting upon the island h, and on their return, reported having found water in a cove on the south-western side of the island; I therefore moved the ship that way, in the morning, back to the former [anchor] 37; and after breakfast examined along that shore to see how near the shipld could approach. I passed the entrance of the cove at the distance of half a mile, with but 2 fms. water and had no more to the west pt. of what seemed to be a bay which lies further to the north. As this bay could not be entered by a ship I did not examine it, but proceeded to the westward along the shore. At the back of the first beach on the east side of a head, which if it is part of island h, is the S.W. point, fresh water was found convenient for filling casks, but on steering directly off into the channel, it appeared that the ship could not lie nearer than 11/2 mile, on account of the shallowness of the water. From hence I went out to one of two steep rocky islands where there was a good view of all such several parts of which I wanted to gain knowledge. In going to this island we crossed the passage between h and hh which the ship must take in going this way out to sea. The depth of water here was from 5 to 31/2, the latter being near the craggy island. - From appearances, and all the information that I had now gained, it became probable that the ship could not pass between the southern parts of these islands and the main; and therefore I determined to move the ship back to the former [anchor] 35, where she might be completed with water, and where observations for the rates of the time-keepers might be continued during the time that I should make the examination in the bo[at]

[Page 308]

1802 Dec. [Wednesday] - 22 Investigator back to 2 [anchor] 36

[Boat expedition to the inner ends of the islands]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather.
Furled sails. People variously employed

At sunset, the Commander returned from his excursion. Light breezes with rain: lightening to the westward.

Light airs and cloudy, with much lightening about. At 3, strong squalls of wind and rain, which made the ship drive: - dropped the small bower and brought up. - At day light, rainy; but clearing up soon after, weighed the [anchor]s, and at 61/4h., made sail for the [anchor] 36, under the east point of isle h. At 7h.50' came to with the stream, ran out the whole cable to the N.E. and moored with the small bower, about half mile from the cove where there is fresh water: the east point NEbN11/2 '. Sent an officer and party on shore to dig out a deep hole, and to clear a passage to it for rolling casks People employed on board in the holds
The Commander and painter went away for four days to the inner ends of these islands

From the ship, I steered to the S.W. side of the island g carrying good soundings; and having taking angles on the most projecting point, went to the N.E. end of the low island g4, the general depth of water being 3 fms. after striking off from the shore of g. From hence the water was shoal to a small island, g6, where heavy rain obliged us to remain for the night. There were marks of natives upon these islands, but neither very abundant or recent. -

On [Thursday] morning, having a westerly wind, we ran to the south point of the isle g; from which station the survey round the island became connected. This run was nearly S.E.b.E.5'.

[Page 309]

[1802 Dec. [Wednesday] - 22 - Investigator back to 2[anchor] 36]
Boat expedition to the inner ends of the islands

and the greatest depth of water 41/2 fms. which was nearer to the large island than the smaller ones which we had left. The shore of the south-west side of the island g, is low and covered with mangroves, and there are several indents in it. The east, north, and N.W. side of it are generally an intermixture of sandy beaches and rocky projections, and the higher land approaches nearer to the shore. A distant prospect of the island g, is not without some shew of fertility, especially on the inner parts; but wherever I landed, [indecipherable word] sand and stones seemed to be almost the whole basis upon which the trees stood.

At noon we had rowed back against the westerly wind to a part of the south-west side of g, nearly opposite to the isles g4 and 6, where I had an indifferent observation for the latitude on one side, as hereafter annexed. At 3, we landed again upon g4, and having no prospect of reaching the shore of island hh before dark, we pitched the tent for the night. Towards the morning we had heavy rain with severe lightening and thunder as on the preceding night, but it was not now accompanied with much wind.

[Friday] The breeze being quite against our proceeding to hh in the morning, as I desired we rowed up with some difficulty to the island g5, before noon, and I upon the north-east low sandy neck I observed the latitude which hereafter follows, though from being rather late in taking the observation, entire confidence should not be put in it. This island g5, is situated nearly in the middle between the large island g and hh. It is visited by natives men occasionally, and is mostly

[Page 310]

1802 Dec. Boat excursion to the inner ends of the [isles about Cape Vanderlin]

mostly covered with trees and bushes, amongst which the palm is conspicuous: - the soil, as every where else, seems to be sand and stones with scarcely any intermixture of vegetable earth.

From g5, we rowed towards the south-east point of hh, and when distant from it 3/4 of a mile, were enabled to carry sail, and steered for a rocky hummock about a mile further, carrying 9, 8, 7, 6, 3, 21/2 to the shore

This station afforded me a more extensive prospect of what I wanted to see, than any before obtained. The south end of g and the isle g6, had enabled me to continue the delineation of the main land, from where it had been seen in the ship, considerably to the westward, and from hence I saw it further, continues to behind the south end of island i being at where it was trending now much more northerly than before. In the neighbourhood of this this station upon hh

From this station, we steered along the south side of h the land is much intersected by three two small bays, but these do not appear to be capable of being useful to ships. - From hence we steered along the south side of hh carrying 3 and 21/2 fms. and sometimes less. Upon hh4, a small rocky island, another set of bearings was taken, in which were included the south point of hh, and the south-east point of i, with the main running behind it. Afterwards we continued our westerly course across the passage between the isles hh and i not being able to land upon a small mangrove island, i1, which lies between them: we arrived at the S.E. side of i, at 7 oclock.

[Page 311]

[1802 Dec. Boat excursion to the inner ends of the] isles about Cape Vanderlin

Before we quitted island i, on the [Saturday] morning, I took a set of azimuths for the variation of the theodolite which follow hereafter, and then rowed past the sandy east point, to a small isle hh1, which is not far from the craggy island visited on the 21st. The passage between the large isles hh and i seem to be very shoal every where except close to the sandy east point of i where there is 5 fms. close to shore: this is the narrowest part of the passage. The north end of hh1, is steep and rocky, and offorded me a tolerable view. From it we steered eastward towards the ship, but stopped at noon at the small isle hh2, were I took observations for the latitude; and about 3 P.M. we arrived on board the ship.
During the excursion no natives were seen; marks were observable everywhere, but none recent. No quadrupeds were seen, if I except lizards. Hawks, pidgeons of two kinds, ducks, and two birds called turkey-birds were seen besides the usual sea fowl. The soil and wood seems to be the sa[me] upon all the islands, and the best wood is the gum-tree growing near the shore, or perhaps that these islands produce. The cabbage-tree, which is something though not exactly like that of Port Jackson, is abundant in many places. We found small runs of fresh water at this time, almost everywhere, owing to the late heavy rains. - Pieces of bamboo and other remnants of former visitors to these parts were commonly met with scattered about, and on my return on board Mr. Brown informed me that on the west side of h, he had found piles of stones with a rude of stones with

[Page 312]

1802 Dec. Boat excursion continued
[Thursday] - 23rd. Investigator at 2 [anchor] 36 - C.Vander Lin]

[Tables not transcribed]

frame work over them, which were divided into 36 partitions, and near the same place was cut mangroves to the extent of an acre and a half; many bamboos, also, and pieces of broken jars were lying about. From these, and all the marks taken collectively which we have seen, I do not suppose these former visiters to have been shipwrecked as at first, but rather to have been upon some business with which I am unacquainted with.
During the preceding excursion we were exceedingly pestered with flies during the day and mosquitos in the night; and I will here observe generally, that at the Prince of Wales's Isles and wherever we have since landed in the gulph, the small black flies have been uncommonly numerous and pestel troublesome, as noticed by Dampier and some of the Dutch navigators Thesey flies get into the nose and mouth and settle upon the face or any other part of the body indis
The observations taken during the excursion
criminately without fear, or expectation of being molested. This we observed they did on shore, and on board the ship also while we lay at [anchor], and for a day or two afterwards; but the society of man soon wrought a change in the manners soon of these little animals. They first became cautious, flying off when the hand was lifted up; and in three or four days a little time, they behaved themselves orderly like other flies, giving us scarcely any molestat[ion]
[continued bottom of page 312]

[Page 313]

[1802 Dec. Boat excursion continued]
[Thursday] - 23rd. Investigator at 2 [anchor] 36 -
C. Vander Lin

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy weather
Employed sending empty casks on shore, and putting more provisions into the after hold.
Sent down T.Gt. yards.
Heavy squalls of wind and rain, with thunder and lightening. Dragged the stream [anchor], but it again brought up
A boat employed by the botanical gentlemen.
People getting on board water and stowing it in the hold
Mod. breezes and cloudy, with spitting rain at times
[Friday] - 24
Light breezes and cloudy. Received on board a large raft of casks, which employed us in stowing it away
Cloudy with rain, afterwards strong squalls of wind and rain succeeded, with thunder and lightening
At day light, sent a party of men on shore to cut wood -
Sailmakers employed repairing sails
Washed and cleaned the ship below
At noon, light breezes and fine weather
[continued from page 311]
May not an inference be drawn from the behaviour of these flies that the north coast of New Holland is very thinly populated?
See Dampier Vol. I p.464. Vol. III. P. 102, 103.

[Page 314]

1802 Dec. [Saturday] - 25th. Investigator at 2 [anchor] 36 under h,
[Additional remarks - Near Cape Vanderlin]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine. Received another raft of water, which completes the ship up to 65 tons - Draught of water F. - 13.7 - A. 13.4
Moderate breezes and dark cloudy weather
At night, fresh breezes and cloudy
A.M. weighed the [anchor]'s, and moored ship with the small bower to the southward
Sent a boat to the opposite island g with the botanical gentlemen.
Sherbet served as usual.
[Sunday] -26

Light breezes and fine weather
The Commander returned from his expedition
A.M. Fresh breezes and cloudy.
Sent a party of men on shore to cut wood and another to haul the sein which had tolerable success
Received on board a launch load of wood and stowed it away
Light airs and fine weather
 

[Page 315]

[1802 Dec. [Saturday] - 25th. Investigator at 2 [anchor] 36 under h,]
Additional remarks - Near Caper Vanderlin

Concerning the tides in the neighbourhood of these islands, the remarks made on board the ship enabled me to speak with no certainty, either of the rise or direction. The best days observation on the tide which I made in the boat was as follows, - on Thursday morning it was low water about 9 oclock, from which it the tide first rose rather quick and afterwards slower until 7 P.M. It now fell about one foot, but soon began to rise again and at 10 oclock was nearly about high water. From the appearance of the shore, I suppose the rise to be 6 or 7 feet. The time of high water follows the moons passage over the meridian about 11 hours, or is one hour before it comes to the inferior meridian.
I cannot speak from observation of the direction which the flood takes, but amongst these islands it will necessarily be various.
Although there is but one full tide in 24 hours here, yet the small break in it seems to imply that we are coming to where there is we shall soon have two tides each day, as at the Prince of Wales' Islands-
  

[Page 316]

Observations upon islet h3, S.W. end, for the rates of the time-keepers
[1802 Dec. [Mon] - 27th. Investigator at 2 [anchor] 36, island h.]

[Tables not transcribed]

The latitude with which the above observations were calculated is 17.38'.10" So. but the true latitude is 17.36'45" So. which alters the mean time 1"90 - , and which is applied to the last day for finding the error from mean Greenwich time.
The longitude of the S.W. end of islet h3, is taken to be 137:22':8,6"
See the table at the end of the book
Observations for the latitude upon the S.W. end of islet h3.-

[Page 317]

[Observations upon islet h3, S.W. end, for the rates of the time-keepers]
1802 Dec. [Mon] - 27th. Investigator at 2 [anchor] 36, island h.

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes with fine weather, but very warm
Received a turn of wood by the launch, and stowed it away. - Got the stream [anchor], by means of the launch, and afterwards hoisted her in and prepared to go to sea in the morning
Light airs and sultry weather
A.M. Moderate breezes with fine weather.
At day light, weighed and made sail to go round the north end of this island h, with a moderate breeze and fine weather
Departure taken from h3, in lat. 15.37'S - 13722' [indecipherable word] as at the [anchor]age 36.-
At 8, the north point of the island h bore S.60.W.
Passed over discoloured water at 91/2h., but found no material difference in the soundings.- The plat upon the small bower cable having got rubbed, employed part of the people in making more
Sherbet served to the people as usual
At noon, the western most visible part of island h, bore S.W.b.S.-
Tried to tack, but on account of the head swell, missed stays and wore
ship -
Light airs and clear weather
  

[Page 318]

1802 Dec. [Tuesday] - 28th. from the isles of C. Vanderlin
[[Wednesday] -29th Along the west side of the gulph]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather
At 4, the N.E. point of island h, bore S.44.E. and the center of h2, small isle S.68.E.
At 6h.30', h4, S.W. head bore S63E. and the north extreme of a large island ahead, k, N77W
At 7, came to with the small bower and furled sails. The water now very smooth.
The north extreme of k N.W.1/2.N. distant off the nearest part 3 or 4 miles. -
Light breezes and fine wr.
At day light, mod. & cloudy.
At 5.30 weighed and made sail. Soon after tacked to the northward.
At 7 passed to leeward of breakers which lie 3 or 4 miles off the N.E. end of isle k
Cleaned below as usual. People making more plat.
Light airs and fine weather.
At 11, tacked ship to the westward
At noon, the northernmost part of k bore S48W. from the deck - low and woody. -
 

[Page 319]

[1802 Dec. [Tuesday] - 28th. from the isles of C.Vanderlin]
[Wednesday] - 29th Along the west side of the gulph

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and fine wr.
At 3, passed k and k1, the last of the isles near C.Vander Lin. The main land seen as far as W.b.N.
At 6, came into shoal water, the No. extreme of the main N40.W. shore distant 3 miles with low rocks lying off. Tacked ship, and at 7h.20' came to with the small bower and furled sails
Moderate breezes and fine weather
At 5h.30', weighed and made sail, stretching to the northward close to the wind
At. 6h.15' Passed 1/2' to windward of breakers.
At 8, the furthest extreme from the mast head bore W.1/2S.
People making plat
Passed by some discoloured water
At noon, fresh breezes and fine weather, with haze. Tacked ship towards the land, which was not now in sight
Lime-juice and sugar served as usual.
 

[Page 320]

1802 Dec. [Thursday] - 30th. Investigator - [anchor] 41
[ [Friday] - 31st Along the west side of the gulph]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and hazy weather. At 3, the land was in sight, low and woody; and at 4, the extreme of last night bore S.S.W. 7 or 8 miles and the present extreme west.
At 6, the land S.30.E. to N. 70W, nearest distance 6 or 7 miles. Some higher back land bore W.b.S. - At 7, tacked off shore for deeper water and at 7h.15' came to with the small bower and furled sails
Fresh breezes and squally, with thunder, lightening and rain. Veered to 1/2 cable
Dark threatening weather, but without much wind or rain.-
Fresh breezes and cloudy. At 3/4, having weighed, made sail to the westward, but the wind heading, tacked at 6h. and took in T.Gt. sails and staysails.
At 7, tacked towards the land, and set the small sails again. At 8h.45' tacked off shore, on getting into 3 fms.
Mustered ships company and saw them clean. Vinegar & sour krout served
At noon, the water shoaled quick, and from the mast head discoloured water was seen extending out to wind[war]d as far as the eye could reach
[Tac]ked ship - Moderate breezes and cloudy weather. Extreme land S.74W. 4 leags.
   

[Page 321]

[1802 Dec. - 30th. Investigator - [anchor] 41]
[Friday] - 31st Along the west side of the gulph

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and fine weather. At 1h.15' tacked ship and kept away to pass round the shoal.
At 2, hauled to the wind, but other shoal water obliged us to keep away again. Passed close to two rocks which were a few feet under water.
Afterwards hauled to the wind. At 5h.20', tacked ship towards the land, but the wind heading, tacked again to the northward: the highest part of the back land S56W. At 7h.25' came to with the small bower, and furled sails -
Light airs & fine wr.:
Lightening to the northwd.
Mod. breezes and fine. At day light, weighed, and at 5h.30', made sail as near to west as the wind would permit.
At 8, land seen from the mast-head bearing W.N.W. - Fresh breezes and fine weather
People employed making plat for the cable
Lime-juice and sugar served as usual
At noon light breezes and fine weather: water smooth.
Two lumps of land seen from deck bearing S49. and 54W. These are seen to join at from the mast head, apparently forming an island

[Page 322]

1803 Jan.1. Investigator along the west side [of the Gulph of Carpentaria - Island l. [anchor] 43 - 44]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy. On the wind coming round, steered for the lumps of land, whh. form island l. At 3, P.M. it extremes bore S44- to 60W. about 10 miles. At 5, hauled round the low S.E. point of the island, and came to [anchor], with the small bower in a open bay on the So. side of l, the points N77E and S79W. Q, a hummocky point of the main, dist 10 or 12 miles, S1.E. whence the main land is visible to behind l.
Mod. breezes and hazy
Bent 3 new log lines, the old having been carried away.
Light breezes & fine weather.
At day light, the Commander and scientific gentlemen visited the island in the whale boat.
The Commander etc. having returned, hoisted up the boat, weighed; and at 9h.15' made sail towards cape Q on the opposite main
The water becoming shoal by the time that we were half way across, at 11h., tacked ship, and the wind being very light, and the ship setting to leeward by the lead, came to with the stream [anchor]. -
Q cape S.11.W. A piece of low land like an island S.15.E. about 4 miles. Extremes of l island N5. to 43W about 6 miles - At noon, light airs and sultry wr.
Slops served to the ships company

[Page 323]

[1803 Jan.1. Investigator along the west side] of the Gulph of Carpentaria - Island l [anchor] 43 - 44

[Tables not transcribed]

On landing upon the south side of l, something which had the appearance of a large hut attracted my attention. It was an ants nest of about 8 feet high, and something resembling a broad hay cock in form. It was full of ants of a brownish white colour; which they were not very active or their bodies firm; on the contrary, they seemed to be a feeble race which the least pressure was sufficient to destroy crush.
Although smoke had been seen in the evening, not natives were met with, but the fresh prints of feet were seen shewed them to be somewhere upon the island.
The stone of the island is not the sand stones of the isles near C.Vander Lin, but of a more slaty substance, being much given to splitting in straight lines. The island is well covered with wood, and grass grows up amongst the stones which at this time has a green fresh appearance. The island is mostly hilly, but the hills are not high. The furthest parts of the main land seen from the nearest hill to the ship bore 155.50' and 324.30', but there is space of 16. to the W.b.N. where no land is visible. Q is a hummocky projecting cape, which bore 179.28'. and is probably the Cape Maria of Tasman; this I conjecture, principally, from the relative situation of l, the island lying off it. - It appears that we have here two regular sets of tides in the 24 hours, but the lead tells nothing of which is the ebb or flood; the rise, indeed, seems to be very trifling.

[Page 324]

1803 Jan: [Sunday] - 2nd. Investigator - [anchor] 45
[ [Monday] - 3rd. Along the west side of the gulph]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather. At 11/4h. weighed the stream [anchor] and made sail towards the main passing about 2 miles to leeward of island l.
At 6, light airs; soon after came to with the small bower and furled sails. Island l S 58 to 88E. The main land seen as far as N.b.E. from the mast head - At 7, a strong squall, with thunder, vivid lightening and rain. Sent down T.Gt. yards.
At 9 it, nearly calm, and the rain over
Mod. breezes with drizzling rain at times
Mod. & cloudy. Sent up T.Gt. yards, weighed the [anchor], and at 5h.30' made sail to the northwd. along the shore. On getting less than 3 fms. at 6h.15', steered off until there was 4, then continued along the shore again until near 8 when the shoal water obliged us to steer further off A low rock EbN. and the station upon island l, S.21.E.
Read the articles of war to the ships company, saw them clean and mustered them as usual.
Sherbet served as usual
At noon, light airs and fine weather
Furthest extreme of the main N25E. A dry sand N801/2E about 3 miles from which shoal water seems to run off to the southwd.
Saw several turtle in the water.

[Page 325]

[1803 Jan: [Sunday] - 2nd. Investigator - [anchor] 45]
[Monday] - 3rd. Along the west side of the gulph

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes with fine weather. Passing within a long dry sand, from which shoal water extends to the N.E. and S.W. - At 4, the furthest extreme of the main N.N.E.; the sand bank not in sight
At 51/4h., having less than 3 fms. tacked off shore
At 6h.40', came to with the small bower and furled sails. Mod. breezes & fine weather, with lightenening to the southward
At 1, strong squalls of wind with rain, thunder and lightening. The ship driving, veered to the long service, but were obliged to let go the best bower and veer to 1/2 a cable before she brought up
At day light, hove up the [anchor]s, and at 61/2h. made sail. The buoy rope of the small bower being cut through by coral, it was lost with the buoy - At 7, tacked ship
Mod. breezes and cloudy.
Employed fresh platting the small bower cable and fitting new buoy ropes to the [anchor]s.
Saw land to the eastward like islands.
At noon, the extreme of the main, North Nearest shore N82W. 5 or 6 miles. Pieces of land from N.b.E. to E.S.E. like islands, and high distant land in the N.E. Light breezes and cloudy.

[Page 326]

1803 Jan. [Tuesday] - 4th. Investigator, along the
[ [Monday] - 3rd. Along the west side of the gulph]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy. The soundings being irregular, lowered down the whale boat and sent her ahead to sound; but the wind freshening and water getting deeper called the boat on board. Took in the [indecipherable word] small sails and Dble. reefed the top sails. Strong breezes. At 21/2h., wore ship having missed stays. In attempting to veer the boat astern she unfortunately filled and broke adrift, and one of the two men in her was lost drowned. Sent the yawl to pick up the men and boat, wore ship and came to [anchor] to leeward of her. Received the whale boat on board and most of the things, and hoisted her in to be repaired. Hoisted up the yawl. At 5, strong squalls with rain. Sent down the T.Gt. yards. - Cut up beef No.40 - 52 lbs short
A.M. Moderate and cloudy weather. At day-light weighed, and at 5h.40' made sail between the main and the islands
Bent another T.F.mt. stay sail, the old being worn out. Seeing the deepest water ofn the side of the channel near the main, hauled up that way, and at 8h.30' came to with the best bower about 1 mile from the shore. The north extremes of the main bearing N.8.E. to S.30.W. and islands from N.b.E to E.S.E.
Let the reefs out of the topsails to be aired. Employ[ed] fresh platting and worming the small bower cable. Bent other main and mizen top-sails, the old being worn out. Sailmakers repairing the [spanker]. Sent the yawl to the main with the scientific gentlemen; and the Commander took the whale boat, which was partly repaired, to a small island bearing N.E.b.E. 5 miles

[Page 327]

[Image to be photographed]
[1803 Jan. [Tuesday] - 4th. Investigator, along the]
[Monday] - 3rd. Along the west side of the gulph

Tables not transcribed]

The man who was so unfortunate as to be drowned on the filling of the boat was Wm. Murray, captain of the fore top. Instead of keeping hold of the boat or some of the things which floated about her, he caught the hawser by which the boat was going to be veered astern (but) ^and being unable) from the motion of the ship through the water (he was unable) to keep his head up, (and) ^was drowned) before the ship came about, which was in less than 5 minutes, (he had let go his hold and sunk) The other man (passed by the) caught the ship as we passed by after tacking, being an expert swimmer. A.M. From the ship to the woody islet n1 the soundings were 41/2, 31/2, 4, 6, 61/2, 7, 5 close to the islet. I found that the natives sometimes visit this islet, and that turtle had frequented it some time back: there were four human skulls lying at the back of the beach. The islet is a bed of sand with a few bushes and trees on it, and a large shoal runs off from its south end.
From n1, I crossed over to the main near the ship, and took bearings there also I found some pieces of bamboo and other wood cut with sharp instruments lying on the shore, but decayed.
The botanists, on whose account principally I had [anchor]ed here, found a fresh and a salt water lake, and near the former many new plants. Several kanguroos were seen. Trees, hollowed out, were found containing human skeletons, some of the bones of which were painted red and white.

[Page 328]

1803 Jan: [Wednesday] - 5th. Investigator - Wt. side of the gulph
[1803 Jan [Thursday] -6th. - near Groote Eyland [anchor] 49]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather

Employed fresh platting the small bower cable, and in the holds.
The Commander and scientific gentlemen returned on board. Hoisted in the whale boat to have her repairs finished -

Sent down T.Gt. yards

Light airs and fine weather

Light breezes. At day light, sent up T.Gt. yards, weighed the [anchor], and at 5h.30' made sail towards the islands

Saw a considerable bight or bay, between the S.W. and S.E. parts of the large island n.

Light airs, with haze. People working up junk, and the carpenters repairing the whale-boat

Sold the effects of Wm. Murray at the mast.

At noon, light breezes with much haze, which seems to have occasioned the great difference between the latitudes from the north and south meridians, both yesterday and today. Woody islet n1, center N.5l.W.

n island extremes N461/2W to N.59.E. Into a bay, distant 4 or 5' N.5.W. So.most land S.53.E.

[Page 329]

[1803 Jan: [Wednesday] - 5th. Investigator - Wt. side of the gulph]
1803 Jan.[Thursday] - 6th. near Groote Eyland [anchor] 49

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather. Saw passages out to the eastward, apparently safe, between n and m2; and between the latter and m. Other islands seen indistinctly to the N.Et.ward. - At 4, our distance from the west side of m was about 3 miles, and we now hauled along it. At 5h.30' steered off, having got into shoal water and rocky bottom; afterwards hauled again to the southward

At 7, came to with the small bower and furled sails

Light breezes and fine wr. -

A.M. Light airs and calms. At day light, hove short, and set the sails, but having no wind, and the tide against us, did not weigh until 6h.30', when a breeze sprung up and the tide had made to the southward.

Steering for the S.W. end of the large island m. On coming into rippling water near the S.W. point, dropped the stream [anchor] and sent the yawl to sound Mustered ships company and saw them clean. At 11h.2[0]' weighed and steered drifted towards the boat which soon after came on board. - At noon, m southern extreme S.62.E. Nearest part, a rock N.87.E. 3 or 4 miles Light airs and sultry weather

1803 Jan [Friday] 7th Investigator, along the west side
[of the gulph, in the neighbourhood of Groote Eylandt [anchor] 50

[Page 330]

1803 Jan. [Friday] - 7th. Investigator, along the west side
[of the gulph, in the neighbourhood of Groote Eyland [anchor] 50]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs & fine weather. At 1h.30' tacked ship, and again at 3h.30', on the wind heading, endeavouring to get round the S.W. part of island m. Hoisted up the yawl on the appearance of squally weather. At sunset, the S.W. extreme of m N.12.E [?] miles, and a further part of the same large island N.77.E. - Light breezes and fine wr. At 7h.5' came to with the small bower and furled sails

Fresh breezes and fine wr. - At day light, squally with rain, and lightening about. At 5.45 having weighed and double reefed the topsails, made sail towards the island m At 8, the extremes of the south side of the island bore N.63.W. and E.4.N. The shore being sandy, but the inland part hilly and covered with wood.-

At 9, light variable airs. Tacked ship and at 11h.20' tacked off shore, it being distant 2 miles; a small island at the extreme bearing N.821/2E

Washed below and aired well with stoves. Sherbet served as usual. Carpenters repairing the whale boat. - At noon, mod. breezes and fine wr. Extremes of the south side of m or Groote Eyland N.81.E to N.68.W.

[Page 331]

[1803 Jan. [Friday] - 7th. Investigator, along the west side]
of the gulph, in the neighbourhood of Groote Eyland [anchor] 50

[Tables not transcribed]

From the annexed observations it should seem that the longitude given by the time-keepers is not far from the true longitude; much nearer indeed than could have been expected from the shifts I have been put to for any tolerable longitude of the places where new rates for the time-keepers have been found procured, as well as from the deviation of the time-keepers from these rates, which were hastily procured.

I now begin to suppose that the large island which had been in sight since the 3rd. we have been sailing along these two days, is certainly the Groote Eyland of the old charts. It is moderately high in the central parts, and well covered with wood, but the shores are and low and mostly sandy. Its form will best appear in the chart. - The depth of water between the island or islands and the main, is greater than we have had any where in the gulph before, but there is some irregularity in the soundings.

[Page 332]

1803 Jan: [Saturday] - 8th. Investigator [anchor] 51
[[Sunday] - 9th. along the south side of Groote Eyland]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. At 1, tacked ship. Saw a smoke up on the great island m. At 2h.15' tacked off shore, on the wind heading. -

Light breezes and cloudy. At 6, the furthest part of m land visible from deck N.681/2E. Tacked towards the shore for shallower water to [anchor] in. At 7h.20' came to with the small bower and furled sails.

Light breezes & fine

A.M. Do. weather. At day light, weighed the [anchor], and at 5h.20' made sail to the eastward along the south side of m great island.

