Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales
A Journal of a Voyage from Portsmouth to New South Wales and
China - in the Lady Penrhyn, Merchantman - William Cropton Sever,
Commander by Arthur Bowes, Smyth, Surgeon - 1787-1788-1789
A Journal of a Voyage from Portsmouth to New South Wales and China - in the Lady Penrhyn, Merchantman - William Cropton Sever, Commander by Arthur Bowes, Smyth, Surgeon - 1787-1788-1789
List of the different places we touch'd at in our Voyage
|Portsmouth ........................ .||England|
|Porta Praya — St. Jago's ............... .||Do.
|Rio de Janeiro ...................... .||South America
|Cape of Good Hope .................. .||Africa
|New South Wales .................... .||Asia
|Ld. How Island ......................||( Do. discover'd by Lieut. Ball 1788
|Curtis's Islands ......................||( Do. discover'd by ye. Lady Penrhyn 1788
|M'Cauley Island .....................||( Do.|
|Oteheite ........................... .||in Asia
|Penrhyn Island ...................... .||Do. discover'd by the Lady P. 1788 but did not land|
Grafton Island (one of the Bashees)
Pulo Auor. (or Pulore)
On the 22d. March 1787 I came on board the Lady Penrhyn, lying at the
Mother Bank, at Portsmouth, in Company with the followg. Ships bound to
New South Wales, wt. Convicts on board to form a Settlement there --
The Sirius of 26 Guns, /Governor Philip & Capt. Hunter/ Mr. Wogan, Surgeon.
The Supply Tendre 12 Guns, /Lieut. Ball, Commander/ Mr. Callam, Surgeon. The Alexander Transport /Sinclair, Commander/ Mr. Balmain Surgeon Assistant 210 male Convicts. --
The Scarborough/Marshall, Commander/ Mr. Considen, Surgeon 210 Male Convicts
The Charlotte/Gilbert Commander, Mr. White Surgeon to the Settlement, 78 male & 20 female Convicts --
The Lady Penrhyn, /Sever, Commander/109 female Convicts & 8 Children, Mr. Alltree, Surgeon to the Convicts, myself to the Ship's Company.
The Prince of Wales, /Mason, Commander/ 50 female Convicts, no Surgeon. --
The Friendship/Walton Commander/Mr. Arundal Surgeon, 100 male & female Convicts --
Three Victuallers, vizt. +The Borrowdale/Read Commander/The Fishburn,/Brown Commander/ The Golden Grove, /Sharpe Commander/ these three had no Surgeons. --
The Scarborough, Charlotte & Lady Penrhyn were Charter'd by the East India Company to proceed afterwards to China for Tea --
Having sd. above that the Lady Penrhyn had 109 female Convicts on board, I shall on the other side give a List of their Names, Crimes, Ages, Trades, & term of years they are transported for. --
The Crew of the Lady Penrhyn consists of the followg. Capt. Sever - Capt. Campbell of the Marines, Lieut. Johnston of Do. Lieut. Collins of Do. Mr. Watts, Lieut. of the Navy going to China. Mr. Nichs. Anstis, Chief Mate, Mr. Squires 2d. Mate, Mr. Ball 3d. Mate, Mr. Holmes 4th. Mate, Wm. Young Steward, Sisson the Cook, Smyth, Surgeon to the Ship, Alltree Surgeon to the Convicts, John Ross Son to Major Ross, James Campbell a Child, relation of Capt. Campbell, Mr. J: Smith going to Botany Bay, 3 Servts. to the Marine officers, [a Carpenter, a Cooper, a Boatswain, 36 Sailors 4 of whom were made Quarter Masters &: 5 Boys.] [manuscript damaged]
List of the Convicts
|Names||Age||Trades||Crimes||Term of transportation|
|Ann Yates||19||Milliner||House breaking||7|
|Mary Love||60||Service||Lamb Stealing||14|
|Ann Colepits||28||Do.||Privately Stealing||7|
|Elizth. Lock||23||Do.||Housebreaking||7 ...... 5|
|Sarah Davis||26||Glove Maker||Shoplifting||7|
|Ann Inett||30||Mantua Maker||Housebreaking||7 ...... 10|
|My. Wilkes alias Turner||21||Service||Privately Stealing||7|
|Elizth. Bird||45||Do.||Lamb Stealing||7|
|Ann Dawly alias Twifield||23||Do.||Highway Robbery||7|
|Sarah Bellamy||17||Do.||Privately Stealing||7|
|Mary Mitchell||19||Do.||Privately Stealing||7|
|Mary Dickenson||26||Barrow Woman||Stealing||7|
|Elizth. Hall||1 C lo||Service||House Robbery||7 ........... .20|
|Margt. Fownes||45||Do.||Highway Robbery||7|
|Hanah Mullins||20||Do.||Forgery||For Life.|
