Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales

John Frederick Mann diary, 1 October 1846-9 August 1847
DLMS 178/Item 1

[Page 1]
Peak Range Vol. 1 1847

[Page 2]
J. F. Mann
[Sketches of Native Fauna].

[Page 3]
Charles Creek
Chest – [indecipherable]
Thigh – Geira
Knee – Bayone
Arm – Armagh
Finger) – Mam
Foot – Jeena
Eye – Mill
Nose – Mooroo
Teeth – Gerar
Lips – Nargan
Hair – Talgo
Ear – Beena
Stomach – Kunnah
Skin – Buce
[indecipherable] – Kunkul
Cheek – Tungul
Elbow – Kune
Bard – Narfan
Boomerang – Wunal
Tomahawk – Wayer
Water – Kallu
[indecipherable] – Amarou
Bluegum – Arrah
Ashes – Arrah
Leaf – [indecipherable]
[indecipherable] – Meeree

[indecipherable] on Hawkesbury

Calistemon – Myrtle
Acacia Pendula – Weeping Myall
Casia –
Xanthorhae, GrassTree
Exocarpus Cupressi Chuny
Hakea, very elegant tree
Stenochilus, Ridfonylone
Grevillia roburta – Silky bark
Calitris – Pine
Auranecaria Cunninghami)
Morton Bay Tree
do – Bidwilli, Bunya Bunya
do – Excelsa, Norfolk Island [indecipherable]–
Sterculia – Bottle tree
Jacksonia – Dogwood –
Swainsonia – Native Vetch –
Melaluca – Tea tree
Angophora – Apple tree
Semato petalium Xmas bush –
Trichinium, like a cockade
Cedrela Australis, Red Cedar

[Page 4]
Dr. Leichardt left the [indecipherable] Sept 1839
Arrived at Port Essington Decr 17th, 1845 & Sydney 29 March, 1845

[Page 5]
October 1st, 1846

The necessary arrangements having been made, Dr. Leichardt and his party started last night for Stroud, Port Stevens, on board one of the H. R. S N Cos. steamers at 10 P.M – His party consists of Mr. Hovendon Hely, a Mr. Bunce botanical collector; Perry a saddler; Boeking a German, a tanner by trade but who has also worked as a journeyman baker, and Brown – a Newcastle black, who was with Dr. L on his former expedition –

A number of Dr. L’s friends and admirers assembled on board the steamer, and on the wharf to see him start, and gave three hearty cheers when the Vessel left the wharf –

In Dr. Leichardts first expedition from Moreton Bay to Port Essington he had passed over many tracts of fine country, which from the smallness of the means at his disposal he was unable to explore – He had long been given up as lost, but returned

[Page 6]
after an absence of about 18 months? – In the meantime an expedition had been undertaken by Sir T. Mitchell the Surveyor General, who however did had not returned when Dr. L started on this his second trip –

The objects of this trip were to proceed as far as Peak Range in Lat. 22°, and to explore the Downs wh and country which he had dis-covered there in his first expedition, and by keeping a westerly course endeavour to to make Sharks Bay and thence to Swan River; his first intentions however were to strike west before arriving at such a Latitude, – in fact to make a bold push directly across to Swan River –

I however after many conversations, persuaded him to relinquish such a design, Capt. Sturt had arrived at Lat 24° and had seen nothing but desert, and therefore any attempt to penetrate across it would have been folly, We therefore arranged to proceed as far north

[Page 7]
as Peak Range, and then keep a westerly course to Sharkes Bay – Before meeting Dr. L, in fact before he had returned from Port Essington, the idea had often struck me of undertaking an expedition across the island, by starting from Fort Burke on the Darling, and by keeping a northerly or north westerly course, skirting the Desert, to eventually arrive at Swan River –

From what I had read of Sturts journey and the description of the country about the Gulph of Carpentaria I felt convinced that the waters of these two points were divided by a low range of hills – by keeping along which water might be obtained, and the extent of the Desert as fully ascertained as by proceeding directly across it. –

I mentioned this to my friend Col-Gordon, R. E. who agreed with my ideas of the country, but thought the journey a very long and hazardous one to be undertaken.

[Page 8]
Dr. L. and party, to the astonishment of everyone arriving soon after, I had the pleasure of meeting him at Col-Gordons, who suggested that the expedition should be undertaken between us – I accordingly felt very willing to unite with Dr. L looking and arrangements were at once commenced for another journey into the interior. Accordingly on the 1st October everything being arranged Dr. L and party started as already stated.

It was the intention of Dr. L. in the first instance to have taken all the stores with him to Stroud, where he was to get the pack mules, and so on overland to the Darling Downs – but I proposed, to him that the best way would be for him to take the pack saddles and a few light goods only with him, whilst I would proceed to Moreton Bay by steamer, and meet him on the Downs with all the baggage and collect the 10 head of cattle presented by the Govt.

[Page 9]
Accordingly I intended starting the same evening by the Tamar, but as that steamer was unable to take all the goods I had to wait until the next trip.

13th. This day got all the stores on board, they had been under the care of Mr. Lind Barrack Master, I had numbered them all previously, and had seen them carefully packed in leather cases to guard them against being torn by bushes & [indecipherable] Sir C. Fitzroy having given Dr. L 10 head of cattle which were the property of the Govt. and running at Moreton Bay – I called upon Mr. E. Deas Thompson the Col. Secretary & procured an order to get them.

15. Left Sydney this evening at 8 PM per Tamar Steamer Capt Allen, my kind friend Col. Gordon remaining till the last with me –

16. Arrived this morning at Newcastle about 7.30 to take in about 45 tons of coal – Mr. Armstrong Vety. Surgeon had made Dr. L a present of a mule, which

[Page 10]
I had on board –

18. Arrived this evening off Stradbroke island Morton Bay, having made a good run, the distance being upwards of 500 miles. Laid to all night, the Capt. not wishing to cross the bar – Moreton Bay is protected from the sea on the east by two islands, Moreton, and Stradbrooke. Stradbroke is the most southern, there is a passage for boats between it and the main land at its southern point end – and at low water it is, I understand, fordable – there is an entrance to the Bay between the two islands but a bar across often makes it very dangerous for large vessels to enter, a heavey sea generally beating upon it; the safest entrance is by rounding the north end of Moreton Island, but this of course makes the voyage from and to Sydney

[Page 10]
much longer. The Bay itself is a large expanse of water, apparently very shallow except in one particular channel; it is dotted here and there with low mangrove islands; at low water extensive mud flats are exposed which do not add to the beauty of the scene,

19 We took a Pilot on board, who brought us safely up the Brisbane River; there is also a bar flat at the mouth of the river, the pilot station is at the north end of Stradbroke island, called “Amity Point" his The Pilot’s boat was manned by native blacks, who make first rate boatmen. –

The distance up the River to Brisbane is about 30 miles – The river itself is a noble stream, the scenery on the banks in many places very beautiful, but a great – sameness – at about 1 ½ mile from Brisbane, the River takes a very sharp turn, the point is well known as “Kangaroo Point" where there is a considerable population –

[Page 12]
I was felt very glad when the steamer arrived alongside the wharf at South Brisbane.

The principal Government buildings are on the north side of the river which is here about a quarter of a mile across, they consist of barracks, gaol etc. The town is prettily situated upon elevated ground, the south side of the river is low and flat – This Govt. had from 1000 to 1500 convicts here for near 15 years, but from what I could judge, the improvements were very few – there was a large tract of land laid out into gardens, but the whole has gone to ruin, the fences are all down, and cattle can feed amongst the remaining trees and shrubs as they like –

The cattle the Govt. gave us were running at Limestone (Ipswich) 25 miles from here, I had arranged to exchange them for 10 head at Jimba (our last station on the Downs) but upon speaking to Mr. Kent the commissariat officer, under whose

[Page 13]
charge they were, I found that the old cattle had been sold, and only young ones to be had, so I could not complete the exchange. I therefore advertised for a man to take them to Jimba, but not being able to procure one, I sold them for £2.10 per head – as I found I would purchase them at that rate on the Downs 2321/.

Yesterday called upon Capt. Wickham R. N. Police Magistrate, he appears a very nice fellow he had just returned from holding an inquest upon the bodies of Mr. Gregor and a Mrs. Shannon, who had been murdered by the blacks –

The Clergyman here, had employed some blacks to strip some bark for him – whilst counting the sheets which were at the stockyard about 200 yards from the house, he was attacked and received a blow over the left temple which knocked his eye out, and killed him instantly. The woman, the wife of the stockman, was standing in the doorway of the hut and received a spear wound in her hip, and had her skull split by a

[Page 14]
tomahawk: the husband who was some distance off, upon hearing his wife scream, race towards the hut, but was driven back by the natives and pursued for some distance.

The blacks then to the number of 20 or more attacked the hut and carried off the stores. The man Shannon ran some distance and met a Mr. Healy who assisted him back to the nearest station, where he procured assistance and arrived in time to get a shot at the blacks, but only wounded one. The whole of this tragedy was witnessed by a yellow or half caste boy – who was close by on horseback the whole time –

23 22 It appears that the blacks after the murder made the best of their way back to Brisbane. A verdict was returned at this inquest of wilful murder against four blacks, the most notorious of whom was one called Mill bong Jimmy

[Page 15]
Mill meaning eye, and boy bong dead, otherwise blind Jimmy, he being blind of an eye; he was chopping wood in the yard of a public house – the landlord attempted to secure him, but he could not succeed.

Took a walk this day and met this hero who with another black decamped almost as soon as they saw me; Mr. Jimmy put on a most melancholy face and pretended to be very ill, I did not know the particulars of the above murder at the time, or I should not have ventured so far by myself unarmed –

23 Dr. Simpson – Commissioner of Crown Lands arrived with a young black called “Constable’ who is also charged with being concerned in the murder. There is no doubt about these blacks being cannibals, I heard of a case to day when a man fell from a tree whilst in the act of cutting out an opossum, his old ginn and another, cooked and eat as much as they could of him and then buried the remainder; there are

[Page 16]
Many instances which have come under my notice, which prove most decidely that they are not very particular what they eat – When a man dies broad strips of skin are cut from him, from his shoulders to his heels, these are rolled up and carried about by the ginns in their nets –

28 Nothing has occurred since last date, this is really a most stupid dull place, I have been unable to get a dray to take the stores to the Downs, made up my mind to start for Ipswich and try there, Started about 9 am by the Experiment steamer, the distance by the River is 52 miles it is situated on the Bremer a short distance 17 miles above its junction with the Brisbane, It is generally known as “Limestone", the banks of the river are very beautiful though as usual a great sameness in the scenery – A remarkable

[Page 17]
ridge of rocks crosses the river, they appear like large stepping stones & appear above water at low tide, – which flows very rapidly between them – Dr. Simpson has his house on the banks of this river which is from two to three hundred yds broad – there are many shoals and rocks in it – Coals are procured on the immediate banks of the river –

Arrived at Ipswich about 6 P. M. Although I could not procure a dray, I heard that I had more chance of getting one at Ipswich than at Brisbane. Returned to Brisbane the following day –

30th. Shipped all the stores on board the steamer for Ipswich

Novr. 3d. Tuesday Tamar arrived bringing letter and a parcel from my brother, containing Stokes’ Voyages –

5th. Made a bargain with a man to take all the stores from Ipswich to the Downs for the sum of £8, the weight is about 25 cwt. distance 60 or 70 miles.

This morning Col. Barney, Capt Perry H. H. Brown arrived per Cornubia

[Page 18]
steamer en route to Port Curtis – to form a settlement there, Capt Perry proceeds over land to trace down the Boyne, and endeavours to join Col. B at Port Curtis

The blacks attacked a farm about 7 miles from here, and robbed it of a few rations & threw several spears 6 soldiers were sent after them –

6th. Wednesday Left this morning for Ipswich in company with Messrs McConnell and Scott, we had not proceed far when we met a man who told us he had shot Mill bong Jimmy, Gregors murderers, he Jimmy was on a dray, two shots had entered his head, one went into his ear, but still the fellow lived for some time and struggled violently, it appears the soldiers had aroused the blacks and chased them across the river, they were seen

[Page 19]
crossing in a canoe, five in numbers, by Mr. Thornton of the customs, he gave chase but they escaped, he however put the soldiers across, and destroyed the canoe – The blacks then attacked a hut where some sawyers were at work when one was shot –

A place was pointed out to me as the scene of Dr. L’s first difficulty, it is a muddy boggy place, his cart and cattle bogged there, I think he had to leave his cart.

Called at Dr. Simpsons, (16 miles) and dined there. Shortly after leaving whilst riding down a hill on Mr. Armstrongs, he stumbled and fell, rolling over me but the blanket which was strapped to the saddle must have in some way saved me from being hurt –

12th. Started a dray this morning (Spears’s) with all the stores for the

[Page 20]
Downs, and very glad indeed I was to get them off –

Received a letter last night from Dr. L. he had arrived at Mr. Hodgsons some time before, but had not expected to find me; he asked me to procure some rhubarb and magnesia, and Dr. Dorsay very very kindly gave what he could spare –

I have no doubt about this place (Ipswich) being a place of considerable importance some day, it has many advantages; situated at the head of a navigable river and a fine back country, it cannot fail to prosper, the houses in it as yet are not numerous; there are two or three good inns, and stores, the Inn I am staying at is kept by an old grenadier sergeant of the 4th. G. Thorne, he is a fine specimen of a man, and a good honest fellow into the bargain –

Whilst here I called upon Major North who resides upon the Brisbane 12 miles

[Page 21]
from here, he has some of the Drs. horses under his charge –

The grass Xanthorrhoea trees grow larger here than I ever noticed before, though the reed on the top is not long enough for making spears –

Subscribed a shilling towards procuring a thepassage to Brisbane of a man who was raving mad – one of Gannies Gammies shepherds

The black men and women, go perfectly naked, they appear a muscular set, they are encamped on the opposite banks of the river in numbers, being afraid of a chance shot from some of the parties who are out after Gregors murderers –

It is an amusing sight to see the ginns swimming across this river with their little children on their shoulders, and most astonishing to see how well many of the smallest can swim, the gins are employed in carrying water to the houses in the town and the blacks in cutting wood etc.

I saw a most exciting game between about two dozen boys, who arranged themselves in two equal parties against each other, they pelted each other with sticks, but principally corn cobs a heap of which was lying close bye. The manner in which they warded off

[Page 23]
the blows was truly wonderful – They speak very bad English considering the time they had been amongst the whites –

13th. Started this morning for the Downs, 1 mile I crossed the Bremer – where there is a township called “little Ipswich –" overtook the drays 12 miles from here, the men were at dinner, went on to an inn called at the “Old Man’s water hole" a miserable place 4 miles further on, the principal room was covered with newspapers, but unfortunately they were upside down, so found it very difficult to read them. The drays encamped 4 miles further on still.

14th. Started this morning at 8 am, about 5 miles ascended a ridge, from the top of which is a beautiful view of ranges and hills; 11 miles arrived at a beautiful part of the country called Laidley Plains, the country for some distance perfectly clear, and apparently well watered, took a sketch of a very

[Page 23]
pretty scene. The drays encamped here for 3 or 4 hours. Went on to Tibleys a god good inn on Lockyers Creek, the drays arrived about 7.30 pm, 35 miles from Ipswich.

15th. Started this morning about 2 PM for Mr. Pierces on Lockyers Ck. I was most kindly received, took a sketch of a very pretty reach in the Creek –

I saw a man here who had been 14 years with the blacks; he had been a convict but had ran away, he gave himself up after, according to his own calculations, having been 11 years with them. He came upon the tribe shortly after the death of one of their men, they at once decided that he was the same black “jumped up white fellow".

He told me that upon meeting with a tribe you should strip and walk boldly up to them. I had been told by a black to strip and after getting a green

[Page 24]
bough to remain quiet until the blacks thought fit to notice me – at any rate it appears to be the safest way to strip –

I was shown the fruit of the Bunya Bunya it is like a pine apple, the tree is a species of pine (Callitris) The only known place in this country where it abounds is at the Wide Bay, where a very large tract of country is covered with it, the tree itself grows to an immense height 200 feet and upwards without a branch, the fruit hangs from the top in a most graceful manner.

It is triennial, the blacks for two or three hundred miles round, assemble to gather the fruit – each tribe of blacks have their own trees, and if not enough they fight for more, the consequence is that these assemblies are a mixture of corroberis and fights, and it is

[Page 25]
here a savage can be seen in his true light, still they in general present an admirable example to the geniality of meetings amongst their more civilised bretheren –

The blacks ascend the trees by means of a vine passed round the tree – the frequently fall – the nuts in these cones are about the size of a walnut – in shape like an acorn, the blacks break the cones by dashing them on a stone, and they roast the nuts –

16 Monday. Started 2 PM. the drays had encamped some distance ahead, at a place called the Monkey water holes, near the foot of the range. I overtook them in a brush through which a road is cut. The blacks used to be very bad here, attacking any one who happened to pass, on each side were remarkable hills, one on the right being flat topped and clear, the other a sugar loaf –

We soon began the ascent of the range

[Page 26]
which in some places is very steep the road running along ridges hardly broad enough for two drays to pass, There is a beautiful view from the top which is well grassed, and very heavily timbered. Arrive at a miserable inn 17 miles from Pierces – could not sleep for the fleas, a small spring supplies a few houses with water, this is known therefore as the “Springs". Alfords (Drayton now 1856 J.F.M.)

17 Dr. L had been here a day or two before leaving word for me to go to Messrs Hughes and Isaacs station but I did not get this message – so I started for Hodgsons, 6 miles out of the way, when I arrived at H’s I found that the Dr. had left the day before so I immediately started for Hughes (Gowrie) distant 15 miles and then met the Dr. about 4 PM.

The Downs were are vast plains intersected in places by undulating ridges

[Page 27]
thinly covered with timber, the general extent is about 100 by 50 miles.

Mr. Hely left this morning to meet the dray – weather fine but very hot.

19 Set in hazy this morning, bathed early, 10 to 1 heavy showers. I packed up many things. The goats started yesterday under the charge of Wammai a Port Stevens black and another native [indecipherable].

20th. Commenced loading the mules –

I may here state the number quantity and description of stores I brought from Sydney with me, 1000lbs flour, 200lbs tea, 200lbs sugar, 200lbs salt, 50lbs powder, 200lbs shot, soap; slops consisting of moleskin trouss wollen shirts & 8 guns, medicine chest, two swords, some gellatine; the average quantity of slops was two suits including boots, each person had a varnished calico poncha; there were also two calico tents:

I had provided on my own account, saddlery – saddlebags – polsters, gun clothes etc, I had also

[Page 28]
made up about 300 rounds each of shot cartridge No. 1. and the same amount of ball cartridge, cleaning rods, extra nipples, spur rowels and many little odds and suds, also about 200 wax ends, such as bootmakers use – a few pieces of shoe leather, etc – Each man was also supplied with a pair of saddle bags, quart, pint, spoon & fork.

We had 16 mules in all – Brown and I were mates to load 4 mules the way we managed was this: after catching them we tied them to a stout sapling and then blindfolded them, and then cautiously buckeled on the pack saddle. The load for each was arranged in thee three bundles, the two side ones weighing equally about 100lbs these had to be lifted simultaneously and hooked on otherwise the saddle would slip – the third package of course went on the top, over each load a small canvass cover was thrown and kept by a surcingle.

Well, we loaded all the pack mules 12 in number, 4 being

[Page 29]
spare ones, and made a start about 1 PM the mules went well for about ½ mile, till we came to a small creek, when they all commenced kicking until 3 loads were upset, after great delay some of the mules lying down whilst we were loading the others, and having to unload them whilst they got up again, we made a fresh start, when it commenced raining had, after the first shower was over we again stopped about an hour to arrange the loads before dark –

Some distance on we came to two roads and of course took the wrong one, it raining all the time, we were not much out of our road, but we had to cross a creek, and it being pitch dark, three loaded mules, I do. horse and one loose horse got away, we got the others across, and about 3 hours delay got their loads off.

We were of course wet to the skin, but we soon forgot all our inconveniences by the kindness we received from Mr. Andrew, at whose station we had arrived.

21 At daylight started in search of the missing mules, I met one of them quietly returning with only the pad of the pack saddle on.

[Page 30]
Brown found the rest some distance off, one of the mules and the horse had their loads all safe, the others had scattered theirs in all directions, we got all safe at about 12 o’clock – raining hard all day. Wind East, close and warm

The mules load weighed nearly 400lbs –

22rd. By the boiling water apparatus found the height of this place to be 1300 feet – Ther. 69° Wind E and rain –

23rd. Mr. Turnbull arrived this day from Stroud to join the party – Wind and rain –

The Rev. Mr. Gregor read prayers this morning –

26. Hely started this day with Mr. Stuart Russel and Brown, taking the cattle 34 in number, they were originally 36 but two were lost between this and Hughes: 15 miles; distce to Russell 20 miles –

Wind E. raining hard, Ther. 88 –

27 Showery wind W E [indecipherable] by N

28. Fine morning, making tether ropes from hides, 14 mules missing, Backing out all day found their tracks on the road

[Page 32]
Russell for his station (8 miles) R wished me to accompany him, but L asked me to remain with the party, as he was desirous of having the guns cleaned and put in order. Tethered all the mules and hobbled the horses, good feed. The Condamine is not a constantly flowing stream, the bed is deep and sandy, water only in certain places, full of weeds and muscles.