At 8, the extreme from the deck, m3, N71E. and the south point of the large island m N.15.W. 4 miles

Light airs and calms

At noon, light breezes and hazy. The middle of three small islands at the furthest extreme visible from the mast head N79E. Nearest shore distant 4 or 5 miles, part of the great island m. -

Sherbet and sour krout served as usual

[Page 333]

[1803 Jan: [Saturday] - 8th. Investigator [anchor] 51]
[Sunday] - 9th. along the south side of Groote Eyland

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy wr. Tacked ship offshore at 3h. Saw two islets in shore besides those at the furthest extreme -

At 6, tacked ship towards the land for shallower water to [anchor] in, and at 8h., came to with the small bower and furled sails

Light breezes and fine weather

Cloudy. -

At day light, light airs and calms. Weighed, and at 5h.30' made made sail along the south side of Groote Eyland At 7h.30' passing within the small isle m3, with deep water: the passage about 2 miles wide. At 9, hauled out from between the rocky islets and the large island, expecting a S.E. wind, but meeting with ripplings and discoloured water, keept away again to the eastward amongst the rocky islets, of which there are in the whole 13 altogether, at different distances from the great m.

 Mustered the ships company and s[aw] them clean. At noon, light breezes and fine weather. The extremes of a divided island S14.E. to 53.W. distant 1 mile, which prevented us from observing for the latitude. m4, which had borne N.79.E. yesterday, now bore S.74.W. - The S.E. end of great m N.11.E.11/2. Other islets open out to the eastward of it. -

[Page 334]

1803 Jan. [Monday] -10th. Investigator - G. of Carpentaria [ [Tuesday] -11th. Along the east side of m or Groote Eyland]

(Tables not transcribed)

Light breezes with fine weather. Steering to the northward along the east side of the great island m; several small isles lying off it. At 6, bore away to [anchor] behind one of of these, m8, for the night; and at 7h.20' came to with the small bower upon a sandy bottom, being sheltered from E.b.S round by the north to S.S.W., m8, being dist. 1 mile and another islet at the same distance on the west side

At 9, squally with rain, thunder, and lightening Sent down T.Gt. yards & veered to half a cable

Moderate and cloudy.

At day light, light airs, weighed and at 51/2h., made sail intending to go round the south end of m8, but finding the ship drifting towards the south rocks, dropped the stream [anchor] and sent the yawl to sound off the north end, where finding sufficient water, at 7h., weighed and steered to the northward of m8 and a rock off it Light breezes and fine weather. At 9h., had shoal water upon a ridge of rocks, seemingly from m9, steered over having the yawl ahead, and at 10 kept away along the east side of m.

At noon, the extremes of m and its southern islets S.4.E. to N.11.W from the deck. A large bight, in which are two islds. bearing S.711/2W.

[Page 335]

[1803 Jan. [Monday] -10th. Investigator - G. of Carpentaria]
[Tuesday] -11th. Along the east side of m or Groote Eyland

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate and fine weather. At 1, hauled up for the outer low N.E. point, and soon after saw an island further without it.

Light breezes and fine. At 5h.40', tacked off shore on the water shoaling suddenly; the NE point N.19.30'W. 4 miles, and a remarkable inland hill S.70.30'W: the outer island N.11/2W. Nearest shore West to N.W. dist. 3 miles At 7, came to with the stream [anchor], and furled sails, there being every appearance of a fine night. The parts of the great island which shelter us S.S.W. to N.N.W. off shore 5 or 6 miles

Moderate breezes and cloudy.
At 3, the ship swung

At day light, fine weather. Weighed and at 5h.30' made sail to the northward close to the wind At 8, the furthest extreme of m S.85.W. Highest part of another isle, o, N.57.W. near its east end. Between these two there is other land, and passages, apparently.

Unbent the M.F.Gt. sail to be repaired, and bent another.

Sherbet served as usual

At noon, light airs and fine weather North extreme of great m S.61.30'W. o isle, highest part S86.30'W and its N[thly] extreme N.89.W. distant about 3 leagues apparently.

[Page 336]

1803 Jan: [Tuesday] -11th. continued. Astronomical observations
[ [Wednesday] -12th. along the east side of m or Groote Eyland]

[Tables not transcribed]

[Page 337]

[1803 Jan: [Tuesday] - 11th. continued. Astronomical observations]
[Wednesday] -12th. along the east side of m or Groote Eyland

Tables not transcribed]

At 1, light airs which soon after freshened into a fair breeze. Steered in between the great island m and isle o. -

Cut up beef No. 3. - 28 lbs short

Seeing many rocks in the passage, sent the whale boat ahead to sound; and at 7h.10' came to with the small bower behind the largest and southmost rock, but open to the sea from N.E.b.N. to ES.E. Furled sails and hoisted up the boat

Mod. breezes and fine wr. - At day light, weighed, and at 5h.40' made sail continuing our course between the islands, with the whale boat ahead sounding. On passing a point, round which the shore falls back to the southward, the water became shoal and obliged us to tack, and afterwards to keep away. From what we saw it is very doubtful whether there is a ship passage between m and these N.E.ern. isles At 9h.25' bore away to go back between the rocks by which we came in last night, and afterwards hauled up to go round the hummocky isle o. At noon, light breezes and cloudy.

Highest top of o isle N64W 3 miles. Rock under which we [anchor]ed S.53.W. -

[Page 338]

1803 Jan: [Thursday] -13th. Investigator. G. of Carpentaria [ [Friday] -14th. Along the east side of Groote Eyland]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and cloudy.
Finding the ship to drift to leeward, at 3h.20' dropped the stream [anchor], o isle, north extreme bearing N64W.
At 5h.30' weighed, on a breeze springing up, and made sail to the northward of island o. - At 8, the north end of the island W.1/4S. - Light breezes and fine wr:
Lost a deep-sea lead and line
At 10, came to with the stream [anchor] and furled sails; isle o, bearing South. -
At 2h.30' the ship drove, weighed the [anchor] and hauled to the wind under the top-sails, until day light
At 5.15 wore ship and made sail towards the N.E. point of the great island m; isle o, highest part bearing S111/2 W
At 7h.35' tacked ship, being near the north sides of the isles o and o1.
A water snake seen near the ship.
Light breezes and fine weather
At 10h.30' tacked ship towards the land
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean. -
At noon, light breezes and fine weather. o isle, highest top S.43.E. The further N.E. end of great isld.
m S.78.W. and the remarkable inland mount upon it S.31.W. -

[Page 339]

[1803 Jan: [Thursday] -13th. Investigator. G. of Carpentaria]
[Friday] -14th. Along the east side of Groote Eyland

[Tables not transcribed]
Light airs and fine weather
At 2 h.30' dropped the stream [anchor], on finding the ship drifting to the eastward. o isle S.b.E. -
At 5 h.45' a breeze springing up, weighed and made sail toward the further No.E. Pt. of the great isle m. - At 7, it bore S.62 W nearly. Took in the small sails Supposing the ship to be abreast of the N.E. point, at 9 came to with the stream [anchor] and furled sails; but the wind becoming fresher, the ship drove, which obliged us to weigh the [anchor] and make sail, at 12h. - Stood off the land till 3h., and then tacked in, carrying more sail. - At 5 h.30', o isle top bore S.72.E; the No.E. point S.2.E. and the N.W. end of a high piece of land S.39.W. which is Cavern I.
At 8, tacked ship on finding we could not weather Cavern Islet; and back again at 9; but having no better success and the wind becoming light, came to with the stream [anchor], and the Commr. and scientific gentlemen landed upon Cavern I. the N.W. part of which bore S.32.W. 2 or 3 miles. Land seen from the mast head to (part of n) at west. The north point of m which proves to be a seperate island bore true east
Light breezes and fine weather

[Page 340]

1803 Jan: [Friday] -14th. continued. Additonal remarks [ [Saturday] -15th. in the north bay of m, or Groote Eyland]

I found the rocky piece of land, which is now called Cavern Islet, to be not only seperated from the great island m, but that there were two other was another islets between them; there does not however, appear to be any safe ship passage within between these.
I proposed to ascend the top of the cliffy rocks, to see the formation of the neighbouring land, and to take bearings but I found the cliffs to be divided into seperate pieces with deep chasms between, and extensive caverns and openings under them; so that it was not possible to accomplish my purpose without more time than I had to spare. In these places we found nutmegs lying thick upon the ground, but could not see the bushes that produced them for what had been before seen was upon a bush. On looking round, nuts were seen upon the tops of trees that shot up from these chasms until they reached the open air where they branched out. These trees must have been two or more feet in circumference, and generally 30 or 40 feet high before they branched out. [In these caverns we found some specimens of native art, in drawings of porpoises, turtle, kanguroos, and a hand. The porpoises were more about two feet long and had had some trouble bestowed upon them. They were done with something like red paint upon the whitish ground of the rock, and variegated with scratches of black -
Besides nutmegs we found a large kind of the [jambo] the acidity of which is exceedingly grateful in warm weather. -
From the shore of the east end of the island, I took angles, and then returned on board with the gentlemen.

[Page 341]

[1803 Jan: [Friday] -14th. continued. Additional remarks] [Saturday] -15th. in the north bay of m, or Groote Eyland

[Tables not transcribed]

Calm with warm sultry weather
At 3, weighed, on a light sea breeze springing up, and made sail to the westward: soon after the Commander and gentlemen returned on board. At 5, hauled up for a deep bay in the north side of m, and at 6.30 came to with the small bower near a small high island p2, and furled sails, being land locked except from N13E to 32W which are the west extreme of Cavern I. and the east extreme of p1, islet.
Sent down T.Gt. yards
Moderate breezes and fine weather
At day light, do. weather. Roused the cables upon deck, and cleaned the between-decks; then sluiced with boiling water to destroy the cock-roaches, which have now become exceedingly numerous. -
Sent a boat to land the scientific gentlemen, and the Commander landed upon the high island p2, to take angles and astronomical observations
Having washed well below and sprinkled with vinegar, recoiled the cables in the between-decks -
Sailmakers repairing the the M.T. gt. sail. - At noon light airs and fine weather.

[Page 342]

1802 Jan. [Saturday] -15th. continued Astronomical observations - p2,
[ [Sunday] -16th. in the north bay of m, or Groote Eyland]

[Tables not transcribed]

[Page 343]

[1803 Jan. [Saturday] -15th. continued Astronomical observations]
[Sunday] -16th. in the north bay of m, or Groote Eyland

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and fine weather. Employed about the rigging. Rebent the old M.T.Gt.sail. Sailmakers repairing the F. top sail. The Commander and scientific gentlemen returned on board. - Carpenters employed sawing up fir logs. -
Mod. breezes and fine
Fresh breezes.
Shifted the after side of the F.T. mast forward, on account of a bend in it.
Boats employed landing the Commander and gentlemen at different places in the bay
Noon, light breezes and fine wr.
As this was the only probable opportunity that the botanists would have of examining Groote Eyland, I determined to remain another day at [anchor] in this bay on its north side. The painter went to Cavern Islet to make a sketch of the native drawings which I had seen there; and the botanists landed on the west side of the Bay, having examined the east side yesterday with good success. This second days stoppage enabled Lt. Flinders and myself to increase our stock of observations, as annexed on the preceding page, by which and the lunars preceding, some judgment may be formed of longitude given by the time-keepers.
The rock which forms the basis of this neighbourhood [is] sand stone, but we find also coral, iron stone and quartz: [the] last of which is frequently sprinkled in grains [indecipherable word]
   

[Page 344]

1803 Jan. [Sunday] -16th. continued. Additional remarks [ [Monday] -17th. in the north bay of great island m]
[Tables not transcribed]

sand stone and partly chrystalised. The sand stone itself is sometimes found as a hard solid stone, in which cases it seems to be partly vitrified and is then more intimately compounded with the quartz
All the parts visited are so entirely composed of sand and stone that the idea of cultivation can in nowise be annexed to the appearance of the country; and yet the hills at a small distance from the shore are well covered with wood, most of which is gum tree but differing from the specieses at Port Jackson. +
We did not find any place where a ship could be supplied with water, but the late rains had left several small quantities in the holes of the rocks
This north bay of m is secure from all winds except

between N.W. and N.N.E. from which quarters a considerable sea would be thrown in if it should blow strong for any length of time.
I cannot be certain, but believe, that there is but one rise and fall of tide here in the day, and this seems to be not more than 4 or five feet. The time of high water I cannot speak of upon any certainty
+ The botanists found several new plants on the west side of the bay, but it is remarkable that no nutmeg trees were found except in the gullies and Ccaverns of Cavern Islet. [In] addition to the drawings before mentioned Mr. Westall found [an]other two which he supposes intended to represent a kanguroo hunt, and the pegging of a turtle: in the first there [were] 30 men drawn, one of which was much taller than [the othe]rs.
 

[Page 345]

1803 Jan. [Sunday] - 16th. continued. Additional remarks
[ [Monday] -17th. in the north bay of great island m.]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs with fine weather. Gave part of the ships company leave to go on shore, upon the nearest island. - Boats employed by the scientific gentlemen; afterwards hoisted them up and secured them for sea.
Light breezes and fine weather
A.M. Moderate breezes At daylight, sent up T.Gt. yards and weighed the [anchor]. At 5h.40', made sail, working out of the bay
At 8, the islands at the entrance into the bay bore east, and S.46.W. - Stretched on to the northward, expecting the usual north-easterly wind
People employed in the holds, and in working up junk
The land being 3 or 4 leagues distant at 11, and no appearance of a shift of wind tacked towards the shore
Cut pork No.37, to its contents
At noon, light breezes and fine weather. Cavern Islet S.22.W. from which it appears that we have been much set to leeward

[Page 346]

1803 Jan: [Tuesday] -18th. Investigator in the neighbour[hood of Groote Eyland - West side of the G. of Carpentaria]

[Table not reproduced - see original journal]

Moderate breezes and fine weather. At 21/2h., tacked off shore, having lost ground considerably since the morning
Calm, with fine weather. The F. top-sail being torn, bent the second sail.
At 6, on a breeze springing up steered for the passage on the west side of island m. At 8, Cavern I. west end bore S.b.E. -
Mod. breezes & fine weather. At 9, came to with the small bower and furled sails. Cavern I. north end N79.E. and p island N.W. end S341/2W which is on the east side of the passage
Fresh breezes. At 3, veered more cable, finding the [anchor] did not hold.
At day light, fresh breezes and fine weather. Weighed soon after, and at 6h.50' made sail for the passage between the large islands m and n into which we fetched. At 9h.15' tacked ship, the middle island m2, S221/2 to 42W. and two small sandy isles, q1, and 2, N65 to 37.W. for which we steered and at 10, came to with the small bower about 11/2' to the south of the passage between them -
The Commander and scientific gentlemen landed
At noon, fresh breezes & hazy weather
Furled sails
  

[Page 347]

[1803 Jan: [Tuesday] -18th. Investigator in the neighbour]hood of Groote Eyland - West side of the G. of Carpentaria

[Tables not transcribed]

Upon the S.W. end of q1, I observed the latitude as annexed. The altitudes previously taken on board being compared with those on the 6th. PM, by means of the bearing of m north west extreme and the extremes of the middle island m2, shew that in 128 days the mean of the two time-keepers has erred 3.'16,5" of longitude to the eastward; but that No. 543 has only erred 0'.4" to the westward. - [From the highest part of q1, there was a tolerably extensive view of the islands and main land to the northward; the furthest part of what I took to be the latter bore 328. or N.32W.; and there was a large smoke upon one part of it
The stone of q1, is the same mixture of sand stone & quartz, with some pieces of iron and calcarious stone, as the two islands in the neighbourhood before mentioned.
The small passage between q1 and 2, has 7 and 8 fathoms across it -
Upon the beaches of which consist of broken coral and sand were several fresh marks of turtle, [indecipherable word] on which account, as well as that the weather had an unpromising appearance and no place of shelter for night was visible which there was any certainly of reaching, I determined to remain at our present [anchor]age until morning.
The island has no fresh water upon it, and a but very little small wood. The botanists found nothing which they had not met with before.
                                                                               

[Page 348]

1803 Jan: [Wednesday] -19th. Investigator, near Groote Eyland [ [Thursday] - 20th. towards Cape Arnhem [anchor] 62]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes with fine weather. The Commander ret and gentlemen returned on board. - Sailmakers repaired the old fore top-sail, after which it was rebent - Sent an officer and boats crew to the island q1, to remain all night in order to take turtle. At sunset, sent down T.Gt. yards

Mod. breezes and cloudy

Soon after day light the shore party returned, having taken but one small turtle

At 6h.20', having weighed, made sail towards the large island n, but finding a shoal bank to lie on the S.W. side of q2, were obliged to bear away. Sent the boat ahead At 9h. 10h, and 11h. tacked ship working to the northward, but find that we lose ground, from a lee tide running

Lime-juice served to the ships company but no sugar, there being much lost from the heat of the holds

At noon, light breezes and fine weather. Last nights [anchor]age about EN.E. 4 or 5 miles

[Page 349]

[1803 Jan: [Wednesday] -19th. Investigator, near Groote Eyland] [Thursday] - 20th. towards Cape Arnhem [anchor] 62

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and fine weather. At 21/2h., bore away towards r, to [anchor] for the night, having the whale boat ahead. At 3h.15'. came to with the small bower about 2/3rds. of a mile off the south end of the island, and furled sails. The Commander and scientific gentlemen went on shore, and returned before sunset

Mod. breezes and fine wr.

Light breezes

Being calm at day light, did not weigh until 61/2h., when a light breeze sprung up. Sent the whale boat ahead, and on her meeting with 3 fms. dropped the stream [anchor]. Sent her away to sound, when she found it deeper to the N.W.ward

Carpenters paying the spare top-sail yards etc. with boiling tar At 10h.50', weighed and made sail amongst several islands, towards the main land

Mustered the ships company and saw them clean

At noon, light airs and hazy. Last nights [anchor]age, east about 2 miles

[Page 350]

1803 Jan. [Friday] - 21st. Investigator, at [anchor] ?63, under [island s, south of Cape Arnhem in Blue-mud Bay]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs. At 1 a breeze sprung up from seaward with which we steered past the south end of a long island s1, and then hauled up for s, a high but not large island, having the whale boat ahead. At 4, came to with the small bower about 11/2 mile from the island & furled sails. Land all round at different distances The Commander and scientific gentlemen went on shore, and returned soon after sunset.

Light breezes & fine wr.

Do. weather. At day light sent a party of men to cut wood, and another to haul the sein which had some success.

Employed on board airing boatswains stores and in stowing away wood which came on board in the boats as fast as cut

The Commander and all the scientific gentlemen on shore

Noon, light airs and fine weather

[Page 351]

[1803 Jan. [Friday] -21st. Investigator, at [anchor] ?63, under] island s, south of Cape Arnhem in Blue-mud Bay

[Tables not transcribed]

The view that the hummock at the east end of s afforded me was extensive, but confused from a want of knowledge of the several lands in sight. Land which appeared to be part of the main extended from the westward round to N.53.E. and perhaps further; but there was a part to the S.W.b.S. where no land was visible. The variety of objects being numerous, it took me till near sunset to analize and take bearings of them; so that the bearings of the western objects still remained to be taken from the higher land for inspection from the west end of the island which is higher; and as this was an object of importance to the right construction of this rather important part of the gulph, I determined to remain at [anchor] until the following afternoon; and to carry on in the mean time such duties as the time would permit

The stone of the island is partly argillaceous & partly sandy, sometimes with iron stone, but more frequently with quartz. There is a little soil upon the slopes of the hills and in the vallies, which are and these are generally well covered in places with small wood, and coarse grass. -

Fresh marks of natives were seen observed, so that we believed them to be upon the island, but none were seen.

In the morning I went to take my angles upon the western high part of the island, and afterwards observed the annexed latitude upon the rocky west extreme. The botanical and some other gentlemen were on shore, besides the party sent to cut wood, all of whom were tolerably well armed

[Page 352]

1803 Jan. [Saturday] - 22nd. Investigator at [anchor] under island s, [between Groote Eyland and Cape Arnhem.]

(Tables not transcribed)

Mod. breezes and fine weather. The Commander and gentlemen returned. Hearing musquets and seeing signals on shore sent the boats again on shore, and one returned bringing Mr Whitewood who was wounded by the natives, and Thos. Benj. Morgan a marine who had been taken ill on shore, having apparently received a coup de soleil; the latter died at 9 P.M. but the wounds of the former did not seem to be mortal. Soon after 9, the other boat returned with towing on board a native canoe. - Employed on board stowing away wood, of which we had received four boat loads. - A.M. Light airs and cloudy. Sent the whale boat to fetch off the remaining part of the wood, and also the axes etc. which had been left on shore; the boat also brought off the dead body of a native which had been shot last night. Committed the body of the deceased, Thos. Benj: Morgan, to the deep with the usual ceremony

Employed airing boatswains stores, and in other necessary duties.

Noon. Light variable airs and fine weather Cut up beef No. 11, short of weight 12 lbs

About 1 oclock, a canoe was seen to come over from the island s1 with six natives in her. They landed at the east end of the island and immediately proceeded up the hill, following after a gentleman and his servant who retreated to the wooding party. On the appearance of the natives there, several persons went towards them in a friendly manner, but they then retreated up the hill, which was at the time that I was returning from the west end of the island with four others people. They ran on seeing us, fearing to be sur-

[Page 353]

[1803 Jan. [Saturday] -22nd. Investigator at [anchor] under island s,] between Groote Eyland and Cape Arnhem.

rounded, but as we continued going towards the boat they stopped upon the top of the hill: they appeared to have several spears with them. Whilst going on board in the boat, we saw a musquet [indecipherable word] the natives running, [indecipherable word] from the party who were still had continued following after them natives, and the natives themselves running away; and and a musquet had been fired

On getting on board, signals were seen making on shore and some person appeared to be wounded; upon which I sent both boats on shore with more arms under the direction of the master, desiring him, if he found the natives had been the aggressors, to bring on board the canoe; and if a native one of them was had been shot to bring off his body, if it could be got conveniently: but he was not to go after the natives up the hills. If they came to him he was to desired to be friendly and give presents to them, without any regard to what might have passed. - Before 5, the yawl returned bringing Mr. Whitewood, a masters mate, with 4 spear wounds in him. It appeared that on their coming going up to the natives upon the hill, Mr. W. had advanced with a musquet in his hand, and after some parleying, put out his hand to take a spear which he supposed the natives was offering, but it was immediately pushed into his breast: - he snapped his gun but it missed fire, upon which he turned about and retreated to others the people behind him; in doing this he received 3 other wounds and the natives were throwing spears very thick. Two musquets were at length fired and the natives ran away: but it was supposed that two it is uncertain whether any of them were wounded.

After the master had sent Mr. Whitewood on board, he rowed to the east end of the island to secure the canoe, and sent a mate with the wooding party well armed, across the

[Page 354]

1803 Jan. [Saturday] - 22nd. continued. Additional remarks at [anchor] 49, [under island s, south of Cape Arnhem.]

hill to meet him. He saw some of the natives, who ran from him, but could no where find the canoe; he therefore rowed round the island in search of it, whilst and in the mean time the shore party again returned to the wooding place, but again afterwards recrossed the hill back to where the canoe was still supposed to be. At this time, they saw three natives carrying the canoe down to water, and they had got off from the shore before the party could be get down to prevent them. A sharp fire was now commenced after them, so that one native was killed and the other two leaped out and dived away. A man swam out to the canoe, and took his own hat from the head of the native who was lying there, but not understanding so ticklish a vessel, the canoe was upset and the body sunk. The master got on board soon after nine oclock bringing the canoe and all the and those of our people who were left had remained on shore -

In the morning, I sent the master to get the body of the native, it being near low water for the painter to draw and the surgeon to examine, and to bring off the saws, axes and wood which remained on shore that were left behind, which he performed. The native was of the middle size, rather slender, and with the same kind of features which we have always noticed in the New Hollanders. He had received a ball in the shoulder blade from behind, which had lodged in his body and proved immediately fatal gone upwards towards his neck. +

It may be feared that the two natives who dived from the canoe were wounded; but if they were not, and those escaped unhurt which were first fired at, the natives will not have suffered more than their violence merited; and there is some great presumption that the first firing did not take effect, for one of the people asserts and the hat found upon the native shews, that after the panic they must

[Page 355]

[1803 Jan. [Saturday] - 22nd. continued. Additional remarks at [anchor] 49,] under island s, south of Cape Arnhem.

have returned whilst the people were carrying Mr. Whitewood down the hill, and tooken away this hat, which it seems was there left; and it may well be supposed that this would not have been done had the shot taken effect upon any of them. - The whole of their proceeding seems to indicate an attack premeditated on their part. They must have known we were upon the island, and probably had seen some people straggling about singly or in small parties. They came well armed, without women or children with them, and bringing as many men as the canoe would contain. They followed ran after the two people first seen, until they came within sight of the wooding party, towards whom also they came; but finding, probably, that thes party was more numerous than they expected, and that instead of retreating they were advanced upon, they retreated returned up the hill as before mentioned.

The canoe was of bark, but not all of one piece as at Port Jackson. It consisted of 2 pieces sewed together lengthwise and the two ends were sewed up, and stuffed with gum from the inside. Along the gunwales were lashed two small poles which were spanned together in five different parts. The length of the canoe was 131/2 feet, and breadth 2 feet and 61/4 inches, and it seemed very capable of containing 6 men.

With respect to the tides at this place, it appears that there is but one rise and fall in 24 hours. It is now high water about midnight, or near the time that the moon is at the inferior meridian.

+ He was found on shore above the water but not along the edge as one would expect from a body washed up, but lengthwise from it, lying upon his belly with the arms crossed under his head. He was opposite to the place where the canoe was upset, but there was too little surf and no tide to wash him on shore; from which, as well as the [position] he was in I suspect it may be one of those which leaped out of the canoe

[Page 356]

1803 Jan: [Sunday] - 23rd. Investigator, amongst [the isles between C. Arnhem and Groote Eyland]

[Tables not reproduced - see original journal]

At 1h.30' weighed on a light sea breeze setting in, and made sail further into the great bay, as it appears to be; the boat being ahead. Finding the water shoal to the northward wore round at 3h.30', and steered as per column of courses.
Light airs and cloudy. Finding the ship drifted to leeward so that we could not fetch into deeper water, at 7 came to with the stream [anchor] and furled sails. On sounding round the ship found every where 3 fms.
Saw a fire to the S.b.W.
Lightening to the northward
Light airs & hazy, with rain at times.
At 51/2h., weighed and made sail
The flying wind very variable flying from No. to So., with rain, thunder, and lightening
At 8, finer weather. Steering towards the entrance of the bay for deeper water
At 10, moderate breezes and fine weather.Tkd. ship. -
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean
At noon, fine weather Tacked ship, working out of the bay. s island where we last [anchor]ed N26. to 56.E. 3 or 4 miles. s1, long island which shuts the bay in to the eastward south end S.66.E.- Water on board 48 tons Sick people - 4.
  

[Page 357]

[1803 Jan: [Sunday] - 23rd. Investigator, amongst] the isles between C. Arnhem and Groote Eyland

[Tables not reproduced - see original journal]

On the 21st. at noon, Lt. Flinders found that No. 520 did not go when wound up, which he attributes to its not having been wound up on the preceding day. It was set forward again and its error from mean Greenwich time found as follows

[measurements not reproduced - see original journal]
When upon the high land of island s, I saw the main land, generally all round, but I except to the eastward; but I could not be at all certain of its distance, or whether there might not be some openings in it. To ascertain these I steered into the bay as far round as the very shoal water would allow the ship to go. The shallowness of the water sufficiently evinces that there are no openings of any importance in the main, and by this days track, though of little extent, I am able to form a better judgment concerning the first point, and consequently of the real formation of this large bay. The bottom seems to be every where a very fine blue mud, whence I call it Blue-mud Bay.
  

[Page 358]

1804 Jan: [Monday] - 24th. Investigator
[ [Tuesday] - 25th. between Groote Eyland and C. Arnhem]

[Tables not reproduced - see original journal]

Mod. breezes and cloudy. At 11/4, a sudden squall of wind came in. In T.Gt. sails etc. and clewed down the top sails. Heavy rain, with thunder and lightening. Furled the topsails, after having wore ship to the northward, and at 13/4h., came to with the small bower, and veered to half a cable. Furled the remaining sails - At 4, the wind more moderate: the weather thick with heavy rain. At 6, the rain had ceased. Sent down T.Gt. yards. At 101/4h., ship swung, to ebb apparently
Cloudy with thunder and lightening, and at intervals heavy rain
At day light, light breezes with heavy threatening weather. Sent up T.Gt. yards and weighed the [anchor], and at 5h.50' made sail to go out of the bay. At 7, the wind shifted about with squally weather and rain. Double reefed the top sails, and on the squalls coming heavier, handed them and came to with the small bower and veered to 1/2 a cable. Heavy rain with thunder and lightening until 9. when it cleared up; but strong squalls continued to pass over at times during the whole morning, accompanied with heavy rain
Sold the effects of Benj. Morgan deceased, his marine necessaries excepted.
At noon, squally weather, with heavy clouds hanging about, and rain falling at times

[Page 359]

[1803 Jan: [Monday] - 24th. Investigator]
[Tuesday] - 25th. between Groote Eyland and C. Arnhem

[Tables not reproduced - see original journal]

Squally weather with frequent rain, and distant thunder. -
At 4, furled sails
At 6, sent down T.Gt. yards.
Light airs with dull wr. -
Thick cloudy weather
Rainy. At day light, light breezes and cloudy.
Weighed, and at 6 made sail steering out of the bay to the N.E.ward
Wore round and tacked occasionally, the wind shifting in squalls which came at times accompanied with spitting rain.
At 9 passed to windward of the south point of the long island s1, and continued on along the shore close to the wind.
At 11h.45', tacked ship from shoal water, being near a rocky projection of the island s1.
At noon, moderate breezes and cloudy weather. The extremes of the long isle s1, S37W to N.17.E. off shore about 2 miles
Lime-juice served to the ships company without sugar, as usual lately.
 