List of the Female Convicts on Board the Lady Penrhyn 1787
|Names||Age||Trades||Crimes||Term of transportation|
|Ann Yates||19||Milliner||House breaking||7|
|Mary Love||60||Service||Lamb Stealing||14|
|Ann Colepits||28||Do.||Privately Stealing||7|
|Sarah Davis||26||Glove Maker||Shoplifting||7|
|Ann Inett||30||Mantua Maker||Housebreaking||7|
|My. Wilkes alias Turner||21||Service||Privately Stealing||7|
|Elizth. Bird||45||Do.||Lamb Stealing||7|
|Ann Dawly alias Twifield||23||Do.||Highway Robbery||7|
|Sarah Bellamy||17||Do.||Privately Stealing||7|
|Mary Mitchell||19||Do.||Privately Stealing||7|
|Names||Age||Trades||Crimes||Term of transportation|
|Mary Dickenson||26||Barrow Woman||Stealing||7|
|Elizth. Hall||18||Service||House Robbery||7 ........... .20|
|Margt. Fownes||45||Do.||Highway Robbery||7|
|Hanah Mullins||20||Do.||Forgery||For Life.|
|J: Jones alias Osborn||28||Do.||Robbery||7|
|Elizth. Hipsley||28||Needlework||Picking Pocketts||7|
|Ann Read||22||Service||Street Robbery||For Life.|
|Susan Hufnall||24||Do.||Buyg. Stolen Goods||7 ........... .30|
|Martha Eaton||25||Do.||Buyg. Stolen Goods||7|
|Mary Greenwood||24||Do.||Street Robbery||7|
|Elizth. Cole||20||Milliner||Shop Lifting||7|
|Names||Age||Trades||Crimes||Term of transportation|
|Catharine Hart||19||Service||Privately Stealg.||7|
|Mary Hill||20||Do.||Pickg. Pocketts||7|
|Margaret Dawson||17||Do.||Privately Stealg.||7|
|Elizth. Marshall||29||Do.||Do.||7 ........... .40|
|Mary Humphreys||30||Do.||Pickg. Pocketts||7|
|Ann Ward||20||Lace Maker||Shoplifting||7|
|Elizth. Needham||25||Maker of Child Bed Linen||Do.||7|
|Lucy Wood alias Bran||33||Service||Pickg. Pocketts||7|
|Ann Martin||17||Do.||Shop Lifting||7|
|Mary Harrison||34||Silk Winder||Misdemeanour||7|
|A: Sandlyn alias Lyon alias Bretton||30||Needlework||Petty Larceny||7 ........... .50|
|Ann Green alias Cowly||28||Mantua Maker||Privately Stealg.||7|
|Rebecca Davison||28||Needlework||Pickg. Pocketts||7|
|Mary Cooper||47||Chair Woman||Stealing||7|
|Ann Dutton||25||Do.||Privately Stealg.||7|
|Names||Age||Trades||Crimes||Term of transportation|
|Mary Carroll||36||Mantua Maker||Privately Stealing||7|
|Mary Smith||25||Mantua Maker||Shoplifting||7|
|Ann George||22||Shoe Binder||Pickg. pocketts||7|
|Esther Howard||29||Service||Privately Stealing||7 ........... .60|
|Mary Cockran||32||Dealer||Recg. Stolen Goods||14|
|Mary Jackson||31||Hawker||Pickg. Pocketts||7|
|Elizth. Fowles Mary Adams||22 29||Do. Service||Housebreaking Privately Stealing||7 7|
|Mary Dicks||29||Stay Maker||Pickg. Pocketts||7|
|Mary Williams||39||Needlework||Privately Stealing||7|
|Margarett Bourn||25||Service||Pickg. Pocketts||7 ........... .70|
|Ann Powell||35||Do.||Privately Stealing||7|
|Dorothy Handlyn alias Grey x||82||Dealer||Perjury||7|
|Mary Lawrence||30||Service||Privately Stealing||7|
|Sarah Partridge||22||Mantua Maker||Shoplifting||7|
|Names||Age||Trades||Crimes||Term of transportation|
|Mary Slater||23||Watch-Chain Maker||Shoplifting||7|
|Sarah Piles||20||Service||Pickg. Pocketts||7|
|Jane Creek||48||Do.||Privately Stealing||7|
|Elizth. Anderson||32||Do.||Recg. Stolen Goods||7 ........... .80|
|Susan Trippett||22||Artificial Flower Maker||Pickg. Pocketts||7|
|Mary Conner alias Alien||28||Hawker||Shop Lifting||7|
|Mary Alien||22||Do.||Pickg. pocketts||7|
|Charlotte Sprigmore||30||Silk Winder||Misdemeanour||7 ........... .90|
|Thamasin Alien||32||Service||Pickg. Pocketts||7|
|Mary Marshall||19||Do.||Do.||For Life|
|Names||Age||Trades||Crimes||Term of transportation|
|Sarah Purdue||23||Mantua Maker||Robbery||7|
|Maria Hamilton||33||Lace Weaver||Privately Stealing||7|
|Charlotte Cook||20||Tambour Worker||Do.||7|
|Sarah Parry||28||Milliner||Felony||For Life. ......100|
|Isabella Lawson||33||Mantua Maker||Privately Stealg.||7|
|Jane Parkenson||30||Milliner||Died on the passage||7|
|Marearett Blades||25||Pedlar & Chapwoman||Defrauding||7 ......... ..109|
Memd. The Revd. Richd. Johnson, Chaplin to the Settlement, his Wife came out with him in the Golden Grove, Capt. Sharp.