Thursday 3rd. Found that most of the mules had broken their tethers during the night; but had not strayed, cleaned the guns as well as I could, no oil; washed my shirts, watered the mules and horses –

I forgot to mention we started with three dogs Mr. Brunce having No. 4 [indecipherable] 1 kangaroo, a half bred kangaroo and blood hound, Camden, and a little Terrier the kangaroo was a very fine dog but because so foot sore we left him some distance behind, but we managed to get a drink for him, about 8 pm he came to Cross’s hut very lame –

Very close day, little wind, cloudy Therm. 80° in shade –

[Page 33]
Friday 4 – This day whilst walking down the bed of the Condamine I found part of the shin bone of some enormous antedeluvian animal, it was in a fossil state, and at least three times the size of a corresponding bone of a bullock. Ther. 88°

5th Left this morning about 11 am for Ross’s, 15 miles, had some trouble with one of the mules, he throwing its – his load three times. Whilst at Cross’s an express arrived from the lowest station on the Condamine, from a Mr. Campbell Stephens an American who was suffering from rheumatic fever, the Dr. objected to go but sent Mr. Turnbull who understood a little of medicine –

Sunday 6th. Arrived at Mr. Dennis’s at the “Woolshed" about 2 pm, started 9 am, dist. about 12 miles – Mr. Hely who had charge of the cattle, which were increased by three cows and one bull which Mr. Russell had been kind enough to give us, was compelled to leave one cow behind the bull also turned restive and would not travel, it horned Mr. H’s horse in two places; one very deep – several of the mules with some backs.

Therr. 77° – close cloudy. Thunder – musquitoes –

[Page 34]
Monday 7th. Left the Woolshed about 11 am

Hely and Dr. L in charge of the cattle, Bunce & Wamai in charge of goats and sheep Brown, Perry, Boeking and myself in charge of mules, our route about W along the Condamine which we crossed twice, but should have kept altogether on the north side; 5 miles arrived at a fine open part and country saw a bustard cross our track, rode after him and snapped two cap at him, the mules ahead could not cross the river, and had to follow it some distance in order to do so.

Shortly after leaving Dennis’s, the Dr. ordered me to change places with Mr. Hely, Mr. H to drive the mules and L and I the cattle. Dr. L had been much annoyed with H having left the cow behind and having had his horse gored

Crossed the river about 6 miles and soon arrived at a plain when the bull turned restive and sulky, and would not move for whip or anything else, the Dr. at length determined to leave him he having made several charges at us, and Wamai appearing with the goats rode up and fired two charges of

[Page 35]
shot in his face, but he only shook his head at it so we let him.

Arrived at Gogg’s cattle station at 4 P.M. travelled about 14 miles, the hut is prettily situated near a very long and broad water hole which was completely covered with ducks; one of the bullocks ran away and swam across the water hole we could not get him again, the others we put in the stockyard – we enjoyed a good supper in the evening

Tuesday 8th. Started this morning about 11.30 two of the horses having got away, started leaving Mr. H and Brown behind for them.

Sorry to say had a slight row with the Dr., when turning the bullocks into the stk. yd. the previous evening a cow joined and ran in also, of this I informed the Dr. and stockman who did not know to whom it belonged he knows were strange to him, when I turned the cattle out this morning two others also joined the head, I of course rode after them to drive them away, upon which Dr. L who was looking at the sheep, came up and after to me, and with a few oaths d–n you Mr. Mann, told me he intended taking the cows in the place of the one Mr. H. had left behind –

I accordingly expressed my astonishment at

[Page 36]
such an intention, and pointed out to him the great fault he would commit at taking a the cow the property of another, notwithstanding the kindness and liberality of the squatters. I told him I could only attribute it to his being a foreigner and not altogether conversant with English laws, (though I looked upon it as cattle stealing).

I called Mr. Bunce who was near, to witness the conversation, he also agreed with me that it would be very wrong to take the cow.

Dr L. then told me he had authority from Mr. Russell to take any stray cattle of his, and as the cow belonged to Mr. R. (but it had not R’s brand) he intended taking it – I replied that the case was quite altered – he should have told me that at first and not ordered me to take a strange beast from off a run. I said that of course I would be most willing to drive the cattle, and would take any cattle he was authorised to take.

In the mean time Boeking had driven the three cows away, it they had run towards another their own mob so we did not take the cow it – I was very much annoyed at this row, for the Dr. ordered me to leave the party which I of course refused to do – he also told me I had no right to ask

[Page 37]
questions “a soldier would not think of asking questions of his General", however we proceeded – when he had got a few miles I found I had left my telescope behind – however as we were short handed I intended returning next day for it, we went a very round about way by the river, two of the mules kicking their loads which delayed us some time –

Shortly after Mr. Hely, Brown, & Gogg’s stockman and the two horses arrived, being thus reinforced and finding I was only 4 miles from the hut, I told the Dr. I should return for the things I had left behind – He was then crossing a creek, and told me to think seriously of remaining behind again that a “General never asked questions of his men" (Note – A general hold consultations with his officers though J.F.M.)

I went back and had some dinner, again started for Steven’s and met Turnbull who had been a day or two there, I being very ill, he told me the mules and bullocks had arrived at Ts. but had not seen the Dr. – rode on and overtook the Dr. near the crossing place; tried to cross the goats but could not, determined to proceed down the river and encamp opposite the hut, encamped about a mile above the hut, after having passed

[Page 38]
some scrub – plenty of water, no supper fine day. Dist – 12 miles –

Wednesday 9th Dec. Found Our camping place was near an old one of the Drs. moved down up opposite the hut, left everything crossed over and had breakfast, loaded the mules recrossed the river and formed a camp about a mile lower down, left a lame bullock, got 4 steers –

Mr. Steven’s station was the lowest on the river, he was lying in a hut only partly roofed, unable to stir, he had two men only with him one was continually occupied looking after the cattle the other had to watch his master and keep off the blacks, who were in numbers surrounding the hut, and immediately the man’s back was turned these fellows would advance by degrees, keeping trees between them and the hut – for they well know that Mr. T was well armed.

The man usually sat in front of the door with a musket ready – I never saw such a miserable sight – This night the party were divided into watches Turnbull and Wamai from 7 to 9.30 Dr. L and Perry from 9.30 to 12. Messrs. Hely and Bunce from 12 to 2.30 am, and Boecking and myself

[Page 39]
from 2.30 to 5 am. Brown has no watch, as his duty is to be up by the day light and search for horses etc –

Thursday 10th Dec Last night heard a great deal of firing, asked L. to allow me to cross over and go to S’s hut, as I thought the blacks had made an attack upon it – he refused –

The last night was the first the whole of the party had encamped together – 9 in number, and that all our stock etc were encamped in the open bush together, we had besides mules and horses, between 30 and 40 head of cattle – a flock of sheep made up from the contributions of different squatters – and a flock of Angora goats from Windemere on the Hunter –

All the cattle and mules encamped well last night started 20 m to 10, the river had risen during the night to some height and it was lucky we crossed when we did, or we should have had some trouble. Delayed a little repacking loads, passed through some tolerable country for the first 8 miles, at length arrived at a beautiful open forest country encamped about 3 pm. Dist 10 miles – plenty of grass, the river running very rapidly – Mr. B says he passed the skeleton of a horse about 3 miles back, perhaps one left by Mr. A P

[Page 40]
Hodgson on his journey to search for Leichardt

Hely with a head ache, smart shower, very sultry – Lat. 26° – 46’, 23"

11th. Friday Started 20 to 9, had intended starti remaining this day as some of the horses were absent, Hely and Brown started early and found them a mile back – kept a NW by N course passing some good country, about 4 miles arrived at som very boggy and rotten country, the mules for the distance of many hundred yards, up to their girths , at length five (5) fairly stuck – had to unload which delayed us about some time 1 Ό an hour as we had to dig them out took a N W course and arrived at Charleys Ck. about (4 mins past 2) (2 miles) we passed several water courses and swamps ground very rotten, box tree country the worst.

This creek was discovered by one of Ls. black fellows named Charley on his previous journey – It flows in a S. W. direction and joins the Condamine about 9 miles below our camp, it is a beautiful stream – saw smoke from some fires about 3 miles to our left – we passed some dense briglow scrub this day – arrived at 4 p.m. had a sharp shower from E N. E. killed a sheep – wet through

[Page 41]
I was appointed to take charge of the rations, weigh out the flour, etc. and divide the dinner breakfast etc equally amongst 9. We had two pound of flour per diem – this was mixed up into a cake with plenty of fat and fried for some time in the frying pan, I then had to subdivide it equally, I generally called the attention of some of the party to Witness the sub-division, the frying pan being an oval one, it required some little care in making each piece equal, but I soon got into the way of it – when all was ready, one of the party turned his back and called out the name of the person who was to have the piece of cake I touched – the same was done with other ration, the tea was made in one large pot –

Saturday 12th. Dec Last night during the Drs. watch the cattle mules and horses made a sudden rush and got off, they might have been frightened by native dogs, or blacks, but am inclined to think that the Dr. frightened them himself, as he was very fond of

[Page 42]
going amongst them under pretence of taming them – we had only 3 hours left upon which Hely & Brown started after them.

Had a visit today from some blacks five men and two boys – they could not speak English, but one boy said “by God" at the sight of some tobacco the Dr. gave to him, he probably had been to some of the stations; Dr. gave the handle of the frying pan and a piece of tape to an old man who in return offered L his wife – the women being encamped at some distance off

Turnbull and Wamai returned about 12 this day bringing 4 mules and one horse they started again at 2.30. Lat. 26° 42’ having made 4 miles northing in yesterdays trip

Ther. in tent 97° about 4 pm it fell to 85° and we had a few drops of rain from the E.

Turnbull and Wamai returned at sunset without the mules but they tracked them for some distance back, also the tracks of two natives who had been following the tracks of the cattle one of the blacks who came yesterday, lent Wammai 3 boomerangs to throw, the blacks are much troubled by the mosquitoes –

[Page 43]
they commenced singing a song which W at once recognised. About 7.15 am a most beautiful meteor it went in a horizontal direction towards the S, leaving a long trail of fire behind – it was in appearance like Jupiter but much redder, a great many falling stars were also seen

13th Decr. Sunday Mr. Hely and Brown did not return last night. Turnbull and Wammai started off early this morning – Ther. at 5 am 63° at 12 oclock 98°, assisted the Dr. to find the time, little or no wind – T and W returned about sunset bringing some of the mules which they found some distance beyond the last camping place – killed a sheep – Today whilst bathing noticed a great many small snakes swimming about, they were of a light green color, they swam very fast –

14th. This morning the Dr. – Turnbull, and Boeking started. Wamai was to have gone with them, but as he has gone very early to look for some mules which had strayed in the night time & he had not returned, they

[Page 44]
started without him, leaving me in charge of the camp, W returned bringing 3 horses, but as Dr. L. had said nothing to me about his arrangements I did not like sending W after them. They returned late. W shot two ducks today – Weather very threatening to the N had a few drops of rain but it cleared off – Therm. daylight 67° 2.30 PM 81°

15th Tueday Decr. Yesterday Mr. Hely and Brown returned late bringing 38 head of cattle, they had gone back to Gogg’s Mr. H. Brown, T and Wamai started this morning in search of the missing mules.

L. started down the Ck. in search for his last crossing place, which he found about 10 miles below this by the creek, but only 5 in a direct line. Mr. H returned about 2.30 having come upon the tracks, leaving Mr. T and Brown to follow them; there is some beautiful country here but intersected by numerous briglow and myall scrubs, Messrs Hodgsons and Gogg’s stockmen arrived followed us bringing “Argyle Jenny" the mule which got from us at Mr. Andrews’, they also informed us of the return of Sir T Mitchell from his expedition. Shot two ducks –

[Page 45]
Ther. sun rise 61° 2.30 – 92° thunder and heavy looking clouds to the E.

10th Dec Mr Hely to the Downs to get information respecting Sir T. Mitchell – he accordingly started about 7 am. Dr. & Wamai started at the same time, and shortly after returned bringing three horses and one mule, Mr. T and Brown returned about 12 but had found none, Dr. L Brown and Wamai started again about 1.30 PM. Wind N.E, very sultry heavy clouds, Therm. sun rise 68° 2.30 pm 92° sun set 82° –

Thursday 17th Decr Shortly after sunset very hot mosquitoes annoying us very much, latter part of the night cool and pleasant. Dr. L returned last evening with another mule. Dr. L. W. and Brown started again this morning, but came back unsuccessful. Brown fell in with some blacks who told him the mules had gone back to the Condamine, they also said they had speared two horses some time ago which no doubt were those left by Mr. P. Hodgson, the skeleton of one having been seen by us –

Therm. at sun rise 61° at 2 pm. 92° sunset 88°

[Page 46]
About 4 pm had a sharp thunder storm, which lasted ½ an hour, last night broke the main spring of my watch, a most serious loss. Found some rare plants here, the Caparis Goodenia, a beautiful little blue flower – Faciolis? – A species of bean, very beautiful [indecipherable], an elegant dropping blue flower Brunonia, very beautiful – besides many more – also 24 different kinds of grass –

Thunder and heavy clouds to the West

Mules and cattle getting very tame and quiet, find it difficult to keep the former from burning themselves – the sand flies annoyed them so much that they stood in the smoke of the fire to get rid of them, I hardly think we could have kept what mules we had found but for the sand flies – we used to light large fires, which directly they say see saw they would rush to, and by this means we managed to secure them – otherwise they would have got into some of the dense brushes – one mule

[Page 47]
this morning scraped our damper out of the ashes and ate one half before I could get it from him. The cattle encamp quietly amongst our tents. Heavy thunder, prepared for a storm but all passed off with a few sprinkles only –

Friday 18th Decr Dr. L and Brown started again for the missing mules – L told me to go up the Ck. and look for a crossing place, started in company with Mr. Bunce and Wamai, soon found one, returned and got a horse and rode him across several times – bottom hard and sound –

Had a visit from some blacks, some of the same who came the other day, [indecipherable] “Mr. Bell" and “Mr. Turner", with 5 or 6 more and 5 gins. Very amusing to hear Mr. T trying to sing “Oh dear what can the matter be" he could not understand a word of English, he was the only one who had seen whites before, one of the strangers in particular showed his surprise by feeling our clothes, and lifting up our hats in a most careful manner

[Page 48]
At 7 pm commenced a terrible storm, raining very hard, and lasted until 12 – Dr. L returned about 4 PM but unsuccessful – Therm. 68° sunrise 2.30 shade 88° sunset 82°

Saty 19th. This morning Mr. Turner the black was induced to go with Mr T and Brown in search of the missing mules – A quiet horse was got for him and it was a most amusing scene to witness this naked savage on horse back, trying to make it appear he knew all about a horse, but he was showing off before his friends – Felled two or three saplings to make a foundation for the baggage as it was getting wet, one fell across a tent and threw it down luckily no one was in at the time. The party returned bringing 1 horse and 1 mule, it was amusing to see Mr. Turner trying to use a knife and fork, he soon dropped the fork but kept the knife –

Therm. sunrise 66° 2.30 92° sunset 70°

Collected a great many flower seeds for Mr. Mort –

[Page 49]
Sunday 20th December Rain commenced at 6.15 pm with thunder and lightning from S W. rained till 9 pm. cattle very restive, this morning

Dr. L Brown and “Mr Turner" started. Dr. L returned having been taken ill on in the road bush – herded the cattle today, Wamai swam across the Ck. and returned with a new kind of Cassia and Goodenia. The melons planted by Mr. B have come up, Tried to keep the last sheep by smoking, but it only lasted 2 days – Killed a goat today –

Therm. sunrise 67° 2.30 87° sunset 79°

Monday 21st Last night fair, cloudy morning and has generally been so all day

The creek rose to some height to day Turnbull and Brown started again Brown and the black (they are both black) having returned unsuccessful; numbers of a common sort of butterfly, flying about these last two or three days – Tried to get a shot at a beautiful large white crane, which swam in a swamp but he was too wild. Mr Bunce collecting plants –

Mr. Turner, gave me a description

[Page 50]
of the country about here which leads me to suppose that the Condamine is a tributary to the Balloon, and that either Robinsons or Boyds cks. crossed by Dr. L in his last journey is the head of that River – he also gave the name of several creeks, thus the Condamine is called Yundugul and Charleys Ck. Bookarey –

[Map of Rivers and Creeks].

Ther. sunrise 65° 2.30 85° sunset 83°

Tuesday 22 Breeze all day from S E Shot a pigeon today, named after Major Smyth who noticed the species at Raffles Bay, “Mr Turner" left us, after giving long directions as how we

[Page 51]
we were to travel, but we could not understand a world – Ther. sunrise 63° 2.30 89° sunset 80° –

Tuesday 23rd Wednesday 23rd Flies and mosquitoes very troublesom, could not keep them out of our eyes, noses or mouths, – horses obliged to stand over the fires to keep the sandflies off. Took a sketch of the camp today, very hot. Ther. 63° 89° and 82° Wind from S E

Thursday 24 This morning started with Dr. L to visit Kents lagoon, discovered by him on the previous trip. Dr. L calculated it to be about 11 miles W from here, left about 7 am, crossed at my ford and kept a W course, country open, soft and puffy with small detached scrubs, good feed found a ducks nest with 9 eggs. Dr. L sucked one to see if they were good, which they happened to be, left them till our return, at 2 miles crossed a creek, supposed Quimberboy of “Mr. Turner" but we thought it ran into Charleys Ck above below our camp, we passed through a scrub for 3 miles, a most infernal place, then about 3 miles of fine open country of Iron bark, very puffy and rotten, then penetrated another scrub for about 3 miles, it being now 11 o’clock Dr. L thought we must have gone too far on getting out of the scrub we soon came to water courses with long lagoons, which Dr. L at once said must be near Kents Lagoon, we unfortunately took the wrong direction, and had not time to search longer, so returned. During our absence Charleys Ck had risen considerably, we were compelled

[Page 52]
to swim across – Perry herding the cattle today lost himself. Dr. L and Wamai started off and soon found him, he got home about 8 pm. Christmas eve, Ther. 60° sunrise noon 87° sunset 79°

Friday 25 This day being Christmas day we had a large pot full of Tapioca for dinner and a roast goat, which was first rate – Ther. sun rise 59° 2.30 – 90° sunset 79° fine clear day

Saturday 26 Suffering terribly from blight in my left eye, for the last two days. Dr. L applied lunar caustic twice, I think it better today. Cloudy close day flies etc most annoying Ther. sunrise 65° 2.30 81° One of our old friends of blacks – “Mr Bell" paid us a visit today – Dr. L collected some rare plants on our trip to Kents Lagoon. Mr Bunce has collected about 100 specimen – Glad to think that L has not ever taken any more notice of the few words which passed between us – judging from appearances I think he sees the error he would have committed had he taken the cow, He tells me now he could not do without me, and pays me many compliments, I like him very well but he is too reserved, and stand off – for such a party as we are – I shall stick to him though.

[Page 53]
Sunday 27th Dr. L, Wamai and Mr Bell started this morning to have another look for the mules, two of which the natives said they had seen to the northward, they returned about 12 o’clock not having been able to make anything of Mr. Bell – Ther. 64° 89° and 75°

Monday 28 Have been suffering terribly from the blight in both eyes, nearly blind – with great pain in my head, better this evening having applied sugar of lead – Started two blacks this morning to the Woolshed with a letter, it was placed in the split end of a stick, which one carried he was very careful of it and seemed very proud of his burden, such a messenger would pass safely through many tribes – Thunder Ther. 2.30 92° sunset 75° goats with foot rot they cannot travel to feed, and many of them are most miserable. Dog Swift caught a kangaroo, stewed it, but cannot say it was first rate – have tasted better –

Tuesday 29 Dr. L and Wamai started this morning to reconnoitre the right bank of [indecipherable] Creek, returned at 1 pm having found it free from scrub – hot day Ther. 62° 88° 80°

Wednesday 30th Slight blight only in left eye this morning, a little sugar of lead has relieved it considerably, very lame hurt my leg

[Page 54]
some how or other, shin very sore compelled to be continually dressing it with lye water, a very good remedy – mosquitos and flies as usual very annoying. Ther. 60° 89° 81° Wind N.E.