[Page 360]

1803 Jan: [Wednesday] - 26th. Investigator, amongst the [islands to the southward of Cape Arnhem]

[Tables not reproduced - see original journal]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather, with squalls at times. At 0h.45' and at 2, tacked ship. Clewed down the topsails in a squall and doubled reefed them; afterwards made more sail.
At 3, tacked off the north end of r, towards the island s2. At 5, tacked to work up, and afterwards occasionally until 8, when we came to with the stream [anchor], about 1 mile off the south side of the island and furled sails; considering ourselves to be sheltered except from east to south.
Some rocky islets lie between s1 and s2, and it is most probable that there is no passage.
Light airs and fine wr.
At day light, light breezes and cloudy. Weighed, and at 5h.25' made sail to go round the east end of the island s2. which at 7 we weathered, and steered upon a wind to the northward for land there seen. Stood into a small bay of what appeared to be an island (u) to try the depth of water near the shore, then tacked and soon after came to with the small bower [anchor], about 3/4 of a mile from the shore; the points of the bay N23W and S.43E. - The Commander and scientific gentlemen landed, and the beach being found fit for hauling the sein sent an officer and party upon that duty. - Unbent the jib to be repaired, and the F.T. sail being worn out, bent another - Carpenters sawing fir plank
Noon, fresh breezes and cloudy wr.

[Page 361]

[1803 Jan: [Wednesday] - 26th. Investigator, amongst the]
islands to the southward of Cape Arnhem

The island s2, under which we [anchor]ed at night, is of moderate height in the central parts, but generally low elsewhere; it has small wood upon it like most of the neighbouring islands. Its distance from the eastern part of the long island s1, is near three miles, but there are two islets and some low rocks lying between, which render a ship passage through very doubtful; otherwise I intended to have [anchor]ed in it for the night
The little bay in which we [anchor]ed at 10 A.M. is much better sheltered from the present winds that prevail than the nights [anchor]age. From seeing land running behind it at a considerable distance to the northward, I judged this land to be an island; but from two emus being seen from the ship, and well as marks of them on shore, as also those of dogs, kanguroos and men, I am in doubt, and the small excusion inland did not solve it.
With a small party armed, I walked from abreast of the ship to the E.N.E.ward about 11/4 mile towards some reddish sandy hills which I had noticed from the ships mast head. The country was flat and sandy, but thickly covered with small wood and bushes, and at the foot of the sand hills was a lagoon of fresh water in which which were many ducks, teal, and smaller birds that frequent water. I shot eight and then ascended the sand hills, but except a point of the main (r1,) which was the extreme, nothing new presented itself. These hills are much nearer to the shore of the east side, and a small island (u1) lies in that direction distant 13/4 mile. -
The botanists found a good many plants here, but not many that were new.- No natives were seen, or any fresh marks of them, but a piece of teak wood, the carling of a ship, was picked up in a decaying state.
    

[Page 362]

1803 Jan [Thursday] - 27th. Investigator -Amongst the isles
[ [Friday] - 28th. between Groote Eyland & C. Arnhem.

[Tables not reproduced - see original journal]

Fresh breezes and cloudy. The Commander and gentlemen returned on board, and the seining party brought some fish.
Light breezes and cloudy.
At sunset, sent down T.Gt. yards, hoisted up the boats, and wetted the decks as usual.
A fire seen to the N.N.E.ward, inland.
At day light, light breezes and fine weather.
Weighed, and at 5h.30' made sail steering towards two round hills where there appears to be an opening or bay.
At 8, the southern hill W.3.S and a projecting low point of the main N.741/2 W. round which is a large deep bight running to the northward. -
Seeing shoal water and round about the island upon which the southern hill stands sent the whale boat ahead with sounding signals - Hauled up for the purpose of [anchor]ing between the two hills, but the boat meeting with very shoal water tacked ship towards the northern bight.
At noon, fresh breezes and fine weather, cloudy about. The two hills S85W 2' and S7.E. 3 miles, the first appearing to be upon the main land: it is moderately high and rocky

[Page 363]

[1803 Jan [Thursday] - 27th. Investigator - Amongst the isles]
[Friday] - 28th. between Groote Eyland & C. Arnhem.

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy. Tacked ship, and afterwards occasionally, working up to the projection S on the east side of the northern bight. At 1 the whale boat came on board having rowed up to windward. At 3h.40' shortened sail and came to with the small bower; the point S bearing S.42.E. 11/2 miles, from which to the isle s2, about 1 point, we are exposed, no land being visible. The northern round hill bore S.81.W. about 6 miles. -
Furled sails and an officer went on shore to examine for fresh water, and the fitness of the beach for sein hauling. At 8 the boat returned, having left the naturalist and a man on shore, who had lost their way. At 10 Fired a gun, and at 10 sent the boat on shore and brought off a man who had been left with a fire upon the beach, nothing having been heard of the naturalist or man - Cloudy threatening weather.
At day light, light breezes and cloudy. Sent a boat for Mr. Brown the naturalist and the man who were seen on the point
The Commander crossed the bay to the opposite northern hill, in the whale boat, accompanied by two gentlemen. -
Cut up pork No.89 - 52lbs short
Sent two men to cut brooms on shore and the botanical gentlemen landed
Roused up the stream and spare cables and cleaned under them.-
Lime-juice served as usual
At noon, fresh breezes and cloudy weather

[Page 364]

1803 Jan: [Friday] - 28th. additional remarks [[Saturday] - 29th. towards Cape Arnhem]

[Tables not reproduced - see original journal]

Mr. Aken, the master, and Mr. Westall accompanied me over to the northernmost of the two hills which stand on the west side of this northern bay. I found the rocks of the shore to be to be granite with a large mixture proportion of quartz in it; and one block contained much mica. The upper parts of the hill consisted of a rather hard sand stone with particles of quartz sprinkled in it, such as was seen at Cavern Islet, and in the north bay of Groote Eyland. - After cutting down two small gum trees we had an extensive view of Blue-mud Bay, and of the more eastern shores past the ship; but every sheltered place had the appearance of being shoal. The whole of the lands seemed to have a propensity to forming long and narrow points. Thus there was one on the west side of Blue-mud Bay, - the Round Head itself stood also upon such a point, and the long island on the east side of the bay consists of two such points running off from a larger center. The point s near the ship I found to be longer and narrower than I expected, and the [anchor]age No.50 of the 27th. which had the appearance of being under an island, now seemed to have been at a point, the communication between it and the back land being visible from here complete.
Upon the rocks which lie about E.S.E. from the top of the hill, I took the annexed observations for the latitude: the ship [indecipherable word] from the hill 79.20'. - Marks of dogs and kanguroos were distinctly seen upon the shore, but of men, none recent: two natives were seen upon the island under the other hill A good number of the jambo fruit were found, which we now call apples.

[Page 365]

[1803 Jan: [Friday] - 28th. additional remarks]
[Saturday] - 29th. towards Cape Arnhem

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy, with squalls of rain at times. - Employed coiling away the cables and in getting fresh provisions to hand.
Squally with rain at times
The Commander and gentlemen returned on board. -
Mod. breezes with dark cloudy weather
Squally at times
At day light, light airs and cloudy. Weighed and at 5.1/2h made sail to go round the point S, and to the eastward
At 8, squally weather. and At 9 it fell calm, and finding the ship setting to leeward dropped the stream [anchor].
At 10, a squall coming on, weighed and stretched to the northward -
At 11, tacked ship again, making and shortening sail occasionally, there being some times light and at other times strong breezes -
At noon, tacked ship; S point bearing EbN. - Squally with rain

[Page 366]

1803 Jan. [Sunday] - 30th. Investigator
[ [Monday] - 31st. Towards Cape Arnhem]

[Tables not transcribed]

Strong squalls with rain, thunder and lightening
Tacked occasionally trying to work round the point S, and get to the eastward; but the squalls being so heavy as to oblige us to clew down the topsails occasionally, with light airs between them, we came to with the small bower at 2h.40', veered to half a cable and furled sails: S bearing E.b.S. 11/4 mile
Heavy rain in the squalls - At dusk, sent down T.Gt. yards
Mod. breezes and cloudy.
Do. weather. At day light, up T.Gt. yards. Weighed and at 6 made sail to work round the point S, but the weather becoming squally with rain tacked towards the shore, and at 7 came to with the small bower about 1 mile south of our first [anchor]age in this north bay; S bearing S.50.E. - Furled sails.
Washed and cleaned below.
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean. -
Squally at times, with finer intervals but the weather dull and cloudy.
Expenditure of water 31/2 tons
Remaining 441/2.

[Page 367]

[1803 Jan. [Sunday] - 30 th. Investigator]
[Monday] - 31st. Towards Cape Arnhem

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy weather. Served tobacco to the ships company.- There having been some little tide running although perceptible from the log, at 3h.40' weighed and made sail, perceiving it to have turned to wind ward. Tacked ship at 5, and again at 6, being close off the end of the point S. - Tacked ship afterwards occasionally working to the eastward during the night. - Mod. and cloudy wr.
Mod. breezes and cloudy. s1, a long island dist. 2 miles. Continued tacking occasionally, working to the eastward
At 4, squally. Took in T.Gt. sails etc.
At day light, light breezes and cloudy. Out reefs, set T.Gt. sails etc. The S.E. point of the former supposed island u N.58.E. (now point T)
At 7. missing stays from a long easterly swell running - wore ship off the S.E. point of the former u; but which is now known to be a point of the main.
At 8, tacked ship, and finding the ship set to leeward dropped the stream [anchor] at 9.40'; the former [anchor]age under u, No. 2 miles
Punished Wm. Webb, seaman, for fighting, with 6 lashes, his antagonist being sick.
At 11h.40', seeing a squall coming weighed and made sail. -
At noon, light breezes after the squall, with dull cloudy weather. A long swell running from E.b.S. -

[Page 368]

1803 Jan Feby. [Tuesday] 1st. Investigator - G. of Carpenteria
[ [Wednesday] - 2nd. Along the south side of C. Arnhem]
[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy, with a long increasing swell from the eastward. Tacked at noon, but on the wind dying away [anchor]ed with the stream. - At 3h.10' a breeze springing up weighed and made sail, but at 5h.20' came to as before, finding the ship setting to leeward-
The swell having become very high, at 5h.45' got up the [anchor], and made sail towards [anchor] 50 under former u now T point, and a breeze coming, we got in before dark and [anchor]ed with the small bower, in smooth water: the points of the bay bearing S.E.b.S. and N.W.b.N. Furled sails.
Squally weather with rain at times
Dull cloudy weather
Squally at times. Did not weigh until 5h.50'; then made sail out of the bay upon a wind. At 7, tacked ship and weathered point T, but the wind dying away, the swell prevented us from weathering the small island.
At 8h.30' on missing stays wore ship, and whilst we were doubtful of weathering the shore on either tack, a breeze sprung up from the westward, with which we tacked and steered off free. Light breezes and cloudy, with a long swell from the eastward.
At noon, T south extreme N87.W. extreme of the northern land towards Cape Arnhem N.9.E. An isld. like Cavern I. S.17.E. - Cloudy with haze

[Page 369]

[1803 Jan Feby. [Tuesday] 1st. Investigator - G. of Carpentaria]
[Wednesday] - 2nd. Along the south side of C. Arnhem

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy weather - Dried the studg. sails and other small sails
At 4, nearly calm, and the long easterly swell much gone down. - A breeze springing up from the land
Trimmed sails accordingly. - At 6, the point T1, set on the 26th. bore W.3.S.and the furthest extreme N.2.E about 3 leagues. The shore being sand hills from T to the extreme
At 8, light airs & cloudy with haze
Light breezes. At 2h.30' and at 4 tacked ship
At day light, u perhaps the furthest extreme of last night, N.61.W. a hummock. Islands and back land as far as N.11.W. - Set stay sails and main sail.
People scrubbing and mending hammocks
At 8 tacked ship. Hummk. on u point, West
Sailmakers repairing hammock cloths.
At 9h.30' passed over a line into white water which seemed to be owing to the kind of bottom. - At 10h.30' tacked ship At noon tacked in order to weather the rocks beyond point u, which bore N.44.W.[I1] The hummock N59W. and v1 a flatish isle N6.W. behind which there is back land visible
Lime-juice served to the [shi]ps company without sugar, as usual

[Page 370]

1803 Feb. [Thursday] - 3rd. Investigator
[ [Friday] - 4th. in a bay at the Et. end of Cape Arnhem]

[Tables not transcribed]
Mod. breezes and fine weather. Passed the hummock point u, and at 2h.30' weathered the further rocks 1/4 mile. Steered into a bay in the eastern part of C. Arnhem. At 3, tacked ship, but the wind dying away, came to with the sma[ll] bower. The appart. extreme of the cape N.B.E. [Run] passed S.26.E.11/2'.- On the breeze freshening up, at 6, weighed and steered further up the bay
At 71/4 tacked, and soon after came to with the small bower and furled sails. Open from East to S.E.b.S. - Light breezes and cloudy.
Hazy weather
At daylight, sent the master away in the whale boat to search for fresh water and secure [anchor]age.
Light airs and cloudy.
Punished Joseph Marlow, seaman, with one dozen lashes for fighting and returned him to confinem[ent], it being the third time he has been guilty of the same offence, lately - Mustered the ships company and saw them clean.
On seeing the signal for secure shelter [made] by the master, and a breeze coming, at 11h.40' weighed and [sail]ed upwards. At noon, Mr. Aken returned, not having found water. He brought on board a piece of teak wood, suppos[ed] to be a part of a Chinese boat.
Light breezes and dull cloudy weather

[Page 371]

[1803 Feb [Thursday] - 3rd. Investigator]
[Friday] - 4th. in a bay at the Et. end of Cape Arnhem

(Tables not transcribed)

Light breezes and cloudy. On shoaling the water upon a bank which runs off the middle point of the bay, sent the boat ahead to sound. At 1h.45' tacked ship off a rocky islet, the boat having very shoal water. Stretched over to the east side of the bay, and at 3 came to with the small bower and furled sails, being 2 cables lengths from a bank on which is but 6 feet water, and about 11/2 mile from the shore. The sea shut out except from S.S.E. to S.E.bS. at a considerable distance. - Sent an officer on shore to look for water which he found, and had a friendly communication with natives whom we had seen walking along the shore. Some of their implements were obtained, and presents were made to them.

Light airs and cloudy weather

At day light hoisted out the launch, and afterwards sent the boats on shore with an officer and watering party, and tents. The Commander and scientific gentlemen landed, and the sein was hauled, but with little success. The 2nd. lieut began a course of observations upon the rates of the time-keepers

Employed on board, in the holds, and preparing empty casks to be sent on shore to be filled

At noon, light sea breezes and cloudy weather, with haze. - Sour krout with vinegar, and lime-juice served as usual

[Page 372]

1803 Feb. [Friday] - 4th. continued. Additional remarks [ [Saturday] - 5th. In Arnhem Bay South Bay]

On landing in the morning, the natives ran from their night residences to meet us, and there were about 12 collected. They expressed much joy, especially at seeing Bongaree, but on other boats following, the greater party retreated into the wood; two however kept with us and assisted to haul the sein, and the others returned gradually. - On a party of gentlemen walking away towards some sand hills a little way back, more of the natives followed them; and one took an opportunity of snatching a hatchet from one of the servants of the scientific gentlemen, upon which the natives ran off, but some afterwards returned on finding no great notice taken of it. During the whole of the morning, no spears were seen amongst the natives, and at this time they became as friendly as before, walking with their arm round some of the party, especially the naturalists servant, to whom two of them were attending; and having made an opportunity, and snatched his musquet from off his shoulder, and all that remained immediately ran off, many having withdrawn themselves a little before. The thief had got some distance before a musquet was fired after him, which produced no other visible effect than that of making him run faster. In two hours, some of the natives were seen skulking near the tents, and an interview was obtained with two, who each promised to bring back the musquet on being promised a hatchet; and some time after it was actually brought, but with the ram rod gone and stock broken it was also wet and full of sand. After this return, the natives came confidently to the tents, and two would have remained all night, but were not permitted.

[On b[eing] disappointed in getting to the sand hill, I had returned on bo[ard] the ship soon after ten oclock.

[Page 373]

[1803 Feb. [Friday] - 4th. continued. Additional remarks] [Saturday] - 5th. In Arnhem Bay South Bay

(Tables not transcribed)

Moderate breezes and fine weather Employed sending empty casks on shore. The Commander and botanical gentlemen visited the point on the west side of this bay. - At sunset, wetted decks and hoisted up the boats

Light breezes and cloudy

At day light, employed in the holds and in sending on shore empty casks; also, in repairing such as are bad

The Commander and scientific gentlemen went on shore, and returned about noon

Moderate sea breezes and cloudy weather

The natives came down to the tents this morning, and some of their language was collected from them, the restored harmony appearing to be perfect; but one of those who was most intimate and had been best treated watched an opportunity to run off with a hatchet, and the pursuit after him which was immediately commenced he eluded from the thickness of the wood. On finding these people so determinately bent upon stealing everything that they could, I ordered Lt. Fowler to watch an opportunity of seizing two natives, and after some time to release one, giving him to understand that the other would be carried away if the stolen things were not returned

[Page 374]

1803 Feb: [Sunday] - 6th. Investigator, in Arnhem Bay [ [Monday] - 7th. In Arnhem Bay]

(Tables not transcribed)

Light breezes and cloudy weather. Employed sending on shore empty casks, and in filling the after hold with dry provisions. - The Commander and two scientific gentlemen took the whale-boat to the south side of the bay. - The corporal and another marine being taken ill on shore, were sent off, and others sent on shore in their room. -

Light breezes and cloudy weather

At day light, do weather; but afterwards it became squally with rain. Received a raft of 24 casks of water from the shore, and some fish.

Cooper repairing empty casks

Expenditure of water last week 3 tons
Remaining of the old water - 411/2 tons

Noon, fresh breezes and dark cloudy weather

We landed about 7 in the evening under the hills on the south-west side of the bay; and soon after day light ascended the highest of them which lies about 1 mile from the shore. From here the view of the bay was extensive after clearing away some of the trees, and I took a large set of bearings. - The rock is granite, but the vallies sandy with some mixture of vegetable earth the vegetation was remarkably strong at this time, and some streamlets were running down the vallies towards the bay. A ship might water here very well at this time, but there is not 3 fathoms quite close enough in for her to be sheltered from the easterly swell. The bea[ch] there is steep to, and consists of loose coarse sand & shells.

[Page 375]

[1803 Feb: [Sunday] - 6th. Investigator, in Arnhem Bay] [Monday] - 7th. In Arnhem Bay

(Tables not transcribed)

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather

The Commander and scientific gentlemen returned on board. Employed stowing in the holds, and sending the remaining empty casks on shore

Moderate and fine weather

At day light, sent the launch on shore and she returned with 16 casks of water and sufficient fish to give the ships company a meal

Employed hoisting in and stowing water

Lime juice served as usual

Noon, mod. & fine. Got a spring upon the cable

Since the loss of the stolen hatchet no natives ventured to the tents until this morning, when several appeared, and two came up bringing some small fruits. On being invited they sat down to eat and were immediately seized and bound, the rest running away on hearing their cries. In two hours, the most intelligent was liberated, on his promising by signs to fetch the stolen articles. - From the ship, we observed the other natives in the intermediate time, peeping and running back and forward behind the bushes, apparently to see what would become of their comrades; but after the liberation of one there seemed to be less anxiety, several swimming back across the creek to their usual residence. During this time we had a spring on the cable and keep a six-pounder ready on board the ship to fire towards their residence, should the natives make any attack upon the tents

[Page 376]

1803 Feb. [Tuesday] - 8th. Investigator in Arnhem Bay [Gulph of Carpentaria. - Additional remarks]

(Tables not transcribed)

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather. Received a raft of water from the tents. The Commander went on shore, bring and returned bringing a native who had been seized at the tents on account of some things stolen - Squally with rain

Light airs and cloudy weather

At day light, sent the launch for water: The yawl employed by the scientific gentlemen. The Commander took the native on shore, and left him confined at the tents

Punished Thos. Toney, seaman, with 12 lashes for neglect of duty. Received two rafts of water, which employed the people. -

Noon, dark cloudy wr. with rain at times

Towards the evening I landed at the tent, and took the native, a youth named Woga, into the boat. From hence I rowed to the place most frequented by where the natives most resort, and many of them were seen behind the bushes. Two came forward bringing a girl with them, who[m] by expressive signs they offered to our native Bongaree our native. The burden of our convervation to them was the restoration of the hatchets and this our prisoner seemed to enforce; but we were told that the thief Yehangare, had been beaten and was gone away. Finding no hatchet likely to be brought we took Woga on board, pacifying his violence by a promise of returning him to the tents in the morning On board, he ate heartily laughed, noticed every thing, frequently expressing admiration, particularly at the sheep, and hogs and cats, and shewed little inclination to an attempt to get away. In the morning I took him to the tents, but on drawing near the shore he prepared to make a run off which made it necessary to bind him again, for he had been at perfect liberty on board the ship He struggled much on being bound, but callinge struggleHHe

[Page 377]

[1803 Feb. - 8th. Investigator in Arnhem Bay] Gulph of Carpentaria. - Additional remarks

after on Bongaree to assist him, but after a time became quiet, and I left him so. - A party of gentlemen landed on the other side went to the left of the place where the natives were usually seen, hoping to botanize quietly, but they found a considerable party number of natives there, two of whom came to meet them, as the same two had done to us on the preceding evening. These retreated gradually as the party walked from the beach, and enticed them to proceed by speaking of several animals that might be found up in the wood. Having advanced about 400 yards the party thought proper to return towards the boat, upon which the whole body of natives closed in, in a semicircular form and some poised their spears with every appearance of intended mischief. The pointing of musquets stopped their advancing for a moment, but on their comming closer, two musquets loaded with buck shot were fired, upon which the natives retreated out of sight, and were not afterwds seen; but the gentlemen did not think it safe to proceed in their business, but returned on board The two men at whom the musquets were fired, did not drop, but it was judged that one at least was wounded.

[Page 378]

1803 Feb: [Wednesday] - 9th. Investigator, in Arnhem Bay [ [Thursday] - 10th. out of the bay towards the cape]

(Tables not transcribed)

Light breezes and cloudy weather

Received some fire wood from the shore, and a small raft of water. - The Commander went on shore and released the native confined at the tent.

Mod. breezes and cloudy weather.

At daylight, light breezes and cloudy. Employed getting on board the remainder of the water, and fetching off the tents and watering party.

Completed the water up to 69 tons, when, after hoisting in the launch, the Draught of water was
Forwd. 13.8 Aft 13.5.

Sailmakers repairing the M.T. gallt. sail

Noon, calm with cloudy weather.

Nothing was seen or heard of the natives from the time of the before-mentioned circumstances to the evening; at that time I went on on shore and liberated the youth Woga. He carried some little presents away with him and promised to bring back the hatchet, but after getting two hundred yards from us off he ran swiftly, as if fearful of a change in our minds, and most probably will not venture himself again into our reach As the time of our departure drew near I was desirous to leave be upon good terms with the natives, lest they should do injury to others who might come after us, particularly the French vessels under captain Baudin, whom we are in expectation of meeting: and with this consideration the native was now released, without the hatchet being returned The naturalist and party landed on the western side of this part of the bay, and saw no natives or any recent marks of them or did we see any more of these Arnhems during the remainder of our stay

[Page 379]

[1803 Feb: [Wednesday] - 9th. Investigator, in Arnhem Bay]
[Thursday] - 10th. out of the bay towards the cape

(Tables not transcribed)

Mod. breezes and variable squally weather, with small rain at times - The old M.T.Gt. sail being repaired bent it again. - Employed preparing for sea

Calm and sultry weather. Hoisted up the boats as usual and secured them for sea

Lightening in the western quarter

Departure taken from} Lat.12.47'S -136.47'Et.

the [anchor]age in }

At day light, moderate breezes and fine wr. Weighed, and at 5h.40' made sail to go out of the bay. At 8, passed by some rocks which lie off island V, V1 the S.E.most island then bearing N.791/2E.. - Light breezes and cloudy weather.
At 10 the Commander and botanical gentlemen landed upon the south-eastern island whilst the ship steered round. They found no native upon it or turtle, but marks of both left made some time back. Soon after noon, they joined the ship off the east end of the island. -

Mustered the ships company and saw them clean

At 11h.45' hove to for the boat off the east end of the island, dist 11/2 mile - Moderate breezes and fine wr. -

[Page 380]

Observations at the tents, for the rates of the time keepers. [Arnhem South Bay - general remarks]

(Tables not transcribed)

[Page 381]

[Observations at the tents, for the rates of the time keepers.] Arnhem South Bay - general remarks

The country which surrounds this bay is rather low in general, especially about the two heads but the south-west side is hilly, and there are hills further back in the country in other directions. The stone of the southern hills is granite, and this prevails in some other parts, being probably the basis stone of thes whole neighbouring country part; but upon the shores of the eastern head of the bay we generally found a sand stone which is more or less impregnated with iron. At Point Middle the stone contained so much as that the needle of the theodolite was turned quite round by a small piece of it; but this however was not universal with the stone of that point. - The soil is every where very poor where we saw it, being sand with a small mixture of vegetable earth; and upon the point which shelters the bay, there are ridges of hills of unmixed sand; but nothwithstanding this sterility the vegetation is very luxuriant at this time, owing probably to the abundance of rain and the warmth. The grass which generally prevails is of a very tall and coarse, and would not, I think, be eaten by oxen. For domestic purposes there is at this time water enough but I much doubt whether this would be the case throughout the year. With respect to what is said of the soil and production, it must be remembered that our examination was always confined to one mile from the water side. The trees of any size are mostly if not altogether, of the eucalyptus or gum tree; but the nutmeg tree was found [ne]ar Point Middle and there are some few other fruits of little consideration.

The nati[ves]

[Page 382]

1803 Feb: Investigator in Arnhem Bay. General [remarks continued]

The natives of this bay are doubtless of the same race as [indecipherable word] those of Port Jackson and King Georges Sound. In personal appearance they are somewhat behind some tribes that we have seen, but the difference is not considerable material. All the men had lost the upper front tooth on the left side, whereas the Port Jackson people knock out that on the right side at the age of puberty; but the most remarkable thing that we observed is the use of circumcision, which was universal with all the men seen by us, and it was the case with the natives who was shot at island S in Blue-mud Bay. This custom probably prevails up to the head of the gulph, for of it is noticed in the remarks of Nov. 20th. 1802 that two of three natives, there mentioned, had the appearance of being circumcised, the third not being noticed. The natives of Murrays I. in Torres Strait do not make use of this rite, in many instances that were noticed; nor have we any where observed it before coming into the gulph.-

In their manners these people also are considerably different from other New Hollanders, particularly in their propensity to stealing, which, as before mentioned, they practised upon us with much effrontery; and so high a value did they set upon a hatchet, that the confinement of one of their number did not bring it back for his release. The people wear bandages round their arms, similar to those of other parts, and in this they stick a tooth pick, made from the long coarse grass called tomo. Of their language ma[ny] words were collected by some gentlemen who had opportunities, but in only one instance, the name for eyes, did it seem to agree with that of King Georges Sound. I fou[nd]

[Page 383]

[1803 Feb: Investigator in Arnhem Bay. General] remarks continued

three words in which the Port Jackson dialect was imitated Their personal pronoun, I, gnia seems to be

gnia, which Bongaree also noticed. On inquiring after the hatchet, they replied "Yehangare pi" making signs of beating: and if they meant that Yehangare the thief had been beaten, they expressed it as a Port Jackson native would. The third instance was of the lad Woga calling to Bongaree, which after he had several times done without being answered, he exclaimed Bongaree-gan in a vehement manner as a Port-Jackson native would have done in the same case.

They had nothing with them that could be called clothing, but the only female seen had a piece of bark hung before. her.