Children, brot. out & Born on Board Ship
|Jenny Jones||8 [years]|
|Mary Mullins||3 [years]|
|Mary Fowles||4 [years]|
|Wm. Tilley||2 [months]|
|Jo: Harrison||15 Yrs not a Convict|
|Ed. Parkinson||3 [years]|
|Ed. Smith||1 [year]|
|Wm. Green||1 [year] dead|
|John Sandlyns||1/2 [year] dead|
|John Hart||(an Infant)|
|Wm. Colley||Do. Dead|
|Jno. Colepits||Do. dead|
|Jno. Laws on||Do. dead|
|Arthr. Philip Esqr.||Governor|
|Alexr. Ross, Major,||Lt. Governor|
|—— Halt ——||Surveyor General|
|—— Brewer ——||Provost Martial|
|Thos. Collins, Esqr.||Judge Advocate|
|Andrew Miller Esqr.||Commissary|
|Geo: Johnstone, (1st Lieut. Of Marines)
Aid de Camp to the Governor.
|—— Furzer ——||Quarter Master|
|— Long (Lieut. of Marines)||Adjutant|
|Capt. James Campbell||Senr. Capt. Of Marines|
NB If the Governor shd. die, the charge wd. devolve on Capt. Hunter of
the Sirius & not on the Lieut. Govr. Major Ross --
John Shortland, Lieut. of the Navy, Agent to the Ships Zachariah Clark Deputy Agent Victualler for Mr. Richards of Portsmouth
I came down in the Portsmouth Mail Coach on the 20 of March 1787 & on the 22d. I went on board the Lady Penrhyn lying at the Mother Bank with the rest of the fleet from different parts, for Botany Bay, New South Wales, being then in hourly Expectation of the arrival of Governor Philip but he did not arrive till the afternoon monday
7th. of May & Weigh'd Anchor on the 13th. of the same month.
Went wt. Lieut. Collins to visit Lieut. Bourbon (his Brother in Law) on board the Rose Frigate of War, lying at Spithead. This day Lieut. Johnston, the senior Lieut. on board, issued orders to keep the Women from the Sailors. Surgeon Alltree very ill for some time past wt. a fever of the putrescent kind & some days ago went to lodge at Ryde
6th. Went on Shore to Ryde to see Surgeon Alltree & found him dangerously ill taking medicines of Mr. Whites' prescribing.
7th. The Guns from all the Ships in Harbour fired on the Arrival of Admiral Ld. Hood at Portsmouth.
8th. This day Revd. Mr. Johnson, the Chaplain appointed to the Colony is to preach on board the Alexander in the forenoon & the Lady Penrhyn in the Afternoon but something happen'd to prevent him. This day went to Ryde accompanied by Capt. Sever & Lieut. Collins to see Mr. Altree, who continues very ill.
9 The weather very fine Nothing matereal happen'd this day.
12 Mr. Considen, first Assistant Surgeon to the Settlement arriv'd from London at the mother bank & went on board the Scarborough, Capt. Marshall.
Went on Shore at Ryde to visit Mr. Alltree & had the pleasure to find him much better -- Walked wt. him some miles at Ryde, wh. is a most beautiful spot -- This day Mr. Balmain deliver'd one of the Convict women on board the Lady Penrhyn of a Boy who is likely to do very well. This day Lieut. Shortland, the Navy Agent to the Expedition (who has till now, been in the Alexander) shifted his station to the Fishburn, Capt. Brown, one of the Victuallers.
15th. Elizth. Bruce, one of the Convicts on board the Penrhyn, fell from the forecastle & broke her right Leg just at the Articulation of the Ankle.
16th. Accompanied Capt. Sever & Lieut. Johnstone to Portsmouth. --
This day we got up the Anchor &: sail'd from the Mother Bank to Spithead & back again. The Anchor not foul: a very fine day. Went in the Jolly Boat to Wooton Bridge, in the Isle of Wight & walked from thence to Ryde, a very pleasant walk --
The Church,situate abt. the midway between Wooton Bridge & Ryde, is in a remarkable romantic Situation; a beautiful little Cottage, thatch'd, wt. sash windows & surround'd by Evergreen trees, & a Garden adjoining, contiguous to the Church Yard must attract the notice of Every stranger, from whence you have a most beautiful view over the whole of the Mother Bank, Spithead, the Towns of Portsmouth & Gosport -- in this Cottage occasionally lives the Clergyman of the Parish, whose chief residence is at Newport --
In the Church Yd. are many Tomb stones some of wh. are neatly engrav'd in Basso Relievo, particularly one of a person who was shot by a Custom-House-Officer of Portsmouth in his Cutter, as he was steering Her, & supposed to have had smuggled Goods on board. --
18th. Lieut. Collins &: I dined on board the Alexr. wt. Mr.
Balmain the Surgeon & Lieut. John Johnstone -- In the Eveng. of this
day I was sent for on board to the Steward, Mr. Young, who was taken
suddenly ill -- the wind this night very high at N:W --
19 This day Mr. Anstis the Chief Mate went to London; Reed, intelligence that Governor Philip's business is at last all finally settled & he may be
expected at the Mother Bank on Saturday next.