Thursday 31 Dr. L determind upon lessening our load by getting rid of 200 of flour – five mules were still absent, the loads they carried were from 250 to 280 lbs, this they carried easily for a time, but their backs soon became very sore, it is now determined upon making each load only 150 lbs, and from what I have seen a load should never be above that, for the animals backs soon become very sore and are unable to carry anything – consequently we had nothing but bread for to eat we ate 1 lb of bread apiece per meal, our former allowance was 2 lbs amongst 9 – 3 have been away some time so that 6 had the benefit of their bread we have now dampers of 7 and 10 lbs each which we walk into in style. The lame goats were eaten first but the flesh was so bad and miserable as to make many of us sick. Fine clear day. Ther. 63° 89° 82° Wind NE. have noticed that a NE wind sets in about 7 pm every night, it lasts for about 3 hours –

[Page 55]
1847 January
Friday 1st. This being new years day it was arranged to have another Tapioca pudding, but having so much flour, we killed a sheep and made a suet one – Beautiful day 64° 89° and 80 –

Saty. 2d. Jany Shot an iguana today, the Dr. saw another in a tree which I also shot but he hung fast – Mr. “Turner" and some blacks coming up at the time I pointed it out to him, he had a most wretched pair of old canvas trowsers on, which seem very uncomfortable he soon kicked them off, and clambered up the tree in a truly wonderful manner; he had no tomahawk, Wamai was very much astonished he soon knocked the iguana down, and was down himself in a moment, but he had the greatest difficulty in getting into his trowsers again, they were sewn together with kangaroo sinues, four blacks were strangers one particularly fine boy about 13 or 14 – told me the native names of many things Fine day Ther. 84° 99° 80° Wind NE by N.

Sunday 3rd. Yesterday Turnbull retund about 2 pm but no mules, Mr. “Turner" let us know he had seen the mules, he imitated their being in hobbles by walking as if his legs were tied – Dr. L and Wamai, Turnbull and Mr. Turner started indifferent directions to search, two blacks left us to night – ther. 64° 94° 83°.

Dr. returned about 11.30 am having at last found the mules, they had chosen a nice shot of land in the scrub, on

[Page 56]
their approaching the camp we set up a shout, and about ½ dozen black who had arrived in the mean time joined in and gave a loud cheer, 12 o’clock blacks began to appear, they came by 2s and 3s. startling the cattle, at last a large party appeared and jumping in they soon crossed the creek, it little mattered to them however, for they had not a stitch of clothing amongst them, the cattle however made a start and I thought they were off again, but Brown soon headed them: the blacks were ordered to stop where they were, about 150 in all. Noticed one immense man, he was not above 5 ft 7 or 9 but of enormous muscular power, we called him “police Bull" – Turnbull and Mr. “Turner" came back about 3. Mr. Turner fell off his horse on to a stump and cut the lug of his ear completely through, he seemed very much pleased at it, walking round to each of us, laughing and pleased –

Monday 4th Dr. L determined upon shifting the camp tomorrow, blacks getting troublesom, could not keep them out of the camp – one turned into the Drs. bed – some unwilling to move as told, were seized

[Page 57]
and dragged off by main force – Ther. 67° 97° 86°

Tuesday 5th Started about 11.30, had some trouble to catch the mules, blacks sitting in groups, women and children at a distance looking on, very pleased to see a horse gallop – too officious, could not keep some away at all they handling everything, many catching the mules by the tail, they no doubt would have been up to mischief in another day – most of the man had most fearful gashes across the shoulders, they had been fighting very recently with flint knives, the wounds were open and looked very horrid –

Route laid through a fine open country puffy – Iron bark, Red Gum and Pine – called by the Dr. on his last trip Callitria from the pine passed several remarkable rocky water holes, camped at 7 miles at a rocky ck, N branch of [indecipherable], claystone, Iron stone pipe clay, many small fish left dry on the bed rock of the ck dead, numerous crows eating them, cockles numerous Walked out with Mr. B to collect flowers, Mr. Turnbull and Wamai Brown returned to meet Mr. Hely – they are to overtake us. Lat. 26°. 3’. 29" –

Wednesday 6th The horses and mules, during the night strayed back to our

[Page 58]
last camp. Wamai went after them we started about 10.30, course Nth from about 10 miles, pass several fine water holes and a fine country, but very scrubby in places – we had to alter our course to N. for 3 miles to avoid a dense briglow scrub, then again N.W passing through about 1 mile of scrub, encamped at a water hole in a water couse discovd. by Dr. L in his former trip, at 4.15 pm – 15 miles – very hot Ther. 85° sunset – Lat 26° 31". 19". The Dr. thinks it Thermometer ck one having been broken there.

Thursday 7th. Start this morning 8.30, Dr. L saw my field book, anxious to keep one like it – gave his watch to me to note time and distances, route N.W. 1 mile through scrubby ironbark forest, 1 mile open box wood, 1 mile open forest, pine, Iron bark (silver leaf) casurina, 4 miles fine open level, arrived at Acacia Ck. flowing to W. land as far as this sloped gently to the right, next 2 miles from puffy soil, very dusty, 9 miles Dogwood Ck. which we cross after a little trouble, it joins Acacia Ck. 2 miles down, – distance 9 miles – Prepare for storm but all passed off – encamp at 12 noon. The sun rise 75° 95° and 83° Lat. 26° 24’. 32"

Friday 8 Start 10 to 9, pass through good and bad country, open in places, timber as

[Page 59]
Yesterday with Rosmary Rusty gum the ground firm, cross Dog Wood Creek again very rocky, fine water, scenery very pretty 10 miles cross small rocky ck. flowing East encamp on its banks, fine rocky water holes, bathe in one, rocks 15 ft perpendicular from the top fish for small fish I noticed, not successful, Wamai caught a few, these holes had shingle bottoms, – Thunder, very hot, cut up and dried a sheep. Ther. sunset 85°

Sat 9th Dr. and Wamai reconnoitring this afternoon; not returned by dark, lit a blazing fire, and set Boecking to work to blow the bugle, which he did till he nearly burst himself, it had the desired effects, they returned about 8 pm. Dr. L had found an old camp of his on Dry Beef Ck – Staff Still suffering from my leg. Mr. Bunce, Perry and Boeking with blight my sugar of lead in great request, A Beautiful country fit for any stock. Lat 26° 16’. 33 having made 8 miles northing. Ther. 69° 90° and 87°.

Sunday 10th Start 20 to 9 at 2 miles arrive at Dry beef Creek, course N 29° W following it up Ck. to our rt hand for 5 miles, pass Dr. L old camp, when Mr. P Hodgson left him, fine country, water pass, trees as before, cross the creek

[Page 60]
at the old camp. and 1 mile encamp upon a branch of it, cattle quiet, good country on this side, scrubby on the other, encamp 12.15 travelled 7 miles. Very hot. Ther. 63° 94° 81.

Monday 11 Intend waiting here for Hely; took lunar

– [indecipherable] – ° ‘ “
Sun. – 9.39.10 – 117.44.15 morning
Moon – 9.42.42 – 87.6.15
Mean time – 9.44.31 – 76.30.15)
9.46.6 – 9.46.1 – 76.30.05) 76.79.38
– 9.47.47 – 76.28.45)
Moon – 9.50.0 – 83?.31.0 (?85)
Sun – 9.54.13 – 123.28.45

index error – 37"

Dr. L this afternoon reconnoitred found a clear passage through the scrub, very hot, collected several seeds and plants – Ther. 66° 96° 88°

Tuesday 12 Still notice the NE breeze Lat 76° 11. 12, long by lunar 157° 30". E

Wednesday 13 Mr. Hely joined us this day, he had gone back to Mr. Hodgsons for news of Sir T L Mitchell, he had been absent since the 16th some alteration in the mail prevented his gaining much information, he brought some papers – by which it appeared Sir T M was on his way back having discovered some fine river running to Sturts Desert, we shall find the truth of this soon. Our tracks were easily followed, so many beasts travelling over a new county leave a track which will last for months, the soft puffy ground one

[Page 61]
one sinks up to their ankles in – the Ck. here, a fine rocky water holes, clay stone, ground hard but soon trampled into dust by the cattle, several blacks near here, one quite deaf – have an interview with them. Cloudy day – ther. 82° 93° 84°

Thursday 14 Start at 8 am, several blacks looking at us. This was really the first time we had all our party cattle horses etc together – our course N.NE through moderately open country a scrub to left for about 5 miles but at irregular distances from us, at 4 miles descend a water course, bed broad and grassy 8 miles.

11th – 15 Encamp at a water hole in the Ck. to our left a small hill named after Gibbert who ascended it; pine not so frequent, pass a black fellows grave, it was hollowed out of an ants nest and coverd with bushes, called the place grave creek, country beautiful. Dr. angry with Boeking, heavy shower at 3 pm. Ther. 60° 90° 79° Dog Swift killed a kangaroo –

Friday 15 Last night closed in cloudy and threatening rain, it kept off till 3 pm am, the commencement of my watch when it commenced and rained incessantly till 1 pm, all very wet – started 9 am first 4 miles fine county, ridges and thickets of pine oak etc. then came to a scrub-altered course to NW, it was NNW

[Page 62]
saw 2 emues Brown and Swift given chase but they got away, 2 miles more came to the Dawson, a water course, followed it N 66°W at 6 m came to an old camp – Lat 26° ‘4 continued for 10 miles, and encamp at 2 pm fine country open in places, Calverts Plains – Acacia in groups the most frequent camp near a muddy water hole, tracks of natives fresh – gins had been in the water digging for muscles with their toes, remarked that tea was excellent excellent. Caught a large kangaroo, Dr. L instead of going to a mules head to catch him, went to his tail, got a most awful kick in the wind, sent him spinning, and doubled him up for a time, grass like wheat but not so large – Ther. 69°. 80° 78. Wind SW. elevation 1461 ft –

Sat 16 Start 7.15 fine country, sand and iron stones, large scrub to our right encamp at 25 to 12, dist 9 miles, water hole near the Dawson, which is here about 25 ft broad – thunder last night and day, it still continues Ther. 60° 75°, cloudy, little wind –

Sunday 17 Some horses missing start at 9 am 1 horse still missing, leave Brown and Turnbull to look after them, after travelling a mile T returns with the horse Brown going in

[Page 63]
another direction first 4 miles box tree flats, then ascend beautiful open ridges, views beautiful, small clean plains to be seen also scrubs, briglow, Damascenia, Vitex Acacia Bottle trees, Dawson 2 miles to our left; keeping a NW course we arrive at some long lagoons about1/2 mile from the river – travelled about 11 miles, arrive Ό to 3 pm Break the handle of the saucepan, a very great loss – Bottle trees are the most curious ever seen, in shape like a soda water bottle, immense size, a species of Kurryjong, no branches or leaves except at top, inside stringy glutinous, like an aloe, sweet taste, can push a stick though it – Lat 25°. 54

[Sketch of a Bottle Tree].

[Page 64]
Monday 18 Start Ό to 7, Brown came to camp a short time after sun set last night, travel through a box wood country and meet the river in 2 miles, we follow it some distance 40 or 50 ft broad running – strong, appeared to have been some heavy rain, passed some parklike scenery, extensive view from the top of a ridge, trees same as yesterday: disturbed an old and very lazy kangaroo, he looked at us for some time then made off – 5 miles met the river again, left it to our left – at 6 miles came to a large swamp which we had to go out of our course to get past, saw two bustards but would not get a shot, 10 miles – 20 to 12 encamp at a beautiful water hole, killed sheep, see the remains of a large fish the blacks had been cooking – passed through a county perfectly new to the Dr. and ourselves of course, admired it much – B, got a rare aquatic plant, showers

Tuesday 19 Start 7.20, cloudy, trace down the Ck some dist. cross it cross some fine country, arrive at the river in 7 miles which is much flooded

[Page 65]
follow down for a mile, come to a Creek which we have to go some distance round to cross, 9 miles arrive at a good waterhole, near the River, the banks very scrubby, hot, and thunder. Dr. L very unwell last night and this morning, Wamai caught several perch in the water holes – which were covered with a most beautiful lily Hornets very numerous, they stung Boeking Wamai and several of the horses and mules – Course North – Ther. 70° and 94°

Wednesday 20th Start 7.20 for some distance through an uninteresting country, low flats with thickets of Box saplings, thick scrub to our left, at length come to a beautiful little plain about 1 ½ m square, surrounded by scrub rounded a spur of scrub, another plain, up a ridge at the top of which were numerous bottle trees. Dr. L recognised it as his bottle tree ridge, view beautiful, country clear – patches of scrub Lynds and Gilberts ranges in the distance, the latter bearing nearly north. Other more to the West. (the Bottle tree Stenoculus) remained some time to admire the view, and waiting for the goats, then started N.W. reached the Dawson, banks scrubby, the river when we first saw it 150 ft broad, followed up some little way

[Page 66]
and encamped in the scrub, the mule which carried my portmanteau, got bogged and our bag of flour and some of my goods got wet arrived Ό to 11 o clock. Made 7 miles – Couse – first 4 m NW, 1 m N, and last 2 NW, very hot. Ther. 69° 94° 76° Thunder and rain the main storm passed to the N. Dr. L imagined us opposite Palm tree Creek – Hely and I crossed the water ? on a log, found it a back water only, the river narrow and 15 ft deep –

Thursday 21 Dr. L asked me to take bearing of difft ranges from bottle tree ridge, started, and found them as follows – Centre of Lynds range W. 17° N – NW end of W. 40° N – highest point of Gilberts range W 10° N, South point of do. N 15° E, Brow of Hill in dist. N 16° E Took a sketch of Lynds range and some bottle trees – Dr went out with Wamai to reconnoitre to find a crossing place, thy crossed their horses over also found a large log which had fallen across the river – Swift killed a Wallaby today; banks of river very scrubby, we encamped in the midst – soil sticky, flood marks very high over 20 ft in places: heaps of muscle shells, the blacks must have had a good feed – Very hot – Ther. sun rise 69, 2.30 – 104° Lat 25° 37’ 30’

Friday 22 Start 8 o clock. Keep a NN East course for 3 ½ m and arrive at the crossing place about 10 am, Box, scrub and briglow with all swampy boggy places all the way, encamped – The

[Page 67]
The Dr. having at Charleys Ck. nominated me as the architect of the party! I set to work and stretched a hand rope along the log which was to form our bridge, I tied one end to a root conveniently situated and the other to a stake, then got a long straight sapling and jumped it into the bed of the river in the middle, alongside the log to which it was lashed – Dr. L, Boeking and Mr. Hely, Brown and Wamai then passed the packs across whilst turnbull Perry and myself carried them some distance further across a swampy place. We then had a pot of tea.
After that drove the horses and mules across with little difficulty, then the cattle, one or two gave a little trouble.

Wamai had in the mean time constructed a very ingenious bridge, which however did not reach quite across, he laid two parrallel saplings supported on forked stakes stuck in the river he then placed some cross pieces along it having the appearance of a high ladder and on the top some sheets of bark – his idea was to drive the sheep and goats along, when the would jump from the end to the opposite bank, but we could not get them to try it After throwing 30 or 40 in about 50 walked the log, but the remainder to the number of 100 sheep and 100 goats we had to catch and throw in – This was very fatiguing – one or two of us stripped and stood in the river

[Page 68]
whilst some of the other besides myself in our shirts caught them (the sheep) and threw them in, it was hard work – not having any yard we had to catch them as we could and drag them some distance, we did not finish till sunset all very tired – Dr. knocked up he had been very ill – very hot Ther. 100° An extra fat cake –

Saty 23 Very unwell this morning dreadful pain in my inside, drank too much water – could not move for an hour or so, start 8.30, and in 3 miles come to Palm Tree Ck – not running though it drains a large valley, it is about 20 ft across, general course from N.E. – Glad to leave the Dawson, the banks of which are so boggy and scrubby, follow up the creek, many turns in it, and in about 4 miles more encamp at 1 PM, heavy storm. We waited some time at the junction, the Billy goat having been left behind, Wamai and Turnbull start for it, could not find him – Sat 25° 33’

Sunday 24th Start 7.30 follow up the Ck cross twice the 2nd time a mule bogged but no other accidents occurred, cross several ridges, ground on them soft and puffy, banks of Ck. boggy and scrubby, some places firm; from the top of ridges Lynds and Gilberts ranges visible, former 235° latter 330° at 7 miles NW come to a swamp a dense scrub to our left – pass between – I saw the tracks of a horse L doubted it, they were about 3 weeks old, Mr. Bunce and Wamai following saw the horse in the distance

[Page 69]
Follow the Ck 2 miles more, and encamp at 12, grass long and thick, round the water holes, many hornets, they stung many of the mules and horses – Several of the mules kicked of their loads and gave a great deal of trouble.

I ought to have stated the manner in which we travelled, before this. Dr. L rode ahead compass in hand – cutting a rather curious figure, he was a very tall man, 6 ft. but being very thin added to the appearance of his height, he wore a very long beard, a conical hat which he had got at Pt Essington, a long and very old light tweed coat, very greasy – red shirt and old moleskin trowsers, he generally carried a sword, this however was fasten to his saddle, in such a manner that the handle stuck out behind him, so he could not well have used it readily. Being troubled with boils, he generally had one stirrup as short as possible, whilst the other was as long as it well could be – this caused the affected side off the saddle, the stirrups were altered as occasion required –

Then came the mules driven by Boeking and myself – Perry followed, the Dr. closely leading a quiet mule carrying the valuables, such as the pots and frying pan, plates, sextant, Norrie artificial horizon etc – then followed some distance behind, Hely and Brown with the

[Page 70]
cattle. Then the goats and sheep driven by Wamai Mr. Bunce, and Mr. Turnbull – The horses etc travelled much faster than the others, sheep would not travell travel when hot, and the goats when wet –

Sometimes the mules commenced kicking without the slightest reason, when once they began they seldom stopped until all their load were off and strewed in all directions; when they commenced, I shouted to the Dr. ahead to stop. rounded up the mules – jumped off our horses, and caught as soon as possible the mule or mules – perhaps the packs were strewed over the ground for some distance these had to be reloaded collected and repacked – occasionally we had very hard work of it, that is Boeking and I for it was our duty – some of the party never could pack a mule, the loads always tumbled – whilst again some mules could never be depended upon, they would go out of their way and run against a tree, lie down or sometimes wait until you got close to them and then kick out at you, hardly a day passed without our having to reload two or three, when a mule bogged, we had to go in the water and unload him, holding his nose out of the water to prevent his being

[Page 71]
drowned – Dr. L accuses Hely of giving every horse he rode rode a sore back, which H does not admit – Some of the party proposed to the Dr. to read prayers, he objected, and therefore after slight discussion the subject drops

Monday 25 Start 15 to 8 at 1 mile arrive at a fine sheet of water, banks parallel and exactly like the bed of a river, gave a cheer for what we thought a discovery, but Dr. L says it ends in a swamp having traced it down, we followed it up for 2 miles, and at 3 ½ came upon the Robinson – the sheet of water commences at a a mere water course – The Robinson a Westerly water – The head of Palm tree Ck is close to this it is an Eastly water the, the dividing ridge hardly noticeable – The Robinson takes a S by E course here, cross it, the bed 100 feet broad, sandy, banks high and regular, water in holes but partial; 6 miles cross a 2nd time and ½ 12 encamp on its banks having travelled 14 miles, water shallow on a sandy bed, country passed over very fine open flats, timber as usual, beds of large lagoons quite dry; should have encamped sooner but for want of water, large clusters of Palms and [indecipherable] on the banks, fine country seen to W & S – Course West, Hot, Lat 25° 29. Elevation 1028

Tuesday 26 Start 15 to 8 trace up the Robinson at 1 mile come upon water, the Flats cease, we travel along it course 7 miles – sides steep, sandstone ridges very rocky, rough travelling, country covered with Bottle trees, Pine

[Page 72]
Oak, Iron Bk Box etc. water running hard here 20 ft broad, scenery very wild, beautiful encamp 11 am. on a nice green point of land. Feed good (for cattle) ours rotten goats they are a nuisance, will not travel or even get fat – Hot, thunder

Wednesday 27 Last night set in rain and every appearance of its continuing, it passed off – The glucking Bird heard, most remarkable. Saw most beautiful fungus fungus, net work, crimson, in shape like a balloon –

[Sketch of a balloon like shape].