[That this bay has had previous visiters is certain. The proofs are, - a quantity of wood evidently cut with iron tools found lying on the shore, and secondly, the knowledge which the natives had of fire arms, for before a musquet was fired they requested it to be done, making signs of pointing a gun, and calling poo. On inquiring of them concerning the cut wood they called, poo, from which we understood that the people who cut it had guns, but we could not learn any thing further concerning them; however, the bamboos lying about, and the partitions of stone and frame work found here which resembled those about Cape Vander Lin, shew that they are of the same nation, if not the same persons of whom so many marks have been noticed, and whom we are inclined to think judge to have been are Chinese, or a vessel having Chinese people on board. [The] thieving propensity of the natives too may probably be

[Page 384]

1803 Feb: Investigator in Arnhem Bay. General [remarks continued]

be a consequence of having been visited by people who had [indecipherable word] for it is most probably from a knowledge of the vast utility of iron tools, that they attempted to possess them at the risk of their lives; and this knowledge can only have been gained from former visiters. Was I to form an opinion of the treatment the natives had before received, from their present conduct, it would be, that it was mild and humane, and probably mixed with timidity; since the knowledge of fire arm[s] possessed by the natives did not seem to amount to that of their destructive effects; and after having stolen any thing they expected that a few fruits should be accepted as an atonement, without the restitution of the article taken. I have some hope that succeeding visiters will not be robbed, at least with so much audacity; and at the same time, that they will not be avoided by the natives will not avoid any vessel which may follow us, but be desirous of further communication. +

The eastern part of Arnhem Bay affords very secure shelter, and a little further up it is better than at our [anchor]age, the water being deep so near the shore as to allow a ship to lie within 3/4 of a mile. The bottom is a soft blue mud, except upon the shoals where it is sand or rock. Wood for fuel may be procured in sufficient quantity near the shores, and at this time water was plentiful; but in the opposite time of the year there would probably be much difficulty in procuring the latter article for a ship.

[I judge there is no other safe passage into the bay than that [indecipherable word] on the south side of all the islands

[Page 385]

[1803 Feb: Investigator in Arnhem Bay. General] remarks continued

islands, there being many rocks scattered about amongst them; but for boats or very small vessels there is probably a variety of passages. The rise of the tide is so small that we could tell nothing concerning it on board the ship; but from Lt. Fowler who commanded the party on shore, I learn that there are two tides in 24 hours, the height of which is from 3f.10' to 4f.10' and the times of high water happen about 2h.45' before the moon comes to the meridian and about 9h.30' afterwards
The latitude of the tents is 12.47'.18"So. and from [?] sets of lunars taken in the neighbourhood, and twelve sets taken at the tents, the numbers on each side of the moon being equal, the longitude is [?]
The variation of the compass is 2.20'Et. taken on shore and the dip of the south end of the needle 36.28'; according to the page of astronomical observations preceding which see.
+ It is most probable that these natives have canoes, although we saw none amongst them; for some trees were seen barked as if for a canoe, and in Blue-mud Bay which is very near, two canoes were seen. The lad who was brought on board gave us the names for bow and arrow, and knew their use, but none were seen amongs[t] them.

[Page 386]

1803 Feb. [Friday] - 11th. Investigator
[ [Saturday] -12th. off C. Arnhem]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy wr. On the return of the whale boat hoisted her up, and at 1h.5' bore away under the plain sails, V1 center bearing W.S.W. 11/2 mile. - Lost a hand lead.
At 4, it fell calm and a land breeze sprung up, with dull cloudy weather. - Passed a small opening in the land, having two small islands before it. - At 6h.30' the furthest extreme from the deck N.8.E. V hill S. 52.W. Off shore about 4 or 5 miles. At 8, shortened sail and came to with the stream [anchor], the water being [indecipherable word]. Furled sails. Light breezes & dark cloudy wr. afterwards fresher. Veered away on the stream cab[le] finding the ship to drive, and dropped the small bower under foot, when she brought up.
Moderate breezes and cloudy weather. At daylight weighed the [anchor]s, and at 6 made sail along the shore towards the extremity of the cap[e] At 8, abreast of the easternmost part, on passing which saw the water much discoloured The first land opened round the extreme at N.40.W. Light breezes & cloudy with some swell from the northward
At noon, the deck extreme a hill, N.86.W. but there is detached low land and islets to about N.W. seen from the mast head. Cape Arnhem extr. S.20.W. the land about which is rather low and destitute of wood but looks green with grass and shrubs almost to the waters edge

[Page 387]

[1803 Feb. [Friday] -11th. Investigator off C. Arnhem]
[Saturday] -12th. - off Cape Arnhem

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy weather. At 1h.25', tacked ship towards the land; and at 2h.30' tacked along shore, steering towards an opening or passage. At 6, light airs. C. Arnhem extreme S.15.E. The opening S.84W. distant back land running behind. No. end of w, an island, apparently N.60.W. 4 or 5 miles Straggling rocks from thence to N.31.W. - Soon after came to with the stream [anchor] and furled sails A breeze sprung up, with cloudy weather

Mod. breezes and dark cloudy wr.

At day light, light breezes and cloudy. Weighed, and at 5h.30' made sail to beat up to the opening or passage between point W2, and w, which appears to be an island apparently.

Light variable airs and cloudy with small rain

Towards noon, saw two canoe natives and a canoe upon the inner end of w which still has the appearance of being an island. It is low and the shores mostly sandy, whilst the opposite land is hilly and well wooded.

At noon, small rain at times. Center of the rocky islets lying off w, east side, N.2.E. 2 or 3 miles Center of the opening. S82.W. C. Arnhem extreme out of sight to the S.E.ward

[Page 388]

1803 Feb: [Sunday] - 13th. Investigator off C. Arnhem

[ [Monday] -14th. Into Arnhem north bay]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy weather. Tacked ship occasionally, the wind being very variable Sent the whale boat ahead to sound.
Drizzling rain. On coming near w island, the tw[o] natives waved and called to the boat. Passed between the nearest points of the passage, which lie nearly N.N.E. and S.S.W. 2 or 3 miles asunder At dusk saw the land, of the main apparently, extending round to N.N.W. Finding the soundings to get shoaler and irregular, at 7 came to with the small bower, having the channel now open to the eastward - Light breezes and dark cloudy weather

Calm and cloudy. Did not weigh until 6h.20', having then the whale boat ahead. Passed over a rippling, on some parts of which there is but 3 fms. water

At 91/4, tacked ship, there being then a breeze. Saw an opening in the land to the southward, round the projection and hill marked W2; which beco[m]ing more and more considerable, at 11h.30' bore round up to examine it, towards som[e] islets that lie there: the boat ahead sounding

Mustered the people, saw them clean, and read the articles of war.- At noon, light breezes and cloudy. Head on the east side of the opening S54E. Nearest shore S60 E 2 miles. Isle w3, N74E. on the So. side of the last passage

[Page 389]

[1803 Feb: [Sunday] - 13th. Investigator off C. Arnhem]

[Monday] - 14th. Into Arnhem north bay

(Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and cloudy. Steered to pass between some rocky islets and a head on the east side of the bay, but the boat having shoal water, tacked and steered into the N.E. part of the bay. At 21/4, came to with the small bower and furled sails. The Commander and scientific gentlemen went on shore, and a party to haul the sein, which had good success. - At this [anchor]age the ship is securely landlocked being in a good harbour, and she might lie within 20 yards of the beach, but the present distance is 1/2 mile. - Got the M.T.Gt. yard and mast down, and struck the topmast in order to shift the T.Gt. mast forward

Light breezes and cloudy weather

At day light, swayed up the topmast, T.Gt. mast and yard and set up the rigging. Sent a party on shore to the nearest beach to cut wood, to whom a dog came down but no natives were seen.

The Commander and scientific gentlemen away examining the harbour and the country

Sent the small launch to haul the sein, and on her return served fish to all the ships company

Lime juice, sour krout and vinegar continue to be served as before.

At noon, Calm with fine weather

[Page 390]

1803 Feb: [Monday] -14th. continued. Additional remarks in [Arnhem north bay]

The harbour where the ship lay is principally formed by a sandy point of land which shelters it from the sea to the north, and on coming round which from the entrance into the bay a vessel is immediately secure. On the first evening I landed on this point, and crossing over to the sea, walked to the extremity or S.W.most part; and from a small sand hill took angles, near the same place where Lt. Flinders's observations where afterwards taken.
In the morning I examined up to the N.E. head of the harbour N.E. [indecipherable word] finding 21/2 fms. in the mid-channel to some distance up. At the head is a very narrow neck or isthmus, of land which is the only communication which of the hilly heads W3 to have with the main land, the water from the south part of the bay reaching up to it, and at high water they certainly communicate, to all appearance. After taking bearings here, and upon the south entrance of the N.E. cove, I went to the highest of the hills of W3, finding the water to run deep very close to along the shores. After taking angles from a rock near the top of the hill, we rowed to the middle of the islets marked W6, with the following soundings, 3, 41/2 , 31/2, 5, 61/2, 41/2, 6 the bottom being muddy, 61/2, 51/2, 61/2 sand, 3, 2 close to the rocks. and At noon I had a bad observation [indecipherable word] for the annexed latitude; and afterward taking a set of angles from the top of the isleted In the afternoon we rand S.S.E. carrying 5, 4, 3 and 1 fathom to a cliffy part of the south shore of the bay, and where another set of bearings were taken. There was but little brush here wood upon this shore the country being much more open than is usual near the sea side. The trees are of the eucalyptus kind, being much like the stringy and iron bark trees of Port Jackson. but They grow very slender here, and being tolerably straight might be very useful for masting [indecipherable word] small vessels. My next station was upon the island W7, where we found many marks of former

[Page 391]

[1803 Feb: [Monday] -14th. continued. Additional remarks in] Arnhem north bay

visiters who appear to be the same people of whom mention has frequently been made.
From W7 we returned to the ship, (finding the water to be shoal between the island left and it and the head W3), passing in our way near a small rock which is uncovered at half tide, and very near to which I found 21/2 and 3 fms. all round. we got on board at 6 in the evening
In this excursion on shore we were pestered with mosquitos, sand flies and green ants, but the common flies are not so numerous as before. The basis stone of the country which surrounds this bay is probably granite, and on the north side certainly so. Its composition appears to be quartz, feldt spar and coarse garnets. The grains of it are large, but when polished it would be very beautiful. - Calcarous stone is not scarce, there being crusts off it in many places, and on the south side of the bay, there is argillaceous soft earth in which grains of iron stone are sometimes abundant. Upon The island W7, seems to consist of iron stone with a calcarious basis, in which were some an argillaceous earth, in which there is iron or some metal like it, and there were some short veins of quartz partly chrystalized. and In one instance there was a vein of granite in the aggregate iron stone. These veins were principally found in the tops of caverns which to the formations the soft iron stone of which this argillaceous rock seems much given. I found but little soil amongst the rock and sand at such places where we landed, but on the south side of the bay it was the most abundant, and the stone there is mostly in grains only. It is here where the straight tall trees are abundant, and the low land further back may probably be much better afford a better soil.
No natives were seen about the bay, or any recent marks, but the sight of a dog led us to suppose that they were not far off for they have these animals domesticated.
Upon the nearest rocky islet to the ship, as well as upon W7,

[Page 392]

1803 Feb: [Monday] -14 th. continued. Additional remarks [ [Tuesday - 15th. In Arnhem north bay]

we found marks of former visiters, and they appear to be older than those seen in the gulph; from which I suppose them to have come with the N.W. monsoon, and to have began their courses [in] examination, if that was their object, at this cape, if not further westward. A part of a lo[ng] earthen jar was amongst their relicts.
In my hasty examination of the bay, I did not find any part of it equal to that near the ship for security and rea[di]ness of access. The deepest water here is very near to the low sandy north shore where there is from 41/2 to 6 fathoms, and within the harbour rocks is an excellent place for laying down moorings; upon the whole this is by much the best harbour we have yet found in New Holland. To the security of shelter, we may add an abundance of fish and wood, enough as inducements for ships to visit it; but my examination did not discover any watering place; such however may probably be found or made, though I do not think that any fresh stream falls into the bay.
The bottom is either a sand or mud, or more often a mixture of both. Places for laying a vessel on shore or for heaving down are easily found, but the greatest rise of tide does not seem to be more than 8 feet. It is high water about 5 hours before and 7 hours after the moon comes to the meridian, which is more than two hours earlier than in Arnhem south bay
Brown doves, and white pigeons of a good size are numerous in the woods, and a black bird of the size and resemblance of a hen was shot +. The sea birds are crane[s] [both] blue and white, sea pies and sand larks.
+ The black and the white cockatoo and a beautiful k[ind] of parrot were seen

[Page 393]

[1803 Feb: [Monday] -14 th. continued. Additional remarks]
[Tuesday] -15th. In Arnhem north bay

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather weather. Received on board two of the small launch loads of wood; and afterwards sent her to haul the sein. - The Commander and scientific gentlemen returned on board, and soon after the small launch returned with sufficient fish to serve the ships company.
Moderate breezes and cloudy weather
At day light sent the boat to haul the sein, but being low water she had but little success.
The Commander landed upon the nearest rocky islet, and observed the variation of the theodolite to be 1.13'E
Punished Henry Winter (Marine) for sleeping on his post, with 12 lashes. - Sent the small launch again to haul the sein, and she brought a sufficient quantity of fish to serve most of the ships company.
Noon, moderate breezes and hazy, with rain at times
Having much work to do in the regulation of yesterdays angles and observations, I did not get under weigh in the morning as had otherwise been intended; and the wind setting in directly against us it was still longer deferre[d] Several things were done in this interval of leisure, and amongst others a set of altitudes were taken upon the sandy west point of W2 by Lt. Flinders, from which it appears that the time-keepers are keeping very near to the rates assigned them in Arnhem north south bay.

[Page 394]

1803 Feb. [Wednesday] -16th. Investigator in Arnhem No. Bay [Additional remarks]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and squally weather
People making plat for the cables.
The whale-boat employed on shore with the scientific gentlemen.
Moderate breezes and cloudy. Lightening to the westward
Fresh breezes at some times and light airs at others with unsettled weather
The Commander and botanical gentlemen went away to the head of the harbour in the whale boat
Sent the small launch to haul the sein, and she returned with sufficient fish to serve the ships company
Lime-juice served as usual
At noon, moderate breezes and dull cloudy weather
The gentlemen who landed in the evening found a hole containing good fresh water made by the natives, on the north shore a little way up the cove; and they saw four native dogs who appearinged to be in chase of a kanguroo.
The wind being against us in the morning at day-light, I thought it adviseable to remain a little longer in order to examine the large cove over the isthmus and accordingly after an early breakfast, I set off in the whale boat, accompanied by Messr. Brown and Bauer, towards the head eastern part of the bay.

[Page 395]

[1803 Feb. [Wednesday] -16th. Investigator in Arnhem No. Bay] Additional remarks

We stopped at W7 island, where in addition to what is before mentioned, a black kind of stone was found, which from its weight and appearance must contain much metal: and but that it did not affect the needle of the theodolite, I should have taken it to be iron
In steering from W7 to a projection at the head of the bay, which is almost if not quite insulated, the soundings were not more than 3 fms., and at some distance up only 2 This projection consists of iron-stone grains caked together, as do all the neighbouring shores apparently . a piece of the stone drew the needle from 6 to 8. from its direction. + - From hence I went up the south water of the isthmus, examining round the shores of the bay in our way, and finding every where shallow water and muddy bottom. - The deepest water we found in going towards the isthmus would not be above ten feet, reduced to low water, and towards the head of the cove it is very shoal. The tide being within an hour of high water, we passed over the neck by means of a creek running through the mangroves, and got on board at 1 o'clock
We saw There is a considerable portion of the same kind of country as that before spoken of on the south side of the bay, and which is much superior to that in the neighbourhood of the ship; the soil, however is mixed with a considerable proportion of sand and grains of iron stone near the water side; but which however may be expected to lessen on advancing further inland.
+ and on laying down the bearings taken here, I found them to differ 50. from the true meridian

[Page 396]

1805 Feb: [Thursday] - 17th. Investigator
[ [Friday] -18th Along the north coast - Cape Arnhem]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy. At 1, the Commander and botanists returned; hoisted up the boats, weighed and at 1h.50' made sail to work out of the bay. At 3, tacked, being 3/4' from the west side and at 4, again, being near the east point.
At 4h.45' tacked again from the west side, and 6h.30' stretched in towards the land again; and soon after 7 came to with the small bower about 4 miles from the shore; a rocky point X2 bearing N.60.W. 5 miles. -
Cloudy with thunder and lightening, and rain at times
Fresh breezes and cloudy.
Mod. & cloudy. At day light weighed, and at 6, made sail along the coast close to the wind.
At 8h., X a cliffy cape, bore N.43. W. and a further cape on behind; between which and more northern land there appears to be an opening
At 9h.10' Tacked ship, being near an island, between which and cape X are a continuation of rocky islets -
Tacked occasionally afterwards, to work up between cape X and the first of the islandsets, which forms a passage of about 1 mile wide
At noon, X cape from south to west distant 1 mile - Fresh breezes and cloudy

[Page 397]

[1803 Feb: [Thursday] -17th. Investigator] [Friday] -18th Along the north coast - Cape Arnhem

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. Making short tacks through the passage between X cape and isle X1, which is about 1 mile wide and steep to each shore: the tide setting to windward. At 2, clear of the passage and of the shoal water on the west side of the cape and island. Tacked and stretched southward into an opening. Saw six praos moored off a beach where we had proposed to [anchor]. Hoisted a pendant and ensign, which they answered by white flags. Tacked oc[c]asionally, working up to the praos, and sent an officer and boat well armed to them. They were two months from Macassar and were going onward into the gulph, having been here several times before. - Soon after, the Commanders of the six vessels came on board; we having then [anchor]ed without side the praos with a spring on the cable, and all yards at quarters } Strong breezes with heavy rain at times - Veered away to the half cable service. At sunset, sent down T.Gt. yards.
A.M. Variable squally weather with rain at times
At day light, the prows got masts up preparing to go away.
At 8 sent up T.Gt. yards
The Commander and two gentlemen went on board the prao of the principal chief.
Sent boats to haul the sein, but they found the shore too rocky -
The Commander returned and soon after the chiefs of the praos came again on boar[d]
Saw five praos under sail, coming from the south-westward; and they anchored near the others; this seeming to be a well-known watering place for these vessels.
At noon, moderate breezes and cloudy weather. Many canoes alongside.
 

[Page 398]

1803 Feb. [Saturday] -19th. Investigator at [anchor] 3 under [island Y1, off Cape Arnhem, north side]

[Tables not transcribed]

Squally weather with rain at times. The chiefs of the Malay praos on board, fired a six p[ound]er, shotted, at their request. - Several coconuts purchased from the Malays for knives etc.
At sunset, down T.Gt. yards -
Cloudy weather, with heavy rain at times.
Do. weather. Heard much noise on board the Malay vessels, upon whom a good lookout is kept, all being clear at quarters
Nearly calm, with rain at times.
At day light, the eleven praos got under weigh and steered to the N.E. passing through between X cape and isle X1; after which they steered to the southward, apparently for Arnhem north bay. -
The Commander and scientific gentlemen went on shore -
Sent 22 empty casks on shore to be filled at the Malay watering place -
Heavy rain at times, with moderate breezes, but at noon it began to clear away.
Our communication with the praos and the cautious look-out which I thought necessary to keep upon them, preventing me from attending to any thing else until this morning. I shall relate the information we received from them . but the Mal[ay] manners and customs, their vessels and navigation being known, any remarks which I could make upon them are better omitte[d]
Our conversation with these Malays was carried on throug[h] the medium of my cook, who was one of that people, from the island Java.

[Page 399]

[1803 Feb. [Saturday] -19th. Investigator at [anchor] 3 under] island Y1, off Cape Arnhem, north side]

They were part of 60 praos which had sailed two months since from the town of Macassar, the whole of them belonging to Rajah Boni. They contained 1000 men, and were under the direction of Salloo whose rank was next to that of Rajah.
These sixty praos were lying in different places to the westward, in parties of five or six together
These first six were under the direction of Pobassoo, and he who had two small brass guns on board, which came from the Dutch, but the others had only musquets. Pobassoo had no bows or arrows on board, or the ippo poison on board for which the Macassar people are noted.
The object of their expedtion was to procure a certain marine animal which they called Trepang or Terrepang, of which they gave me two dried specimens. This animal resembles a cucumber in shape and had been hauled on shore abundantly by our seins in the two last bays, especially in Arnhem south bay. Its substance seems to be firm, and when trod upon the animal throws out a stream of water to some distance. The Malays procure the trepang by diving in from three to eight fathoms water; and where they are abundant a man can bring up [8] or 10 at a time. They preserve it as follows;- it is split down one side and boiled, then pressed with stones, and dried in the sun, and lastly dried with smoke, when it is fit to be put away; but it requires to be frequently exposed to the sun afterwards. A sho small piece of stick or bamboo is put into the split part, to keep it open. One thousand of these make up a pecul or bag, and 100 peculs are a cargo for each prao. They carry this to Timor where they are met by

[Page 400]

1803 Feb: [Monday NB should be Saturday] -19th. continued. Additional remarks at [ [anchor] 3 under isle Y1, - Cape Arnhem north side.]

met by the Chinese who give them twenty dollars for each pecul; + - [There are two kinds of the Trepang, the white and the black; the latter is worth 40 dollars per pecul. - The Chinese name for the black kind is Baatoo; for the white, Koroo.

By Timor, these Malays appear to mean Timor - [indecipherable word], for they knew of no Portuguese, Dutch or English there. They had heard of Coupang, the Dutch settlement, but said it was upon a different island

+ from which place, as a rendezvous, the sixty praos return home to Macassar

The Malays of Macassar had been occasionally upon this coast during the last 20 years; and Pobassoo was amongst the first that came, having made six or seven voyages, but had never seen a ship here before.

They had lost one prao not very long since, and inquired much concerning the pieces of wreck we had seen and on being shewn a rudder and a piece of frame work they said it was part of it had belonged to her.

They had skirmishes sometimes with the natives and the old chief Pobassoo had been wounded by them. A man had been slightly speared at this place by the native[s] whom and they cautioned us to beware of them.

They were strangers to the settlement of the British on the east coast; and on learning the name Port

Jacks[on] made a memorandum of it, as thus [symbols cannot be reproduced], writing from left to right
Pobassoo wished for a writing from me to shew to any vessel whom he might meet with; and I accordingly wrote

[Page 401]

[1803 Feb: [Monday NB should be Saturday] -19th. continued. Additional remarks at] [anchor] 3 under isle Y1, - Cape Arnhem north side.

wrote a note in pencil to captain Baudin, whom I thought it probable they might meet with see. This bay road was the first place thayt Pobassoos squadron had stopped at upon the coast; and it appeared that this was a rendezvous and watering place for them. They were going to the eastward and southward, and wished to be gone, as the N.W. monsoon would not blow quite a month longer. It was at my request that they had remained after the first evening of our arrival.
They did not know that nutmegs grew upon the coast, until this time, when some were shewn to them; or did they ever meet with coco-nuts, bananas, or any other eatable fruit or eatable root; fish, and occasionally turtle being all they found. ]
They gave me information of two islands much frequented by turtle, one of which was not far from the land, and at no great distance to the N.W.ward, the other would be seen from our mast head whilst coasting along the shore, and was about two days sail from hence.
They had a small compass on board, in a box, by which they steered: and they could carry a months water to sea in their bamboos. They use the bark of the tree from which the sweet syrup called gulah is extracted to make rope of. It is black, and known in England by the name of gummotoo.

[Page 402]

1806 Feb. [Monday NB should be Saturday] -19th. - Additional remarks [ [Tuesday] - 20th. Investigator - at [anchor] 3, under V1 - C. Arnhem]

In the morning I landed upon Y1 the northernmost of the two islands that form the bay in which the ship lies, and ascended the steep heads which face the east. From hence the view was tolerably extensive, the little island W5 being in sight over the neck of the cape X; asd also four of the praos steering for Arnhem north bay. I perceived that the water ran up to some distance between within the point X1 and the cape, but it did not insulate X. After taking bearings of all the visible objects, the rain and thick weather obstructing the view of some, I moved back to an eminence higher part of the island, and saw seve[ral] islands which lie to the south-westward of Y1 and Y2, and far beyond them other land more to the northward which did not appear to be high; the view of it was obstructed at about N.60.W. to which it trended from the southward. From the high land, we descended into a valley which appeared to be impenetrably thick of brush; but the trees being high and the vines running mostly at the tops of them, it was very possible to get through to the beach. The soil of this valley is very good but I cannot say how deep; A stream of water was at this time running through it from the hills. Amongst other trees, were growing here two small kinds of palm, the nutmeg, and a tree which bears figs upon the stem of the tree instead of the branches; these last however we have not found to be of any use.

[Page 403]

[1803 Feb. [Monday NB should be Saturday] - 19th. - Additional remarks] [Sunday] - 20th. Investigator - at [anchor] 3, under V1 - C. Arnhem

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and dark cloudy weather. The whale-boat employed by the Commander and gentlemen, and the yawl in getting off water. Recd. 24 casks, completing the water up to 70 tons Employed stowing it away.
Moderate breezes and rainy at times
Heavy rain, with thunder and lightening to the eastward
Fresh breezes and squally with heavy showers of rain. -
The whale-boat employed by the scientific gentlemen
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean
At noon, strong breezes and squally weather. The Commander on shore to observe for the latitude
In the afternoon I went to the eastern head of the island y2, and took angles; but my view was only triflingly extended in any direction. - The naturalist having a desire to visit the valley before mentioned, and yesterdays bearings requiring some time from me to be arrange and layid down, we did not get under weigh in the morning, and the strength of the wind at noon, would not allow of moving with safety in unknown passages; we therefore remained at our present secure [anchor]age. In the valley was found a tree, the inner bark of which is in general use for making small rope, to which use it is well adapted.

[Page 404]

1803 Feb [Monday] - 21st. Investigator at [anchor] 3 under island [y1, off Cape Arnhem.]

[Tables not transcribed]

Strong breezes and squally weather. Hoisted in the small launch to be repaired; in doing which her stern post gave way, and from the fall and her rottenness she was so much broken as to be irrepairable
Fresh gales with rain at times.
Strong gusts of wind off the land, with heavy rain
Strong breezes and cloudy
The Commander took the whale boat to the N.E. end of this island y1.
Employed in cleaning below and in working up junk
Noon, variable squally weather
Accompanied by Messrs. Bauer and Westall, I went along the cliffs of the east side of the island y1, to its N.E. poi[nt] This course lying under the lee of the land, I ventured upon to go notwithstanding the violence of the weather, which however would not allow of our moving in the ship with any regard to prudence. We first stopped in a bay, at a cataract which had been noticed before from the ship. [indecipherable word] stream of water came from a good height, but not being great, or the descent sudden, it is only noticeable as a stream of water: The cliffs here seem, from their strata, to be argillaceous; but the strata are of different thicknesses, from

[Page 405]

[1803 Feb [Monday] - 21st. Investigator at [anchor] 3 under island] y1, off Cape Arnhem.

[Tables not transcribed]

two or three feet to that of a shilling. The strata incline dip to the westward about 15. - The thicker strata split perpendicularly, and in some of the fissures are the marks of small branching trees which I understand to be not uncommon, and is caused by to arise from mangenese or iron inserting hitself. These thinner strata might be seperated into pieces convenient for covering houses: their colour is mostly reddish. In these cliffs, are several caverns, the appearance of which in some points of view is not without grandeur. - Near the N.E. point of y1, I observed for the latitude as annexed, the cape X bearing by compass 130.25'; and from the highest part of the head above I took a set of angles. - Seeing three natives upon the beach of a little bay between the north and N.E. points of y1, I went that way, and on going up to two hutts found a man sitting under a tree near them, and three spears sticking up on the other side. He got up and went to another bush, and we soon heard confused noises of women and children who were making off with all expedition. The man retreated also up the hills, but not hastily, which Bongaree ascribed to his age. Finding they would not stop, and that no more remained, we examined the hutts. which They contained a few trifling things, and amongst the rest, part of a spike nail which probably had been taken from some wreck timber which was not far off; to these I added a hatchet and handkerchief, and took away one of his spears which had been wrought with some ingenuity, and was indeed a formidable weapon to be struck with.