This night at 10 O'Clock Lieuts. George Johnstone & Wm. Collins went down into the Women's Births &: call'd over the names of the Convicts: found 5 missing; 4 wt. the Sailors & one wt. Squires the 2d. Mate -- They order'd all the 5 women to be put in Irons & removed forward & Mr. Johnstone declared he wd. the next day write to Major Ross at Portsmouth abt. this affair & to have the 2d. Mate removed from the Ship - for disobeying the orders of Capt. Sever & the two Lieuts. on board -- Very calm weather --
This day Lieut. Collins reed, a Letter from his Brother, Capt. Collins, in London, who is going wt. the Fleet as judge Advocate to the New Settlement, acquainting him that all the Business was fully settled respecting the Code of Laws to be in force at Botany Bay or wherever else the Settle- ment shd. be formed in New South Wales, &: that the Governor (Philip) wd. certainly be down on Saturday --
This day I attended (at the request of Mr. Balmain) on the Woman wt. the fractured leg, &c removed the Bandage & dressed it up again; before the Bandage was removed the woman was in the most excruciating pain, but very soon after removing it she became perfectly easy & continued so. -- A corpse sew'd up in a Hammock floated along side our Ship. The Cabin, lately occupied by the 3d. Mate Jenkinson, who died of a putrid fever the night before I came on
board, & was buried at Ryde, was fresh painted &
fumigated for me to sleep in --
20. This morng. a pretty fresh breeze -- engaged fitting up my Cabin -- had a large parcel of Water Cresses sent me as a present from Portsmouth.
21. Went to Portsmouth & in our way call'd on Capt. Gillbert of the Charlotte who accompanied us. We landed at Stoke's Bay & walk'd to Gosport at wh. place we took a Boat across the water to Portsmouth. This walk at this season of the year is most delightful -- the Church Yard at Stokes Bay has a prodigeous number of tomb stones in it. The Clergyman of this parish enjoys the singular priviledge of marrying Couples wt.out a Licence or Bands being published, for wh. reason great numbers marry there. Every Child born on board a Ship at Sea, belongs to the parish of Stepney. --
Sunday The wind very high & the sea very rough -- kept on board all day
22d. -- Mr. White the Surgeon General visited us, as did also Mr. Denis Considen the first Assistant Surgeon, who dined on board. Capt. Sever slept on shore & return'd this day to dinner -- This day a large Danish East India Man arrived at Spithead --
23d. Wind pretty brisk, but not so high as yesterday -- My Cabin finish'd except putting in the Bedding. This day Mr. Anstis our Chief Mate arrived from London & brot. wt. him Letters from Capt. Collins to his Brother Wm. in our Ship acquainting him that Governor Philip was to take leave of Ld. Sydney on Saturday last & that he wd. not continue in London more than 48 hours
after & that he meant to Sail as soon after his arrival at Portsmouth as possible. -- This day two of the Convicts put in irons for fighting -- Went on Shore wt. Capt. Sever & Lieut. Geo: Johnstone to Wooton Bridge; call'd on & rec'd a most friendly entertainment there from Mr. Ballard, Mercht. at Newport, who has also large Ovens &: Biscuit Warehouses at Wooton Bridge. --
this day, but the Sea runs so high the Pinnace cd. not go off to fetch
29. The wind continues very high at W, with rain --
30. Wind W & N W continues high -- abt. noon it encreased to a perfect Hurricane with hail & rain -- no possibility of sending the Boat on shore. In the Afternoon the wind fell much.
May 1st. The wind pretty high. p.m. much sunk -- the
Boat went to Ports- mouth.
2d. A fine morng. -- Alderman Curtis, Capt. Leigh the Ship's Husband & Mr. Watts dined & drank Tea on board; in the Eveng. Mr. Curtis & Mr. Watts went to Ryde & from thence to Newport where they slept & Capt. Leigh slept on board. The Alderman & Mr. Watts return'd the next day.
3d. Went to Portsmouth in the pinnace wt. Alderman Curtis, Capt. Leigh, Capt. Sever & Mr. Watts. The Boat return'd abt. 9 at night. This day 36 female & 3 male Convicts wt. 2 Children arrived at Portsmouth & were ship'd off from the Mother Bank; to be distributed to the different Ships; we had the good fortune to receive none of them. This day Capt. Hunter of the Sirius reed, a Letter from Governor Philip, informing him that he slid, be at Portsmouth on Sunday next, Capt. Campbell, Little John Ross, Capt. Campbell's Nephew &: Servt. came on board; Capt. Sever returns tomorrow.
Saturday Orders arrived at Portsmouth for the Hyena frigate, the Hon. Capt. 5 D'Courcy Commander to be ready to sail to escort the Botany Bay fleet to a certain Latitude; a new East Indiaman of 1100 Tons,
(the Belvedere) anchor'd close by the Penrhyn. She was built at a Dock
in Sussex & is a very noble Ship. Mr. Orton a Lieut. of the Navy who
is going 4 Mate in her to China did me the favor to call on me this
afternoon & invited me to dine wt. him in the Belvedere tomorrow, wh.
I did. Revd. Mr. Johnson preached .on board us. A smuggler was chaced by
a Custom House Cutter, wt.in Sight of us, fired upon & boarded. Capt.
Sever Lieuts. G. Johnstone & Collins &: Mr. Anstis went on shore
7th. Reported that Governor Philip is come down, Lieut. Shortland & his two Sons are gone to Portsmouth to pay their respects to him. Mr. Alltree, Surgeon to the Convicts went to mess in the Steerage -- at 4 o'Clock this Afternoon the Governor arrived at Portsmouth --
Dined on board the Belvedere -- Mr. Orton Lodged in Dean Street in London in the same House I lodged in abt. a week previous to my coming down to the Mother Bank, he left Town the day before me --
8th. Wind at East. Governor expected on board but did not come.