Start 15 to 8 ascend the range and keep along it for 3 miles, river beautiful Pine [indecipherable] Fusana and a variety of shrubs, brush to the N several bearing NW. county level, descend a very rocky steep place and come into a fine Grassy Valley, at 4 ½ m cross the river which bursts through the range just crossed – at an old encampment. Lat 25° 25, pass in a NW direction over beautiful open ridges, silver leaf iron bark, pass a large swamp and encamp on the Robinson at 9 miles, banks very high steep and rocky – scenery beautiful good water rocks etc – arrive 15 past 12 –

Friday 29th Remained in camp & day yesterday the 28th repairing saddes etc, Dr. L reconnoitred for water found it 10 miles off NW by W – Start this morning 5 to 9 and for 4 miles the ground is sandy puffy poor – then cross a creek of good water and get into a better country, same timber, with [indecipherable] peaches [indecipherable] and a variety of beautiful shrubs, deep rocky gullies to the left

[Page 73]
also the head of the Robinson, steep and rocky, camp at the head of it a small water hole, the general features steep grassy beds banks, sandy beds, floods do not appear frequent, though the flood marks in some places high – Course NW by N. 10 miles sultry hot – Dr. L reconnoitered this day and found an old camp of his about 2 miles on –

Sat 30th Start 7.30 and at about 2 m in a very rocky gully come upon the old camp then ascend a range for some height and travel along a flat for 4 ½ miles, sides very rocky and deep gullies, covered with Pine, Bottle trees etc, descend into a beautiful valley open and grassy, high perplr. cliffs, hills, gullies of all shapes and sizes in the distance. We had travelled about 9 miles our course from the 2 mile camp W by N – travel about 9 miles. Dr. reconnoitering climbed to the top of high hill view grand in the extreme. Mt. Aldis a remarkable sugar loaf 286°. Mt. Nicholson 284° cliff 300° – Large hill like Mount Nicholson due west, Mt. [indecipherable] (Hodgson). Mr. Bunce collecting plants, Perry a most useful man, very willing and obliging fellow, Boeking a sleepy German, a good man – Elv 1,648 ft

Sunday 31st Start 20 past 7 keep a N.N.W course for 2 ½ miles cross a rocky creek, good water, then change to NE by N crossing several slight and open rides at 6 miles come to high rocks which we cannot pass, retrace our steps 1 mile, encamp at 11 am at a water hole, the county on each side of us

[Page 74]
high rocky topped ridges, Dr. reconnoitering Trees as usual, but with the addition of Arborescent Zamai a most beautiful tree. Wind NE. shower from E last night which wet us through –

Monday February 1st Last night heavy rain; start at 8 make a very round about from W. NW, NE passing several ridges and gullies, 1 ½ mile pass a ridge dividing the E and W water, at 8 miles come to a creek which we descend into Castle Ck, beautiful scenery – narrow valley hemmed in by high cliffs, fine running stream, we ride in single file for nearly 3 miles along the creek, and at the foot of the rocks, when it opends opens out into a fine grassy valley high hills on each topped by most extraordinary rocks, encamp at 2 pm. having travelled a long distance upwards of 12 miles to gain 3. Rain in the afternoon, got wet. Mr. B collecting some beautiful Crimson Grevillia beautiful. Hely suffering from Tooth ache – February

Tuesday 2 Feby Started 10 am, had to leave a horse behind he was a fine grey horse, he had run a stake in his foot and became very lame, In consequence of Mr. H. being unwell last night he remained in the tent, in the morning Dr. L not liking to be crowded made H and Turnbull draw lots as to who should leave the tent it fell to H to leave, little dissatisfaction as according to the watches never more than 3 could sleep in the Dr. tent, whereas 4 must necessarily sleep in the other at once – course NNE

[Page 75]
Valley of the Castle Ck opening out, into beautiful grassy county – plenty of water – as soon as we unloaded it commenced to rain from SW and continued all day – Wet and uncomfortable – Yesterday whilst driving the lame horse, he kick me on the knee, rather stiff –

Wednesday 3rd Feb This morning brought up the horse but determined to leave him – encamp on the Ck banks high – sandstone shale with impression of leaves, coal in abundance no doubt. Walked to the top of a high cliff of rocks with Mess Hely and Bunce – view beautiful, rock wallaby – took a sketch – calculated the time, Drs. watch out of order – Lat 25° 10’ – Alt. 1745 ft – Ther. 2.30 – 88°

Thursday 4th Start 8 – fine clear night, heavy dew – ther. sun rise 59° Left the horse at this camp – wrote on a tree left “grey horse left" follow up the valley Ck to our left, fine and open country intersected by gullies from the high ranges on each side, at 5 miles cross a low ridge, took a bearing to a hill 330° – View beautiful, sandstone, the shape of rocks in places most remarkable, sharp pinnacles and rocks in every fantastic shape at 6 miles cross the Ck – and ascend a small ridge dividing a system of waters: at 9 miles ascend and wind round a steep sort of sugar loaf and leave Castle Ck descend and 10 miles brings us to an impassable brush, of vines and an

[Page 76]
endless variety of magnificent trees, vines bottle trees, many perfectly new to Dr. L, saw some most tempting looking fruit, which I did not eat let the Dr. try them first, he being a botanist – had to change our course down an unknown Ck to the S, encamp 3.30, travelled about 14 miles. Mr. B much pleased with the rich field of new plants before him, View still fine, Hely suffering from face ache

Dr. Reconnoitering – Elv 1466 –

Friday 5th The Dr. when reconnoitering found we were on Zamia Creek – Lat 25° – 6.
Start at 7.15. down the Ck. at the Drs. request made a sketch of Zami tree, about 20 ft high – stem like immense grass tree, top like [indecipherable], fruit like larg pine apple, it contains nuts – the natives soak them in water after crushing them, to get rid of a poisonous oil – then dry and rost them, some of the fruit I saw was 18 inches long.

At 5 miles pass Wanga Wanga Camp, and at 12 encamp at White Wallaby camp at 12 noon, cross the creek several times, the banks one each side of us very high and steep, the Ck being a water course in the bed of a creek, briglow scrubs about here, Hely unwell, climbed to the top of high bank, took a sketch or two, views wild a beautiful. Ther. sun rise 62° 93° at 2.30 Wind E, Mt. Aldis N – Mt. Nicholson 330° Hill 343° do 157° 30 remarkable pyramid

[Page 77]
bearing South

Sat 6 Delayed, a mule being absent – Start 15 to 9 – follow down the Ck. 5 miles N course, country pretty, banks high, (section of the Creek under) steep rocky saw 3 emus –

[Sketch of a Section of the Creek].

Encamped 20 past 11 in order for the mule to overtake us, Brown and Turnbull soon after arrived with him. Curryjong very fine and large. Dr. tried to draw two of Mr. Hely teeth with a bullet mould, but no use, the party very much disappointed about the want of medicine – I too am astonished, the box I booked in the ships manifest as medicine chest turns out to be full of soap, and turns out to be intended for skins of birds, plants etc. I have already stated the amount of Rhubarb and Magnesia we possessed – Lat 24° 59’ Alt. 1400 ft.

Sunday 7th Start 8.15 course N.N.E. level open county. Ck. to our rt at 4 miles cross a Ck from Mt. Nicholson, it joins Zamia Ck – bottle trees very remarkable, scenery pretty, numerous huts of blacks – Mt. Aldis – Trap sugar loaf by singular, quite isolated, 315°, then 2 m of scubs, boggy lagoon to right, get into an open county, impassable scrub to left at 8 m come to the dry beds of w holes Dr. L said they were full last time, change to

[Page 78]
NW, silver leaf Iron bark county and at 11 miles – 1 pm ecamp encamp by a large shallow rusty lagoon full of rushes – Goats and Sheep as usual behind – Last night set in thunder, expected rain, had a shower or two, Mr. Hely found the skull of a black. Camden the dog found a nest of ducks, I could not catch any of them – Ther. 64° 98° Very hot –

Monday 8th Start 8.20 course NE by N at 2 miles cross two cks running to the right good water, dense scrub to left, first 5 m open flats. Ck to right at 6 m, and enter a scrub at 7 cross a Ck two miles bogged, and another threw his load, at 8 m changed course – to NW ground boggy, hard work for mules – one bogged: at 10 miles, cross Expedition Ck below its junction with Erithrina Ck. – which we did not know, at 2 miles more came to another ck supposed still to be Expedition Ck. and consequently travelled a mile further over boggy ground before we found our mistake, encamped at 3 pm. Dr. Reconnoitered after dinner found we were on Erithryna Ck and about 3 m from a former camp – travelled 12 miles

Last night torrents of rain, awoke and found myself in a pool of water, wet through, got up, found shelter under a pack, uncomfortable, Mr. Bunce ill all night, he having drank cold water whilst hot – better today – Lat 24° 44

[Page 79]
Tuesday 9th Wet last night again, hard rain cattle unsteady, cloudy. Start 15 to 9 keep a NW. course – 2 miles cross Erithrina Ck – at 2 ½ m come to an old camp, at 3 ½ encamp on the same creek at the foot of Expedition range. Boggy, an immense quantity of rain must have fallen here. Box, Iron Bark, Hekia, Caparis, Cassia, Fig, Palms, Briglow, etc, etc, sandstone. Elevation 914? rain from NW this afternoon

Wednesday 10th Start 11 pm, detained on acct of rain – Think the blacks were about last night, shortly after dark the horses and cattle rushed up to our tents and were very restive; during the Drs. watch also they again commenced, Dr. L ordered a gun to be fired, I do not know the effect it had except awakening us all – All passed off well – I watched at least 4 hours, as the Drs. watch the only one is out of order, cannot keep time with it –

Start at 11 am, follow up the ridge we encamped upon, very scrubby sandstone shortly ascended a clean steep of whinstone – View from top beautiful. Mt. Nicholson due South, a fine bold flattish topped mountain 2000 ft at least high – to the S ad W the cliffs of Castle Creek, Mt. Aldis a perfect cone in the valley below. The hill

[Page 80]
we were on open Iron bark whinstone ridge, Arborescent Zamai etc, proceeded descended 1 m to a valley when 4 mules got bogged and with difficulty saved the rest water up to our knees, held the mules heads up and unloaded in the water, very muddy and difficult job, cross the valley and ascend a long sandstone ridge with deep gullies on each side, then came to a high whinstone hill, wound round it, sides very steep, deep gullies below, got round safely, view beautiful. Christmas and other ranges and of the Comet river to W and SW – to NW the horizon a level as the sea – some open clear spots also visible, shortly descended into a valley being fairly across the range – encamp at a small stream at 5 pm, have travelled about 15 m of difficult country – mules very tired all with sore backs – Lat 24° 43, due W from last camp – Thunder storm, fine night, wet through through -

Thursday 11 Start 8.30 – Told the Dr. it would be advisable to remain this day in order to rest the mules, they being very weary and sore backs – he would not, followed down the Ck. course N.N.W, mules weak and troublesome to drive, cross Ck several times, at one place 4 mules got bogged, obliged to unload caused great delay, we however got to camp about 12 having passed over a most horrible country –

[Page 81]
bog brush, Bottle trees [indecipherable] Zamia etc

Last night it threatened to rain. The party in our tent consists of Dr. Turnbull and myself – the other, Mess. Hely, Perry, Bunce and Boeking – Turnbull and Wamai watch from 7 to 9.30 pm so that during that time there are only 2 in Drs. tent – and 4 in the other: now these tents will not hold more than 3; when Dr. turned Hely out, Perry gave up his place to him in his tent, which H took – the consequence was, as we went to bed at dark – Perry had to shift anyhow till his watch came which was 9.30, when the Dr. also turned out –

Last night threatening wet, Petty asked me if I would allow him to lie down in Turnbulls place during his watch – I freely consented, as I thought the Dr. was shaving too close, but I told him to ask the Dr. but I asked for him, the Dr. was very much offended and said “he only moved Hely for his own convenience, and he did not see why any one else should come in" – that each tent would hold 5 – “I explained that until 12 o’clock there were only 2 in our tent, whilst there were 4 and then 3 in the other: that the time he complained of being crowded was one night when Hely was ill, and then there were only 4, whereas he confessed the tents would hold 5, (they would only hold 3) he gave leave then to Perry to lie down but Perry did not take advantage of the offer

[Page 82]
so had to remain in the rain – Party not pleased at this affair –

Friday 12 Mr. Bunce and Wamai on arriving yesterday afternoon with the Goats showed such symptoms of ague that the Dr. immediately game gave them emetics: better this morning – Dr. L and Brown reconnoitered this afternoon found nothing but boggy ground and scrub – returned about sunset – rain commenced about 8 pm continued hard rain for some hours, I luckigily luckily dug a trench round myself and slept soundly – the others wet through – remained in camp to day –

Sat 13 Rain hard all night, cleared up, start 9.30 – keep a NW course, our camp was on the edge of a scrub principally of briglow very dense, ground boggy, many loads knocked off, very fatiguing, at 3 ½ miles missed a pack mule – Brown and Boeking went back found him some distance, he had upset his load, he was met by Bunce and Wamai who had remained behind to rest, being ill: Encamped 3 ½ miles further on in a small open space with a shallow muddy temporary water course running through only travelled 7 miles in as many hours ground so boggy horses, mules etc continully

[Page 84]
behind to rest and then brought up – Alt 1050 ft –

Tuesday 16 Delayed for some of the horses they being absent – Start at 20 to 9 and first 5 miles keep along a hard ridge stony in places, Creek near us, at 6m came to Box wood flat, forest, but covered with water, one sheet of water, crossed it took the horses above the knees, one mule bogged; after about a mile got into a thick brush and encamped about 1 o’clock scub the whole day around us, sheep and goats brought up about 4 pm. Wamai and Brown better but very weak. Dr. finds this camp near an old one of his – Lat 24° 37 –

17 Start 15 to 10 having been detained for some of the horses, it is Brown duty to start at day break and get them up – this duty he does well, and in clear country he would have them up whilst we were at breakfast, and then eat his own breakfast whilst we loaded, but latterly the country has been so bad, we could not get an early start –

I may here say the Dr. ought to be well pleased with his party, every one knows his business, and things go on smoothly – but Dr. L is disagreeable, selfish – we don’t care for bog or scrub or water, are ready to go through all, but Dr. L’s selfish

Scrubby ridge with open patches, NE course

[Page 85]
for 3 miles, then + a creek to the left, then course to NW by N for 9 miles through scrub and over stony ridges, encamp in the scrub near the box flat – from which we got our water. Bunce & Wamai better, goats etc behind as usual and brought up by Turnbull & Brown – Very hot – Lat 24° 34’

Thursday 18th Start Ό to 8 keep a N course for 7 miles – at 2 we pass the general scrub boundary, pass through some narrow plains, scrub still to our right, at 7 m fairly out of it, give a cheer, enter a Myall country, Iron bark ridges – soon come to a tract of whinstone beautiful and open, silver leaf iron bark, Box flat under water to our left –

After about 12 miles, the latter 5 NW by N we encamp upon Deception Ck. so called by the Dr. from his having been pulled up by a scrub when he thought himself clear, this Ck. joins Comet R. and Comet Rr. the Mackenzie. The musquitoes and sand flies awful – giving us no rest, the sand flies attacked us here in numbers– horses crowding round the fires we made for them – my shirt very much torn – Lat 24° 27; 30.

Friday 19 Remain in camp all day – Ther. 88° at 2 oclock – Creek lower to day – mosquitoes sand flies as usual –

[Page 86]
Saty 20th Start about 8 am. course NE by W – our route through a beautiful open country silver leaf iron bk. to the left hand ranges in the distce, ahead ranges of Comet River, county appeared open to right, but boggy and scrubby to left – Fine view no doubt from top of some of the high ridges, had no opportunity of looking the sand flies so bad – they covered our faces like dust from a brickfielder getting into our eyes, noses, ears and mouths– the misery we endured not to be described – horses and mules cattle etc suffered – all tossed their loads, many 4 and 5 times, the quietest amongst them, we had to light large fires and stand in the smoke to load them, they kicking and plunging – After 10 miles arrived at a long water hole parallel to the river about 5 chains distance, encamp by the water – light fires all round to keep away the flies –

Sunday 21st Pass a tolerable night in spite of musquitoes (the sand flies do not appear at think thank goodness) start at 8 am keep a N.N.E course 6 miles; came upon the Comet Rvr. which was running strong about 100 ft across, Casurina on its banks – at 7 ½ m x a creek from SE and about 9 m x a scrubby ridge whinstone: Briglow Vitex, Bottle [indecipherable] – In going after a mule found a cluster of magnificent

[Page 87]
trees bearing a fruit size of mandarin orange or large peach, skin tough full of a pulphy pulp and small seeds similar to a fig – brought some to Dr. L who tasted them, eat some, a kind of bitter sweet, afraid to eat much though they were most tempting; wild passion flower beautiful – encamp 12 o’clock travel about 12 miles – The mules run all the way on acct. of sand flies, ourselves – better prepared – handkerchifs over our faces – Mr. Bunce with a pair of spectacles, in two holes in a handkerchief – curious figure –

On acct of the blacks the sheep and goats instead of being left behind to be sent for, Bunce, Turnbull and Wamai encamp on the road for a time, and bring them on in the evening – The goats travel well, sheep knock up they are in good condition, goats horrible, tough and tasteless.

I forgot to say that whilst in the scrub last week the dogs caught two beautiful wallaby, one jumped into my arms I caught it alive, they measd 34 inchs from the tip of the tail to the nose, the tail being ½ of its body that length, grey fur a deep black stripe between the ears from the nose and down the back also an arched stripe commencing at its eyes

[Page 88]
passing between its ears, and coming down in a circular form on its shoulder blades, both skinned, a male and female – Lat 24° 14’: 30" –

Monday 22 Prepare for a start but some of the mules being absent – and having to wait some time for them Dr. L determined to remain all al day, it is generally the cor custom of the horses and mules to come up to the camp and stand over the fires whenever the sand flies were about, but this morning only a few were up. Brown looking after them all day, they came up in the evening and we hobbled all we could, cattle also strayed and could not be brought up before evening – Lat 24° – 14’ – 30" Alt 920 ft –

Tuesday 23rd Mules and horses came up to the fires early enabling us to start at 20 to 8 – keep NE by N course, river to our left, at 1 mile come to a ck. keep it also to left – at about 2 m the top load of one of the mules fell off, and whilst reloading 4 mules got bogged, one carrying the sugar, two the flour get wet great trouble, water up to knees, unloaded unloaded them, but the banks so boggy difficult to get them out again, one nearly drowned – start again, still follow the ck x it about 3 miles, county very scrubby [indecipherable] Boshenia and other shrubs, clothes

[Page 89]
torn very much, flour bags also torn lost some flour – a mule bogged crossing another ck – delayed us, soon found we had crossed lost the spade, a most valuable article, we encamp upon the river bank about 12 o’clock having made about 5 m but travelled 10 or more; scrubby [indecipherable], as, Dr. L promised Brown and Boeking a fat cake if they found the spade – which they accordingly did – only a piece of tough goat for dinner, kill a sheep – Wamai got a little bad milk from some of the goats –

Wednesday 24th Start about 8 am and keeping a mean course of NW by N we travelled for 6 ½ hours, but only made about 9 miles of Lat – at 5 miles we came to a scrub and continued through it until we arrived at our camp which was between a beautiful lagoon and the river, the whole jouny patches of scrub and dense scrub, sand flies not so bad – River still bears the same character, steep clayey banks, Casuarinas of great size – current very strong. Flood marks on some trees at least 40 or 50 ft – Recent signs of nativs, trees fresh barked, and fires lately out, tracked them down the River – parallel to the river are

[Page 90]
long lagoons and water courses, perhaps an old bed; soil stiff clay – oak etc – hazy, signs signs of rain –

Thursday 25th Night passed off without rain, tho’ very cloudy – start at 8 – keep generally a northerly course through scrub, with occasional clear patches, on one of which I saw the largest bottle tree I ever noticed, about 6 miles hear the cooeys of the natives, soon after come upon the river, see a large tribe who immediately run off, they were on the opposite side of the river, so we could not have reached them, many ran back for their spears, and some of the gins ran and hastily catching up children, nets or what the could, rushed into the scrub again – Again turned into the scrub, and after about 5 ½ hours travelling and 12 miles, encamp upon one of those long cks running parallel to the river. We passed a beautiful lagoon to our left, then is a constant continual string of them along the river in the scrubs – Cattle and sheep missed our

[Page 91]
tracks, and did not come to camp till we were at dinner, cloudy light drizzling rain in afternoon, fresh breeze from SE.