[Page 406]

1803 Feb: [Tuesday] - 22nd. Investigator at [anchor] 3, under [island y2, off the north side of Cape Arnhem.]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh gales and squally weather, with heavy rain at times. People employed working up junk. - The Commander etc. returned on board The small launch being surveyed by the warrant officers was found to be irrepairable, and was therefore broken up.
Fresh gales and cloudy.
Do. weather. At 2, the ship swung to the flood
Rainy squalls at times
At day light, hoisted out the launch and sent her to haul the sein, but she had little success. - The Commander went away to survey amongst the isles to the S.W.wrd
Squally with rain at times
Washed etc. below, and employed the people in working up junk
Noon, fresh breezes & squally weather

The weather being still squally and unsettled in the morning I did not think it safe to move the ship in the morning; but took the whale boat to examine some of the isles to the westward. I first rowed through the passage between y1 and y2 and landed upon the S.W. point of the former. This passage is mostly dry at low water at low, and is about 1/4 mile wide. - Having taken bearings I sailed over to the east head of the island y3 carrying and at the distance of 1/2 mile had 8 fathoms, then 8, 9, 9, 9, 9, [91/2], 9 being at 1/4 ' off the east head; and afterwards 11/2, 6, being irregula[r] to the beach behind it. - From the top of the east head y3, I took angles, and then rowed along the S.E. side to

[Page 407]

[1803 Feb: [Tuesday] - 22nd. Investigator at [anchor] 3, under] island y2, off the north side of Cape Arnhem.

to a bay where there is good [anchor]age, and shelter from the present winds, the island Z being shut on behind the S.W. head of the bay where there is from 10 to 5 fms. soft bottom. - Round the S.W. head is another bight, but not so well sheltered; here I left the boat, and ascending the highest land at the back, took angles. A small head which appeared was the farthest visible part of the main bore 241.15', but the land to the N.W.ward was also indistinctly seen.-
I returned on board by the south side of y2, off which lies a small wedge-shaped island which tails off to the northward in a rocky shoal, but leaves a deep channel between y2 and it, in which was a great tide rippling. Along the south-east side of y2, I found coral reefs lying to some little distance, and directly off from them a strong current of tide, owing probably to the narrowness of the channel.
It being the time of new moon, this morning, the rise of tide was found to be 10f.2', and it was high water at 8h.15' A.M. or 4 hours nearly before the [moon] comes to the meridian. The run of the tides at our anchorage does not exactly correspond with the rise and fall of the shore, the last quarter ebb seeming to come from the N.E.ward with as well as the flood; the shallow passage also between y1 and y2 seems to creates some further irregularities

[Page 408]

1803 Feb: [Wednesday] - 23. Investigator at [anchor] 3 under [islands y1 and y2 - Off Cape Arnhem]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes with dark cloudy weather
Hoisted in the launch after she returned from fishing. People making plat for the cable. - The Commander returned on board
Moderate breezes with cloudy weather
Squally, with constant heavy rain
Squally unsettled weather, with heavy rain at times - The gardener went on sho[re] and planted 4 coco nuts and some remnan[ts] of potatoes upon the island y2. - An officer took the sein in the gig, to set across a run of water, and returned with a few sma[ll] fish - Sour krout & lime juice served as usual
Noon, dull weather with frequent rain.
The wind was not so strong this morning as it had been before, but the weather being very rainy I did not get under weigh in the morning; but waited for the first of the afternoons flood, hoping the weather might then be better. -
In addition to the remarks already made of these islands, I may add, that upon the islands y1 and y2 are several vallies where the soil is sufficiently rich for most, if not for all, purposes; whereas upon y3 I did not see any such vallies. There are at this [indecipherable word] time good

[Page 409]

[1803 Feb: [Wednesday] - 23. Investigator at [anchor] 3 under] islands y1 and y2 - Off Cape Arnhem

[Tables not transcribed]

streams of water running down these vallies, and it is in the thickets which usually through which they run to the sea that the nutmeg trees, the tree whose bark is fit for making rope, and all the largest trees are found growing - The argillaceous cliffs of the islands y1 and y3, especially the latter, would furnish amply furnish slate for covering houses, and the hardish sand stone which pravails higher up is perhaps not ill qualified for building the walls. From these and other circumstances, particularly the numerous places of shelter, about these islands, I consider this north side of Cape Arnhem to be the most advantageous situation for a settlement of any that we had have yet found. -
The astronomical observations which the rainy squally weather enabled permitted us to take, are as follows.

[Page 410]

1803 Feb. [Thursday] - 24th. Investigator from y1 and y2 [to [anchor] 4 under island Z, off the north side of C. Arnhem]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and dull cloudy weather, with rain at times. At 31/4h., weighed and made sail towards an island 2 leagues distant to the S.W.ward, having a flood tide with us. - Passed over discoloured water, wh[ich] seemed to arise from the tide stirring up the soft bottom. Sent the whale boat ahead At 6h.25' tacked to work up between two parts of Z4, which form a bay, but the tide running strong against us, at 7 came to where we were; having land all round at different distances, but a passage between the isles Z and Z4 open at west. Furled sails. - Rainy weather
At 10h.15', ship swung to the ebb.
Mod. breezes and cloudy weather
Sent an officer to examine the beaches, and fin[d]ing them fit, hoisted out the launch and sent a party in her to haul the seine
The Commander took the whale-boat to examine the bays and shores of the largest is[land] and the scientific gentlemen landed
The launch returned without success in her fishing. Loosed a part of the sails to air.
Lime-juice without sugar served to the people as usual.
At noon, light breezes and dull cloudy weather, with rain at times.

[Page 411]

[1803 Feb. [Thursday] -24th. Investigator from y1 and y2] to [anchor] 4 under island Z, off the north side of C. Arnhem

In the run from y2 to Z, the soundings were sometimes irregular, and there were several places which had the appearance of being coral reefs lying off from the shore of the main.
In the morning, I first rowed into the north bay of the island Z, which appearing to be shoal was not examined minutely and then passed on the south side of the small island that lies in it round to the eastern head. Not being able to see much from this head, after I we had ascended it, from the thickness of the wood, we walked to a more southern part and took the bearings of all visible objects from N.43.08', the east head of y3, to a steep head which proved to be the S.E. part of Z, and bore 237.40' distant 5 or 6 miles: the opposite part of the main is two and half miles distant nearly, the passage seeming to be clear
Supposing the island to be of no great circumference, we steered along the S.E. side with the intention of going round it back to the ship, and passed a low projecting point, and the steep head before mentioned. From hence the shore trended west nearly, to a point distant about 4 miles where the approach of night obliged us to stop, without being at all prepared for such an occasion, having expected to be on board to a late dinner.
In the morning (Friday) I took a small set of angles from this S.W. point, mostly of islands lying from 1[5]7. to 268. behind which the distant main land was in some parts visible; but there seemed to be an opening behind an island near the 1st. bearing, which led to the southward. From this point we rowed to the No.W. ward 3 or 4

[Page 412]

1803 Feb: [Friday] - 25th. Boat excursion round Z, continued. From [anchor] 4 under island Z; off Cape Arnhem, north side]

three or four miles to a sandy western point, off which lies an island (V) where the rapidity of the flood tide obliged us to wait till high water. Here I took a set of angles; and the of which the eastern head of y3 being visible between the island Z1 and the hummock to the N.W. point of Z, it now appeared that the most distant land before seen, and taken for main land were parts of the west side of Z was one object. It was high water about 11 oclock, for we had no watch in the boat, after which we steered to the E.N.E. ward past between the islands Z1, 2 and 3 and the large island Z, and got on board about 2 in the afternoon. -
Along the east side of the island, the water is deep near the shore, as also on the south west side, but the bays on the west side seem to be shoal. In the passage between Z and Z4 there is a narrow deep channel, but a good deal of shoal runs out to the westward on each side. -
The stone of the island Z seems to be argillaceous in the lower parts of the cliffs, and sand stone towards the tops, as observed of y1, 2, and 3. -
The east side of the island, taken generally, appears to be more fertile [than] any in the neighbourhood yet visited, and bears larger wo[od] but it seems to want the richer vallies of y1 and y2. Upon this side we saw one man who walked abreast of the boat for some time, calling to us, but when we put in to speak to him, he retreated to the woods, and we had no time to spare either to follow him or wait his leisure coming down. The same man, as we judge, followed the launch afterwards, acting as with us. Lieut. Fowler observed sev[eral]

[Page 413]

[1803 Feb: [Friday] - 25th. Boat excursion round Z, continued. From] [anchor] 4 under island Z; off Cape Arnhem, north side

[Tables not transcribed]

hutts along the shore particularly near the S.E. head.
Upon a rough guess of the distances of the points of the island from each other, I think the island Z cannot be less than 20 miles in circumference, and probably is not more than 25. Should the interior parts furnish vallies of a proportional richness to the hills, it would be a [va]luable island; it must however be always understood when speaking of the soil of these islands, that there is an abundance of stone every where, and more sand mixed with the soil than could be wished; but the warmth and moisture seem to do so much for vegetation, that any thing better than sand is sufficient for most purposes.
[Friday] - 25th. Log. Squally weather with rain at times. Sent the launch to haul the sein, but she returned with no better success than before
Dark cloudy weather, with heavy rain at times
Kept a light up as a signal to the Commander who was not yet returned on board
A.M. Light breezes and cloudy. At 31/2h., the ship swung to the wind
Mod. breezes and cloudy, with heavy rain at times. -
The 1st. lieutenant went away in the launch after the Commander, supposing some accident had happened to the whale boat
Cloudy with drizzling rain at times
Sour krout and lime-juice served to the ships company as usual -
Light airs and dull cloudy weather

[Page 414]

1803 Feb [Saturday] - 26th. Investigator, at [anchor] 4, under island Z

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy weather
At 2, the Commander returned in the whale boat having been round the large island; and soon after the launch returned. - People employed working up junk. - Hoisted in the launch
Light breezes with dull cloudy weather
At 10, the ship swung to the wind
A.M. Light airs and cloudy weather
Loosed sails to dry
The whale-boat employed by the officers and gentlemen, examining the islands and taking astronomical observations
Sighted the [anchor] and stood further into the bay. At 111/2, came to with the best bower, the ring of the small bower requiring fresh pudd[?]
Furled sails -
At noon, moderate breezes & fine weather
At noon I took the annexed observation for the latitude, in a boat lying off the place where Lt. Flinders took the annexed observation for the time keepers being 1/2' north of the ship; and afterwards I went to the north point of the island Z4, and took a large set of bearings of the surrounding distingishable objects, very useful for placing fixing the positions of places.

[Page 415]

[Sunday] - 27th. Amongst the isles, off C. Arnhem, No. side

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather
Employed arming the ring of the small bower [anchor], and in some other necessary jobs
Squally, with heavy rain at times
Mod. breezes and cloudy weather
Rainy at times
Light breezes and cloudy, with small rain.
Weighed and at 71/4h., made sail to to steer further up between the main and the islands; but at 71/2h., touched upon a shoal lying 3/4 mile off the island Z, there being deep water nearer to the shore. Clewed down the sails, and sent a kedge out by the whale boat towards the shore, and hove the ship to it. Weighed the kedge and made sail; but the tide again carried us upon the shoal, and the hawser was not strong enough to heave the ship off the second time. Hoisted out the launch, and sent her in shore with the stream [anchor], by which we hove out, and sheering the ship the length of the stream cable from the shoal, came to with the best bower in 10 fms. then veered away, and weighed the stream, after having furled sails. At noon, light breezes and cloudy weather. The former [anchor]age north distant 11/2 miles.

[Page 416]

1803 Feb: [Monday] - 28th. Investigator, from [anchor] 4, under Z

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather.
Weighed the kedge [anchor] and afterwards hoisted in the launch. - Mustered ships company an[d] saw them clean Send the master to sound rou[nd] the shoal, which he found to be very narrow, - about 1 mile long, and unconnected with any land. - At 6, the ship tailing very close to the shoal, hove in a few fathoms of the cable
Fine weather
At 2, the ship swung to the ebb
A.M. Light breezes and fine weather
At 6.30 weighed and made sail to the southward, having the whale boat ahead
At 7, passed the N.E. head of the island Z, and continued steering between that island and the main with the whale boat ahea[d]
Light baffling winds, to which we trimm[ed] sails occasionally. -
The boat making the signal for 4 fms. water, at 10 tacked ship towards the so[uth] side of the island; and afterwards occasionally working to the south-westward to island (, behind which there seems to be an large opening. - Heavy rain with thick hazy weather, which continued till past noon
At 11h.45', the boat having less than 4 fms. on a rippling dropped the stream [anchor] and lowered down the sails.

[Page 417]

[Tuesday] Mar:1st. to [anchor] 5 in No. 3 bay - north coast

[Tables not transcribed]

Sent the master to sound round the shoal which he found to be narrow, and to tail off to the northward. At 11/2h., weighed and made sail, passing over the shoal in 31/2 fms. at high water; the whale boat being ahead. Kept steering gradually round into the opening behind the island (, out of which the ebb soon made so strong, that the ship gained only 1/2' from 3 to 5 oclock. At 8, sent the boat to sound near the shore, where she found the water as deep as at the ship, being off a steep head where the tide seems to run strongest. At 8h.45', tacked towards the land shore, and at 9 came to with the best bower, furled sails and hoisted up the boat.
Light breezes and cloudy weather
At 2h.30' ship swung to the ebb
At daylight, Went on shore with the scientific gentlemen, and took bearings from the S.E. head of the island (, bearing from the ship N.28E. 13/4'
Found a stream of fine water, and [anchor]age close to the shore. The stone of the island is mostly argillaceous, but upon the surface it is sand stone. Some trifling marks of copper were found in the cliffs
Light airs and cloudy.
On returning to the ship weighed and before noon made sail to pass further up with the remaining flood tide; the whale boat ahead
    

[Page 418]

[Wednesday] Mar: 2nd. Investigator into No.3 great bay

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs & fine weather. Drifting up the bay with bay the flood tide having the whale-boat ahead. Dull cloudy weather - At 41/4h., tacked ship, the towards the northern shore; and on the boat having but 2 fms. ahead, tacked off, and immediately came to an [anchor]; the tide now running strong against us ( island south head N.761/2 W; and Y1, a point with rocks off it, N.31.W. 11/4'.
Light airs with fine weather
At 91/2h. the flood tide made.
Fine weather
Bound in the slack cable
At day light, the tide being against our proceeding up the bay, and having no wind, did not weigh until 10h., when the ebb tide had done. Sent the whale-boat ahead to sound
Light airs and fine wr. -
Steering up to the N.E. corner of the bay.
At noon, ( island south head N.80.W. Y2, a point towards the corner N.60 E. 3 or 31/2 miles. A low island S351/2 W. just visible from deck
Light airs & fine weather

[Page 419]

[Thursday] - 3rd. in No.3, great bay, of the north coast

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes & cloudy weather. Finding but little prospect of getting much further up the bay, at 0h.40' bore up for the projection Y2, and on the boat making signal for shoal water soon after came to with the small bower and furled sails Squally, with heavy rain at times. The Commander and two gentlemen took the whale-boat to go round the bay
Cut up pork No.7 - short of weight 4lbs
Calm & fine weather
Cloudy. At day light hoisted out the launch, and the scientific gentlemen went on shore in her
From this 3[anchor]5, the south head of ( island set at N.85.W. Distance from Y2, 11/2 mile
Got the slops upon deck to be aired, and found many of them much damaged, from the leaky state of the ships upper works
Mustered ships company and saw them clean.
Light airs and cloudy weather. Lime juice served as usual, without sugar

[Page 420]

1803 Mar. Boat expedition round No.3, bay - North coast [of New Holland]

[Tables not transcribed]

From the ship at 3[anchor]5, I steered to a small beach on the east side of the bay, distant about 5 miles, accompanied by the surgeon and the botanical draughtsman. The depth of water I found to be [but] little more than 11/2 fms. soon after leaving the ship. We slep[t] at this place, as well as the drenching we had got and a cloud of mosquitos would permit; and after taking a set of angles on Thursday morning, proceeded in two fms. water, 4 or 5 miles along the shore to a small islet of iron-stone, which lies off a point with red cliffs in it; and finding about 2 fms. water. From this islet, a low island in the middle of the bay bore West nearly, about 8 miles, and the soundings to it were 2, 2, 3, and at 3/5ths. over 5, 51/2, 5 fms., at a mile from the shoal spit, there was but 11/2 fms. This sp[it] consists of coarse sand and grains of iron stone, being a narrow ridge from the S.E. point of the Low Island. Upon it I took the annexed observation for the latitude, and afterwards we made some stay at the island which we found to be frequented by turtle, and not to harbour so many mosquitos as the other places we had touched at. - In the afternoon, I ran over to a projection on the south side of the bay, from which the low island is distant 4 or 5 miles, and bears 3.45' to 8.35'. The soundings across, were 2, 6, 7, 5, 4, 3, 3; and after taking bearings we returned to the island to sleep, finding the mosquitos too thick up[on] the main to be bearable. - During the night, three turtle landed, but two got off without being seen; the third was taken with the eggs which it had laid.
On Friday morning, I went to the island a(2, having 4, 41/2, 61/2, 7, 10,1 0, 5 very near the shore; and after taking bearings on its south-west end, steered over to a projection Y3, bearing 202. distant 5 or 6 miles. On each side of this projection, marked Y3 there are large shoal bights, but neither here
  

[Page 421]

[1803 Mar. Boat expedition round No.3, bay - North coast] of New Holland

[Tables not transcribed]

or in any other part of this large bay, did I see any stream of water coming into it. In the way from island (2, the annexed observations for the latitude were taken, Low Island then bearing about E.5 or 7 S.; the depth of water was 5, 41/2, 41/2, 31/2, 2 fms. at noon, and afterwards shoaler. In the evening, we returned to the northward, and passing through between (1 and (2, got on board the ship soon after eight oclock+. This last channel has a small island lying in it and does not appear to be passable for ships.
The general remarks in this excursion, are but few with respect to the bay, and still less of the country: for being lame this time with [scorbutic] ulcers I did not leave the water side. The shores are mostly of iron stone, though I did not find the needle of the theodolite affected by it. The country is thickly wooded, resembling the shores of Arnhem north bay, and marks of Kanguroos were tolerably abundant upon the beaches. The bottom is almost every where muddy, and at the distance of two miles from the shore the depth appears to be sufficient for shipping; and near the entrance, much closer. No one good watering place was found, except that already mentioned, on the south side of island (, where a ship may lie within a few yards of the shore. Fish are very abundant in the bay, and the low island is much frequented by turtle in the laying season, at which times I judge it is visited also by the natives.
+ she having shifted her station to near the island (1, according to the directions I had given Lt. Fowler before setting off.

[Page 422]

1803 Mar. [Friday] - 4th. Investigator in No.3, bay
[ [Saturday] - 5th. on the north coast of New Holland]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy weather. The launch having returned from the shore with the scientific gentlemen, at 3h.25' weighed and made sail for the west side of the bay.
At 7, shortened sail and came to with the stream [anchor]. The S.W. head of ( island N.42W.
Saw a fire bearing S.b.E. made by the Commanders party upon Low Island
Calm and cloudy weather
Light airs and fine weather.
At 6, weighed to steer downwards, but the wind dying away, and the ebb running strong, came to soon after 7 with the stream [anchor]. ( island S.W. head N.24.E. and (l N.E. cliffy red point N.67W.
Fired a gun as a signal to the Commander that the ship was on the west side of the bay; soon after saw the whale boat steering to the westward
Employed repairing the sein, and making nippers
Noon, Calm with sultry weather
Lime juice and sour krout served as usual

[Page 423]

[1803 Mar. [Friday] - 4th. Investigator in No.3, bay] [Saturday] - 5th. on the north coast of New Holland

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and fine weather. The tide being done at 1, weighed and stood nearer to the red cliffy island (1. At 2, came to with the small bower and furled sails, the cliffy red N.E. point of island (1 N.27. W. 11/2'. Sent the launch to haul the sein, and she returned with a few fish
Light breezes and fine weather
The Commander returned on board with the whale-boat, bringing a turtle.
Calm and fine weather
At day light, sent the launch again to fish with the sein, but she had very little success
Hoisted her in on her return
Light breezes and fine weather
At 101/2h., weighed and made sail out of the bay with the ebb tide, there being very little wind.
At noon, light airs and calms, the horizon not being distinguishable from the clouds (1, steep red N.E. point S.15.W. and the S.E. head of (, N.77.E. -

[Page 424]

1803 Mar: [Sunday] - 6th. Investigator from No.3 bay [on the north side of Cape Arnhem]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather. Lost a hand lead and line. At 3, tacked ship, having irregular soundings, and sent the whale boat to sound. Stood after her, but finding the flood tide too strong, tacked off shore, and at 41/4h., dropped the stream [anchor]; the hummocky I. V1 N.35.E.; distant from island about 11/2 mile
Saw natives upon the last island, with a can[oe]
At sunset, light breezes. Furled sails
Mod. breezes and fine weather. At 9, ship [indecipherable word] to the ebb
Light breezes and fine weather.
At day light, do. weather. Weighed, and at 61/2h., made sail to the northward
At 8, V3 a small rocky island N.10.E. 1 mile, surrounded by shoal water, which obliged us to ke[ep] more away. Steered towards the ( islands intended to pass through them, and set the main sail
At 11, kept away between (3 and (2, in a passage of about 21/2 miles miles, but part occupied by shoals from each shore
Mustered ships company and saw them clean. - Squally weather coming on, shortened sail & Dble. reefed the topsails
At noon, cloudy. No Extremes of E islands N15.E. and of ( islands N52E. open only to the N.E.

[Page 425]

[1803 Mar: [Sunday] - 6th. Investigator from No.3 bay] on the north side of Cape Arnhem

The time being arrived, when it would be necessary to make sail for Port Jackson in order to reach it within the six months mentioned in the examination of the ship on the 26th. of November last; and more especially as the season is advancing when bad weather may be expected in going through Bass's Strait, I judged it necessary to leave the examination of the north coast of New Holland to a future opportunity, looking only at such places as might offer themselves whilst in our way to that port. The winds having been mostly from the eastward during the last three or four days, I consider the N.W. monsoon to be now over; and consequently expect the wind to be favourable for our passage. When I consider that this wind would also be favourable for exploring the coast, it adds to my regret at being obliged to leave it without examination; especially since the numerous harbours and places of shelter, in that part now examined as well as the vicinity of this coast to India, make it of much more consideration than any other part examined by us.
I did not think it necessary to take any further time to complete our water, there being 63 tons in the ship, which is more than she the ship has usually carried to sea.
The islands passed this morning are rather low, and generally with rocky shores. The outermost island I judge from its size, to be the Crocodile I. of the charts; its stretches to the N.E.ward, and from it, in the same line back lie the four islands; the innermost, (, being so near the main that I am not certain of its seperation
Had not the winds been so far from to the southward, I proposed to have looked for the turtle isles mentioned by the Malays, but with the present winds, this would have [lead] to lost time.
  

[Page 426]

1803 Mar: [Monday] - 7th. Investigator from No.3, bay

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and, at times, squally weather. Not being able to weather breakers or a strong rippling off the north end of E3, tacked; and at 21/4 tacked again, from Crocodile I. and stood clear to sea
Moderate breezes and fine weather. E3, S16E at 6 P.M. and the outermost visible land S.W.b.S. -
At 8, shortened sail to the top sails, and kep[t] a warrant officer looking out forward; the deep-sea lead being hove every 15 minutes
Lost a lead and 25 fms. of line
Mod. breezes and fine weather
At day light, there being no land visible, le[t] out the reefs and set studg. sails; at the same time kept two points within the line [of] the coast.
Hoisted in the gig to be repaired, and the carpenters began to fresh nail her
Got the slops up to be aired, and found many of them damaged from the leakiness of the upper-works. - Took the decayed sinnet off the stream cable.
Noon, light breezes and hazy weather

[Page 427]

[Tuesday] - 8th. Along the north coast towds. Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and fine weather. Cut up beef No. 20, short 7 pieces and 68lbs, the warrant officers being present as usual.
Nearly calm Many fish jumping about the ship. - Took in the larboard studg. sails and at dusk, took one reef in the [indecipherable word] and Mz and double reefed the F. top-sail.
Light airs and cloudy.
Nearly calm
At day light out reefs, and set the small sails
Got more slops upon deck to be aired
At 91/2h., a light breeze sprung up, with cloudy weather. Took in the small sails
Noon, light airs and fine weather. No land in sight
Lime juice and sour krout continue to be served as usual

[Page 428]

1803 Mar. [Wednesday] - 9th. Investigator

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and fine weather. Carrying all the small sails. - Carpenters employed repairing the gig
Lightening in the S.E., and distant thunder
Took in the small sails.
At 8h.30' being taken aback, trimmed sails; and at 10, tacked ship. Soon after being again taken aback, trimmed, and steered our proper course
Light variable airs and cloudy weather
At day light, no land in sight from the mast head. Set studg. sails etc. but the weather coming on squally, soon after took them in again
Heavy rain with thunder and lightening
On the ship breaking round off, tacked to the westward
Cloudy weather. Cleaned below and aired with stoves. Got some of the slops upon deck to be aired.
At noon, light airs and cloudy.

[Page 429]

[Thursday] -10th. Along the No. coast towards Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and cloudy.
Carpenters repairing the gig, and the people employed in working up junk
Opened pease No.1, found by the warrant officers to be short 10 gallons
No land in sight at sunset
Cloudy weather
Calm and hazy. Many small fish about the ship
At 71/2, a light breeze sprung up, to which we set sail, but it soon died away.
At 10, a northerly breeze sprung up, accompanied with heavy showers of rain
Mustered ships company and saw them clean, as usual on [Thursday] and [Sunday].
Noon, light breezes and cloudy with haze.

[Page 430]

1803 Mar. [Friday] - 11th. Investigator

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy
On the wind coming aft set the small sails
At dusk, took in studg. sails
Light airs and cloudy
Variable breeze with cloudy weather
Set T. Gt. studg.sails
Light airs. Set starbd. studding sails.
Got more slops upon deck to be aired.
Exercised the two sweeps, by which the ships way was increased 31/2 fms. per hour; but one of the sweeps got broken in the trial -
Carpenters repairing the gig
Noon, light airs & fine weather

[Page 431]

[Saturday] -12th. Along the north coast towds. Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather. All sail set
On the wind heading, took in the lower and topmt. studg. sails -
Several dolphins about the ship, one of which was struck
Light airs and fine weather
At day light, saw New Years I., low and small the trees only being visible from deck. It bore S.W. dist 7 or 8 miles. Some turtle seen about the ship. - All studg. sails set, steering towards the island -
At 11, took in the studg. sails, lowered down the whale boat and sent Lt. Fowler in her to see if turtle frequented the island
At noon, light airs & hazy. Steering off from the island finding a N.Wtly. current or tide setting towards it. The extremes south to S.50.W.11/2' . The north end of the reef which appears to surround the island West. Other land seen to the southward

[Page 432]

1803 Mar.[Sunday] -13th. Investigator - New Years I.
[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and calms, with sultry weather Lt. Fowler shewed the signal for no turtle being to be procured at the island, and at 11/2h., returned on board. Hoisted up the whale boat, and on a light air springing up, tacked, by the assistance of the sweeps and set studg. sails, the tide having drifted us past the reef. Several sharks about the ship, 5 of which were caught. -
At 6, New Years I. E.b.S. and the furthest visible land S.53.W. low sandy land, with wood on it
At 3 A.M. tacked ship on the wind heading Light airs & fine weather.
At day light, low land visible from south to W.S.W. the nearest part distant 9 or 10 miles
Mustered ships company and saw them clean
Noon, light airs and fine, with some haze. Land visible from the mast-head to the S.W.ward

[Page 433]

On the north coast of N.H. towards Port Jackson

Lieut. Fowler found the island to be a bed of coral rock covered with loose pieces of the same stone, and sand. It is covered with shrubs and brush wood very thickly, but a considerable part is salt swamp in which mangroves grow. Natives had either visited the island lately or were then upon it, the marks of them being fresh; some turtle had also been there but the marks of them were neither sufficiently recent or numerous to hope for any supply of these animals. A coral reef surrounds the island to the distance of 1 or 11/2 mile, which seems to be tolerably steep to.
The other land in sight to the S.b.W. seems to consist of islands also, which are somewhat higher, and sandy; but as natives visit this outermost island, there can be little hope of obtaining turtle at any inner one
By the shore the tide was falling rapidly, and as mentioned in the log, it was running to the N.W.ward along the reef which surrounds the island. We have hitherto found the flood tide come from the eastward since passing Cape Arnhem, I therefore judge the present tide to come out of some opening to the S.S.E. of New Years I. or some direction near that. From our The information I had of New Years I. is from the chart of Mr. Mc.Cluer. According to our observations he has placed it 4' too far north and 10' too much to the west; but it is very probable that the time-keepers have got that quantity to the east since leaving Arnhem south bay, the survey having before shewn them to be inclining that way.

[Page 434]

1803 Mar. [Monday] -14th. - Investigator

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and sultry weather
Calm and fine weather
Cloudy.
Light breezes. At 2, tacked ship on the wind heading
Light airs and fine wr.
Carrying all the plain sails At noon, Do. weather. No land in sight from the mast head. - The horizon very uncertain owing to the smoothness of the water and some haze

[Page 435]

[Tuesday] -15th. Along the north coast, westward

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and fine wr. The gig being repaired hoisted her up astern, and took in the whale boat to be repaired
Carrying all sail
Light breezes & fine
No land in sight at day light, but many fish about the ship
Light breezes & fine weather. Carrying all sail -
Lost a log line
Carpenters repairing the whale boat
Noon, light trade wind, with fine weather.

[Page 436]

1803 Mar: [Wednesday] -16 Investigator

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and cloudy.
Cut up beef No.2, short 8lbs
Carpenters repairing the whale boat
Light airs & fine wr.
Do. weather
Light Got the bread up on deck to be aired;
Noon, light airs and hazy weather weather
The water very smooth as usual, and nothing in particular to be seen.