9th. Went to Portsmouth to purchase different necessary Articles previous to our Sailing. The Governor came on board the Sirius this forenoon.
Thursday This morng. very fine, Wind at N:E: at Eight O'Clock the Commodore made the Signal for preparing to Sail the next morng. --
10 - An order sent on board all the Ships for All Dogs to be sent on Shore: P.M: very rainy
Friday llth. Wind W.S.W Ships all very busy in compleating their Bread
12th. Little Wind & that at N.E. An order sent on board All Ships to desire no men be suffer'd to leave their respective Ships. At 9 o'Clock a.m. the Sirius made the Signal for weighing All Anchors & Sailing. & at 4 p.m. the Sirius got under weigh & the whole of the Fleet except the Char- lotte, the Lady Penrhyn & Prince of Wales as their Bread & Water were not compleated -- Went in the Afternoon with Capts. Campbell & Sever to Ryde & return'd abt. 9 o'Clock in the Eveng. on board.
Sunday 13 This morng. at 5 o'Clock the Lady Penrhyn set sail, as did all the fleet attended by the Hyena Frigate, Hon: Capt. D'Courcy, Commander wh. accompanied us abt. 100 leagues to the Westward -- a very fine day wt. a good breeze at E.S.E. the fleet went thro' the Needles, at 11 OClock a.m. a Signal for crouding Sail &; coming up wt. the Commodore, at S.p.m. Signal for All Ships to keep closer together & bear up to the Sirius. The Charlotte a remarkably slow sailor, several miles astern: Fish for Mackarell off Portland. Within sight of where the Halswell East Indiaman was lost.
14th. A rainy morng. a gentle breeze; the whole fleet 1 league ahead of us. In the afternoon the wind sunk & we came up with the fleet opposite Devonshire which is the only Land now in sight & that lies abt. 5 or 6 leagues distant. A number of small yellow birds are perchg. upon the riggfing], &: on the Decks. Many on board engaged fishing for Mackarell with success. This day a Dutch Dogger, a French Ship & an English W. Indiaman pass'd us at a small distance. This day Mr. Watts very ill with a Dyspnoea: order'd the pediluvium & administer'd the Lac Amm
Spr. Ether & Elix paregoni, wh. greatly releiv'd him. This day
killed 2 Sheep.
15th. Got up wt. the fleet; spoke the Alexr. &: the Supply Brig; all well; got Sight of the Lizard. A great many Casks of Geneva floating on the water of which the fishburn pick'd up 35 & the Scarborough 25. A Lugger
15th. from Falmouth came alongside, all the Hands in her very drunk, bot. some soft Bread of her.
16th. Brisk Gale, cleared the English Chanel; abt. 9 o'Clock a.m. a Sweedish Brig pass'd us.
17th. A great Swell -- Wind W.S.W.
18th. Wind the same, & very rainy.
19th. Do. -- a great many bottled nos'd Porpuses abt. the Ship.
Sunday 20th. A Signal for all Ships Boats to go on board the Commodore. This day the Hyena left us in 47 degrees N. Latde. & this day the Convicts on board the Scarborough attempted to rise, but their scheme was discover'd by one of the Accomplices; two of the Ringleaders sent on board the Sirius very heavy iron'd where they Each reed. 24 lashes & were sent on board the Prince of Wales -- Wind W.N.W.
21st. A fine day. Wind W.S.W.
30 At 5 this morng. discovered the Island of Porto Santo, belong[in]g
to the Portuguese at 9 league's distance. A large Shark seen astern. --
at 12 at noon pass'd the Deserters -- passed the Madeiras in the night --
This day the Agent had another List of the Convicts &ca -- 31st.
A fine morng. -- the Commodore lay to for the Ships to speak him. - Mr. Watts's Goat had 2 Kids, a male & female. At 3 O'clock p.m. Isabella Lawson one of the Convicts was deliver'd of a Girl -- passed the Salvages -- a very large Shark seen near the Ship. --
Friday 1st. June
In the morng. very little wind; but abt. 10 a.m. a pleasant breeze
sprung up -- many Albatrosses abt. the Ship.
A Calm. -- Mr. White, Surgeon to the Settlement came on board to request of me in the name of the Governor & himself to undertake the Care of the Convicts on board the Lady Penrhyn, in the room of Mr. Alltree, who he s[ai] d shd. be provided for on his arrival at Botany Bay in some other line & in the mean time to continue on board the Lady P. & act as my Assistant. The Governor wd. reward me for my trouble in such a way as shd. prove satisfactory to me, & the Surgeon General wd. give me a Certificate -- 10 O'clock a.m. saw the peak of Teneriffe abt. 18 leagues distant. Some amazing large rocks appear not far from us.
Arrive at Teneriffe
A great many Boats wt. lights in them fishing great part of the night amongst the fleet. We stay'd at Santo Cruz 1 week watering the Ships &ca. Sancto Cruze is rather a mean Town, the Houses not very lofty & all have lattice windows. It produces Indian Corn, Goats, Poultry, Bananas, Water Melons, Almonds, Figs, Cherries, Mulberries, Pears &ca &ca. there are two Churches in the Town wh. are Elegantly furnished, wt. good Organs in each -- A great many Grampus's near the Ship. On the Eighth of this month a large Dutch East Indiaman came to an Anchor.