Friday 26 Rain set in last night from SE continued all night, until sun rise stopped for about 2 hours whilst we breakfasted and loaded the mules – shortly after starting it commenced again, travelled about 2 miles, till we came to a good camping place, the last being a clayey soil stuck to our feet, this place harder; on the banks of a fine sheet of water, a continuation of the Ck we were on this morning – Rain all day, all wet through, had great work to light a fire (2 hours at least) cleard up a little at sunset, commenced again

Saturday 27 Rain all night particularly from about 12 o’clock till sun rise from S and SE, ground very muddy, up up to our ankles, no dry place to sit down very fatigueing, cut f cut branches and stripped bark to walk on – Dr. would not help did not care but took the lions share to lie on, he would let me pitch the tent by myself and never offer a hand, did not care much I was able to do, shows the man, clearing up to day – Last night very dark

[Page 92]
Mr. H roused me to watch, not inclined to stir, raining torrents, he led me to where the cattle were supposed to be, mounted a horse, watched a white object – without stirring being afraid of disturbing the cattle; day break, no cattle, I had been sitting it out in torrents watching a white log, luckily they had not got far, very wet, blankets wet, hard work to get a fire – In camp

Sunday 28th No rain last night cloudy start at 9, keep NW course travel travel 3 ½ miles, boggy – tracks of natives, x a fine open plain, small, very, and surrounded by scrub, notice straight outline of hills to N.E. encamp at 12 – on the Comet; water, bank high, running hard

Cow calved last night, detained us, we packed him, the calf, on the top of a load he kept slipping off, a confounded nuisance. Fine day, hot, dry hard camp, my feet dry for the first time these many days, Lat 23° 51 – bathe in the river, run up the banks a long distance and come down with the stream at a rapid pace, very pleasant, could swim across, but made considerable lee way –

Monday March 1st Start at 9, course N by W for 8 miles, travelled about 4 hours – at 4 miles

[Page 93]
a pretty plain surrounded by scrub shortly enter the scrub, and encamp on the banks of the Comet at a clear place, water bank high and rising fast. Last evening Mr. Hely and Turnbull made a bush bail in order to milk the cow, coat coaxed him up and nearly succeded in getting her head in, when Dr. L with his usual impatience rushed at her, and delaboured her with a stout sapling till she roared and was driven half mad, she would not look at her calf after that – Had to lead the mules across a boggy ck delayed us an hour. Some some bags of ration got astray Boeking & Brown find them – Lat 23° 47 –

Tuesday 2d Start 8.30 course N.N.E travel for 7 ½ hours, about 14 miles – encamp upon the banks of the Comet, a fine appearance, bank high and rising, could occasionally see the tops of trees in water, running hard, made little northing, having to head so many flooded creeks, yesterday only 4 m of Lat was made, scrub all day, few patches of clear land, a low flat range of hills to right East. Fine clear day – Ther. sun rise 65° in the water 72° 6 head of cattle missing: Mr. Hely, Brown and Turnbull left behind to bring them up –

[Page 94]
3d March Mr Hely and cattle did not arrive till after dark last evening, Brown after much trouble tracked the cattle back to a former camp, consequently the herd could not start after us till 2 or 3 pm. the goats arrived at sunset

Brown saw the blacks, they were close by us they had turned up every place about the camp, where we slept and the grass flattened (where we slept) was tuned up – Think it dangerous to divide the party, so Hely, Turnbull, Brown, left 14 miles off with cattle, Bunce and Wamai about half way – Dr. L, Perry, Boeking myself at the camping place pitching tents etc – I know I was the only one of the four who had ever used a gun – Dr. L under the circumstances should not have made such a long stage – the blacks might have attacked each party with advantage –

Mr. H says our last camp is complell completely under water, we ran a chanc, in fact when we started in the morning we were

[Page 95]
on an island – Lat 23° 40’ 42 –

Remain in camp all day – 3d March

This morning lost the calf – Dr. L and myself started in search, asked the Dr. if he had ever read Don Quixote, and if he recollected the story of two [indecipherable] of Salamanca or some town starting off to search for a mule, they agreed to imitate the braying of an ass, so one on went in one direction and the other in another, both brayed so well that they kept continually taking each other for an ass – Told him it would be a good place to imitate a cow, the calf might answer, Dr. said he could not, offered to teach him –

Told him that as a boy, amongst other accomplishments I could crow like a cock; bellow like a cow; mew like a cat; and worse than all bray like an ass; told him an anecdote of being in Spain when a boy, at a farm house, sleeping in the a tent with an officer of the 12th from Gibraltar, the farmer boasted to us that all the cocks commenced crowing as the clock struck 11 and after after three or four rounds went to sleep again – so to try them I commenced crowing at 10 pm, fowls in great commotion, something wrong, could not get a reply till after two or three more crows, they

[Page 96]
they fairly took it up and gave thee rounds, and went to sleep again 11 oclock some old cock who would not be roused up at 10, commenced, some of the hens making a noise, but no reply to his crow he went to sleep again Spanish Farmers family and a Spanish Dragoon officer very much amused –

Dr. L offered to be taught how to bellow like a cow, told him to hold his nose and try and say moooe through it a very bad attempt, at last succeeded pretty well, walked along holding his nose and practicing, came to a small detached scrub, Dr. went one side I the other, Dr. bellowed, I mooooo’d Dr. took me for a calf and came through the scrub to me, asked him if he took me for a calf? said yes; asked me what I took him for, told him he made a noise between a scotch bag pipe drone and a tiger; took another lesson, and was about starting again when we saw that Perry had tumbled over the calf without imitating any beast – Dr. still trying it, a man can never know too much –

[Page 97]
Thursday 4th Remain in camp till 2 pm some of the mules absent – make a start: at 4 miles travelling in a NE direction come to a clearer camping place – on a back water of the River, Perry had been unwell since last night, Turnbull complaing. Dr. souses Perry in the river –

Friday 5th On account of so much sickness Dr. L allowed only 2 meals per day saying if we got sick he had no means of curing us. We have had plenty of good meat which with fatigueing work was not likely to disagree with any one, but Dr. L forgets that for the last three weeks we have been travelling in a dense scrub, wet through, the ground covered with decomposed vegetable matter, and whilst often in a great heat and perspiration, the sudden thunder storms would wet us to the skin, such would be sufficient to give any one ague, But there is no medicine in the party! a dose of salts would set all to right, now that one or two of the party have show unmistakeable symptoms of fever, this fact astounds us

[Page 98]
We were aware of it before, but being in good health we did not think so seriously of it. Dr. L in a great state, crying tearing his hair etc – Our watches altered, put in force last night, Perry and Wamai 6 to 9. Dr. L and Turnbull 9 to 11.30 – Hely and Bunce 11.30 to 2 pm, myself from 2 to 4, Boeking from 4 to 6

Start in good time, keep a NW course and in 6 miles reach the junction of the Comet and Mackenzie – latter River swollen by the Comet, the other not flooded above, but only back water, river very broad, water from bank to bank – 200 ft at least, running very strong – good encamping place, x some open sandy ridges, Brown saw blacks this morning, they were examining the tracks carefully of them, and dancing over them, they did not see him, we may expect a visit soon. Ther. [indecipherable]° at noon very hot in sun – slight breeze

March 6 Fine clear night Dr. ill all night also Turnbull, and Perry – who had been better in the evening, but passed a bad night, Built a gunyah of saplings and boughs this morning, as we saw we could

[Page 99]
not cross the River for many days, Perry so weak not able to stand, Turnbull very ill, Dr. also with an attack of ague, very weak. Mr. Hely complained of head ache this evening, Mr. Bunce not right. Ther. sunrise, in water 78, noon 98° –

I may here at once make a few remarks about our medicine chest – when In Sydney I particularly asked Dr. L about it, as I intended having brought a small quantity with me; he said he would take a most complete chest with him, therefore I need not bring anything as it would only add to the weight of the baggage – Mr. Hely also particularly asked him he made the same replies; also that he himself was a Dr. of medicine. I however procured a package of seidlitz, and a stick of nitrate of silver, I think I have already mentioned that the box I booked as a medicine chest contained soap – and that at Darling Downs he wrote to me to procure him Rhubarb and Magnesia – when at Hughes and Isaacs he asked me for the chest and I handed him the soap box, but he said – it was a much smaller box and packed inside one of the packs, I then found it for him, he searched for caustic as Mr. Hodgson had come across for eye water or something

[Page 100]
at any rate there was great demand for eye water, as blight was very prevalent – but he had no caustic in the chest. I then told him I had some, and opened my portmanteau, the bottle containing it was lying on the top, he took it and has kept it ever since, not only kept it but it was only after several applicants to him that I even got a piece the 12 part of an inch –

I would have given him what he wanted if he had asked me I would have given him what he wanted – In Sydney his words were "I promise you health" "You will be too well" also that he had taken a bottle of pills with him on his first trip, but only one or two used – again at Mr. Andrews he saw the package of seidlitz and asked me what it contained, when I told him he said it was useless, and I therefore gave it away – I think to a Mr. Twill –

I can now give an account of the contents of this medicine chest – six small phials, one containing laudanum, ½ oz quinine Tartar Emetic, Calomel, Hartshorn – 6 large tin cans, containing alum and and assenical soap for preserving skins – no bandages, no plaster or instruments of any sort – Dr. L now in a state of agitation, told me if all got ill he did not know what he should

[Page 101]
do. Told me he was very ill on Dawson, thought at one time he would have died, but that some pills Mr Turnbull happened to have saved him, “made a new man of me" his expression: Mr. T had fortunately brought about 1 doz antibilious pills, and a small quantity of powdered sulphur in an old stocking, this he brought principally for horses – The mean remaining pills were smashed in the box –

Sunday 7th Perry a little better to day – Mess Turnbull and Bunce very ill Dr. another attack this afternoon, Mr. Hely bad head ache all day, Brown complaing very hot in the sun, river lowering fast – killed the calf this day, as the mother would not notice it, made jelly or bad glue of it, Sand flies and mosquitoes very bad – Ther. sunrise 63° midday 93°

Monday 8th Dr. L and Perry little better today – Mess Hely, Turnbull, Bunce and Brown very ill – one goat kidded last night – ther. sun rise 63° 12 o’clock 94° sunset 80° very hot in the sun – no tents as yet pitched – rain heavily

Tuesday 9th Dr. very ill – also Brown, and Bunce: Turnbull not able to stand. Mr. Hely and Perry a little better. Ther. sun rise 62° midday 96° sunset 82° squall from NE, cloudy, storm

[Page 102]
drops of rain and pitched our tents –

Wednesday 10th Dr. Turnbull and Bunce a little better, Perry much the same, Mr. Hely not so well this afternoon: Brown improving – Last night aroused by Mr. Bunce who said he heard the blacks, turned out, the cooey awoke Wamai, who heard them close to the camp, heard one talk – on our guard, after watching a short time they turned in leaving me to have my regular it being 2 o’clock – passed off quietly –

The cattle for the last 3 nights have been allowed to watch themselves, as there was no one to watch them, they have returned to the camp regularly of a morning; horses and mules also come up to our fires at day light every morning – sand flies very annoying – Water lowered at least 12 ft, Comet only running and flooded, but as we are on the E side and the McKenzie an E water of course cannot cross

Yesterday charted our course, and to day covered my portmanteau with goat skint o keep the rain out – The camp has presented a wretched appearance these last two or thee days 5 or 6 lying ill, many unable

[Page 103
to stir, and moaning and groaning – Boeking and myself the only two able to knock about – I have built a shade for myself 50 yds off, to be a little way from their groans, but within call. Told Boeking it was either him or myself for the next patient – he laughed, said he would not give in – told him not to boast, that I thought his eyes were not quite so bright as they were –

Thursday 11 Dr. Mr. Hely, Turnbull, Perry, Brown very unwell to day – Bunce, and now Boeking complaining – noticed this morning he did not look well fever intermittent, between the attacks they appear pretty well, but very weak – Perry in particular he has eaten nothing these few days – Thermometer same as yesterday, wind N.E.

Friday 12 Mr. Hely much better last night and this morning but had another attack this afternoon – Boeking now added to the list, saw he was ill told him to lie down, would not, tried to make a pot of tea he could not, told him I would spread his blanket it for him, he tried to persuade me he was not ill, spread is blanket, he laid down and in a few minutes was very ill, he was the

[Page 104]
strongest man in the party I think – Perry very weak, Dr. Turnbull and Brown very ill, Bunce better. In fact I was now the only man in the party able to knock about

The sick required constant attention. The Dr. now attributes our illness to the water we drink from the River, it is bad tasted and of course impregnated with much decomposed matter, the water has no doubt something to do with it, so we now, for the last 3 days, get water from a muddy lagoon close by – Elevation 787 ft. Ther. 61° 90’ 72"

Saturday 13 Dr. L. Mess Turnbull, Perry Hely, Boeking and Brown very ill all night. Sunset a heavy shower from the South with hard wind, all hands obliged to go into the tents, except Bunce and myself, he getting better, he afraid of lying on the wet ground; I cut some boughs and slept soundly till my watch 4 o’clock, there being only Mr. B and myself to keep watch, he took the first watch at night and myself the last, or the first in the morning, the two periods being the most likely time for attacks from blacks – they would have a good chance now, camp in a wretched state, all ill, moaning groaning and singing out, fine breeze from S clear sky, a splendid day if all were

[Page 105]
well. As Mr. Bunce could not sleep last night, he turned in to day: camp all to myself cutting saplings, carrying wood and water – feeding the sick, little to give them, they want drinks; only tea to give them and that not good – Ther. 60°

Sunday 14 All the party except Mr. Bunce and myself ill this day, Mr. B not overstrong – many suffering much – Boeking, Brown Mr. Hely –

Monday 15 Dr. and Perry better, the rest as usual, Boeking’s ague very severe – Mr. Hely pain in head, Brown and Turnbull pain all over them – Goats beginning to kid, got about ½ pint of milk – Ther. 58° 82° 70° nights getting cold – Wind N.E. –

Tuesday 16 Dr. and Pery Perry better, all the party as usual, Mr. B and myself only able to walk about, got a quart of milk this morning, a great addition to our tea, breeze from N.E. The mosquitoes wore worse here than any other place, sik the sick cannot get a wink of sleep. River going down, but slowly, running strong; swam across, hard work, too dangerous, shall not try again –

Wednesday 17 Perry and Dr. improving, others very ill, The Dr. ordered that no

[Page 106]
flour should be eaten for three days as he said it disagreed with the sick – had made a damper – Bunce and I only obliged to eat it – Ther. 80 mid day – Wind E –

Thursday 18 Decided improvement in all Mr. Hely, Brown an Mr. T still complain, Dr. beginning to knock about again – bed of the river and banks with large blocks of petrified wood and coal – tea tree. The Comet joins the McKenzie very acutely, the narrow point between them nearly covered when we arrived – Ther. 56° 86° 80°, cloudy, fine breeze from NE –

Friday 19th All mending fast except Turnbull and Wamai – Find the work hard upon me, Bunce very weak and not able to assist much – I am baker, butcher waiter etc, each one requires something different according to his fancy, but find it difficult to procure all they want, find it very fatigueing standing over a hot fire in the sun; wood always scarce here have now to carry it a long distance – The bullocks have been away for 2 days, no one to look after them, Last night the Dr. had a long private conversation with me in his tent

Saturday 20th Last evening Dr. and Brown so far recovered as to be able to ride after the cattle, they found them a short distance

[Page 107]
off encamped under a scrub, party much better, except Mr. Hely and Perry still weak. Dr. made Perry take a ride yesterday it did not agree with him, shook him too much – clouds from E –

Sunday 21st As yesterday, Mr. Hely and Perry still weak, got 2 quarts of milk from the goats, Dr. determined upon having skillygoree, boiled some and put flour in Boeking sufficiently recovered to be able to cook, Had to make a small cake, very small. Dr. commenced upon the skillygoree before it was finished, told me if I did not choose to come I should have none; he is very greedy. Ther. middy 80°

Monday 22d All as yesterday, employed packing up and making the loads of even weight, about 3 or 4 lbs powder spoilt by wet, cans having burst –

Tuesday 23 Patients as yesterday, employed with the packs, the strongest of us dragging down saplings to the water side – we had cut them from time to time – felt sick, took an emetic, felt that if I could only cross and encamp on the high lands ahead, should be quite well.

[Page 108]
When first we arrived here, Mr. Bunce planted some vegetable seeds, and a quantity of mustard; sick anxiously looking out for some, always talking about it – Mr. B told me this morning he missed some, I said he had better tell the Dr. he did so, Dr. L then said that for some mornings past he had gone down to the place it was planted at, and had eaten it, party very much annoyed, had long been anxiously expecting some, the remainder was immediately gathered and given to the sick –

[The following text is written along the left-hand margin near the next paragraph from bottom to top]. Wed 24th

Yesterday employed writing a letter, it being our intention of leaving some account behind us, marked a tree and packed the various correspondence in a bottle at its foot – Dr. displeased, told me I ought to have been building a sheep [indecipherable] by the river, nettled; Began at day light worked hard put up one side, when the sun became so hot and myself so ill, I was nearly falling down I had noticed that for several days when using a tomahawk my hand remained

[Page 109]
clenched, had to use one hand to open the other, also, could not straighten my limbs when I awoke in the morning – told the Dr. said it was nothing, it might not have been – Crawled up the River bank, spread my blanket on the ground and took my place alongside the others, and in a few minuts was in a dreadful fever – giddy, sick, head ache – better in the evening, Dr. L, Boeking and Mr. Bunce finished the [indecipherable] at moonlight –

Thursday 25 Commenced driving the goats and sheep across, the goats were going well enough – when the Dr. with his usual impatience walks in front and commences throwing them in, they accordingly rush back, and great trouble in getting the remainder over, Turnbull so ill obliged to lie down Dr. made him assist, consequently he had a severe relapse – Four goats drowned in crossing –

Friday 26 Dr. Mr Bunce, Boeking, Wamai commenced early this morning to load the mules to take the stores across, as all the mules were not up they had to make 2 trips – Bunce quite knocked up, Boeking could do but little. About 3 pm we all

[Page 110]
mounted and crossed, I felt in a most wretched state, the condition of all was miserable – I could hardly sit up A native dog walked in amongst us but was immediately shot by Turnbull – Ther. 90° better in the evening –

Sat 27 Better today. Turnbull Boeking Bunce complaining – others in a very weak state, I caught a large ell eel – and a catfish (Tilurus) found them very good –

Sunday 28 Perry, Turnbull, and Bunce very ill, others as usual, Wamai the best in the party now – Dr. suffering from tooth ache –

Monday 29 Heavy rain last night we all got wet – Severe attack this day, very ill so are the others; 11 kids stewed down for soup – The doctor had managed to pitch his tent –

Tuesday 30 Ill this day, also Boeking, Bunce and Turnbull, Perry & Hely better –

Wednesday 31 Bunce, Boeking, Turnbull myself ill – others mending –

Thursday 1 April 1847 Boeking and Turnbull now the only really ill, the others getting round, better I should say, anything but round

[Page 111]
Friday 2d Good Friday, A miserable day Boeking and Turnbull lie groaning in the tent. The Dr. has stopped all sugar and flour – Dr. and Wamai out this morning, to reconnoitre preparatory to moving the camp further ahead

Saturday 3d Dr. allowed flour, made some suet dunp dumplings, Turnbull and Boeking not better, but all in a weak and helpless state –

Sunday 4th Being Easter day had a suet pudding, which did not agree with us all, Party the same as usual Dr. suffering from palpitation of the heart – He proposes a plan of taking all but 3 further ahead 40 miles – leave 2 Brown and Turnbull in charge of goats and sheep cattle there, Hely myself and Wamai remain in camp with mules etc – He imagines that he will to be so much second recovd by the ride to the hight highland as to be able to load the mules – when we will follow and join the two with cattle ahead –

[Page 112]
Monday 5th Wamai late in getting the horses up, too late to start keep them tethered all day night, Boeking and Turnbull very ill, the former a most enormous eater.

Tuesday 6 Party muster up and saddle the mules, and horses, start about 10 am, they take only 1 mule and the goats sheep & cattle with them, leaving Mr. Hely and myself to take care of everything else. Wamai went with them but was to return after going a short distance

Wednesday 7th Wamai did not return last night. Mr. H and myself so ill find we can hardly fetch ½ a bucket of water from the river; shower of rain but fine night –

Thursday 8th Dr. and Wamai returned yesterday evening, they had gone 10 miles the 1st day and 2 the second, to a better camping place, Dr. and W left them as they could only find part of the cattle. Dr. determined to load the mules and to join the party Wamai got them up and at the same time found the remaining cattle, with great difficulty we caught the mules and tethered them for the night –

[Page 113]
Friday 9th Up at sun rise and managed to load the mules, the cattle and spare horses all ready for a start: about 11 o’clock saw one of the mules walking away, and when the Dr. rode after it found it had lost the top load, and one of the side loads, they contained many valuable things, the gun caps included – After a long search the top load was found but the side load not to be seen anywhere, consequently had to unload all the mules again and let them go they not having anything to eat or drink for 24 hours – Most dreadfully disappointed, the catching and loading so many mules in our dreadfully weak state very fatigueing, all to do over again –

Saturday 10th Dr. and Wamai start this morning after pack for the pack, and after some time the Dr. whilst riding down the steep bank of the river, his horse fell and he was brought up alongside the pack it contains many valuable things, gun caps knives, matches etc. In the evening Wamai brought up the mules and we caught 10, I had such an attack of ague that I could not assist.