[Page 437]

[Thursday] -17th. along the north coast, westward

[Tables not transcribed]

Almost calm
A shark caught
Fine weather On a N.Wtly. breeze springing up, took in the studding sails and braced up the yards
At 1h.45' tacked ship
Thunder & lightening to the eastward
Some boobies about the ship.
Light breezes and fine
Got some of the sails upon deck, spread them to be aired, and got stoves into the room below
Carpenters repairing the whale boat
Noon, light airs and fine with some haze. Water very smooth

[Page 438]

1803 Mar. [Friday] -18th. Investigator

[Tables not transcribed]

Fine weather, but very warm
Light airs and cloudy.
Lightening in the S.E. quarter
Light breezes and cloudy
The wind coming from the westward after a short calm, trimmed sails; but the wind on its getting back to the southwd. tacked ship
At 61/2, tacked to the S.W.ward, but being immediately taken aback, trimmed on the larbd. tack again
At 8, tacked to the S.W.ward on the wind heading -
After a short calm, at 10 the wind sprung up again from the southward, on which we set studg. sails, but were obliged to take them in again directly, the wind heading
Light breezes & cloudy. Thunder to the S.E.

[Page 439]

Mar: [Saturday] -19th. Off the No. Van Diemens Land

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy
Carpenters finished repairing the whale boat
Set larbd. studg. sails
Light breezes and fine.
Do. weather
Hove to and sounded, but got no bottom
At 7h.50' saw the bottom under the ship, which proved to be a bank of coral. Tacked, soon after and got the whale boat ready.
At 8h.15' tacked & hove to, hoisted out the boat and sent her ahead; and at 8h.30' steered after her on our course - The shoal appeared to be detached from any land or shoal, and to be about 4' in circumference. About 11/2' to the N.E. the water was much agitated, but otherwise was smooth upon the shoal
Before 9 lost soundings with the hand line. Hove to and struck the bottom with 92 fms. coral sand. - Hoisted up the boat & set studg. sails
Noon, light breezes and cloudy

[Page 440]

1803 Mar. [Sunday] - 20th. Investigator

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy weather
Do. weather. Nothing, in particular, visible from the mast head
At 8, took in the studg. sails
Light breezes and cloudy
Fine weather
Light variable breezes and fine weather
Swayed the main yard higher up
Mustered ships company and saw them clean as usual
Remains of water 553/4 tons
Noon, light airs and cloudy weather with some haze about. Heavy clouds hanging in the eastern quarter, from whence also there is a swell rising

[Page 441]

[Monday] - 21st. Along the north coast, towds. Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Calm and cloudy; afterwards rainy unsettled weather. At 3, more steady: set studg. sails
Light breezes and cloudy.
Being taken aback, at 51/2h. took in studg. sails and trimmed sails
Cloudy weather
Light airs and fine weather
At 1, wore ship
No land in sight at daylight.
Tacked ship on the wind shifting, and again at 9h.10'
At 11h.30' saw ripplings and smooth water to the N.W.; lowered down the whale-boat and sent her to sound on it. Finding the water to be deep as elsewhere, called the boat on board
At noon, light airs and fine weather

[Page 442]

1803 Mar: [Tuesday] - 22nd. Investigator

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes in generally, but squally at times, with rain. - Hoisted up the whale boat
Took in and set T.Gt. sails occasionally
Light breezes and cloudy. No land in sight, but some large fish and some gannets seen
Cloudy weather. Lightening to the N.W.
At 10, nearly calm
Light breezes and cloudy.
Do. weather
Bent a new M.T.Gt. sail the old being worn out
Being taken aback at 7h.30, trimmed sails
Aired the colours & flags
Sour krout and vinegar served as usual
At 10h.45' went on the starbd tack, on the wind heading
At noon, tacked ship. Light airs and fine weather

[Page 443]

[Wednesday] - 23rd. Off the north coast towards Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy weather
Stowed the best bower [anchor] and unbent the cable.
Do. weather
Lightening in the western board
Light airs and calms
At 51/2, being taken a back, trimmed sails and kept to the westward
Some swell from the W.S.W.ward
Cleaned well below
Light airs and cloudy, with some haze

[Page 444]

1803 Mar. 24th. Investigator towds. Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs. At 1, wore ship
At 31/2h., squally weather with heavy rain.
Being taken aback at 51/2h., trimmed sails on the starboard tack
Calm, with dark cloudy weather.
Calm and hazy
Nothing unusual in sight at daylight
Light airs and fine weather.
Many fish jumping about the ship, and a flock of birds seen going to the southwd.
Noon, Hazy weather
Some little swell from the S.E.ward -
Sour krout and vinegar served

[Page 445]

[Friday] - 25th. Between Timor & N. Holland

[Tables not transcribed]

Calm and sultry weather
Light airs
Hazy weather
Light airs and cloudy
Sharks and other fish about the ship
People employed in the after hold
Served tobacco to the ships company
Noon light airs and calms with fine weather

[Page 446]

1803 Mar [Saturday] - 26th. Investigator between the [north coast of New Holland and Timor]

[Tables not transcribed]

Very light airs, with thin clouds about and haze. Trimmed sails occasionally
Light airs and fine weather
Light breezes & hazy
Kept to the wind on either tack occasionally, to make westing and southing
Light airs & fine, with some haze; and a little swell from the S.W.ward
Tacked at 11, by the assistance of the a sweeps.
Noon, light airs & fine with some haze

[Page 447]

[1803 Mar [Saturday] - 26th. Investigator between the] north coast of New Holland and Timor

The light south-westerly winds having both lengthened our passage, and driven us very near to the island Timor, I judged it necessary to have an examination made into the health of the ships company; that, before it was too late, I might be aware how far their strength could be depended on in the latter part of the passage to Port Jackson, when it was to be feared the leaky state of the ship would occasion a great call for the exertions of perhaps every individual amongst us. After the examination, the surgeon gave me a list of 22 people upon whom he found symptoms of scurvy, such as spongy gums and livid sores on the legs; adding, that the use of lime-juice which he meant to apply plentifully would soon remove these. I judged, however, that this plentiful use of lime-juice would exhaust the remains of our best antiscorbutic, which I was more unwilling to do, as we had nothing at Port Jackson to supply its place; and our next expedition, if we should be able to get another ship, would probably be much longer than the present one. The surgeon having more maturely considered over the various conversations I had had with him upon the subject of the present and future health of the people, afterwards wrote me a letter containing many observations, of which the following is the substance - "It was is more than nineteen months since we sailed from England, during which time there has been only two opportunities of receiving the usual port refreshments; - four days at Madeira and eight at the Cape of Good Hope, and once on His Majestys birth-day at Port Jackson. During our stay in the latter place, the ships company had it not in their power to procure any animal food and but few vegetables, what they had being humanely given to them

[Page 448]

1803 Mar [Saturday] - 26th. Additional remarks continued

"them by the governor. For the last eight months we have had no refreshments but what chance threw in our way, and fruit and vegetables, the best antiscorbutics, formed no part of what was procured. During this period the ships company have been exposed to almost incessant fatigue in an oppressively hot climate, as also to an exceedingly deleterious atmosphere since Dec. 16th. the weather then becoming dark and cloudy, with thunder, lightening and rain. The ill effects of this alteration were perceptible in a short time amongst the ships company, a violent diarrhoea being produced, attended frequently with symptoms of fever, which, had it not been for timely remedies and the great attention paid to cleanliness, would soon have generated the worst of dysenteries. The weather and this disease kept pace till the beginning of March, when both disappeared.
The letter concludes with observing, that although no marks of present disease are visible upon many, yet from the above causes all must be weakened, for that "a body though in health may at the same time be losing strength; and consequently be likely to fall under any violent and long-continued exertions. If you should dread such an event, it would be well, if possible, to provide against it by refreshing the ships company and procuring those articles of provisions of which the ship is deficient, or substitute others in their room."

[Page 449]

[1803 Mar [Saturday] - 26th. Additional remarks continued]

The deficient provisions alluded to were rice, sugar, molasses and pease, which from losses arising from the heat and moisture of the weather, and in the last from an oversight in calculation, were now nearly gone
When to the above considerations I added the little distance of the island and the opportunity that would most probably be offered of giving my Lords Commissioners of the admiralty an account of our proceedings so much earlier than could be done afterwards from Port Jackson, it determined me to put into Coupang Bay; for whether the town was in the possession of the British or Dutch it would still be a friendly port, our last account of the relative state of these two powers in the east, making it improbable that the latter should obtain the repossession of Coupang except by cession.
There are also some other advantages that might arise from touching at Timor. One is the opportunity that it would give to our botanists to examine its vegetable productions, by which the gradual change of plants from India to New Holland might be traced; - another, to procure a sufficiency of some articles to last out the voyage, which cannot be [pro]cured had at Port Jackson but at exorbitant prices; - and a third is the possibility of finding there a ship to be purchased or hired, with which we might go on with the examination of New Holland with much less expense both of money and time than could be done at Port Jackson.

[Page 450]

1803 Mar: [Sunday] - 27th. Investigator - north coast [ [Monday] - 28th New Holland towds. Timor]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes & fine weather. Being taken aback, trimmed sails to the southward
The carpenter having bored into timbers in the hold which had been examined before, did not find them perceptibly worse than on Nov. 26th. in the Gulph of Carpentaria
Light airs and fine weather with haze
Lightening to the south-westward
Being taken aback at 1h.45' trimmed sails to the S.W.ward.
Light breezes and fine weather
Tacked ship occasionally, the wind being variable
Water expended last week 4 tons 513/4 remaining
Noon, light airs and fine weather
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean

[Page 451]

[1803 Mar: [Sunday] - 27th. Investigator - north coast] [Monday] - 28th New Holland towds. Timor

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and fine weather
On the wind coming aft, set studg. sails
Took in the studg sails
Being taken aback at 6h.15', trimmed sails to the westward
Got the cases of lime-juice up to be examined and found many bottles broken
The clinch of the best bower cable being bad, cut it off and then bent the cable
Noon, light airs & fine weather
Sour krout served as usual

[Page 452]

1803 Mar: [Tuesday] - 29th. Investigator
[ [Wednesday] - 30th. From the north coast, towards Timor]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine wr.
At 1, saw the land of Timor bearing N.62.W.
At dusk, the extremes N.15.W and N.60.W
Do. weather. Carrying all sail for the land having a sea breeze
At 10, it died away and soon after a breeze came of[f added in pencil] the land: took in studg. sails
Soon after day light, saw the land N.W.1/2W. to N.b.W. being much higher than last night from the decrease of distance
At 9, tacked to the southward, but at 10, tacked again to the westward
At noon, light breezes and fine, with some haze. The land from W.N.W. to N.N.W.1/2W. Rottee being not yet seen.

[Page 453]

[1803 Mar: [Tuesday] - 29th. Investigator] [Wednesday] - 30th. From the north coast, towards Timor

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes & fine
At 3h.15' a strong sea breeze obliged us to shorten sail and double reef the topsails
Made sail again, and set studg. sails.
At sunset, the high land from W.N.W. to N.1/2E.
Calm
Light airs and hazy. Set studg. sails on the larboard side
Calm, with haze
Land seen, at day light, from N.N.E. to W.b.N. [from mast head - added in pencil]
Light airs off the land
Being taken aback, at 10, by the sea breeze, trimmed sails to the westward
At noon, light breezes and fine, with some haze. Extremes of the land from N.N.E.1/2E to W.b.N. very high, and distant.

[Page 454]

1803 Mar: [Thursday] 31st. Investigator
[ [Friday] Apr: 1st. Into Coupang Bay - Timor]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy
At 4, saw a hill which is on Rottee, S.E. end
[A number of faint entries made in pencil]
Mod. & fine weather.
Carrying studg. sails to get into Rottee Strait
At 12, took in studg. sails hove to, and sounded.
At 1h.20' hove to being near Rottee east side; but finding the water get shoal, stretched to the No.wd.
At 4, land from N.N.E. to S.S.W. - At 5, wore, and steered along the east side end of Rottee, but saw no boat or people
At 8, Rottee S34E. to N.61.W. nearest distance 11/2 mile. Timor S.W. point bearing N.23.E. - Entered Samow Strait
Mustered ships company and saw them clean as usual.
At noon, saw two ships vessels lying under Samow N.E. point, without colours
Mod. breezes & fine with some haze
Steering up Samow Strait

[Page 455]

[1803 Mar: [Thursday] 31st. Investigator] [Friday] Apr: 1st. Into Coupang Bay - Timor

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and fine. Saw from their colours that one ship was American and a brig Dutch - Sent an officer on board the former & hove to until we learned that there was peace. On the boats returning steered through the strait for Coupang Bay. A boat with the Dutch and American Commanders came on board. At 4, shortend sail, wore off shore and came to with the small bower about 3/4 mile off the town, the flag staff S.S.E. Veered to half a cable and furled sails
Sent an officer on shore to wait upon the governor and report the ship. - Received a supply of fruit and a days fresh meat from the governor
Saluted the fort with 13 guns, which was returned with an equal number.
At sunset, down T.Gt. yards
A.M. Light breezes and hazy
Served fresh meat and fruit to the people
The Commander went on shore to wait upon the governor. - Cooper employed setting up casks to receive rice etc.
Noon, light breezes and fine weather with haze
The Commander returned

[Page 456]

1803 Apr: [Saturday] - 2nd. H.M.S. Investigator [ [Monday] - 4th. Moored in Coupang Bay - Timor]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather.
Came into the bay the American ship Hunter, from under the island Samow. - People employed in the holds
Light airs and fine.
Received a Karabow, and fruit and vegetables from the shore. -
Beef, fruit & vegetables served to the people
Employed in the holds and sending casks on shore for fresh provisions.
Noon, light airs & fine, with haze
Moderate breezes and fine weather. Moored ship one cable on the small bower to the S.W. and 1/2 cable on the best bower N.E. - along the shore
Launch employed carrying provision casks on shore to be filled
Do. weather
Calm and fine. Sent the launch to haul the sein, but she had no success.
Fresh beef, fruit and vegetables served to the people - Employed cleaning the ship
Noon, light breezes and fine weather

[Page 457]

[1803 Apr: [Saturday] - 2nd. H.M.S. Investigator] [Monday] - 4th. Moored in Coupang Bay - Timor

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes & fine, with some haze. Fired a salute of 13 guns on being visited by the governor of Coupang
Do. weather.
Light breezes and fine.
Sent empty casks on shore, in the launch
Cleared hawse. - Fresh beef, fruit and vegetables served to the ships company as usual
Cooper and two men on shore, preparing casks for provisions and water. - Set up the F.T. mt. rigging - Noon, mod & fine, with haze
Moderate breezes and fine weather, with haze
Set up the main top-mast rigging
Received on board rice and sugar
Mod. & light breezes with cloudy weather
Employed stowing in the main hold
Received 8 more casks of rice
Served fresh provisions meat, fruit & vegetables to the people. -
Received some spirits from the fort, and several smaller articles. Light breezes & fine

[Page 458]

1803 Apr: [Wednesday] - 6th. Investigator in Coupang Bay [ [Friday] - 8th. In Coupang Bay - I. Timor]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs & cloudy. Some flying showers of rain
Received 23 casks of water.
Moderate breezes and cloudy
Received a raft of 21 casks of water
Fresh meat, fruit and vegetables served to the ships company
Received 5 more casks of water, and some small things from the shore - Light breezes & hazy.
[Thursday] - 7 th.
Moderate breezes and cloudy weather.
Employed principally in the holds
Light breezes and cloudy
Mod & cloudy
Light airs and cloudy
Served fresh beef and double proportion of fruit and vegetables
Received some buffaloes (Carabous) and hogs for sea store; and by the launch 1200lbs of molasses -
Noon, cloudy, with small rain at times

[Page 459]

[1803 Apr: [Wednesday] - 6th. Investigator in Coupang Bay] [Friday] - 8th. In Coupang Bay - I. Timor

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy, with rain at times Got all the casks etc. off from the shore; and hoisted in the launch. Afterwards, unmoored ship and hove in to half a cable - The Commander and several officers having dined with the governor, the fort fired a salute of 13 guns on their leaving the shore -
Two men being found missing, sent an officer on shore and had the town searched for them, but without effect -
Received on board a buffalo and 22 sheep and goats for sea store
Light breezes and fine f i
Ships draught of water (Forward 13. 6
                                     (Aft 13. 3

Light breezes and fine weather
At day light, weigh'd and stretched to the No. until an officer again went on shore after the two men. At 8 tacked toward the town.
At 9, tacked off, hove to, and made the signal for the boat. At 10, filled to stretch out of the bay, the boat having returned without either of the men
Stowed the sheet and best bower [anchor]s and unbent the cables.
Fresh beef served as usual. Noon, variable light breezes and cloudy weather, with haze

[Page 460]

1803 April. Investigator in Coupang Bay - Timor [General remarks]

At this time the settlement of at Coupang or Coepang appears to be in a low state there having been no communication with the other Dutch settlements in India during the late war; their supplies from Batavia were consequently cut off, and there was no market for their bees wax and sandal wood, which appears to be their principal only articles of export. The present governor, John Giesler Esq. had been here about two years, which seems to have been soon after the settlement was abandoned by the British troops.
The soldiers of the fort are mostly Malays, except the officers who are either European or half bred: the principal of these is a Swiss, but his office is no higher than serjeant major, nor is there more than one or two Dutch residents here besides the governor and surgeon. The rice and arrack we procured here was from the Dutch Companys store, and is sent which is furnished annually from Batavia; and the brig that was lying under Pulo Samow had arrived about a month since on this service. The Commander of this brig, Mr. Jonson, I found to be an attentive, pleasant polite and very useful man, and from his speaking some English was very useful to us able to explain our wants to the governor, which he obligingly continued to do during our stay. Besides a supply of rice, sugar, molasses, arrack and fresh meat, I procured fruit and vegetables every day for the ships company, besides carrying and carried some to sea with about 1000lbs of fresh meat in live stock. No person except the governor would take bills, so that our messes were mostly supplied by barter, which for to those who had iron ware was advantageous enough
 

[Page 461]

[1803 April. Investigator in Coupang Bay - Timor] General remarks

The trade of Timor is carried on by the Chinese, who pay as much duty upon their goods to the Dutch according to my information, as is nearly sufficient to bear the expenses of the settlement.
The bees wax and sandal wood exported, is are carried to Batavia, where their value becomes doubled, and from thence they are carried with other articles to China in junks which make annual voyages. The value of the wax and sandal wood is nearly double at Canton of their Batavia price; so that between Coupang and Canton the difference prices are as 1 to 4
At this time bees wax was worth 25 spanish dollars per picol at Coupang. Sandal wood of the best kind 20 dollars, the second 13, and the lowest price 7 dollars per picol
The first is the solid part of the tree, without sap, worm holes or other impurities, and is of a light yellow colour and strong aromatic scent. The second is consists of the sappy parts, frequently worm eaten; has less scent, and its colour not at all clear. The last kind is the roots of the tree, and such other parts as will not be accepted in the second class These articles may be purchased in part or perhaps altogether with iron ware at a price advanced as much from England to Coupang, as the sandal wood is from thence to China; but yet iron seems to be more valuable at Solor, Flores and the neighbouring islands than at Coupang, and these islands are said to afford a greater abundance of fresh provisions than Timor seems to do; as also a sma[ll] community of the birds nests which bear such a high price in China

[Page 462]

1803 April. Investigator in Coupang Bay - Timor [General Remarks]

In addition to the account of the trepang collected from the Malays at Cape Arnhem, I learnt here the following particulars. The Macassar natives had been accustomed for many years to fish for this animal about these eastern islands; and a dry shoal to the southward of Rottee was much frequented by them for this purpose About 20 years since a prao was driven from thence by stress of weather to the north coast of New Holland, and finding the trepang there, they have since made it one of their principal fishing places.
It does not appear that the praos come to this island with their trepang, or do the Dutch think that the Chinese meet them at Timor-laoet, Macassar and Batavia being the only parts of India visited by the Chinese junks.
The price of the trepang in China, as I am informed, is 40 dollars, and for the best 60 dollars per picol, which agrees tolerably well with the Cape Arnhem account
From May 1st. to the end of October, Coupang Bay is perfectly secure; and there is but little to be apprehended from the N.Wrly. winds in April, and or to the middle of November, At other times but the Dutch Company order their vessels to lie under the N.E. point of Pulo Samow , about 5 miles from Coupang until after the 1st. of May; although but the north side of the bay, called Babao Road by Dampier, affords better anchorage and more security.
The flood tide comes from the southward through Samow Strait

[Page 463]

[1803 April. Investigator in Coupang Bay - Timor] General Remarks

Strait into Coupang Bay, and rises from 3 to 9 or 10 feet, the winds making a great difference both in the rise and the time of high water: we found the latter to be generally about the time that the moon passed over the meridian. In the offing, I am informed that a current prevails according to the monsoon, whose direction it soon acquires
The value of a dollar at Coupang according to the Dutch Companys regulations, is 5/4; but their currency seems to [60] stivers or pence; whence it will happen that if a strangers has to receive dollars they will be each 5s/4, but if he pays them they will be only 5s/.: the money accounts however, are generally made out in rix dollars, an imaginary coin of whose value is mostly 4s/. value. Besides dollars, the current coins are doits, rupees, and ducatoons; and half and whole gold rupees of Batavia are sometimes find their way here
I found here a tomb placed over the gardner of the French ship Geographe who died here and was buried close to Mr. Nelson the gardner of the Bounty. An inscription cut in lead is affixed to the tomb, and was copied by Mr Brown is placed over them which is as follows
Ici repose Ans: Riedle d'Ausbourg age de XXXV an. Jardinier en chef de l'Expedition de dcouvertes ord: par le 1ier. Consul Buonaparte l'an IX.
Son Zle son Activite ses travaux furent la cause de sa mort le XXVIII Venddi. an X
Quique vous soyes, respectes son tombeau & le monument que doit transmettre son nom la posterit ainsi que celui de Dav. Nelson qui accompagt. Wm. Bligh un & l'autre sont reunis danz ce meme lieu. Le. Com. en chef de l'Expedition Ns. Baudin

[Page 464]

Astronomical observations in Coupang Bay [ [Saturday] - 9th. Towards Port Jackson]

[All tables - page not reproduced - see original journal]

[Page 465]

[Astronomical observations in Coupang Bay] [Saturday] - 9th.Towards Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Variable breezes and cloudy weather
Employed securing the booms, and the live stor[es]

At 4, tacked towards Pulo Samow. Saw a small prao sailing along the shore, which we hoped might have been from Coupang with our men, but she landed at Samow, and at 6 we tacked off. The town bearing S.60.E. and Samow No. and N.W. points on S.70.W. -
Light airs and hazy.
Lost a deep-sea lead and 10 fms. of line
Pulo Samow S.E. to S.b.W.
Light airs and fine. At 6, Pulo Samow N.85.E. to S.12W. off shore 3 or 4 miles
Fresh provisions served to the ships company
Carrying all sail, along the west side of Samow.
The fore and main courses being worn out, bent the second best
At noon, light airs and cloudy with haze. Samow extremes N.68.E to S.12.E; nearest distance 5 or 6 miles

[Page 466]

1803 April [Sunday] -10th. Investigator from Timor [ [Monday] - 11th. towards Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather
At 2, a strong rippling, apparently of tide came from the northward and passed the ship
At 6, Pulo Samow N68 to S.51.E. Rottee S.W. part S.4.W.
Light airs with hazy weather
Do. weather
At day light Samow bore E.3/4N to SS.E.1/2E from which it appears we had been set astern in the night
Light airs and fine. Set studg. sails
Fresh meat, fruit and vegetables served to the ships company.
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean as usual.
Noon, light airs and fine, with haze. Samow N.W. point N.61.E. Rottee westernmost extreme. S.8.W.

[Page 467]

[1803 April [Sunday] - 10th. Investigator from Timor] [Monday] - 11th. towards Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes with sultry weather. Took in studg. sails on the wind heading.
At 3, the strong rippling came again as yesterday
At 5, being taken aback, trimmed sails to the westward. At 6, Samow N.W.end N.47.E. b small low isle, west extr: S.61.E.
Light airs and hazy.
Moderate breezes
Light airs & fine wr.
Set studg. sails.
At day light. Rottee from S78 to 14E. with two smaller isles off the S.W. end
Took in studg. sails
Served fresh provisions to the ships company.
At noon, Rottee from S84 to 45E. Dowa Isle S20 to 35E. 3 leagues.
New I. Savu (as supposed) N76 to 88W from the mast head. Light airs and cloudy with haze.

[Page 468]

1803 Apr: [Tuesday] -12th. Investigator from Timor [ [Wednesday] -13th. towards Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and cloudy. Being taken aback trimmed sails to the southward. At 2, tacked.
Mod. breezes and cloudy weather
At 6, Dowan I center about S.51.E. Savu New I. N.76.W. to W.2.S. perhaps 4 or 5 leagues
Hove to, to sound
Cloudy weather. Took in the royals
Hove to and sounded
Squally, with thunder, lightening and rain
Variable breezes, and heavy threatening weather
At 6, land seen from N8 to 33W off deck.
Hove to and tried for soundings
Fresh meat and fruit served to the ships company
Heavy rain, at times
Noon, light airs and rainy: the sun visible at times.

[Page 469]

[1803 Apr: [Tuesday] -12th. Investigator from Timor] [Wednesday] -13th. towards Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and cloudy

Set the small sails
At 4, Savu center N.3.W. New I. from the mast head N.W.b.N.
Many whales seen going N.E.
Drizzling rain. Took in the small sails. Lost a deep-sea lead and and 3 whole lines upon it
Hove to, to sound.
Fresh breezes and cloudy, with lightening in the S.W. quarter
Set the stay sails and larboard studg. sails
Fresh breezes and dark cloudy weather with rain -
Saw a water-spout near the ship
Fresh beef served to the ships company
Noon, light winds with dark cloudy weather, and a confused sea. Some small land birds about the ship.

[Page 470]

1803 April [Thursday] -14th. Investigator from Timor [towards the Trial rocks and Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light and fresh breezes alternately, with frequent heavy rain
At 3, tacked ship
Dark cloudy weather, with lightening to the S.E.ward. - Double reefed the top-sails
Hove to and tried for soundings Fresh breezes and cloudy weather Hove to and tried for soundings
At day light, out all reefs and set studg. sails
Fresh meat served to the ships company
Squally with rain at times. Made and shortened sail occasionally
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean
Noon, fresh breezes and dull cloudy weather. Hove to and tried for soundings.

[Page 471]

[1803 April [Thursday] -14th. Investigator from Timor] towards the Trial rocks and Port Jackson

The carpenter having found from his examination of the ship mentioned on Mar. 27. P.M. that the timbers were but very little more decayed than they were found to be in Nov. 1802 at the head of the Gulph of Carpentaria, I had once formed a plan of employing six or eight months longer upon the northern parts of New Holland, where the weather would be fine, and to have gone through Bass' Strait to Port Jackson in the following spring. I judged that the ship might be able to last out so long in fine weather; but it was necessary to the execution of this plan that some salt provisions should be procured at Coupang which I did not find it possible to do. Had the contrary happened, and there had been a ship by which a conveyance could have been had directly to Europe, I purposed to have despatched an officer and made application to my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to furnish him with a ship to be brought out to Port Jackson as soon as possible, in which we might have completed the examination of New Holland and afterwards returned to England; and I calculated, that we should might not have to wait at Port Jackson above three months for the ship

Not being able to obtain salt provisions, and having no prospect of an expeditious conveyance, I resorted to my first plan of getting to Port Jackson before the winter was fully set in, and take the chance of obtaining a ship there; but it being a part of my orders to examine the bank supposed to extend from the Trial Rocks towards Timor, I determined to accomplish this object during the passage; and now steered a course for the rocks accordingly

[Page 472]

1803 Apr: [Friday] - 15th. Investigator from Timor [ [Saturday] -16th. towards the Trial Rocks and to P. Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and dark cloudy weather, with rain. Set and took in the studg. sails occasion[ally]
Calm, with thick weather and rain. A jumbling cross sea running. At 51/4 the wind again sprung up from the S.E.ward
Fresh breezes and cloudy dark weather
Took in and set the stay sails and top gallant sails occasionally
Hove to and tried for soundings
Fresh breezes and cloudy
Fresh meat served to the ships company.
Noon, fresh breezes and dark cloudy weather in general, but with fair intervals at times

[Page 473]

[1803 Apr. [Friday] 15th. Investigator from Timor] [Saturday] 16th towards the Trial Rocks and to P. Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Strong and light breezes alternately, with thick weather, and at times heavy rain
Nearly calm. A ground swell running from the S.W.; but the top swell is in an opposite direction
Hove to and tried for soundings. Mod. and cloudy with drizzling rain
Fresh breezes and cloudy
Light breezes & cloudy. At daylight, set studding sails
Fresh beef served as usual
Squally, with rain.
Took in and set the studding sails occasionally
Cleaned below and aired with stoves
Noon, squally, with heavy rain at times
Hove to and tried for soundings

[Page 474]

1803 [Sunday] -17th. Investigator from Timor [ [Monday] -18th. towards the Trial Rocks & Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes with rain at times. Set studg. [sails]
At 3h.30' a strong squall coming, took in the studg. sails, T.Gt. sails etc. and double reefed the top-sails
Fresh breezes and cloudy with rain. Set top gallant sails
Hove to and tried for soundings
Lightening to the N.E.
Strong breezes and cloudy.
Squally with rain
At day light, more moderate. Let out second reefs and set studg. sails
Carried away a F.T.mt. studg. sail boom
Mod. and cloudy with haze
Lowered down the main and mizen top-sails to be repaired, and afterwards set them again. - Cleaned below and aired with stoves. -
Mustered ships company and saw them clean
Noon, light breezes and cloudy with haze: a swell from the N.E.
Water expended last week 31/4 tons
Remaining 541/4

[Page 475]

[1803 [Sunday] -17th. Investigator from Timor] [Monday] -18th. towards the Trial Rocks & Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy.
Set starbd. studg. sails
Took in the studg. sails
Hove to and tried for soundings.
Thunder and lightening to the northward. Dble. reefed the top-sails
Squally, with much thunder and lightening, and at times heavy rain
Cloudy, with rain at times
At day light, let out 2nd. reefs and set studg. sails -
Many tropic and some other birds about the ship -
Fresh meat served to the ships company
Set the royals
Noon, light breezes and cloudy, with haze
A swell running from the S.W.