In the Eveng. an Affray happen'd on Shore between the Sailors of the Indiaman & the Sailors of the Sirius, attended wt. no other ill con- sequences than some broken pates & bloody noses. The Commodore reed, an Invitation to dine wt. the Governor at Sancto Cruz, went on Thursday accompanied by Major Ross, Capt. Hunter & Capt. Campbell, Capt. Sever procured some
Goats, Fowls, Ducks, Geese, a quantity of Wine & Vegitables -- One
of the Convicts on board the Alexr.
8th. (Powers) on friday night 8 June Escaped by getting out at the Stern into the Jolly Boat, wt. which he went off unperceived, but upon a party being sent out next morng. along shore to look after him he was discover'd abt. 6 leagues off asleep on the shore wt. the Boat lying among the rocks, & brot. back to the fleet & confined. --
10th. Weigh'd Anchor at 5 o'Clock a.m. & left the Harbour of Sancta Cruz, very little wind, the Peak discern'd very plainly the Asmosphere being very clear: intensely hot -- at 3 o'Clock p.m. within a league of the Grand Canaries, wh. lie almost opposite Teneriffe -- Not the least wind lye directly opposite the Peak, whose summit reaches far above the Clouds & very near its top the Snow was perfectly seen in large quantities. A Rock of very considerable extent near the water appear'd red at top & had ridges all the way down its sides to the Sea, very much resembling Lava.
[In margin] The height of the Peak of Teneriffe is - 4399 Yards. Table Land at the Cape of Good Hope is - 1224 Yards. Mount Aetna is 4000 yards. Highest Land at Madeira is 5132 Yards.
llth. Calm continues -- Two Sail seen to the Northward, supposed them
to be English, but at too great a distance to be certain. 12th. The calm continued till abt. 10 O'Clock a.m. of this day when a gentle breeze sprung up. The view we had of the Peak at this time was truly beautiful, its summit being clearly discern'd some miles above the Clouds. Several of the Sailors this day, it being intensely hot, went in to the Water, & shortly after a very large Shark was seen astern, for wh. reason the Capt. desired them not to Bathe any more as it was attend'd wt. so much danger.
13th. A fine breeze at N.E. go 5'/2 K -- An Albercore under the Bows wh. weighed at least 100 Ib attempted in vain to strike it wt. the Grains -- Lat. 26.
15th. Fine breeze at N.E: -- go 5Vz K -- many flying fish abt. the Ship. This day We cross'd the Line & the Ceremony of Ducking the Ship's Company was performed on All who had not passed the Line (Tropic of Cancer) -- Capt. Campbell this day caught a very large Boneto.
16th. In Lat: 87 D. 25 M. a fine breeze go 6 K -- many flying fish seen.
17th. Capt. Sever very ill, gave him an Emetic & Cath: A strange Sail seen wt. English Colours, supposed to be going from the coast of Guinea to the West Indies, wt. Slaves. Abt. 11 o'Clock the Sirius fired a Gun &
17th. hoisted 2 lights as a signal to take in Sail. Breeze continues -- abt. 10. a.m. saw the Isle of Sal & at 2 p.m. saw 18th ^e Island of Bona Vista. A flying fish drop'd on deck wh. I preserved. Abt. 3 o'Clock Capt. Campbell caught a very large Dolphin, it weigh'd 361b & measured exactly five feet from head to tail: the colours it exhibited whilst dying were beautiful in the extream. in /4 of an hour after he caught a Boneto -- a Signal made for Anchoring -- Two Boatswain Birds over the Dolphin whilst he was hauling up.
19th. At 9 this morng. pass'd the Isle of Mayo & at 12 saw St. Jago. At 2 p.m. arrived at the mouth of the Harbour of Porta Praya & expected to go St. Jago in, but the Surf beating very high on the Shore induced the Commo- dore (after he had made the Signal for Anchoring & a gun had been fired from the Forts) to the great disappointment of all [manuscript damaged]
Fleet to join him &: got into their station -- A very large Shark
close alongside & soon after a shoal of fish & a Dolphin.
20th. Mr. Watts very ill wt. his Asthmatic Complaint. This day many many flying fish & a remarkably large Albercore supposed to weigh not less than 150 Ib was under the Bows for several hours, struck at wt. the Grains, but miss'd.
21st. Nothing material.
22d. A perfect Calm, only one Knot p Hour. -- This day one of the Convicts (Ann Read) took a Draught of Solution of Mcrcur: Sublimat corrosiv: instead of Water -- gave her a strong Emetic & afterwards repeated large doses of Ol: Ricini & she did very well --
23d. A fine breeze -- a Boneto caught at the Bows by the Sailors -- a Number of flying fish seen. Capt. Ball of the Supply came on board abt. 5 o'Clock p.m. a sudden squall came on attended wt. much Thunder & Lightening, wh. oblig'd all the fleet to take in most of their Sails, it continued violent for at least an hour; no accident happen'd to any of the fleet.