Sunday 11 Early this morning the 3 remaining mules were caught, and all loaded and we made a start at 11-30. Dr. L leading as usual Mr. Hely and myself driving mules and Wamai the cattle, keep a N.N. West course for about 12 miles, and arrive at the camp, a branch of the river, about

[Page 114]
about 5 pm, all tired, Dr. knocked up, county alternately scrub and plains – At the last camp noticed coal, and very large blocks of fossil wood – one goat and one sheep left behind –

Monday 12th All but Perry better today I had a terrible fit of ague to day, but as the sun goes down I get better – Boeking it appears had only returned to the camp about an hour before us, he thinks himself a first rate bush man and had strayed away – he had been 36 hours lost –

Tuesday 13 Party in the same weak state – Goats and sheep have taken it into their heads to stray – they divide into two mobs, and take different directions and take a long time to collect – Brown brought up one mob consisting principally of sheep, and as we had no meat we killed one and fried some by the light of the fire – we should have started but for the sheep they have been a great nuisance to us –

Wednesday 14 – Had a very severe attack of ague yesterday evening – I had had several but could not make out what it was so cold I could not get warm I told the Dr. he said it was only cold – however he saw me have this attack and soon altered his opinion of it he gave me some quinine which did

[Page 115]
me good – Dr. Brown, Wamai and Turnbull out for the sheep and goats but no success: Wamai brought up most of the mules, and all the cattle this morning –

Thursday 15 Dr. made up his mind to leave the sheep and goats – got up all the horses and cattle, but the mules being absent, we let the horses go again after having had them tied up all night – Mr. Hely and Bunce suffering from blight; party better –

Friday 16 Apl Wamai brought up some sheep last night, tied up one and killed one, Dr. and available hands determined to watch the rest, but they got away from the Dr. W reports having seen about a dozn blacks on the tracks of the sheep – Wamai brought up nearly all the mules and cattle this morning, Brown and Turnbull started for the remainder, Better to day can eat a little, think I should have been well long ago if I could have had a little quinine. I must say that since the 1st time sickness appeard in the party Dr. L has not in any way troubled himself as to how they are getting on, on the contrary he had no feeling at all for others, but as long as he felt well, he little cared how the others were, but made them do many things far beyond their strength in

[Page 116]
fact many have been compelled to give in, and unable to complete what they were about, at which he has expressed displeasure this does not raise him in the estimation of the party –

Sat 17 As 5 bullocks were missing last night Dr. L promised Brown and Turnbull extra flour if they could find them which they did – but returned late This morning Wamai brought up all the horses and mules which we loaded, and Turnbull and Brown went after the cattle which had strayed some distance; the loading was very hard work for us

We managed to make a start about 1 pm, goats and sheep no where to be found, so we left them behind for good, keep a WNW course, follow up at the Ck for some distance and after passing across a large plain – enter a scrub which we travel through for at least 8 miles, and arrive at a small water course where we encamp. Many of us very tired having travelled 12 miles, we killed the 2 sheep we had tied up and brought them with us or we should have been badly off for meat –

Sunday 18th This morning all the mules caught but one, and that was absent with the horses, as it was the most quiet mule we thought we should have no delay, Brown also found that some of the cattle were absent and was out from sun rise till 2 pm after them, he saw the tracks of 3 native boys following those of the bullocks, Dr. and Wamai went out about 11 o’clock in search of the horses, so that instead of making and early start we could not start at all

[Page 117]
All the party improving in health, This is a much more pleasant camp than the last, there being few musquitoes and flies, which were in swarms at the last place – We shall now be able to travel much faster than before, now we have got rid of the goats – The loss is great, there being about 150 goats and 60 sheep left behind –

Dr. and Wamai returned late this evening, the horses and mule had strayed a long way back, he came upon a ginn gathering the seed or root of the water lily (nymphae) in a water hole; this is a most beautiful flower, and the water holes are covered – I first came upon it by finding a waterhole in a scrub, an old ginn was digging for roots etc alongside, she soon vanished – Lat 23° 22’ –

Monday 19 This morning more lucky with the mules, catching all before breakfast, the cattle we watched all night with great difficulty they being very restless and ourselves very weak, we managed to make an early start – keeping a north west course through a miserable country, it being an open scrub, about 3 miles we came to a plain with some elevations of whinstone, Brown ascended one and saw the Peaks of Peak range, changed our course to NW, going straight for the Peaks, which became more and more distinct as we neared them, the principal features being two very remarkable Peaks, and a third [indecipherable] topped one as if the top had been knocked off – distant about 20 miles – Our course now over extensive open downs – We saw

[Page 118]
several ginns digging for roots, they soon Vanished – they were at the shallow head of the water course we had been following up – about 6 miles of downs we encamp to our left upon a beautiful lagoon in a water course, which I think joins the McKenzie – A narrow strip of forest on each side affords us wood and shelter or rather shade – encamp about 3 pm Wamai and Turnbull both knocked up

Tuesday 20th Start abut 11 o’clock and keep a N by W course for about 8 miles over beautiful plains, shortly after starting, Brown gave chase to two emus, but coming to a water course he missed them, but Swift the Kangaroo dog still chasing Brown did not return for some time. At 8 miles a dense scrub in which I noticed bottle trees, it stretched across our road like a wall, we followed it keeping it on our left about 1 mile to NE. and then entered the scrub at a sort of opening, keeping our old course for about 2 miles, several of the mules threw their loads, at length came to a water course which the Dr. determined to follow down but no water, our course quite south, at length arrived at a beautiful open country, and seeing a line of green trees to our left – and white cockatoos, Brown rode down to it and cooed that he found water we were very glad as we all were suffering from

[Page 119]
a burning thirst. It is a beautiful water hole in a water course from N to S – encamp about 4 PM. having travelled about 18 miles – All very tired, We ate our last piece of mutton –

Wednesday 21 Commenced raining last night about 11 pm and continued throughout the whole night, all wet through as we had not pitched our tents: they are however rotten and require care, but keep off a little rain, rain all morning but a little cleared in the afternoon which enables us to dry our clothes – Dr. and myself pitch the tent –

Thursday 22 Finer day though it rained in the night – catch all the mules for a start, the tethered horse broke loose during the night and Brown could not find him or two of the others so let all the mules go again, Dr. L determined to kill the cow here instead of at the next camp. Turnbull accordingly shot her and we set to work cutting up. Dr. a wretched butcher cutting and hacking, Brown could not find the horses, Blacks singing out lustily –

Friday 23d St. Georges day, not kept as a holy day as originally intended, that is no extra feed – drizzling rain all day commenced early to cut up the meat and hung it up on the branches of a fallen tree to dry – occupied the whole day about it very tired, no luck with the horses –

[Page 120]
Sat 24th Much the same as yesterday could do nothing with the meat – No horses –

Sunday 25th Dull day, turned and opened the meat to prevent the maggots getting too far in, Cleared up about 3 pm and had a dry evening – Brown returned without the horses –

Monday 26th Fine day, Brown who had been a long time weak unable to stir today. The Dr. and Wamai start for the horses but no success. Dr. Perry, Bunce Turnbull and Mr. Hely have had some slight attacks, the latter also suffering from blight –

I must here state the arrangement we made for securing reserving a certain quantity of sugar etc for feast days, it was always agreed to between us, that the last 50 lbs of sugar, the last 50 lbs of flour, and the Tapioca should be saved for feasts etc some of the latter had been compelled to be used at the McKenzie; before starting from there I measured out 50 lbs of each and put them in packs, I showed Dr. L how I had packed up everything into as small and compact a compass as possible, he seemed satisfied; at the third camp from the River, whilst at dinner I got up to fetch some water from the water hole, I had to pass by the Dr. and I saw he had an old blk silk handker full of sugar, I took no notice at all of it –

[Page 121]
wondered how he got it, as I had charge for of and was responsible for the stores – he must have taken it whilst I was ill.

However this day I happened to have be mending a pack at which was torn in the scrub, the Dr. did not see me, but came up to the packs and took hold of the sugar he then saw me, which startled him a little, and said “he found he could not get on without sugar as it agreed with his stomach" – made no remark he took some, saw also that he had been eating the tapioca also – said nothing

Brown however was very ill I thought in a dangerous state, asked him what I could do for him, he said he would give anything for a little tapioca and sugar; told the Dr. – Dr. said take a little flour and give him skillygoree (a thin paste), made some for Brown and asked the Dr. if he would allow some sugar in, he said “no, on no account" “let him have salt", Now this is a most horrid repast for a sick person I thought it unkind of the Dr. who has a bundle of sugar and Tapioca in his saddle bags –

Tuesday 27th Dr. and Wamai prepare for a start for the missing horses, but the Dr. finds himself too sick, having gorged himself with sour soup – Has been very ill since he suffers from pulsations in the head – I got some Tapioca from him for Brown who was very ill, as also were Turnbull Perry and Mr. Hely – Offered to forgo forego all my share of the sugar on feast days if he would

[Page 122]
give the sick some, but he would not – Meat drying better than we expected – it having rained ever since we cut it up had great difficulty in saving it –

Wednesday 28 Dr. and Wamai start this morning about 9 for the horses, down the Ck they are prepared for all night – Party getting better except Brown who is still very ill Cut the meat into small pieces for packing, a great many maggots – The nights getting very cold and the dew heavy – The Dr. returned this afternoon with two of the horses –

I forgot to state that yesterday when the Dr. said he could not travel, his expressions to me were “I feel that I am going down, down, down", He complained of pulsations of his head and heart, with a great giddiness in his head; a dimness in his eyes – his ankles swelling – cheered him up a little – Fine day sun very hot –

Thursday 29 Wammai start after the cattle, he returns about 12 leaving W to follow them up by himself, I was employed in mending flour bags and packs – when I saw a number of partridge pigeons took my gun and shot 10 of them, stewed them and found them very good, Dr. surprised

[Page 123]
to see them, Very unwell and feverish all day, think I walked too far after the pigeons – Sun very hot –

Friday 30 Wamai did not return last night All weak, myself a bad head ache –

Saw the Dr. this morning drag the hide of the cow down to a water hole to soak it preparatory to our making ropes – bank very steep, he did not return for some time, thought something had happened, went to him, and found him lying on the bank unable to move – he told me he felt himself going, told him to cheer up, there was no occasion for him to have dragged the hide down when we would have helped him – if he would only let us know his intentions; he said he felt sinking and was afraid the expedition would fail – told him it was a great mistake bringing no medicine; he said again that he could not last long and requested me to continue on with the party and at Swan River to sell what remained of the stock, and to Correspond told with Mr. Lynd, promised to do so but told him there was no occasion for him to despond – if we could only keep travelllg travelling we should be all right –

[Page 124]
offered to help him up but he requested to be where he was – went back to the camp and told the party that the Dr. was ill – party disappointed and distressed attributed all to want of medicine, and in our weak state though ill, had nothing to strengthen up but putrid meat –

Went and told the Dr. who was in his tent that the party were disappointed at the want of some strengthening food to eat, that we had all had several attacks of ague, and very much reduced, and if we could only gain strength should be all right again –

Told him that if he chose I would take part of the party and go back to the downs and procure medicine or what he required; that he must recollect that we had 3000 miles of travelling ahead of us, and our most important medicine quinine, was almost gone – or if he chose to go with some of his party I would remain, in either case the party remaining would form a depot at a good elevated camping place and collect all the horses, and cattle – whilst the other party were was absent –

Dr. very much excited told me he did not approve of the plan at all, it would break up the party, in fact tantamount to a general return, told that was not our

[Page 125]
wish, that none of us joined him without duly considering what we would have to undergo, but that as he had promised us health, whereas we had sickness we did not expect, we were not prepared for it – and it was right to consider what was to be done,

I told him that if we could once gain strength again I felt we should be all right, and perhaps have no more ague – but as we only had sour putrid soup which disagreed with every one, in fact the party now were suffering from dysentery & diarrhae – I told him I wanted to put the state of things and our opinion of them before him, and to have his – he never told us of any of his plans or ideas.

I told him that as we had now only a small quantity of flour left, that by doling it out by a few ounces a day to make it last a year or so we did not feel the effect of it, I proposed that as long as we had this putrid meat we should have a double ration of flour, we might gain strength by it, and proceed on our journey – he made no reply and I returned to the others

Shortly after Dr. came up to us and said he was sorry to hear we were all so dissatisfied and discontented, he did not expect it from us, I told him he was quite mistaken

[Page 126]
with our motives, that we certainly were not altogether pleased with our situation, we had been ill more or less for the last 8 weeks, and we were disappointed now that we were getting into a fine country to find we were unable to attend to our duties from weakness – that we considered it would be the most advisable place whilst we had the putrid meat [indecipherable], to have a double ration of flour, he hesitated, at length he asked me do you wish to go “forward or back again" I said forward, that is my wish, but I feel sorry to think I can hardly load a mule; he then asked each in detail they made him the same answer, and he agreed to double our flour whilst the bad meat lasted – and we felt contented

I told him we only wanted to talk the matter over with him – (Dr. L has a store of his own Tapioca and sugar) – and I say here with regard to the meat, that it set in to rain the day we killed it, and it has been raining with slight intermission ever since, we could not dry the meat properly – it became full of large maggots – we take every opportunity now of spreading it out to dry but it is very much tainted, 6 lbs of this are weighed out daily for us, and boiled for a short time with a little salt, this water is called soup, and all who have taken it suffer from diarrhae, the substance

[Page 127]
had long before been washed out of it, we skim the maggots off the water as it boils –

Wamai returned this evening bringing all the cattle –

Saturday 1st Wamai collects all the mules and we tie them up in the evening for an early start in the morning. I had a most severe attack of ague to day, have had a head ache for the last two or three days – Brown a little better, hot day, morning very foggy –

Sunday 2d Some of the horses absent, the loading is delayed until 11 am when the sun is very hot, took some quinine, little better commence to load my three mules load all but the last pack when I was obliged to give in, having been seized with a fit of ague I was compelled to give in, I laid down whilst the party were at dinner –

About 1.30 they started, but Brown and myself too ill to go with them, were left behind, manage to start about 3 pm; and get a little better as I go on, lose the tracks but with Brown make direct for one of the Peaks until it becomes quite dark fire off my gun, but no reply, told Brown we had better remain all night, travelled some distance in search of water, having taken my direction by a star, make for a vally

[Page 128]
Brown searched for water, whilst I loaded and fired my gun, both burning thirst, choking, horrid, Brown soon returned saying he say saw the stars reflected from a water hole, rode up and tethered our horses, lit a fire whilst Brown went for water; to our disappointment it was nearly dried up, all mud got about 1 quart of small fish which were kicking about on the mud, strained some of the mud through my handkerchief – manged to get a drink – then sucked the mud by rolling some in a corner of the handerchief – havig having collectile collected some of the [indecipherable] berries boil’d some, they make a nice drink; they are something like a hawberries: Not having been able to eat my dinner, made a good supper – having recovered sufficiently to enjoy it. Dug a hole by the side of the water hole hoping the water might drain into it –

Monday 3d Find all the water dried up but get some by digging also a few more fish for breakfast, think we have followed the Creek too far, and determine to return found the camp rather more than a mile from us, Wamai who had started

[Page 129]
yesterday a short time before us for the cattle had not returned, we saw their tracks as well as his going towards the range – Brown collected all the horses and mules this evening and we tied them to trees for an early start in the morning

Tuesday 4th Wamai came to the camp early this morning, he had found the cattle but the Dr. not having given him any instructions as to the direction he should take, Wamai remained at a plain close by with them all night, and came on to find the camp this morning. It was determined that Mr. Hely and Brown should go and fetch them up and follow us – Start about 11 am – and keep a N course for about 12 miles passing alternately scrub, rocky hills, and open plain, we encamp late at a water hole – Perrys feet swelling – No cattle up yet

Wednesday 5th Some of the horses being absent we could not start before 2 pm, make for the Peaks, bearing NW 10 miles, at about 6 come to a ck no water, follow it down about 3 miles and encamp at a small water hole about 4 pm. having passed some fine undulating grassy country –

[Page 130]
Thursday 6th Camden the dog returnd by himself this afternoon, he had gone with Mr. Hely – but he, Mr. H, did not return till towards evening, but had not seen the cattle, they had traced them back some distance, but being out of rations and Brown having lost his horse he determined upon returning, and getting fresh horses, Bad news for us –

Friday 7th Mr Hely, Brown and Wamai start for the cattle, taking rations with them they expecting to be away about a week – The Dr. also went on a reconnoitre about 11 am, to the Westward –

Sat 8th Dr. returned about 12 o’ today having found water about 8 miles off he was tired, he had lost his way and out all night. I have managed to shoot about a dozen pigeons they are very acceptable – The horses and mules I am happy to say keep well about the camp –

Sunday 9 Dr. suffering from diarrahae, fine weather, shoot some partridge pigeons – made a bower a shade

Monday 10th Dr. Turnbull, Bunce and Boeking suffering from the above complaint, Boeking and myself very weak –

[Page 131]
Tuesday 11th Party much the same, shot 7 pigeons in the morning and made a stew of them; dreadful tooth ache in the afternoon, having broken a back tooth and ran a splinter of bone up it – Wanted it drawn, but nothing but a bullet mould, he the Dr. had previously tried to draw one of Mr. Hely’s teeth with it; got my own mould, a new one, and Turnbull tried to pull it out but only smashed the tooth, gave me great pain –

Told the Dr. it was a pity there was not a tooth instrument in the party. Dr. angry said if he had brought all I wanted he would have had to have got an extra mule to have carried the things, told him I would have got the mule and the things too if I had known beforehand, he said there was “plenty of everything, and as to medicine there was sulphur", I said that there would not have been even the sulphur if Mr. Turnbull had not joined us at the 11th hour – Went out shooting fatigued myself and had an attack of ague –

Wednesday 12th Dr. better this morning, having supplied him with pigeons

[Page 132]
for the last 3 or 4 days and as he also has the tapioca and sugar, he manages well enough – At the time we left the McKenzie the sugar weighed 50 lbs exclusive of the bag – three weeks after it only weighs 39 lbs – bags and all, about 3 lbs being taken out for good Friday and Easter – he now has the sugar amongst his own packs so that he can help himself as he likes. He always takes care of himself if only 1 pigeon in the party he will take it etc – Feel better today –

Thursday 13 Dr. better, shot a pigeon for him he heating 6 out of every 7 shot – Had a sharp attack of ague today – We had been promised sugar this day but we put it off till Mr. Hely and Brown arrived Lat 22° 55’ – 27 – Alt – 1038 ft –

Friday 14th Took the opportunity of weighing the sugar, and found it minus 6 lbs since last weighing party disgusted. When we left the McKenzie the sugar weighed 50 lbs, placed it on a mule as a side load to balance another side load of equal weight, found it was lighter and would not travel well, then Dr. took it and made a top load of it on one of his mules, and as he generally

[Page 133]
sat on his packs he could help himself as he liked, There is now only 27 lbs sugar left. Party not pleased, they considered themselves cheated and deceived, some inclined to open the bag, but I decidedly objected to it –

Having caught two horses as they came to water Dr. determined upon reconniotering, Boeking who was suffering from an ague fit all the morning and was lying down he determined to take with him, B said he felt too ill to ride. Turnbull offered to go with him, but nothing would satisfy him, so B had to mount his horse looking more like a man about to be hanged than any thing else, Why should he have insisted upon taking B? he returned worse than when he started –

Saturday 15 Turnbull and Bunce still suffering from Diarrahae, Dr. better and getting stronger, Boecking Bunce and myself with ague, Perry moderately well

The Dr. for a wonder today asked to look at my tongue, and declared it “furred" I knew it well enough, so told him I suppose I must take my chance with the others He recommended me to eat plenty of soup I said I had taken a little the other day and it made me sick, besides I was afraid “of diarrahae, he replied, “never mind get the diarrahae and that may cure you of fever", asked him if he would undertake

[Page 134]
to cure me of the diarrahae afterwards – told him I did not think I should follow his advice, as himself, Turnbull and Bunce, had suffered day and night for the last 2 or 3 weeks, and he could not cure them – This is the 9th day Mr. Hely has been away, anxiously looking for him – I have been unable to observe the thermometer, the average at sunrise is about 43° and sun set 65° –

We have had fine weather for travelling but of course could not move without the cattle. All the meat will be out tomorrow – Now all this valuable time might have been saved had the Dr. given Wamai a few instructions how to act and how to follow with the cattle, he need not have made such a long grip on the occasion, Wamai had left the cattle within a short distance from the camp – and whilst looking for the camp the cattle stayed; when he left me he did not tell me his direction or anything but started leaving Brown and me to follow – Numerous fires of the blacks observed – N.B. this would be a happy party had we a more agreeable leader –

[Page 135]
Sunday 16 Party as usual, Hely not returnd anxious for him, Beautiful day, lovely evening – but illness all around me

Monday 17th This afternoon about 3 pm Mr. Hely returned, bringing with them 9 head of cattle – It appears the cattle had been frightened by the blacks (as many were seen and spoken to) and dispersed in small mobs, H first saw 4 bullocks in one mob and afterwards 5 more, as the first lot appeared quiet he left them, and travelled on till he got the 5, when they determined to bring them on to the camp, as they had been away a week, but the 5 were very wild and got from them during the night – Thy then found fresh tracks and 9 head which they determined to bring on, as they had to drive them at least 40 miles. The Dr. has determined to move back the camp some distance so as to be nearer their camping ground – and collect them by degrees –

Tuesday 18th Brown started early for the mules, but as they go into the scrubs for warmth, the narrow flat in the front of our camp being very cold, he did not come up till too late for a start. Meantime the Dr. determined to kill here, accordingly the

[Page 136]
9 head were brought up and one shot after many attemps, the party being so weak and nervous – we cut him into quarters this evening –

Wednesday 19 Cut the bullock up into strips for drying and hung it out on a frame. [indecipherable]. Shortly after sunset it commenced to rain, and continued so for 3 or 4 hours – we managed to keep the meat dry, by covering the frame with some blankets and sleeping under it, the tents being full of meat – Mr. Bunce a severe fit of ague today – in spite of his diarrahae, so much for the Dr. advice to me – I am thank God much better, not having ague for 2 days

Thursday 20 Fine morning, meat in good condition, hung it all out and turned it several times, made some black puddings – determined to save as much as we can – I forgot to mention that upon Tuesday night, the cattle having been encamped on the cold plain got away from Mr. Turnbull the first watch – I also forgot that Mr. Hely and Brown prepared to start for more cattle. Wamai went for the mules, but did not come up till one o’clock, so the start was too late. Wamai confessed to have been asleep during the day he was vy weak – It is doubtful whether they find all – As soon as the meat is dried we move back – they bringing the first mob

[Page 137]
they meet. (Two of the party are talking so near me I forget half I have to say).