[Page 476]

1803 Apr: [Tuesday] -19th. Investigator from Timor [ [Wednesday] - 20th. towards the Trial Rocks and Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and dark cloudy weather.
Repaired the lining of the M. top-sail
Took in the studg. sails
A long swell rolling from the S.W.
Mod. breezes and cloudy.
Do. weather
Set the jib stay sails and spanker
Hove to and tried for soundings
Set studg. sails
Light breezes & fine wr. A long S.W. swell
Fresh meat and spruce beer issued to the ships company.
Employed pointing a new main top-sail.
Noon, light breezes & fine with haze. Much swell running
Hove to and tried for soundings.

[Page 477]

[1803 Apr: [Tuesday] -19th. Investigator from Timor] [Wednesday] - 20th. towards the Trial Rocks and Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather. Clewed down the F. top-sail and repaired the lining
Pointed a new F. top-sail
Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. There being an appearance of a S.W. wind, hauled up two points that way; but the wind remaining steady at 10, steered West as before
Do. weather. Swell from the S.S.W.
Hove to and tried for soundings
At day light, let out the 2nd. reefs of the M. and mz. top-sails.
Steady fresh breeze, with a sea running from S.S.W.
Got travelling - shifting backstays up to the top-mast heads
Spruce beer served to the ships company
Steady fresh trade and fine weather with haze. A swell from S.S.W.
Hove to and tried for soundings

[Page 478]

1803 Apr: [Thursday] - 21st. Investigator from Timor [towards the Trial rocks and Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy weather
Cl[ue]d down the miz. top sail to be repaired and afterwards set it again
Double-reefed the main and mizen top-sails
Hove to and tried for soundings. Strong breezes and cloudy weather: a swell from the southward. Handed T.Gt. sails
Hove to and tried for soundings
At day light, fresh breezes and cloudy; let out 2nd. reefs and set top-gallant sails
Hove to and tried for soundings
Mustered ships company and saw them clean. -
Noon, fresh breezes and fine weather: some haze and flying clouds
Hove to and tried for soundings

[Page 479]

[1803 Apr: [Thursday] - 21st. Investigator from Timor] towards the Trial rocks and Port Jackson

In steering for the rocks I kept first on the New Holland side of the direct course, both to get faster to the south amongst stronger winds, and also to ascertain the connexion of the supposed bank with New Holland. On the 17th. we steered more westerly until we and crossed the direct line from the [ro]cks to Timor, and this morning I hauled up more to the southward to cross it again, having as yet found nothing of the supposed bank. I would have steered on still further to the west, had not the southerly direction of the wind made me apprehend that I should not afterwards be able to make the rocks at all. The strength of the wind and the swell make it impossible to get much more than 100 fathoms perpendicularly, so that our soundings do not give so final a determination with respect to the bank as could be wished. -
At this time we have ten men ill of a diarrhoea, and many others are slightly affected in the same way. I attribute this partly principally to the late great change in our diet from salt meat to fresh meat with fruit & vegetables and in part to the late rainy weather, which as mentioned before, produced a cons similar and more considerable effect in January and February last. In the first part if the cause, we s If refreshing at Timor has in order to avoid the scurvy has been a of the causes of our present complaint ill health, I am indeed unfortunate; in endeavouring to avoid Scylla I shall have fallen upon Charybdis.

[Page 480]

1803 April [Friday] 22nd. H.M.S. Investigator [ [Saturday] - 23rd. towards the Trial Rocks & P. Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy. Hauled up near the wind, but finding the ship plunged and made much leeway, kept away so as to have the wind near the beam
At dusk, double reefed the top-sails
Ship making 4 inches of water per hour
Hove to and tried for soundings
Strong breezes: handed T.Gt. sails
Hove to and tried for soundings; afterwds. set T.Gt. sails and spanker.
At day light, let out 2nd. reefs
Fresh breezes and fine.
Unbent the jib to be repaired, and bent the new one lately made.
Spruce beer, sour krout and vinegar served to the ships company
Noon, fresh breezes and fine, with some haze, and much swell from the southward. Hove to for soundings

[Page 481]

[1803 April [Friday] 22nd. H.M.S. Investigator] [Saturday] - 23rd. towards the Trial Rocks & P. Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy. Took in the flying jib boom. - Fired off the swivels and put them below
Mod. breezes. Hove to and tried for soundings and double reefed the top-sails
Fresh breezes and cloudy.
Handed T.Gt. sails
Hove to and tried for soundings
Tried again for soundings At day light, nothing unusual seen from the mast head. - Set T.Gt. sails
Punished John Lee (seaman) with 12 lashes for sleeping in his watch
The ship making 5 inches of water per hour
Bent the best bower cable -
Spruce beer served as usual
Noon, fresh breezes and cloudy with some haze. Much sea from the southward.
Hove to and tried for soundings

[Page 482]

1803 Apr: [Sunday] - 24th. Investigator from Timor [ [Monday] - 25th. in search of the Trial Rocks]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy. Finding the ship to be something to the south of the Trial Rocks, bore away in order to make them. Out 2nd. reefs.
Cut up pork No. 11, right; and beef No. 33, short 16lb[s]
Nothing unusual in sight from the mast head at sunset. Hove to and tried for soundings; and double reefed the top-sails
Shortened sail and brought to, sounding every hour: ships head to the N.E.ward
Wore and laid to: ships head S.W.ward
Mod. breezes and cloudy weather
At day light, bore away to the westward again
Light breezes and hazy weather. The studg. sails set.
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean as usual
Spruce beer issued
Noon, light breezes and cloudy, with haze. A swell from the southward. - Hove to and tried for soundings

[Page 483]

[1803 Apr: [Sunday] - 24th. Investigator from Timor] [Monday] - 25th. in search of the Trial Rocks

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy. Finding the ship to be fully as far to the west as the westernmost situation assigned to the Trial Rocks, kept N.W. until sunset and then seeing nothing of them, hauled up to the eastward to look further in that direction
At 6 and 8, hove to and tried for soundings but with no better success than usual.
Light breezes and fine weather. Swell from the south-eastward.
Moderate and fine.
Nearly calm. Hove to and tried for soundings.
Nothing unusual to be seen at day light; but some tropic birds were hovering about the ship
Light breezes and cloudy
Sailmakers repairing the old jib
Sour krout and spruce beer served to the ships company
Noon, moderate breezes and cloudy weather. Hove to and tried for soundings

[Page 484]

1803 [Tuesday] - 26th. Apr: H.M.S. Investigator from Timor [ [Wednesday] - 27. in search of Trial Rocks]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather
Nothing unusual to be seen at sunset from the mast head
Hove to and tried for soundings
Nearly calm
Light breezes and cloudy.
A long still swell from the S.W.ward
Mod. & cloudy. On the supposition that breakers were seen to the E.N.E. kept away; but at 9 hauled up again
Several birds of the petrel kind about the ship
Noon, moderate breezes and cloudy weather. Hove to and tried for soundings, but without effect. - Spruce beer issued

[Page 485]

[1803 [Tuesday] - 26th. Apr: H.M.S. Investigator from Timor] [Wednesday] - 27. in search of Trial Rocks

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather
Rebent the old jib
A long swell from S.S.W.
Nothing, in particular, visible at sunset
Hove to and tried for soundings
Hove to for soundings. Fresh breezes.
Hove to to sound
At day light, out 2nd. reefs
Nothing unusual in sight
Sailmakers putting a 4th. reef into a new top-sail
Spruce beer issued as usual
Noon, moderate breezes and hazy weather. A long still swell from the S.S.W. Hove to and tried to get soundings

[Page 486]

1803 [Thursday] - Apr. 28. Investigator from Timor [in search of the Trial Rocks, and towards Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy
Sailmakers putting a 4th. reef into a new Top[sail]
Fresh breezes and cloudy
Tacked ship to the southward, - double reef[ed] the topsails, - and tried for soundings
Nothing unusual to be seen at sunset from the mast head
Moderate breezes and cloudy. A long swell from the southward
Hove to and tried for soundings.
Let out 2nd. reefs
Hove to and tried for soundings. Nothing unusual in sight
Mustered ships company and saw them clean
Noon, moderate breezes and fine weather, with haze: a long swell from the southward

[Page 487]

[1803 [Thursday] - Apr. 28. Investigator from Timor] in search of the Trial Rocks, and towards Port Jackson

At 6 P.M. I gave up steering to the eastward, and nothing being in sight at noon, all hope of seeing the Trial Rocks vanished; for the state of the ship and the approach of the winter season made it unadvisable to delay our voyage any more upon an uncertainty. Our present examination renders it tolerably certain that the Trial Rocks do not lie in the space comprehended between the latitudes 20.15' and 21.00', and the east longitudes 104.00' and 107.10". (Corrected = 103.35' and 106.40')
A sketch of these rocks published by Mr. Dalrymple in 1782 from the description of a sloop sent from Batavia, places them 80 leagues only from the coast of New Holland, on which account it was principally, that I left off steering to the westward for them on the 25th. in the evening. Whether the rocks lie to the east or west of the above-mentioned longitudes I cannot guess tell but from the circumstance of there being tropic birds out about the ship on the 25th. I am should be inclined to think they lie to the westward. Probably there may be an equal degree of uncertainty with respect to the latitude: Arrowsmiths South-Sea chart places them in about 20.40' So. as does a table in the 14th. edition of Moores navigation; but the before-mentioned sketch says they lie in 19.30' So.; and except these authorities now mentioned I have nothing that relates to these rocks Trial Rocks

[Page 488]

1803 Apr: [Friday] - 29th. Investigator from Timor [ [Saturday] - 30th. towards C. Leuwen and Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather
Pointed the 4th. reef of the new fore top-sail
Mod. & cloudy. A long head swell
Light airs and dark cloudy weather
Nearly calm
Sounded in 185 fms. without getting bottom
Cloudy weather
Unbent the cables, and roused them upon deck. Cleaned in the tiers and between decks, and sprinkled with vinegar
Noon, near calm, with dull hazy weather.
Spruce beer served as usual

[Page 489]

[1803 Apr: [Friday] - 29th. Investigator from Timor] [Saturday] - 30th. towards C. Leuwen and Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and cloudy.
Rounded both the cables, and paid them down.
Mod. breezes and dark cloudy weather, with spitting rain. - Double-reefed the top-sails
Squally weather. Took in stay sails
Fresh breezes and squally. A swell getting up
Handed the top-gallant sails
At 7h.35' wore ship, having missed stays
Fresh breezes and cloudy with a long swell from S.S.W.
Mustered the ships companies clothes, in divisions.
Noon, fresh breezes and cloudy with haze: ship plunging much to a heavy head sea

[Page 490]

1803 May [Sunday] -1st. Investigator from Timor [ [Monday] - 2nd. towards C. Leuwen & Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather
Set the M.F.Gt. sail
Do. weather
Set the jib
Fresh breezes and cloudy weather.
Do. weather. The swell from S.S.W. somewhat abated.
Squally weather.
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean. Read the articles of war and abstracts of the acts of parliament
Noon. squally, variable weather with haze. A long swell from the southward.

[Page 491]

[1803 May [Sunday] -1st. Investigator from Timor] [Monday] - 2nd. towards C. Leuwen & Port Jackson]
[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes in general, but squalls of wind and rain passing over occasionally
The F.T. sail sheet giving way, the sail was split: unbent it and bent a new one
Two albatrosses about the ship
Fresh breezes. The head swell much abated
The ship now made only 14 inches of water in 4 hours.
Moderate breezes, with squalls of wind and rain at times
Set T.Gt. sails
Sailmakers putting 4th. reef into a new main top-sail.
Put the ships company to three watches and the officers to four, Mr. Lacy - mate, being ordered to act as lieutenant in the 4th. watch
Noon, moderate breezes with squalls at times: some southerly swell remaining. Spruce beer served as usual.

[Page 492]

1803 May [Tuesday] - 3rd. Investigator from Timor [ [Wednesday] - 4th. towards C. Leuwen and Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and fine weather
Let the 2nd. reefs out of the M. and Mz. top sails and set the small stay sails
Fresh breezes and fine weather
Mod. breezes, with squalls at times
Var. from 6 sets of}
Azim. By Mr. Aken} = 3.38' W
Mod. & cloudy
Let another reef out of the fore and mizen top-sails
Sailmakers putting a 4th. reef in the new M. top-sail. People making points for it
Noon, moderate breezes and fine weather with haze: some swell yet remaining from the southward

[Page 493]

[1803 May [Tuesday] - 3rd. Investigator from Timor] [Wednesday] - 4th. towards C. Leuwen and Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and fine weather
People pointed the 4th. reef of the new main top-sail
Steady moderate breeze with fine weather
Cloudy.
Fine weather. Some swell from the southward
Fine weather. Several tropic birds about the ship
Cleaned well below and aired with stoves.
At 11h.45' wore ship and hove to, to hoist in the whale-boat before the bad weather comes. Sounded with 180 fms. without getting bottom
Noon, light breezes and fine weather
Spruce beer served as usual

[Page 494]

1803 May [Thursday] - 5th. Investigator from Timor [ [Friday] - 6th. towards C. Leuwen and Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather. Made sail and tacked to the southward
Cut up beef No.27 - short of weight 4 lbs
Tacked ship on her breaking off, but the wind veering back immediately, at 8 tacked again to the southward
Fine clear night, with the appearance of a westerly wind
Light breezes and fine
Cloudy weather
Tried for soundings with 195 fms. of line without effect.
On a light breeze springing up, set studg. sails
Mustered ships company and saw them clean.
Sour krout and vinegar issued, and spruce beer as usual. Noon, light airs and fine pleasant weather.

[Page 495]

[1803 May [Thursday] - 5th. Investigator from Timor] [Friday] - 6th. towards C. Leuwen and Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather. Bent a new mizen top-sail
Mod. breezes and fine.
Steady fresh breeze and fine weather. Took in studg. sails and stay sails
Fresh breezes and fine weather: some sea getting up after the ship
Strong breezes. Handed T.Gt. sails and double reefed the mz. top-sail
At day light, set top-gallant sails
Squally with rain. Double reefed the Top-sails
Bent a new M. top-sail, jib and F.T. mt. stay-sail, the old sails being all split, mostly from the ropes giving way.
Noon, strong breezes and cloudy, with spitting rain at times: the atmosphere moist and hazy

[Page 496]

1803 May [Saturday] - 7th. Investigator from Timor [ [Sunday] - [8th.] towards C. Leuwen and Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy, with spitting rain at times.
Took in top-gallant sails
Strong breezes and cloudy: a high sea getting up from the south-westward
Carried away the fore top-sail tye, and several other ropes during the night
Set T.Gt. sails
Strong breezes and squally. Took in and set top-gallant sails occasionally
Several albatrosses and sheerwaters about
Fresh breezes. Let out 2nd. reefs of the M. and mz. top-sails
Bent a new fore top-gallant sail
Sailmakers repairing the old fore top-sail
Noon, fresh breezes and cloudy. A high sea running from the south-westward.
Spruce beer issued

[Page 497]

[1803 May [Saturday] - 7th. Investigator from Timor] [Sunday] - [8th.] towards C. Leuwen and Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy.
Sailmakers repairing the old fore top-sail
Moderate and cloudy: a high S.W. swell
Set staysails to steady the ship from rolling so much
Wind variable in quantity, with cloudy wr.
Nearly calm
Spitting rain at times
Washed and cleaned below and aired with stoves.
Let another reef out of the fore and mizen top.
Mustered the ships company, saw them clean, and read the abstract of the act relating to allotments to them.
Noon, variable winds with a high swell from the S.W.ward. Few birds about.
Spruce beer issued as usual

[Page 498]

[Monday] - 9th. Investigator fr Timor [ [Tuesday] - 10[th.] towards C. Leuwen and Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs and cloudy. Tried for soundings with 190 fms. without getting bottom
Nearly calm. A high swell still running from the south-westward
Variable wind, and cloudy weather
Light and moderate breezes at times, with small rain.
Tried for soundings with 190 fms.: no bottom
Got some sails upon deck to be aired
Spruce beer served as usual
At noon, nearly calm: the swell somewhat gone down

[Page 499]

[ [Monday] - 9th. Investigator fr Timor] [Tuesday] -10[th.] towards C. Leuwen and Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Cloudy weather
Light airs
Light breezes and cloudy: the swell still running from the S.W., but more easily than before
Fine weather
Cleaned well below
Light baffling airs
Spruce beer issued as usual
Noon, light breezes & dull cloudy weather

[Page 500]

1803 May [Wednesday] 11th. Investigator from Timor [ [Thursday] -12th. towards C. Leuwen and Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy wr.
Light airs
Nearly calm
Mod. breezes and cloudy.
A long silent swell running from the southwestward
Set studg. sails
Sailmakers repairing the old main top-sail
Spruce beer issued as before
Noon, moderate breezes and cloudy weather. Some swell from the south-west

[Page 501]

[1803 May [Wednesday] 11th. Investigator from Timor] [Thursday] - 12th. towards C. Leuwen and Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. Took in studg. sails and braced to the wind
Fresh breezes and cloudy. Double-reefed the top-sails
Moderate breezes with cloudy weather.
Long swell from S.W.
Light breezes.
At day light, let out the 2nd. reefs and set the royals
Mod. and cloudy. Cleaned below and aired with stoves
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean. -
Moderate breezes and fine weather. Took in the royals

[Page 502]

1803 May [Friday] -13th. Investigator from Timor [ [Saturday] -14th. Off C. Leuwen and towards Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy. At 1, hove to and [sound]ed with 120 fms.: no bottom.
Sailmakers repairing the old main top-sail
Fresh breezes and cloudy. Double reefed the to[p-sails]
Squally. Handed top-gallant sails
Drizzling rain at times. Hove to and soun[ded] with 125 fms.: no bottom. Bore away for Cape Leuwen
Mod. & cloudy. At daylight hove to and sounded with 140 fms., no bottom.
Out 2nd. reefs of the top sails
Cleaned below and aired with stoves
Set the F.T.mt. studg. sail
Spruce beer issued as usual
Noon, light breezes and cloudy, with haze
Hove to and sounded with 180 fms.: no bottom

[Page 503]

[1803 May [Friday] - 13th. Investigator from Timor] [Saturday] -14th. off C. Leuwen and towards Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather. Unbent the main and mizen top-mast stay-sails
A long south-westerly swell
Hove to and tried for soundings. No land to be seen from the mast head
Light airs and cloudy
Hove to and got soundings, and at day light, the land was seen from N.33. to 62. E. 6 or 8 leagues
Light airs. A whale seen going to the westward
Many pintados and albatrosses about.
Noon, extremes of the land of C. Leuwen N.12. to 32.E 6 or 7 leagues
Light breezes and cloudy

[Page 504]

1807 May [Sunday] - 15th. Investigator from Timor
[ [Monday] -16th. along the south coast tow. [indecipherable words]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy. Set studg. sails
Cut up beef No.43, short 28lbs
At 6, extreme of the land about Cape Cha[tham] E.b.S.1/2 S. from the mast head. Hove to and sounded upon a bottom of live coral
Mod. & cloudy. Hove to and sounded.
Fresh breezes. At day light, the land from N.W.b.N. to E.N.E.
At 8, a lump of land something like C. Chatham N.21.E. (perhaps C. Howe)
Squally. Double reefed the top-sails, and handed T.Gt. sails.
Bent the cables
Noon, land like Bald Head N.2[0]. W. distant 5 or 6 leagues.
Strong breezes with thick hazy weather.
The land or sun visible only at times

[Page 505]

[1803 May [Sunday] -15th. Investigator from Timor] [Monday] -16th. along the south coast tow. [indecipherable words]

[Tables and additions in pencil not reproduced - see original journal]

Fresh breezes and dull cloudy weather. Set T.Gt. sails
Mt. Gardner W.b.N.3/4 N. and an island (1) N.W.
At dusk, the island N.63.W. and no further land in sight
Moderate breezes and cloudy. Set stay sails
Light breezes. At day light, let out all reefs, and set studg. sails and royals. No land in sight
Cleaned below and aired with stoves
People making spunyarn and otherwise working up junk. Sailmakers repairing the old top-sails
Noon, light breezes and fine weather. No land in sight from the mast head

[Page 506]

1803 May [Tuesday] -17th. From Timor along the south coast [In D'Entrecasteauxs Archipelago, towards Port [Jackson] ]

Light breezes and cloudy.
Sunset, took in the studg. sails single reefed the topsails and sounded. No land in sight.
Light breezes and fine. Hove to and sounded
At 3h.15' saw Termination Island, and at 4 it bore N.E. 6 or 7 miles. Sounded
Sunrise, the large island U in sight over two rocks N.1[0]1/2 E. Termination I. N75W.
Fresh breezes. Took in the F.T.mt. studg. sail
People making spunyarn etc. Cleaned below & aired with stoves
Many islands in sight
Noon, breakers S.35.E. 5 or 6 miles. D, the highest part of the salt island N731/2 E.
Western peak of the Brothers N.2.E.
Dull cloudy weather: following sea

[Page 507]

[1803 May [Tuesday] -17th. From Timor along the south coast] In D'Entrecasteauxs Archipelago, towards Port [Jackson]

Our present deviation from the direct course to Port Jackson, arising from my intention to put in for a day or two at Goose-Island Bay, in order to procure wood, and a few casks of salt, as well as and some other articles of which we stand in need, as well as some geese for refreshment
It was with pleasure that I found the relative positions of the several islands seen this morning, to be more correct than from the expedition with which we passed through a part of the archipelago, and the haziness of the weather, I expected. It is not, however, to be supposed that every island has its exact form and position; this is more than can possibly be supposed from any running survey; but in a part of those, which from their distance were unavoidably the least correct, I shall now be able to make some improvements, in consequence of taking a different rout; and this was one of the collateral objects that induced me to chuse the island D to stop at in preference to any other that lay in our track to Port Jackson

[Page 508]

1803 May [Wednesday] -18th. Investigator in [D'Entrecasteauxs Archipelago - (Goose I. Bay) ]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy. Seeing a heavy break near the ship, hauled up and passed to the northward of it. At 3, passed between f and D, the salt island, and soon after hau[led] up round its east side. Tacked occasionally working up into Goose-Island Bay. At 6.15 came to with the small bower, veer[ing] to half a cable and furled sails. Middle rock West dist 1/3 mile, and the north-ea[st]ern peak of the Brothers just open with the north end of Goose Island
At 1P.M. Mr. Charles Douglas - boatswain departed this life: his complaints were fever and dysentery, both of which have unfortunately too much ground in the ship at this time, there being still 14 men in the sick list, mostly from these dreadful disorders
A.M. Mod. breezes and cloudy
At day light hoisted out the launch and whale-boat.
Sent a party on shore to cut wood and brooms, upon the salt island (D,) and another to some small islands to kill seals and geese
People on board employed about the rigging
The Commander went on shore to examine the salt lake, and to search for the most commodious place for carrying on the necessary duty on shore

[Page 509]

[1803 May [Wednesday] -18th. Investigator in] D'Entrecasteauxs Archipelago - (Goose I. Bay)

On examining along the south shores of the bay, I found there was no landing with any convenience upon any but the middle beach, where I accordingly fixed the [w]ooders and people who were to boil down seal oil which was much wanted on board. Not having yet recovered of the a lameness arising from scorbutic sores, and which has been a constant impediment in my way since the latter end of February, I sent the master to look at the salt lake. and To my surprise he reported that no good salt could now be procured there, although it was so abundant on our former visit in the summer that almost any quantity might have been taken, according to the report of all those who visited it.
Water was found by digging in a sandy gully, but so salt as not to be usable drinkable, although it appeared evidently to drain from the higher land and was much above the salt water sea level.
Upon the Goose Island a few seals were killed and transported across to the wooding place, and some geese might have been killed had there been any person with me to go after them.
There seems to be much more surf every where than when we were here last year, which may probably be occasioned by the stronger westerly winds prevailing at this season.

[Page 510]

1803 May [Thursday] -19th. Investigator at anchor in Goose-I. [Bay, in her way to Port Jackson from Timor]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy fine. Sent an officer and party to inter the body of Mr. Ch. Douglas, with the usu[al] ceremony. - The launch returned with a few geese an[d] seals. Sent the latter on shore and received wood an[d] the people by return.
Cloudy weather
At day light, sent the wooders and others on shore, and received sand and brooms by return
Landed a party upon the Goose-Island to kill geese and seals: they brought 4 geese at noon bu[t] no seals. - Employed on board setting up the lower and top-mast rigging
Noon, light airs and dull cloudy weather

[Friday] - 20.Light breezes and dull cloudy weather
Sent the whale boat to the small rocky islands to the eastward, to kill seals and geese: she returned at sunset with some seals, but without geese. - Receive[d] a launch load of wood
A.M. Do. weather.
At day light began clearing away in the main hold to receive the cables from between decks, in order to make a greater clearance for the accomodation of the sick.
Sent the launch on shore to bring off the remaining wood and people
Noon, light breezes and fine weather.

[Page 511]

[1803 May [Thursday] -19th. Investigator at anchor in Goose-I.] Bay, in her way to Port Jackson from Timor

In the small middle cove upon the salt island, where our wood was cut, I had the following inscription put up over the body of our late unfortunate boatswain

May 18. 1803
Mr. C. Douglas -

             Boatswain of H.M.S.Investigator
lies interred here

M.F. Comr.

On this visit we find the supply of geese to be very deficient of what had been procured in 1802, having at that time procured 65, whereas only 12 have been now killed. These, however, afford good refreshment to our debilitated dysenteric patients to whose use they were principally applied.
In consequence of the well-judged suggestion of the surgeon I ordered the cables to be coiled away in the holds, which by shaking a few empty casks the present light state of the ship enabled us to do; and thus to make a considerably greater quantity of room in the messing and sleeping place of the people, by which by [indecipherable words] it will thus be rendered more airy and convenient.

[Page 512]

1808 May [Saturday] - 21st. Investigator in Goose-
Island [Bay, D'Entrecasteaux's Archipelago]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and cloudy. Employed coiling the cables away in the hold. Received wood by the launch and the wooding & sealing parties from the shore; afterwards hoisted in the launch and prepared for sea.
Ships draft of water Forwd. 13f. - Aft 12f.11'.
Departed this life Wm. Hillier - quarter master a quiet good man who but had been ill mostly since leaving England: his complaint lay in his lu[ngs]
Mod. breezes and cloudy. At daylight, hoisted in whale boat and hove short, but finding the ship [?] let go the best bower having but little room astern. - At 9 weighed the best bo[wer] and sent the whale-boat ahead with a kedge, b[ut] this not holding after the small bower was weighed let go the stream [anchor], and before [the] ship brought up we were obliged to let go the [?] bower again, the small bower being foul. By [this] time we were within a cables length of the rocks, but ne[ver]theless, from the wind having come more round, could hav[e] laid clear of the shore if an anchor would have held un[til] we got under sail. Sent the boat to bring the kedge on board. - Finding the ship exposed to great danger with the least freshening of wind, got a spring upon the stream cable and began to heave on the best bower, intending to cut the stream cable so soon as the best bower was weighed; but in the mean time the ship drove again wit[h] both [anchor]s ahead, and I was under the necessity of cutting both cables at the instant in order to fetch clear with the jib and stay sails; which, at noon, we just accomplish[ed] and got the top sails set, being then off the N.E. point of the bay

[Page 513]

[1803 May [Saturday] - 21st. Investigator in Goose -Island] Bay, D'Entrecasteaux's Archipelago

and island, and out of danger. Afterwards, We found that 40 fathoms of bower cable and 45 of the stream had been cut, besides 25 fathoms of hawser the spring hawser which had been put on the stream cable to cast her the right way: a bower and stream [anchor], with one buoy and buoy-rope were also lost, which being on the bower I am not without hopes of recovering that [anchor], and possibly both, should we have occasion to pass this way again. -
The occasion of the [anchor]s not holding seems to arise from the looseness of the sand at the bottom; but I judge it is not so bad further within the middle rock to the westward, which indeed I judge appears to be the best [anchor]ing place in Goose-Island Bay, there being room enough for one or two ships in better shelter than we had, though in that respect there was no cause to complain.
As before observed in this bay, the rise of tide is very small probably never exceeding four feet; and I think that there is but one tide in twenty-four hours, as in King Georges Sound, but of this I will not be certain.
From our visit here in January and now in May, it is plain that the summer season is the time when salt can be procured, when geese are the most abundant and when the anchorage in the bay is the most secure; nor would I recommend to any one to put into it in the winter but in cases of distress.
It is probable that water may be procured from under the hills on opposite projection (C) of the main.