24th. Quite a Calm: abt. 4 o'Clock p.m. another Thunderstorm attented wt. very vivid Lighteng. came on & continued abt. 1 hour; no accident to the fleet -- many Bonetos abt. - caught two. Monday 25th. At 3 o'Clock this morng. a most violent storm of Thunder & Lightening came on & continued 2 hours wt. very heavy rain; the Ship's Company caught ma[n]y Casks of rain Water off the Awnings &ca. Abt. 12 o'Clock noon a very large Shovelnos'd Shark swam for a considerable time around the Ship; a boat from the Supply was coming on board us
The Shark swam close by the side of it & they made a stroke at it with their boat hook & miss'd it: it was at least 8 feet long & caught wt. a hook a few hours after by the Sailors of the Sirius.
Sunday 1st. July
This day Mary Love, one of the Convicts aged 60 fell down the Steerage
& broke two of her ribs & otherwise very much bruis'd herself.
Cup'd her & administer'd the usual Medicines in such Cases &: She
perfectly recover'd. This day also Wm. Henderson, Sailor, reed, a bad
wound on the head from the fall of a Block.
2d. Long: 19 D. 4 M. W Lat: 6 D. 36 M. N. a brisk breeze, many fish abt. the Ship.
4th. This day deliver'd Elizth. Colley, one of the Convicts of a dead Boy.
5th. Capt. Ball, by order of the Governor came on board the Lady P. to enquire into the state of the water -- A signal for all Masters to repair on board the Sirius. Orders for All Officers & men to be at an allowance of 31b* of Water pr. Day, except the Surgeon who was to have what he thought proper for the Sick, also for all the Transports to answer Signals by hoisting a Dutch Jack at the Top mast head. Mr. White came onboard at 12 o'Clock this day to enquire into the state of the Sick -- perfectly satisfied wt. the Acct. & pronounced the Lady P the most healthy Ship in the fleet. He informed us that Capt. Shea of the Scarborough was very dangerously ill of a mortification of the Saliva! Glands, a Phrenitis &ca & that he did not expect his life an hour.
Many have died on board the Alexr. & some were dangerously ill on board the Charlotte. Three of the Lieuts. on board the Sirius have been afflicted wt. Ruptures, two of whom are to return home from Rio Janeiro.
6th. A brisk breeze; great No. of flying Fish many of wh. drop'd on the deck. 6 Albercores & Bonetos caught by the Sailors in abt. a J/4 of an hour.
This day an English Mogen Sloop was spoke by the Supply, she was abt.
5 leagues from the fleet; she was bound from London to the Falkland
Isles, had been 3 months from London & 30 days in these Latitudes
8th. A strange Sail (a Ship) seen at a great distance, did not speak her -- a
great many Bonetos, Albercores, Skip-Jacks & Dolphins abt. the Ship. Preserv'd the wings of some flying fish. This Eveng. we Caught a large Shark, a very large Sucking fish was adhering to it, at least a foot in length.
Monday 9th. This day a remarkable fine Tarrier Dog of Mr. Watts's went over board & was drown'd, supposed to have been maliciously drove over by some one in the Ship: Seldom a Day passes in these Latitudes but Capt. Campbell (whose Line is constantly out) catches one or more fish.
llth. This day Elizth. Beckford, a Convict on board us, aged 82 died of a Dropsy wt. wh. She had been long afflicted. She died abt. 9 in the Eveng. & abt. 10 her corpse was committed to the deep with the Elizth. usual form, the Burial Service was read by Mr. Ball 3d. Mate. Abt. Beckford noon this day a very large fish was seen floating on the surface of the died. water supposed to be a Sea Devil, wh. it afterwards proved to be, being caught by the people of the Sirius. Abt. 12 o'Clock at night the Sea was cover'd for some miles round wt. Luminous bodies, wh. gave a most beautiful appearance; some of them I had taken up in a Bucket of Water &: preserved in Spirits. There are a great many very large Porpnses abt. the Ship this Evening --
Thursday 12 This day Capt. Sever appointed 4 Quarter Masters out of
the Ship's Company to run the Ship vizt. Wm. Marshall -- Joseph Downey --
Chas. Roach & Wm. Crudis -- all very good men & able Sailors.
Saturday 14th. Cross'd the Equinoxial Line exactly at 12 o'Clock this night many of the Convicts fell ill of fevers this day.
16th. This day the Sailors scraped the Ships sides as far as they cd. reach, as there were many Barnacles adhering wh. hinder'd her sailing. A Booby alighted on the Yard Arm & was taken by one of the Sailors. -- Lieuts. Johnstone & Collins both very ill wt a bilious disorder. This day kill'd 1 pig, 1 Goat & 1 Sheep.
18th. Abt. 4 o'Clock p.m. a Signal from the Sirius for the Surgeon General to go on board the Alexr. who are very sickly -- This day one of the hens overboard & drown'd.
19th. This day an Order issued for Ib 4 of Water to be allow'd to the Convicts every day, instead of Ib 3.
20th. Several Dolphin abt. -- Brew'd Spruce Beer this day for the use of the Cabin.
21st. This morng. just before the Sun arose some Clouds high in the asmosphere appeared of a most beautiful grass green colour, wh. went off as the Sun got up. We have on board small Salad raised on wet flannel in wooden trays. There is this day a very great head swell, with flying showers, & a moderately brisk breeze. Our Ship very much to Leeward of the fleet.