An idea has struck me, I mentioned it to Mr. Turnbull, I do not like to tell the Dr. he would at once say I was dissatisfied, but it is this – supposing we cannot find all the cattle it would be perfect madness to attempt a two years journey, for we ought to have more than 2 years provisions in case of loss – but what I should propose is this that we make a tour to the W to the desert if possible then south and south east to the Darling, of course guided by the amount of provisions – or perhaps better still, go to Port Curtis if possible, Col. Barney is there, do not let us go back and nothing to show for our trouble –

We cannot depend upon game, a kangaroo or emu is all very well, but thy delay us very much in hunting them, and besides we do not always see them, or always catch one when we do – Hely and 2 blacks and 2 good dogs were out 11 days in a fine county, could only get 1 emu 1 kangaroo and a few pigeons, not enough to live on, so unless we get all the cattle it would be folly to make a journey to Swan River, the goats and sheep were to have lasted us 9 months, but they are

[Page 138]
gone, From the 5 of March to this day we have only done a weeks travelling, now we are to go back another 20 or 30 miles – and it will take another month to make good our distance. There has been nothing but sickness the whole time first one then another, then altogetter altogether, it is nearly time to consider what is best to be done.

I told the Dr. I did not like the idea of his going back baggage and all, that he might divide the party either he or I would go after the cattle – leave all the heavy baggage, and take a mule loaded with provisions and encamp about 40 miles back, he would not hear of it, saying he would not divide the party, it was dangerous etc – yet he was sending them out by twos or threes, in a helpless state –

Friday 21st Fine night nice breeze for drying meat – Wamai arrived about 8.30 last night bringing [indecipherable] head of cattle – I have a nasty head ache since I got up to watch this morning (4 am) Perry with diarrahae very bad, others weak no one well, Wamai ague today prevented him going after the 8 head – today to tail them, and all in the camp too ill to stir, they the cattle no doubt have gone

[Page 139]
back, none of the mules to water yesterday, and only 3 or 4 horses, they have probably found another watering place, 6 only here today – Water hole small water getting low, always had a nasty taste, marly – tastes of mud – Fine fresh breeze today from W and SW –

Saturday 22d Beautiful night, slept my head ache away, Perry and Bunce still well ill, Wamai started this morning for the cattle, I am greatly afraid that the mules will scatter also if so our delay will be much lengthened – the soil about here is so puffy and dusty that it make it quite unpleasant to walk upon, it is impossible to put ones plate on the ground without getting it full of sand – to walk over the ground is like walking over slightly frozen snow, about 4 inches deep, (but not so cold) there is a thin crisp sort of crust on the top – it is now so much trodden up about the camp as to make it very unpleasant – The black puddings are delicious –

Sunday 23d Whit Sunday, have a suet pudding and sugar for supper – Asked the Dr. to day why he had not allowed me to weigh out our sugar, and had taken it into his care, that I looked upon it as if he mistrusted me, whereas I had always done justice to him, he said he had his reasons for it, I did not say anything more

Yesterday threatening weather from SE, pitched

[Page 140]
our tents, it commenced raining about 8 pm at the commencement of the Dr. watch – and rained steadily for some time, at the end of Drs. watch he rode up to call Perry – Perry suffering dreadfully from diarrahae – and delayed a short time, then Perry went out could not find the cattle, the Dr. instead of watching until relieved turned in, and the cattle strayed in the mean time. Night very dark Perry lost himself, his horse brought him back after about 4 hours absence. Wamai too ill to go after cattle. Shortly after lying down had severe tooth ache, awake all the night – Wind piercingly cold from SE, clear day – Thermr. sunrise 8 am 54° (in sun?)

Monday 24 Queens birth day, another pudding great dispute (friendly) as to how it should be made, had a little sugar – Mr. Turnbull cook made a bolster pudding which burst and boiled all the sugar out – spoilt one of my towels by it – divided it Dr. likes the water it was boiled in helped himself to an extra share – Drank the Queens health in greasy tea – ([indecipherable] glass of [indecipherable] would have set us all to rights) Tooth ache again (aftermost tooth upper jaw, left side) Dr. still held out that a bullet mould was the best thing possible for drawing teeth, although it had failed on himself, Hely and myself – offered to make a pair of pincers to draw teeth if he would give me his old bullet

[Page 141]
mould, by softening it then filing away the sides until I made a claw pincers – he would not give it me –

[A sketch of claw pincers].

Wamai started after these unlucky 8 head this morning cold SE wind, ther. at sunset 63° Yesterday saw two large Emus Wamai and 2 dogs started after them, (the dogs always tied up during killing time) after along chase, one dog getting a kick from one of them, it was given up – Nowal the sheep dog killed today, he was a handsome dog and a good one with sheep but as they had been left behind he was of no more use, and we could not afford to feed him – All refused to kill him, I would not do it for anything. Dr. L and Boeking settled the poor wretch, all sorry for the poor dog – Wamai started after the cattle this morning but when withng within a mile of the camp the dogs started a kangaroo, which running across their path started them off, and W returned without them, (very much disappointed)

Tuesday 25th Wamai again off for the cattle Wind from E and NE. Cold – Thermometer sunrise 33° noon 76° sunset 63° heavy looking clouds – Dr. took a ride to day to a water hole to wash himself of which he was much in need for he used to rub himself over with neatsfoot oil, which made him stink awfully – particularly as I had to sleep along side him in the tent –

[Page 142]
Wednesday 26th Wamai not returned – this also makes the 8th day Hely and Brown have been away; the cattle must have strayed a long distance as they were to be back with the first lot – Dr. L took a ride – Unsatisfactory only shooting one or two pigeons – as Dr. L grabs it at once, the last duck we got after I had cleaned and cooked it – he walked up to it and cut it into halves – taking one half, and telling me to divide the other half amongst us (8), cut it up as ordered into pieces, but gave my 8th of one half to the 7 –

Thursday 27 Rain all night and day Wamai not returned – Wamai not bab back last night – rained all last night, and this day with few exceptions, with thunder, Yesterday we were surprised to hear a shot fired, which I answered – Thought it was Wamai, but proved to be Hely and Brown walking back – Thy had suffered from ague every day, they managed to get to our first killing camp – 2 stages from here, but left on account of sickness – on their way back fell in with Billy – Browns horse which he had lost previously, brought him back some distance, and with the whole of the horses and mules except two (which we luckily had) they brought them back to within 3 miles of the camp, but being uncertain of the distance encamped at some rocky water holes, when

[Page 143]
when the horses broke away and they had to walk to camp. As the Dr. thought of starting last Monday, they were not certain of finding us, and fired the gun, in order to hear whether we would answer it and cheer them up – About 3 pm Wamai returned without the cattle, he had overtaken them some distance back to their old run, but they escaped them him at night – so now we have neither mules, or cattle –

Hely well, Brown and Turnbull ill – Said to the Dr. it is a bad job, he said “Hely has made a regular mess of it" told him I thought Hely had done his best but he was so ill – He asked me whether I could load the mules without him, said most certainly I could. He then said he would take Brown and Wamai, find the mules – send them back with Brown, and go on for the cattle, and that we should go back and camp at our last first killing camp and to a certain extent go to meet the cattle –

Saty 29th Dr. has changed his mind, he started with Hely and Wamai – Mr. H going only to put them on the tracks, and Mr. H bring back the saddles they had left – he returned about noon – Brown very ill –

Sunday 30th Dr. returned about 9 PM with the horses, we had turned in, but soon turned out again, caught all the horses – The dogs had caught an emu, Dr. L and Wamai had supper off it – Found all the horses but two had broken loose could not start before 1 pm – Perry and Brown ill, had a long journey, and

[Page 144]
encamped at a beautiful water hole, it was sunset before we had supper, all very tired – found the emu very good –

Monday 31st Start about 10 am follow down the Creek Brown leading; he as well as Hely and Boeking very ill, 9 mules had to be reloaded, in fact since we left Hughes and Isaacs never had such a day two of them were of the Drs. loading which made him mad, as he thinks himself a good loader, but hardly a day has passed without one of his packs coming off, the same with Mess Hely and Bunce; he tried to lay the blame of the first upset to me, the salt, Wamai shot a bustard, encamped 4 pm made a fatigueing journey of 10 or 12 miles – Boeking too ill to cook, all knocked up Hely ague, Turnbull and I cooked – the bustard delicious.

Our camp near where we killed the cow, so within 3 months we have travelled 60 or 70 miles, lost sheep, goats, and are now 20 miles back again on our course in as sickly and miserable a state as ever – and almost all our flour and sugar consumed – Surprised to see two goats at the camp they were very wild –

June 1st
Tuesday The Dr. started with Wamai this morning taking with them several days provisions, and we commenced to put up a shade of boughs, but had to give in all suffer from ague to day from 12 to Sunset my fit lasted – I felt as if I was in a furnace, very sick, head

[Page 145]
aching, and eyes as if they were bursting. It is a dreadful sight to see 6 or 7 persons lying down like a lot of pigs, groaning and moaning, and not able to help themselves or each other and at the same time to know there is no relief at hand

Wednesday 2nd Felt I should have an attack – went to work at the bower, at 12 shivering came on, turned in between 2 blanks – this shivering then turned to burning fever, all suffered, Mr. Bunce not so bad, in a miserable state the party –

Thursday 3d Same as yesterday all more or less sick – can answer for Boeking being so, we having made our beds close together, we are generally attacked about the same time –

Friday 4th Party same as yesterday, I had a very violent attack to day –

Saty 5th Turnbull and dogs killed a kangaroo cut him up and dried him, all ill – dreadful head ache –

Sunday 6th All ill, The Dr. returned whilst I was lying on my back with a burning fever – he came and felt all our pulses said he must return to Sydney – not time to think much about it, so ill, indifferent; he had been away 7 days and found 4 head of cattle, the cattle had now been lost 5 weeks – Quinine very low –

Monday 7th Could not watch the cattle last night, they strayed, Dr. Turnbull and Wamai start for them Turnbull was to bring them back – the others to go on for the mules – all return 3.30 – all more or less ill –

Tuesday 8th Manage to watch the cattle last night, very cold and cattle restless had to herd them during the day, but

[Page 146]
they escape from us – Dr. and Wamai off today for the mules, all better as we are taking Quinine which is now very low –

Wednesday 9th Dr. not returned, and we cannot find the 4 head, I had recommended the Dr. to kill one to secure it, as we could not manage to keep them but he would not hear of it saying they were quiet [indecipherable] – party a little better –

Thursday 10th Dr. not returned, no fever for 3 days nights now bitterly cold, the water in our quart pots cover’d with ice

Friday 11 As usual

Saturday 12 Anxious about the Dr. no sign of the cattle, ration getting very low Shot 7 pigeons this day –

Sunday 13 Went out for game, and saw the 4 bullocks come out of a scrub and feed quietly on a ridge a mile off – went back to camp. Turnbull mounted a horse and brought them as close as possible, shot one to secure it, determined that if the Dr. should not return today tomorrow to go and look for him –

Monday 14th Cut up nearly all the bullock to dry Party better, quinine working wonders, but very low – I am sorry to say –

Tuesday 15th Complete cutting up the meat – As the Dr. did not return last night Brown went in search of for the horses for Mess. Hely and Turnbull to go after in search for him, we have kept one horse constantly tethered, for emergencies and luckily 3 mules and 2 horses have kept near us, he brought them up about noon, we easily caught them though we had tried three times previously without success, thy started

[Page 147]
about 1.30 intending to remain 4 days out and then return, and if the Dr. had not by that time retund to search for traces for him, Feel anxious for the Dr. he said he knew where the mules were, and would soon be back and consequently took little ration, this is now the 8th day and no Doctor should not like anything to happen to him, but know the blacks are about – he has both dogs with him – We have about 250 lbs of meat now – I do so much regret the loss of all this valuable time, fine weather, no fever, if we only had the stock we would be all right – still weak, all of us

Wednesday 16 Thursday 17th This afternoon morning thought that I heard a stock whip, listened attentively, no more sounds, in the evening no doubt about it, the Dr. and Wamai soon appeared bringing 5 mules and 2 horses, they had strayed 8 camp up the Comet Rr. 3 mules and 1 horse had gone on, On his way back fell in with Hely and Brown about 6 miles from here, they had the ague, and could not proceed –

Thursday Friday 18th Some mistake in the Dates here – This being the battle of Waterloo anniversary, scraped some flour together and made a pudding – Dr. tired, so rested all day

Friday Sat 19 Dr. and Wamai went after some horses found all but one, party as usual – Bunce with spasms –

Saty Sun 20th Dr. determind upon leaving, tea salt shott shot, bullets behind, so I have been busy all the morning with the packs, Wamai went for the stray horse but not successful – Told the Dr. it went against my grain to upset

[Page 148]
so many useful stores; that I should be ashamed to show my face again amongst some of my friends if I returnd to Sydney and nothing to show, having made up my mind for 2 years absence, felt greatly disappointed.

He replied that “Providence had been favourable to him on the previous journey, that when he ever got into difficulties his good luck got him out of them, did not know what he had done to offend Providence that now he should be so unfortunate." Told him I had too much caution to reason in that manner that if a man was lucky once, it was foolish to think or take it from for granted that he would always be lucky, it was necessary to always be prepared for accidents – he attributed it all to having been caught at the McKenzie, encamped there so long –

I told him I thought I should not have been ill at all if we could have crossed the McKenzie, said also that if he had determind to return, the sooner done the better, I would start again with him, but we must have things on a different footing, he made no remark.

Monday 21st? Got all the mules (9) and the horses (10), after some delay in regulating the loads, leaving all the heavy goods and 3 pack saddles, taking only sufficient ration to carry us to the Downs; start at 11 am Wamai leading, and arrived shortly before sunset at the lagoon we had encamped at on Sunday 18th April, distance about 16 miles, over a fine country, about 6 mules travelling –

Tuesday 22d Start good time for our camp on the McKenzie, scrubby, forest

[Page 149]
and open plains, great deal of fossil wood, saw one tree branches and all fossil – arrived 4 pm, and encamped a short distance below our sick camp on the McKenzie – Brown shot a bustard, travelled for 20 miles, 8 hours – Boeking very ill –

Wednesday 23d Dr. determined not to start to day but to look for 2 mules he had seen the tracks of. Wamai and Dr. started about 9 – and returned about 3 pm. but no success, went out with my gun but got no sport, brought home back a great quantity of small cucumbers they were not larger than looquats, they were in great quantities on the banks of water holes and Cks. we had got many before also on the plains a great many small pumpkins –

I felt better to day, my fever and that of many of the others being intermittent now although we regularly had a fit every day – the Dr. said “now we are going back you are all well enough" Told him I was surprised to hear him say such a thing, that he himself was the first to propose returning, and that under the circumstances I thought he had come to a just conclusion, as really we were doing no good, told him it was most unfair to talk like that , and to prove I was willing to follow him anywhere and would start with him in the morning if he liked – told him of the ideas which struck me of making short expeditions, but did not like mentioning it to him, as he might put a wrong construction to them. He told me some idea of the sort had struck him, and that when he got the 4 bullocks, he thought of going to Port Curtis –

Thursday 24th Start in good time, a cloudy cold damp day, obliged to wear 4 folds of blankets

[Page 150]
to keep me warm, said he would only make a short stage and encamp at the place Perry was taken ill, we passed the camp and Boeking being very ill and could hardly sit on his horse told him of it, but he refused to stop, B said he could go no further, he the Dr. however travelled till 3.30 B in a horrid state; we would have gladly gone further if it not been for B being so ill – Dr. gave us some gellatine to warm us –

Friday 25 Rain all night, morning looked bad but it cleared up, start in good time, encamp near the Comet made good progress – (Note, the Dr. would not help me to pitch the tent), slept in the rain – As the river is low we can cross it and thus save distance –

Saty 26 Fine morning start in good time make a good stage; dreadful ague this day, seeing the Dr. with some sugar asked him for some, he denied it to me –

Sunday 27 Still on the Comet; none of us right –

Monday 28 Start about 8.30, encamp about 4 pm at a small water hole, which the mules soon puddle had only time to get a bucket of water out, some of the party had to go to the river some distance off for some – Very ill all day. Heard the blacks, chopping a tree –

Tuesday 29 Delayed till 9.30 for some of the horses – reach Deception Ck. at Sandfly

[Page 151]
Downs, but no flies about it now, encamp 4 pm, near our old camp of the 18th Feby. on Deception Ck. from the McKenzie to this point, all scrub – no ague to day – The doctor promised us a treat this turng out to be [indecipherable] sugar mat

Wednesday 30th Cloudy, start at 9 – the box flat which was under water previously, now comparatively dry, Dr. determine to cross it, boggy and swampy at first, numerous water courses, mules bogged 1 twice and the other once, had to unload – Saw that the Dr. was not keeping his course quietly told him so, said I thought he was keeping to much to his right – “he shook his head and beard in a most contemptious manner and said “Mann I know where I am going" told him I did not mean to offend him by expessing an opinion – after passing the flat entered a scrub and after turning and twisting about encamp at 4 pm – dense scrub – very ill all day – Found 15 lbs flour missing (Dr. again?)