[Page 514]

1803 May. Investigator in Goose I. Bay. - Astronoml. observ. [ [Sunday] - 22nd. From Timor towds. Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

From the observations at sea on the 14th. 16th. and 17th. preceding, it will appears that the time-keepers had contracted a considerable error to the eastward, which being confirmed by others in this bay, it became necessary to get new rates for them; and although our short stay did not allow us to get them very good, yet as they are certainly much better than those now in use I have determined to adopt them. They are as follows and were taken by Lt. Flinders upon the middle beach on the north side of D, in an artificial horizon

[Page 515]

[1803 May. Investigator in Goose I. Bay - Astronoml. observ.] [Sunday] - 22nd. From Timor towds. Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy. After passing from between the nearest islands, hove to and hoisted [up] the whale boat. - Double-reefed the topsails
At 2, D mount N85E. 7' or 8" - Its lat. 34.51/2' So.
lon. -123.19 Et.
Committed the body of Wm. Hillier to the deep with the usual ceremonies. -
At 5h.30' passed 3' to the south of a small island which does not appear to have been seen before: no land visible ahead.
Strong breezes and squally weather. Sounded with 35 fms.: no bottom, as also at 12.
Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. The warrant officer looking out out forward.
At 4 tried for soundings with 40 fms: no bottom
Day light, no land seen from the mast head. -
Set T.Gt. sails
Let the 2nd. reef out of the main and mz. top sails
Washed and cleaned well below with hot water, aired with stoves and sprinkled with vinegar
Clued down the top sails in a strong squall
Noon, fresh breezes and cloudy. Set the top sails

[Page 516]

1803 May [Monday] - 23rd. Investigator from Timor

[Tables not transcribed]

Strong breezes and squally, with rain at times
Handed the mz. top-sail
Took the 3rd. reef in the top sails, and at 8 close reefed them
Fresh gales and squally weather: a considerable sea getting up.
Strong gales. Carried away the weather head rails by the wash of the sea.
Wind more moderate
Set the jib and main sail -
Employed clearing and cleaning in the 'tween decks
Noon, fresh breezes and cloudy weather: much sea running
Let one reef out of the main top sail
Spruce beer issued as usual

[Page 517]

[Tuesday] - 24th. Along the south coast towds. Port [Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. Let the 3rd. reefs out of the top sails
Cleaned below and aired well with stoves; and kept one burning in the sick berth.
Mod. breezes and fine weather
Fresh breezes & squally. Handed top-gallant sails, but at day light set them again
Cut up pork No.5 to its contents; and beef No.13, short 24lbs
Let the 2nd. reef out of the M. top sail
Bent the main stay sail
Cleaned well below and aired with stoves
Spruce beer issued as usual
Noon, fresh breezes and dull cloudy weather. The sea much gone down

[Page 518]

1803 May [Wednesday] - 25th. Investigator from Timor [ [Thursday] - 26th. Along the south coast towards P. Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather. Sold the effects of the late Mr. Douglas
Bent a new mizen course
Light breezes with dark cloudy weather
Mod. breezes and cloudy.
Let a reef out of the fore and miz. top-sails
Steady breezes and cloudy weather
Set the fore-top-mast studg. sail
Carpenters repairing the launch
Cleaned well below and aired with stoves
Noon, fresh breezes and cloudy weather
Many albatrosses and some other sea birds about the ship.
Set the fore studg. sail

[Page 519]

[1803 May [Wednesday] - 25th. Investigator from Timor] [Thursday] - 26th. Along the south coast towards P. Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy wr. Carried away the a fore-top-mast studg. sail boom in a squall
Sold the effects of Wm. Hillier deceased
Double reefed the fore and mz. topsails
Squally. Handed T.Gt. sails and double reefed the main top-sail
Strong breezes & squally
Departed this life James Greenhalgh - serjeant of marines, of a dysentery. He was the most deserving man in his situation that I ever met with, or perhaps ever shall. -
Cleaned well below and aired with stoves all over the ship
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean.
The sick list now still consists of 15 men, but I have the satisfaction to see the worst patients getting better. - Issued warm sweet wort today and ceased giving spruce beer. - Noon, strong breezes and squally.
Some sea from the south-westward

[Page 520]

1803 May [Friday] - 27th. Investigator from Timor [ [Saturday] - 28th. along the south coast towards P. Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Strong breezes and cloudy weather
Many albatrosses and pintado birds about the ship: some of which were caught with hook and line. - Committed the body of the deceased serjeant Greenhalgh to the deep, with the usual ceremony.
Moderate breezes and cloudy weather. Set T. Gt. sails and spanker
Squally with rain Out 3rd. reef of the mz. top-sail
Cleaned below and aired with stoves
Set out the 2nd. reefs and set the stay sails
Served sweet wort to the ships company.
Noon, moderate breezes and cloudy weather.
Hove to and tried for soundings with 85 fms: no bottom

[Page 521]

[1803 May [Friday] - 27th. Investigator from Timor] [Saturday] - 28th. along the south coast towards P. Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

                                                                               Light breezes and cloudy weather
People employed about the rigging. - Sold at the mast the effects of the late serjeant Greenhalgh.
Mod. breezes and cloudy. Double reefed the top-sails
Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. Handed T.Gt. sails; but at 2, set them again
Fresh breezes with drizzling rain. Let the 2nd. reef out of the M.T. sail
Do. weather. Many oceanic birds about the ship. -
Cleaned well below and aired with stoves
People employed working up junk and about the rigging. -
Sweet wort served as usual
Noon, moderate breezes and cloudy. Hove to and tried for soundings with 120 fms.: no bottom

[Page 522]

1803 May [Sunday] - 29th. Investigator from Timor [ [Monday] - 30th. along the south coast towards P. Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and cloudy weather. Let the 2nd. reef out of the fore top-sail and set the studg. sail. - Carpenters repairing the launch

Light breezes and cloudy. Took in the studg. sail[s].
Light airs. Swell still running from the W.S.W.ward
Light airs. Clued down the main top sail to repair it
Cleaned below and in the cockpits, and aired with stoves
Sweet wort served to the ships ships company. Sounded with 190 fms.: no bottom
Noon, cloudy weather

[Page 523]

[1803 May [Sunday] - 29th. Investigator from Timor] [Monday] - 30th. along the south coast towards P. Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Cloudy weather
Kept stoves all day, airing in the 'tween decks
Light airs. Some swell from the S.W.ward
Light airs and cloudy weather
Took in the stay sails
Fresh breezes and cloudy weather.
At day light, let the reefs out of the mz. top-sail and set the F. top-mast studg. sail
Fresh breezes and dull hazy wr.
Cleaned well below and aired with stoves.
People employed putting the rigging in order.
Carpenters repairing the launch. -
Noon, do. weather. Hove to and tried for soundings with 98 fms.: no bottom

[Page 524]

1803 May 31st. Investigator from Timor [June 1st. through Bass' Strait towds. P. Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. Double reefed the F. and Mz. top-sails
Saw Kings I. and at 3, the S.W. part bore N.36.E.
Sunset, Kings I. N.9.W. to 30.E. and a small rocky I. E1/2S. from the mast head
At 10, the small rocky I. which is probably Albatross I. bore South.
Fresh breezes and fine wr.
Mod. breezes & cloudy.
At day light, land seen from the M.H. S.S.W1/2W: which is probably a part of Three-hummock I.
At 10, saw high land to the N.E.ward
Cleaned below and aired with stoves
Employed rounding the best-bower cable.
Set the F. top-mast studg. sail
Noon, S.W. part of Wilsons Promontory N.11.E. High round island N45.30' E.
Fresh breezes and hazy weather

[Page 525]

[1803 May 31st. Investigator from Timor] June 1st. through Bass' Strait towds. P. Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy weather. Lost a deep-sea lead and part of the line.
Carpenters employed repairing the launch
At dusk (4h.45'), the high round I. N22.W. Kents Group N.38.E. The pyramid seen ahead
Took in the studg. sail and hauled up to pass near to Kents Group
Moderate breezes and cloudy weather
At 8h.50' the pyramid bore So. [4 miles added in pencil] and the group N.1/2E.
At 11, obliged to bear away for a rock which we could not weather. - Land seen to the S.E.ward
Mod. breezes and cloudy.
At day light, let out the 1st. reefs and made all sail
No land in sight from the mast head. -
Cleaned below and aired with stoves
Cut up beef No. 34, short of weight 14lbs.
Sweet wort served as usual
Noon, moderate breezes and cloudy weather, with haze

[Page 526]

Additional remarks to June May 31st. 1803 Oct. 29.

Our sick list at present contains 18 people, of whom at least four are dangerously ill. This debilitated state of the ships company, with the deficiency of 7 men short obliges me to make all haste to Port Jackson; to which the representations of the surgeon relating to the sick, and the contagion that might possibly soon arise from his dysenteric patients, have further urged me. *I find myself thus prevented from making some further examination in Bass' Strait which the present fine weather would very well permit, as also from fixing the positions of several places in different parts of the strait by the time-keepers, which is very requisite to be done since the two sides of the strait remain yet unconnected in longitude, and even the extent of the north coast of Van Diemens Land is yet ascertained by no better authority than a corrected log.
* I have thus been prevented from exploring the south side of Kanguroo Island, and that part of the south coast which a gale obliged us to leave unexamined last year; in Bass' Strait also I wished to have done much the present fine weather would have permitted [me] to have done much, especially to fixing in relative position

[Page 527]

June [Thursday] - 2nd. towards Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather
Unbent the spanker to be repaired
Light airs with dull heavy weather. At dusk, took in the studg. sails and 1st. reefs of the top-sails
Light variable winds, to which we trimmed sails accordingly
At 8, tacked ship on her falling off
Mod. breezes and cloudy
Scrubbed below with hot water and aired with stoves
Departed this life John Draper - quarter master of a dysentery
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean
Sweet wort served to the ships company as usual. -
Noon, light breezes and fine weather

[Page 528]

1803 June 3rd. [Friday] Investigator from Timor [ [Saturday - 4th. through Bass' Strait towds. Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Mod. breezes and fine weather. Sprinkled vinegar between decks after airing with stoves.
Committed the body of the deceased John Draper to the deep, with the usual ceremony.
Light airs with fine weather
Mod. breezes and fine
At 6, tacked to the N.W.ward.
Cleaned below and aired with stoves
Several whales seen going to the
Employed in the holds, getting water to hand
Noon, moderate breezes and hazy.
Sweet wort served as usual

[Page 529]

[1803 June 3rd. [Friday] Investigator from Timor] [Saturday] - 4th. through Bass' Strait towds. Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Moderate breezes and cloudy weather
Sold the effects of the deceased John Draper at the mast.
At dusk, saw the land bearing NW1/2W to NNW. about Rame Head
Light airs. Swell from the N.E.ward
Calm. Ships head round the compass
At 1, a breeze sprung up from the northw.
Mod. breezes and cloudy weather
Dark cloudy weather with spitting rain
Cleaned below and aired with stoves
Sweet wort served as usual
Noon, light breezes with dull cloudy weather and spitting rain.

[Page 530]

[Sunday] - 5th. June 1803. Investigator from Timor [ [Monday] - 6th. along the east coast towds. Port Jacks[on] ]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and dull cloudy weather
At 1, saw the land about Rame Head and Cape Howe. - Many whales seen, going different ways
Calm and cloudy
Fresh breeze with rain and thick weather
Mod. breezes with heavy rain
At 7, saw the land in patches, to the W.N.W.ward
Carried away the F.T. sail yard arm, without side the brace.
Cleaned below and aired with stoves
Mustered the ships company and saw them clean, as usual
Noon, fresh breezes & fine weather.
A hill above the rest of the land, W.b.S perhaps that behind Twofold Bay

[Page 531]

[Sunday] - 5th. June 1803. Investigator from Timor] [Monday] - 6th. along the east coast towds. Port Jacks[on]

[Tables not transcribed]

Fresh breezes and cloudy.
At sunset, Mt. Dromedary N.55.W. Carrying two fore studg. sails
Mod. breezes & cloudy weather. Took in the starboard studg. sail
Do. weather
Light breezes with drizzling rain
At day light, the land dist. 8 or 9 miles
Mt. Dromedary S.20.W. - Thick, dull wr.
Cleaned below and aired with stoves
Bent the best bower cable to the spare anchor, which we unstowed.
Noon, light airs with dull hazy weather. Pidgeon House S.70.W. C. George N.25.E 8 or 10 miles. Off the nearest shore 5 miles

[Page 532]

1803 June [Tuesday] - 7th. Investigator from Timor [ [Wednesday] - 8th. Off Hat-Hill towds. Port Jackson]

[Tables not transcribed]

Light airs with thick dull weather. Finding the ship to drive in towards the shore, hauled more out to pass C. George.
Off shore 2 miles from C. George
Bowen I. in Jervis' Bay N.58.W. about 5 miles
Some whales seen
Light variable breezes with drizzling rain at times
Carrying a fore studg. sail
Kept a fire all night in the galley for the sick
Mod. breezes with drizzling rain. Took in the studg. sail, and trimmed sails according to the wind.
At day light, the land N.1/2W. to S.W.1/2S. off shore 2 or 3 leagues
Washed below with hot water and aired well with stoves
Set the royals and otherwise made and shortened sail occasionally
Noon, variable breezes with thick hazy weather, and drizzling rain at times
Sweet wort served as usual. - Northern hat hill [indecipherable word]W. [indecipherable word] off shore 3 leags

[Page 533]

[1803 June [Tuesday] - 7th. Investigator from Timor] [Wednesday] - 8th. Off Hat-Hill towds. Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Variable winds with thick hazy weather. Trimmed sails occasionally
Hat Hill S.66.W.
Dull cloudy weather. A fresh breeze setting in tacked off shore; and at 8, stood in again for an hour and then tacked to seaward, the shore being about 3 miles distant at 9, and having 25 fm[s].
Squally with rain. Handed T.Gt. sails and double reefed the topsails
At 12, wore in shore, having missed stays
At 2, tacked off to sea again. Thick rainy wr.
Kept a fire all night for the sick
Fresh breezes with constant rain. At 5, wore towards the land having missed stays.
A swell from the N.E.ward
Set T.Gt. sails and staysails
Light breezes and hazy. tackd off shore, its distance being 3 or 4 miles
Let out the 2nd. reefs
Noon, Point Solander seen from the mast head to the northward. Hat Hill S.63.W. off shore 7 or 8 miles

[Page 534]

1803 June [Thursday] - 9th. Investigator into P. Jackson [ [Friday] -10th. In Port Jackson]

[Tables and additions in pencil not transcribed]

Light airs with fine weather. At 1, missed stays and wore ship.
Departed this life Thomas Smith - seaman whose body was committed to the deep at sunset, with the usual ceremony. At 4, tacked off shore, and at 6 stood in again
Mod. breezes and cloudy weather, with drizzling rain. Tacked off shore at 8, and afterwards trimmed sails occasionally to the variable wind
At 12, a breeze sprung up from the southward, with which we steered close along the shore for Port Jackson. At 31/2, passed Botany Bay, and at 5h.20' tacked between the heads of Port Jackson to work in.
Shewed our signal to the flag staff.
At 8h.45' passed round the inner south head, and soon after the pilot came on board. Tacked occasionally working up the harbour.
Hoisted out the whale boat, and the Commander went on shore to wait upon the governor

[Page 535]

[1803 June [Thursday] - 9th. Investigator into P. Jackson] [Friday] -10th. In Port Jackson

[Tables not transcribed]

Light breezes and fine weather. Finding the flood tide to have done running, at 1h.50 came to with the small bower below Cattle Point. At sunset, furled sails and hoisted up the whale boat. A.M. At 8h.20' weighed and towed into Sydney Cove; and afterward[s] moored ship east and west, half a cable each way. - Found lying here His Majestys ship Porpoise and brig Lady Nelson, the Bridgewater - Palmer, extra Indiaman, the Rolla and Cato store ships, the Alexander - whaler, and Nautilus brig.
Light airs and fine weather

[Page 537]

General observations upon the rates and errors of the time-keepers No. 543 and No. 520, and the necessary corrections to be applied to their longitudes during the circumnavigation of New Holland in 1802 and 1803.

[These are continued under the above title for 14 pages to the end of the log]

The longitude of the east point of Sydney Cove in Port Jackson was taken at 151.17'.12"Et. as determined by me in 1795 and 1796 from sixty sets of observations of the sun east and west of the moon; and the time-keepers errors were determined according to this on July 18.1802, at Greenwich noon. The mean rates were deduced from 53 days going found by means of the astronomical clock.

On the east coast, I was enabled by the vicinity of ports and other places of shelter for the ship to make a general survey from Port No. 1 in latitude 23.44'S. to the Cumberland Isles in 20.45'S. by means of a connected chain of bearings taken on shore with a theodolite, assisted by observations for the latitude; any observations for the longitude taken in this space may, therefore, be reduced up to any other given point in it with tolerable accuracy, independent of the time-keepers; and I have accordingly made use of this mode to reduce the lunar observations in the preceding log, taken by lieutenant Flinders in the neighbourhood of Keppel Bay and Broad Sound, up to a station in the latter place called Upper Head. For the particulars of the observations refer to the log: the results here follow

[Page 538]

Lunar observations taken by lieut Flinders with Sext. No. 488 and reduced to Upper Head by means of the survey

[Tables not transcribed]

[Page 539]

The longitude of the tents under Upper Head according to the time-keepers on Sept. 12, was
by No. 543 149.49'13"E

     No. 520 150. 1, 34, 5

       Mean 149. 55. 24
      Lunars 150. 0.19,6
                       4.55,6W Error of the time-keepers on Sept. 12. or in 55,5 days which gives a proportion of 5",3 westing per day.
But from the first days rates obtained at Upper Head it appeared that the time-keepers were then getting to the eastward at the rate of 18",3 of longitude per day instead of 5",3 to the west; and on comparing the previous longitudes given by the time-keepers with the survey, it there appears that they have latterly been giving more and more east longitude; it is therefore necessary to the obtaining an accurate proportion, that the point where they ceased to increase their westerly error and began to move in the opposite direction should be ascertained. To get at this I have no guide but the survey; it appears, however to be sufficient, for by it they were increasing their westerly error at a considerable rate until Aug. 10. P.M. in Keppel Bay, when the error was 10'.39" Wt., but during six days continuance at that [anchor]age it increased only 23", and soon after the survey shews it to have been decreasing. To obtain the correction necessary to be applied to all longitudes from the time-keepers between Port Jackson and Keppel Bay, we have the error 10'.39" Wt. contracted between July 18 and Aug. 9 at 18h.7 of Greenwich log time, or in

[Page 540]

or in 21,8 days = 29",3 of longitude per day. The proportion between Keppel Bay and Broad Sound is not wanted, the chart being constructed independent of the time-keepers and therefore furnishing the best correction for them.
Whilst the time-keepers were on shore at Upper Head they were unfortunately let to run down twice, but this did not seem to affect their going. Seven days rates were obtained, with the mean of which we sailed to the northward on Sept. 26th. The longitude of Upper Head was at that time taken at 150.1'.35",9; there will consequently be a fixed error of 1'.16",3 to be subtracted from all longitudes between Upper Head and the next station.
From altitudes on Nov. 17. and 18th. A.M. at island a in the Gulph of Carpentaria, the rate at which No.520 was then going differed only 0",056 of time from its Upper-Head rate: but No.543 was differing near 4". On looking back for other objects of comparison I find, that on Oct. 16 at I2 of the Cumberland Isles, up to which the survey is connected, No.520 differed 2'53",2 Et. of the survey in 19,4 days, whereas No.543 gave 8'.57",8 to the east. Another point of comparison is furnished by the following lunar observations taken in the gulph by lieutenant Flinders, and now reduced up to a middle point of time for this purpose.

[Page 541]

[Tables not transcribed]

From a proportion between observations on the 10th. P.M. and A.M. the seperate errors of the time-keepers at the above middle point of time, were by
No.543 +10.5,5 or E
520 -3.24,5 or W.
Thus to recapitulate, - the longitude given by No.520
on October 16. was nearer to the survey than the mean of both time-keepers; - on Oct. 30th. in Torres' Strait No.520 when corrected gave the longitude of b2 of Murrays Isles [17'3] to the east of what captain Bligh lays it down, and on Nov. 2. the longitude of the high mountain R was 20' to the

[Page 542]

[Additions in pencil not transcribed]

the east of that navigator; whereas the mean of both time-keepers differed 22' in the first and 251/4' in the second instance. Comparing them with captain Cooks longitude I find that No.520 places Cape Cornwall 1.27' to the east but the mean 1.321/4' east of this great authority. -
The above 36 sets of lunars shew No.520 to be as near the truth on Nov. 10 as the mean of both time-keepers within 4"; and the first days rates before-mentioned shew that it was much nearer on the 17th.; so that I see no reason to hesitate in preferring the longitudes given by No.520 between Broad Sound and the head of the Gulph of Carpentaria to that resulting from both time-keepers; and I prefer it accordingly, making use of no other than the - correction 1'.16",3.
From this correction however, the survey will differ something from Broad Sound to the Cumberland Isles, in which space, the true longitude must be taken from the survey.
At island a, fresh rates for the time-keepers were obtained from a mean of twelve days going, but during this time both of them appeared to be irregular, especially No.520; although they were not now removed from their place on board the ship, as had usually been the case. On Nov. 29. 1802 we sailed calling the longitude of a 140.2'.20" E. as given by No.520 on our arrival; but as this includes the fixed error before-mentioned, the subtractive

[Page 543]

[Tables not transcribed]

-tractive correction 1'.16",3 must still continue to be applied.
Immediately after sailing, the time-keepers began to vary from each other, and in twelve days the difference between them was 18'. On Dec. 16. observations for fresh rates were taken upon the islet h3 near Cape Vanderlin; from which, as also from the mean of the following days, No.543 was keeping the rate assigned to it at island a within less than half a second per day, but No.520 was differing more than 6" per day.
The following 12 sets of lunars taken by lieutenant Flinders about the middle of this passage, also tend to shew the superiority of No.543 over the mean at this time
From the concurrence of the rates at h3 with these observations I am induced to prefer the longitudes of No.543 during this passage to the mean longitude; but as it appeared some time afterwards that the time-keepers had got

[Page 544]

had got considerably to the eastward, I judge it necessary to apply a small subtractive correction to it; and this is partly warranted by the above observations; but otherwise I allow that the necessity of it may be only a matter of opinion. The correction which I apply is 1" of time or 15" of longitude per day to No.543, independent of the former fixed error - 1'.16",3; which is sufficient to reduce the error afterwards found at Arnhem south bay to a more reasonable quantity than it otherwise would be, and is within the proportion which the twelve sets of lunars authorize. The amount of the fixed error - 1'.16".3, and of - 15" per day from Nov. 29. to Dec. 16. at 18h,6 of Greenwich log time, is - 5'.28",3, which will then be the error applicable to the longitude of No.543 on arriving at h3.
Ten days rates were obtained at the islet h3 [near] Cape Vanderlin, and the time-keepers now appeared to be going with more regularity than before. On Dec. 26. 1802 we sailed, calling the longitude of the islet 137.22'.8",6, as given by No.543; but as this includes the error 5'.28",3, it must be subtracted from all longitudes given by the time-keepers from this to the next station, as a fixed error.
Arnhem south bay is the station where fresh rates for the time-keepers were next obtained. During the passage to it several sets of lunar observations were taken, particularly in the neighbourhood of Groote Eyland; which

[Page 545]

[Tables not transcribed]

could they have been paired with an equal number on the opposite side of the moon would have been useful in fixing the longitude. but this not being the case I prefer the following sets were taken by lieutenant Flinders at the tents near the head of the bay.

From [T]he first days mean rates obtained here it appeared that the mean of the two time-keepers was then getting to the eastward at the rate of 25",5 per day; but during that part of the passage which was employed in circumnavigating Groote Eyland, or from Jan. 6. P.M. to the 18 A.M. = 12.8 days, they increased their longitude only 3'.16",5 = 15",4 per day; I therefore judge that it will be a nearer approximation to the truth

[Page 546]

truth to divide the 39,5 days into two parts and apply a seperate proportion to each. The first I would take at 15",4 per day according to the Groote Eyland proportion, and apply it from the time of sailing from h3 to Jan. 18. at 13h',15 of Greenwich log time, when it will amount to - 5'.47",3. The remaining part of the error 7'.41",7 being divided by the remaining part of the interval, or 17 days, = 27",16 per day, by which quantity the error - 5.'47",3 should be increased from Jan. 18. at 13h,15 up to Arnhem south bay, besides the usual application of the fixed error - 5'.28",3 throughout; but as the survey is connected during the time of this last proportion, it will be best to take the error after Jan. 18 from the chart; which indeed gives the longitude of the bay 4.10" more than the above 12 sets of lunars, and I accordingly consider it to be in 136.54'03",5 E. for reasons that will be explained
Five days rates were obtained in Arnhem south bay, and as the time-keepers were now going much more regular than they had done for a long time before, I thought the mean rates to be better than any we had gone to sea with since leaving Port Jackson.
On Feb 9. we sailed, calling the longitude of the tents 136.48'42"; but since it is 136.54.03,5 53 30 Et, the difference, 5'21",55 4,4[8], will would be an additive correction to be applied to all longitudes by the time-keepers from Arnhem south bay to the next station

[Page 547]

[Tables not transcribed]

On arriving at Coepang Bay in Timor, we found that No.543 was keeping its Arnhem rate very nearly its deviation being only 30",8 of lon. east in 61/2 days; and 24 sets of lunar observations taken on the passage agreed much better with No.543 than with the mean longitude given by both time-keepers; from which circumstance I am induced to make use of it, solely, to reduce the afore-said 24 sets of observations up to Coepang to determine its longitude, as under
                            [Tables]
but during the time of our stay in Coepang Bay several observations of the moon and stars were taken by lieutenant Flinders which I use, in conjunction with the above, to determine the longitude of Coepang more accurately, as follows.

[Page 548]

[Tables not transcribed]

No. 543 has lost in 52.8 days which is only 3/4 of a second per day to be subtracted.

Up to March 6th. the survey was carried on by continued bearings and observed latitudes independent of the time-keepers, from Arnhem south bay to the great bay No.3; the error therefore in that space will be most accurately taken from the chart. On March 6th. the error of No.543 according to the chart was 1'.16" W 34 E including the fixed error 5',27",5 but if we now take away the [indecipherable text] No.543 will then have an error of 52",5 only to the east (having partly corrected its Arnhem South Bay error of 4.48 [E]W.) east

[Page 549]

[Tables not transcribed]

east, which is consequently to be subtracted from it on March 6th. to give the true longitude and on April 2nd. the error of No. 543 it has been shewn to be 2.28",8 W; from whence we shall have a proportional reduction increase to the error [indecipherable word] 1'.16" W. of 2",8 Wt. per day to the [indecipherable word] W longitude of No.543 but a fixed errror of 45 be applied to No. 543 during the interval we shall have the longitude sufficiently near for all nautical purposes.
Some few observations were taken in Coepang Bay in order to ascertain the rates of the time-keepers at that time; but these being too inaccurate to have confidence placed in them, I judged it better to continue the Arnhem rates onward to the south coast of New Holland.
On April 8th. A.M. the mean longitude of the time-keeprs uncorrected was 124.3'.14" Et. and from this longitude our departure was then taken; but as the true longitude is 123.53'.32",4 E. there will be a fixed error of 9'.41",6 to be subtracted from all longitudes by the time-keepers up to the next station, independently of any proportional correction that may hereafter be found necessary.
Arriving in Goose-Island Bay upon the south coast, the longitude by time-keepers on May 19. P.M. 1803, was by
                            [Table]
Longitude of the place as determined in 1802
Time-keepers have erred to the east in 40,3 days

[Page 550]

[Tables not transcribed]

No. 543 giving the longitude much nearer than the mean of both time-keepers would have been preferred for determining the ships situations during the last passage, but the rates obtained in this bay shewing that both time-keepers were differing nearly an equal quantity from those which had been allowed, is a sufficient reason for making use of both. The proportion resulting from the error 45'.36",2 in 40,3 days = 1.7",9 per day, which is to be subtracted independently of the fixed error - 9'.41",6.
Although no more than two-and-half days rates could be obtained for the time-keepers in Goose-Island Bay, yet I preferred them to those with which we arrived. Our departure was taken on May 21st. A.M. and the time-keepers errors from mean Greenwich time being fixed according to what I consider to be the true longitude; and consequently we have no fixed error to apply during the passage.
At Port Jackson on June 10. A.M. the longitude given by the two time-keepers upon the east point of Sydney was as annexed - No.543 151.26'.12",6
                                           No.520 - 28.34,3
                                             Mean 151.29.23,3
Longitude of the point as before determined 151.17.12,
                                                                  Time keepers have erred to the east in 20,
days. 10.11,3
Which gives a proportion of 30",56 per day.

[Transcribed by Terry (David) Walker for the State Library of New South Wales]