Thursday 1st Two of the horses being absent had only time to move up to a clear spot in the scrub about a mile, Wamai brought them up about sunset, tied them up for the night –

Friday 2d Start in good time, scrub thick about 2 hours travelling come to a range, Dr. gave a long whistle

[Page 152]
Dr. declares it to be Christmas range, this ought to be 20 miles to our right hand – (I knew he was wrong but when I mentioned it he would not believe me), ascended a spur and saw Xmas Expedition range 20 miles to the eastward and a sea of scrub intervening, he called up Brown who took the lead, entered the scrub, and after travelling 8 or 10 miles further encamp at a moderately small flat clear, about 4 p.m. myself with ague this day –

Sat 3d Start about 9 am, keep E course country being clearer, arrive at an open plain, which the Dr. called Perrys Plains and from which we had a fine view of the ranges, too ill to take an outline, Two mountains one named “Mount Bunce", the other “Mount Mann the most southern, we steered for a third was also called “Mt. Turnbull" – The beautiful plains we encamped upon and where we killed the bullocks, he called after Boeking – we encamped between the two first named hills on a creek – I forgot to say that at the McKenzie we dug up the bottle containing the letters but they were obliterated –

Sunday 4th As the horses were absent till late did not start. To our great surprise he gave us sweet tea, and Wamai having shot a Wallaby, we managed well –

Monday 5 – Nights very cold, ice every morning Ther. this morning 18° Start in good (same in Downs June 1853 [indecipherable])

[Page 153]
time, and after passing our camp of the 12 Feby. encamp near the foot of the range (Expedition) about a mile from our camp of the 10th of the same month –

Tuesday 6th This morning Dr. very angry at 3 lbs meat being short in the bag asked me how to account for it, told him that as our ration was 6 lbs meat per week each man, that 42 lbs were placed in the bag, that he knew well the meat was not thoroughly dried, and that even after many months that the meat still lost weight and also shrun shrunk in bulk, he and he admitted all that; told him that the 42 lbs was wholesale, whereas I had to weigh it out in 21 lots extending over a week, that was 3 meals a day, and it was loss by retail, as well as loss by drying that caused the deficiency, he told me I should give short weight. Rations reduced to 5 lbs per day for 9 persons – Start in good time soon ascend the range, view as before, beautiful, cross the range and encamp at Erythrina Ck. at about 4.30 – near an old camp –

Wednesday 7 Thought of making a short cut by going between Mt. Aldis and Mt. Nicholson, but prevented by scrub – Make a long journey, encamp at a swamp by a large water hole – Flour out this day –

Thursday 8 Start in good time and after crossing Nicholson and other Cks – arrive at Zamia Ck. and encamp at our old camp of Friday Feby. 5th –

Friday 9th Start in good time, Brown leading soon led us into Castle Creek, across a ridge instead of he rocks and gullies we had to come out by – then down Wallaby Ck. a branch of

[Page 154]
Castle Creek – started a whole herd of kangaroos dogs singled one out, Wamai gave chase – he (the K) leapt over a bank into a water hole, hauled him out, stopped unloaded cooked the kangaroo and had a most enormous feed, having been on dried meat so long we enjoyed it, eating till we could not stir – (I could eat my weeks ration of meat in a night) –

Sat 10 Start Early Brown leading, down Castle Creek, and make our exit from a different point we entered it at, being near where the Dr. originally entered it, we arrived at “Ant Camp" an old one of ours under Robinsons Ranges –

Sunday 11th Start early ascend the range – encamp at an old camp of the Drs. on the range – “sweet tea", that is the Dr. condescendingly put a piece of the sugar mat into the pot the tea was boiling in – Ther. 25° (? night or morning)

Tuesday 13 Dr. asked me this morning if I still wished to have my meat [indecipherable] I said yes, he then said he would weigh out Turnbulls and my ration himself

[Page 155]
told him I would not cheat my companions of an once ounce, I had always done my duty fairly and honourably and if he did not choose to let me weigh the ration out he could take all under his charge – he then said “well I shall stand by and see you weight it out" – I then left him –

Start early and soon make Palm Tree Creek, shortly before we arrive there see a fine bay horse, apparently very wild, Dr. could not get at him and left him, Mr. Hely managed to touch him and brought him up to the mules, he was very fat – rat tailed and branded O or G near shoulder, he soon made friends with all the mule animals and followed us to camp, which was on the Dawson – The Dr. weighed out the meat this evening – The allowance being increased to 7 lbs – per day

Wednesday 14 Dawson very boggy, had some trouble to cross, picked out the narrowest place, and stretched a rope across, tied it to the mules, whilst some of the party on the opposite side pulled when what with pulling and the mules jumping we got across without accident – we encamped upon its banks; the strange horse follows but we cannot catch it –

Thursday 15th Start in good time x several Cks and flats, have a large Ck to our [indecipherable] think at first it is the Dawson, but as it took such an E course found it only a tributary – encamped on its banks, after a long stage – The Dr. leading this day – saw the tracks of 6 horses

[Page 156]
More sugar bag tea this night – Why – the Dr. is going mad! – Fine country –

Friday 16 Start as usual, follow up the Ck some distance to find a x ing place, then keep a more W course, pass some fine county and a dense scrub, follow down a boggy Ck and encamp on the Dawson at an old camp, called the “6 tree camp" Shortly after starting passed a fresh camp – tree branded C – (Is this Campbell from the Boyne) the Dr. now told us he did not know where he was, Brown put as right –

Saty 17 Start as usual, Dr. ahead, x the Dawson, keeping it to our left, and cross a county alternately scrubby and clear – pass our camp on “Blk fellows grave creek" Camp near our old camp at Dry Beef Ck – Country boggy – Boeking had ague to day Killed a large kangaroo, Camden the dog had it at bay, the Dr. killed it with his sword – Kangaroo dog fearfully cut. Turnbull sewed it up, Dr. said it was useless left the poor fellow behind –

Thursday 18th Wamai leading – and after passing one of our old camps, encamp upon Dog Wood Creek – which we had to follow up some distance to find a x ing place, it running strong – had to drag all the mules across Camped at the x ing place – Soon found that Perry was missing, cooed and fired guns till late –

Monday 19 Remain in camp, the Dr. and Wamai taking 4 days provisions and go in search of Perry, they returned about 2 P.M, having found him at a creek about

[Page 157]
7 miles back – I shot 5 pigeons, the weather fine but cold, Ther. sun rise 30°

Tuesday 20th Start in good time. Wamai leading travelled till late, and encamped on a water hole near a large creek which we had followed down for some time.

Yesterday had a slight tiff with the Dr. I have already said I had my ration weighed out, that is (Mess. Hely and Turnbull and myself had our mess together) we preferred it, as we did not take any soup, and our ration of meat was boiled for hours in the same pot as the others was, when we got it, it was tasteless and insipid, but as long as we were travelling on I did not make any remark about it, but when on our way back, and the Dr. had packed away about [indecipherable] lbs of meat “to show his friends in Sydney what we lived upon" – I asked him to allow me to cook my own meat, and to save trouble he might give me a whole weeks ration at once – it so happened that I had eaten it all, long before the week was out, and trusted to my gun for my dinner, he was angry at this, and told me so, (I explained the case to him, it was nothing to him what I do with my ration, I never take any of his) – he said I did not mange the stores properly – that I should have made 42 lbs of meat last 7 days, which I have already explained –

I told him also that I made 30 lbs of flour last 14 days – it was the continual weighing that made the difference; he said that his last storekeeper was so honest that he made the stores last by giving short measure; I told him I could have done the same, but having been ordered to give a certain

[Page 158]
quantity every day, I did as, to the exact turn of the scale – he said a great deal more but I left him; he is trying to have a regular outbreak with me

Wednesday 21st Start early follow down the creek, keep it to our left, fancy we are nearing Charlys Ck. soon came to dray tracks, gave a shout came upon a camping place of cattle sheep etc – followed down the Ck. for some distance x ing other dray tracks, pass fine sheets of water at length xd the Ck at our old x ing place, and proceeded about 5 miles further, and encamped upon the Condamine –

Thursday 22d Last night heard a dog bark, thought it a sheep station, Wamai not being able to find 2 head of horses, Hely Turnbull and myself made a subscription of all the mony we possessed, amounting to 18d, and T [indecipherable] across for the purpose of purchasing a piece of damper – Instead of its being a shepperds hut, it proved to be a temporary station of Messrs. Blythe and Cheval, and having given T a feed, they packed up a fine sheep, 2 large dampers, some sugar and flour and came across to us. We were very glad to see them and the eatables and we did justice to them. We remained in camp this day. Wamai found the horses, Mr. Blythe told us of the loss of the Sovereign steamer at Moreton Bay, and many other incidents

Friday 23d Start for Goggs, about 7 miles arrive at a station of A Campbells, where after having had lunch, are persuaded to stop all night C told us he was going to take up the station on the Dawson, and had cut his name on a tree, he would have been there by this time but the sheep were lambing, so he was obliged to

[Page 159]
make a temporary station, he told us the dray tracks we saw were Gogg’s. The Dr. took 50 lbs from Blythe in a most unceremonious manner, he being one of the most advanced squatters. I thought it not exactly the thing –

Sat 24th Arrive at the Woolshed, having had a good lunch at Gogg’s, we met a Mr. [indecipherable] who has or was looking for a station on the Condamine – I was so ill this day that I could not keep up with the rest, had to lie down, arrived at the Woolshed, about an hour after sunset –

Sunday 25th Remain at the Woolshed, Mr. Mocatta Mr. and Mrs. Headly particularly kind (Mr. Dennis a former partner whom we saw when last here, was drowned in the Sovereign) The Dr. made up his mind to go to Fitz Roy Downs, with Mocatta, he had at first determd to go by the new road and down the Brisbane he intends going to Russell’s to refit –

Monday 26th Arrive at Ross’s where we are most kindly received, Ross is a poor man and a large family, but is getting on well, nothing can exceed the attention we receive, 9 hungry fellows; why does Dr. L not produce the flour and meat? 12 miles –

Tuesday 27th Arrive a Crosses where I encamped before, it is a station of the Scotch company’s; the men have only their ration; why not let us use the flour? travel 15 miles –

Wednesday 28th Arrive in good time at Russels he is a real good fellow, and has everything very comfortable –

Thursday 29 Still at Russel’s, had some few words with the Dr. yesterday, he said

[Page 160]
he “had done with us" and “had better take our own things and pack them up" I asked him to lend me a horse to go to Brisbane, saying that as he did not intend to go to Brisbane I must find away of getting down myself. Hel He lent me a horse, also one to Hely, telling me I might consider myself well treated in getting one.

I told hin him I did not consider myself under any obligation to him; as I should have brought two of my own, only that he earnestly requested me not to do so, and even objected to my purchasing my own saddlery and clothes; but as I had already got there I brought them as well as many other useful articles which he had neglected to provide –

His whole ambition was to be at the whole expense and outlay of it so that it might be called his Expedition, I told him this, and I said, that as you have taken the expense and responsibility of the party upon yourself, from the time of leaving Sydney; you ought properly speaking, see the whole party safe back again –

He said “I had do so little to please him the last 4 weeks that he did not care about pleasing me" I said he dad had done so little to please us from the first, that any other party would have rebelled – but I denied his statement entirely and asked him to state explicitly his charges against me, He said first “you caused confusion and disorder 1st by telling some of the party not to eat soup as it was bad" “2d that I had taken my packs and packed them by themselves" “3d that I had not taken proper care of the stores –

I laughed at all this; The third charge

[Page 161]
I think I have explained – But the others I may as well give an explanation here – I have already said that the first bullock we killed got spoilt, and the soup made from it was bad, I found it disagreed with me and did not take any of it. I used to serve it out – on one or two occasion Wamai (I think) had been absent after horses during dinner; however one day when handing him his soup I said “do not eat too much it will disagree with you" the Dr. was standing by and he said, “do you wish to make the party discontented? Let him eat and he will find out himself" – I said that I had found it disagree with me, and every person who took it, was suffering more or less from diarrahae – and the Dr. amongst them – he denied it – but I reminded him of his having told me he was suffering

I slept next to him in the tent, and knew well how often he turned out of a night, he confessed he had diarrahae but not caused by the soup – and I now say that a night or two after this occurrence, when he was turning out – he said “I have never been well since I took that d–d soup". Yet now he tries to bring a complaint against me for kindly putting a man on his guard –

Now for the packs, when the Dr. first started, everything was numbered, horses, mules, saddles tarpaulins in fact ever thing – We were told off in pairs, thus Dr. L and Wamai; Mr. Hely and Mr. Bunce; Boeking and Perry; Turnbull and myself – were mates and had three mules to load – I was responsible for the stores, and that they were properly covered up at night –

When we

[Page 162]
came to camp – the mules were caught and unloaded, the packs being placed in anything but order on the ground, it was impossible, the mules all crowded up and dangerous to go near their heels; the consequence was that unless restowed, the packs could not be properly covered, often when I had covered them, some careless fellow who wanted something from their his saddle bags would go to the packs and take what they he wanted and leave them uncoved – again in the morning, when loading there was only confusion, the mules huddled up and [indecipherable] and tarpaulins being mixed and lost –

Consequently when coming to camp – I used to select a convenient tree, as we all did, and tie our mules up – and stack my our packs by themselves in a little pyramid – I used then to be able to put sticks under them to keep them off the ground, and the tarpaulins covered them well – shortly after doing this the Dr. did the same with his packs, stacking them a yard or so from mine, and it beg became a general thing, I thought the Dr. approved of it, as he never made any remark to me, and it certainly caused less confusion – and kept the packs drier –

Now he brings this as a serious charge against me, I explained all this too to him, he said I should not have allowed anyone near the packs, it was my duty to see the packs covered and safe – told him I had seen to all that, but I

[Page 163]
certainly could not have prevented any one from going to their his own saddle bags without perhaps getting a saucy answer – and that I considered I had done my duty properly in that matter –

I then asked him if he had any more charges against me, he said my general behaviour was bad; I laughed at such a saying – I then told him I had the success of the expedition at heart as much as himself – it was an event I had looked to, I may say for years, that I did not enter into the scheme without due consideration, I had fully prepared myself to be away 3 years – from Sydney – and that I stacked coolly and deliberality to undertake, and make the best of everything. That I had a firm determination of looking to him as the leader, and would have followed him anywhere, That I had seen enough of discipline to know how to obey to the letter, any commands, and I felt it would be doubly necessary on such an expedition to obey under any circumstances, and that seeing he did not seem to like any of us to know his movements, I sldom ever offered to express an opinion, I had done so certainly on one or two occasions, where I saw mistakes were actually being made, but that he at once stopped me, I referred referred to Xmas range, as an instance. I told him it was shameful of him, now that the expedition is a perfect failure to try and lay any cause of it to me, I had done my duty in a straightforward honourable manner and he alone, if any one, was to blame for

[Page 164]
the failure, had he taken the amount of medicine he so often told us he possessed – a great deal of our misery would have been saved; that he was fully aware of the errors he had committed, and foolishly, more like a child, thought or made certain that because he was lucky once he would always be lucky, and now seeing his mistake he tried to bring or throw all the blame upon me – these are nearly the words I said to him; he replied that as far as acting honourably he had no fault to find, except that I was “too sensitive of honor" and I showed that in the first start, when the dispute arose about the cow – I replied that I was glad to say it was a fault on the right side – I then handed over to Dr. L everything I possessed of his –

Sunday 1st – at Russell’s

Monday 2d – Turnbull left this morning he goes by Stroud, as R has lent his dray to his stockman it will be a great chance for our (Hely and myself) getting our portmanteaus to Brisbane – R is a right good fellow, do not know what I should have done without him

[Page 165]
Tuesday 3d Left Russells about 11 am in company with a Mr. Rogers we intended proceeding to Andrews but found ourselves so tired we camped for the night at Crosses, about 10 miles –

Wednesday 4th Suffered last night terribly with spasms in my stomach – Arrive at Andrews about 3 pm. find Wilson, an old friend, and Oliver, all very kind

Thursday 5 Start in company with Andrew and Rogers, and arrive at Gowrie Hughes and Isaacs about 2 pm, had lunch Rogers stopped here, Hely brought on the [indecipherable] horse we found at Palm Tree Ck he left it in exchange for another, We then proceeded to the “Springs" 10 miles further – I could not keep up, so ill, nor Hely either – Andrew rode on, we arrived about 7 pm – very tired – We met Mocatta at the inn –

Friday 6 Start for Buyessis, 20 miles arrive 4.30 –

Sat 7th Arrive at Ipswich 40 miles about 7 pm, I was very ill on the road – obliged to remain on the road for some time –

Sunday 8th Still unwell, heard that no steamer left till 23d – next tuesday week. So I determined to remain for a few days – Dr. Dorsay kindly prescribed for me –

Monday 9th Still unwell – From this date I have kept no journal, it will suffice to say that after being a few days at Ipswich, we went

[Page 166]
to Brisbane, found all the people particularly kind – By the steamer (Tamar) which arrived in due time, we were very much annoyed to see that an account appeard in the Herald stating, that Dr. Leichardt was compelled to return on acct account of disunion in the party – Mr. Ewer no doubt took that out to Sydney, he being in time for the last steamer, no doubt Dr. L. led him to suppose such was the case, Shall make him contradict it –

Whilst keeping my journal I endeavoured to be as explicit as possible, and state every incident, however trifling; the above is an almost verbatim copy of the original, which I keep but many of the leaves having been saturated with water, the writing in many parts almost obliterated.

The above lines contain therefore a true account of this ill fated trip; and should any one ever take the trouble to read them they may in some manner judge as to the cause of its failure, It is very evident

[Page 167]
that the primary cause was ague; brought on by constant exposure to wet, and heat alternately, travelling for so many days through a dense scrub, boggy or under water, the dead leaves and other vegetable matter decomposing and fermenting, we were never dry – and then having to encap encamp from the 4th of March to the 8th of April on the Mackenzie, the waters of which from draining such an extent of flat scrub land were impregnated with decomposed vegetable matter –

A second cause was the want of proper medicines to counteract the malady; and thirdly was the Drs. own foolish obstinacy in making so certain of success, simply because he had been lucky on a previous occasion –

Now a few words about the Dr. as a scienfif scientific man perhaps he was second to very few, any one at a glance could see he was a man of superior genius, his head, (the shape of it) perfect noble forehead, small dark sparkling intelligent eys – prominent nose, but the lower part of his face so coverd with beard, as not easily to be seen – he was about 6 ft in height, but slightly made, by no means a strog man –

As a leader of a party I soon saw he was not fit for it. The attention and flattery he received in Sydney for the success of his first expedition might in some measure have spoilt him – but I very soon saw, (from

[Page 168]
his own statement) about his “constant good luck" had enabled him to succeed in his previous trip – though I by no means wish to say one wood word against his companions; I know full well what they must have gone through – He was too obstinate and headstrong – and impatient; nor did he possess the slightest ingenuity –

For instance he would often get impatient whilst we were taking mules or sheep across some nasty creek, perhaps when half were across he would rush in an belabour the poor beasts with a sapling – scatter them all, and give us immense loss of time and trouble, I have already mentioned the cases of trying to milk the cow, and of our x ing the McKenzie –

I had a mule most difficult to cath catch, (she rejoiced in the name of “Sally") one morning Sally would not be caught, she was passing close to the Dr. I called out and asked him to stop her, but he seized a fire stick from the fire and ran at her with it giving he two or three blows, so Turnbull and I had the benefit of another long run in the bush – when I had caught her and was leading her up, he commenced belabouring her again, when she jumped over me knocking me down over a

[Page 169]
hidden log and bruised me very considerably –

There again he got in a rage with his mules – who were tied to a small tree, he caught one by the tail and tried to kick it, luckily the mule did not kick him, but tore up the sapling and rushed off dragging Dr. L, who held tight by the tail, sapling and two other mules away along with him.

As I said before he would go recklessly at anything and if he failed he used to get into the most excited state, “Has my guiding star forsaken me?" “What have I done to offend Providence?" – Where has my former good luck gone?" etc – such expressions as these – I sometimes thought him mad – I often told him to take it coolly –

I can most conscientiously affirm that there never was a party who had the success of an expedition more at heart that this one, and they proved it by their acts, for we were always ready to back the Dr. up in any of his plans, or follow wherever he chose to go – The last words Cap’ King said to me, “whatever happens, stick to the Dr." and these words I always bore in mind, for I felt they came from no mean authority –

In Sydney he (the Dr.) introduced me to his friends as his future companion, yet

[Page 170]
before we get a days journey he tells me to consider myself in the light of private soldier, and he my general! –

I mentioned the circumstance of his wishing to take the cow, to Mr. Russell, he said he felt very much obliged to me for the way I had acted, she being one of a lot he was anxious to secure; and that he never gave Dr. L authority to take any stray bests of his he might come across –

I felt particularly annoyed with him during the latter part of our journey, he so very evidently trying to pick a serious quarrel with me, if such had been the case of course he would have been laid the failure to me – he commenced at the Peak Range, when he no doubt foresaw that there would be a failure, I made every allowance for the difficulties he was under, I always volunteered my services in every instance, but he had a decided objection to my leaving the camp – I found plenty to do, the first time we asked him to go after the mules, was at Charley Ck. and he then said he knew he “could not trust it to better hands, that I would find enough to employ me, and so I had, I of couse course was pleased at the saying being after our tiff about the cow, and I took the opportunity of telling him he might always depend upon me for assistance – and I never broke my word –

When I found him unnecessarily finding fault with me, I kept out of his way as much as possible to avoid an outbreak – But I used to shoot and cook pigeons for him, and attend on him, when he was

[Page 171]
ill; There never was a more jovil jovial party, until we got ill, even when we found there was no medicine which was much wanted on the Robinson we thought lightly of it; when we were encamped on the Mackenzie, all the wish was to be able to cross, the constant expression “If we could but cross" was continually being uttered, In the first instance I had stuck a stick at the waters edge, and many times during the day I was asked by the sick, “how much has the river fallen"?

Could any one have seen the misery our camps presented during that time, thy would, I am certain, have thought it madness for us to proceed – I was for many days the only one able to walk about; 8 poor helpless fellows, some unable to stand, some a cold shivering fit, and then in a burning fever, crying out and groaning, and no help – for them, I made their beds often, and when one was getting a hot fever, I placed his blanks over the one who had a cold fit – I do not say I alone did this, but every one in turn assisted as they were able.

I foolishly swam across the river one day and ran up the high banks to have a glimpse beyond, and see if there was any possibility of our crossing, but the stream was too strong to think of such a thing –

No party was in better order than ours, before the arrival on the McKenzie, each one knew his duty, and performed it, there was no telling or reminding required – the cattle had become so quiet as to camp amongst our tents, the sheep

[Page 172]
also gave us little trouble at night, but during the day caused us great delay whilst travelling, the sheep could not travel in the heat, and nor the goats in the wet – If therefore we could have cross the McKenzie at once we would got into the high county and would doubtless have made a successful expedition – We most naturally feel annoyed that any blame should be attached to us for the failure of the expedition –

W. B. C. 1857

This is a faithful copy of the original book which got wet and came to pieces, however the late W. B Clarke [indecipherable] had the books in his possession for some time and was enabled to verify the correctness of this copy which bears his initials W. B C 1857 – The interlines are by Mrs. Clarke

[Page 173]
[Blank page].

[Page 174]
[Blank page].

[Page 175]
Andrews O – 1300
26° 9’ – [indecipherable] – 1461
25 . 10 – [indecipherable] – 1745
24 . 59 – Zamia Creek – 1400

Erithrina Ck
Foot of Expedition ) – 940
[indecipherable]) – 914

Mt. Nicholson – 2000

29 . 14 . 30 – 920
Comet Rvr )
Mackenzie [indecipherable] ) – 787

22 . 55 . 27 – 1038

[Page 176]
[A small sketch of a head profile].

[Page 177]
[Blank page].

[Page 178]
[Back cover of book].

[Transcribed by Sandra Mutton for the State Library of New South Wales]