Sunday 22d. Almost a Calm -- Abt. 12 o'Clock at noon a very large
Whale rose abt. 20 Yards from the Ship's side, & blow'd the water
very high wt. a great noise. I was standing on the poop with Capt. Sever
& looking directly at the spot in wh. it arose & being the first
Whale I had ever seen it startled me not a little, it was full as long as
the Ship, spouted the water several times, swam majestically along by the
Ship's side, cross'd the stern, blow'd Sc went down head foremost &
it[s] enormous tail a great heighth out of the water -- The value of this
single fish in the opinion of several on board who had been employ'd in
the Whale fishery at Davis's streights was at least £1000.
Abt. one hour after seeing this Whale 3 others quite as large were plainly seen abt. 2 leagues "distant -- frequent squalls of rain & wind during this day.
23d. The Sirius, in a Squall, carried away her Main Top Sail Yard.
24th. The Squalls continue very frequently & the Ship often lyes down so much we can sccarcely keep our seats at table &: every thing thereon obliged to be confined; abt. 12 o'Clock at noon the braces of the fore top Gallt. Sail gave way, & it was expected that the foretop Mast wd. have gone, but by the Sailors going up immediately &: taking in Sail it was prevented -- We have Rolls baked every day for breakfast.
25th. Frequent Squalls during one of wh. our foretop Gt. Mast broke (at 9 at night.) The Longde. this day 15 D. 5 M. 42 S. W. Abt. 3 O'Clock p.m. during a squall, the Alexr. back'd her topsail & hoisted out her Boat, & in a few minutes after the Supply Brigg bore down
to the Alexr.
there was a very great swell, the boat was out a good while & went a great way astern, wh. induced us to believe somebody was overboard.
26th. Frequent Squalls, every Vz hour or hour wt. a heavy swell -- the Golden Grove (Sharp) carried away her main topsail sheet.
28th. The Squalls still very frequent, our foretop Gt.Sail split in several
places by the violence of the wind. Abt. 8 o'Clock this morng. a large
Whale passed close alongside us. This day abt. 12 at noon the Commo- dore went a point or two more before the Wind -- there is a great Swell indeed so great that we frequently cd. not see the Hulk of the Golden Grove tho' She is not 3 cables length from us. Capt. Campbell this day caught 2 large Albecores -- these fish as also Dolphin & Boneto are very dry eating but go down at sea where there is frequently a scarcity of fresh provisions.
Abt. 5 o'Clock p.m. the Supply Brigg
28th. spoke us & informed us that the accident which happen'd on board the Alexr. on 25th. was one of the Convicts had fallen overboard & tho' every endeavour was used to save him, the swell was so great he was drowned. He also acquainted us that the Governor had learnt there was an Island in these Latitudes, not laid down in any Charts, for wh. he requested all the fleet to keep a good lookout; However tho' his request was strictly comply'd wt. day & night, none was seen. --
Sunday 29th. A very fine breeze, go 5 - 6 & 7 Ks: the Longde. this
day 33 - 12 W We have this day abt. 500 miles to Rio de Janeiro. This day
the last English Goose made it's appearance at dinner wt. raw salad
30th. a brisk breeze -- The Sirius's men employ'd painting the Ship previous to the fleet's getting to Rio 'Janeiro.
31 In the first of the morng. very little Wind but it freshen'd up abt. 12 at noon -- this day spoke the Sirius, who informed us, we were at 12 of this day in Long. 36.8. W. -- soon after spoke the Alexr. who confirm'd the loss of the Man on 25th. he was drown'd abt. 2 miles astern -- Two very large Whales seen wh. from their throwing the Sea abt. in a prodigeous manner were supposed to be fighting -- a most beautiful moon light night.
Wednesday Augt. 1st.
This day the Commodore hoisted his broad Pendant, a fine breeze -- go
5 K: -- now abt. 90 leagues to Rio de Janeiro. --
2d. A fine breeze go 6 Ks. -- At 5 a.m. saw a Sail abt. 1 league before the fleet, wh. proved to be a Portugueze Snow wt. Slaves from the Coast of Guinea, bound to Rio'Janeiro. Soon after She had pass'd us a large Whale rose & blow'd just under our stern. This day saw many Mother Carey's Chickens (a kind of Sea Swallow) wh. the Sailors consider as a prognostic of wind, We also saw a Booby, wh. is a certain sign of being no great distance from land, as they are never known to go far to sea. Abt. Vz aft. 3 p.m. the Supply Brigg made
the Signal for seeing Land in two hours after it was plainly discerned
by all the fleet. In the Eveng. a little before dark all the fleet by
Signal took in Sail in order to their keeping together during the night
& at night the Commodore hoisted Lights as a Signal for all Ships to
keep near him.
3d. A perfect Calm, the peak of Rio abt. 8 leagues off. Sailors busy in clearing the Boats and getting up the Cable ready for Anchoring. Many
3d. Mother Carey's Chickens abt. -- A Grampus arose near our stern: The Calm continued all the day & it was very hot. The fleet lay to all night.
Saturday 4th. A Signal at 5 o'Clock a.m. to make sail but so little wind, are fearful we shall not get in today, many Grampuses &: some very large Boobies seen -- The Land (wh. is the south coast of America) appears very mountanous. Calm continues all day.
5th. This morng. quite calm, saw several Canoes, but none of them came alongside, great Shoals of Horse Mackarell abt. the Ship. Steward shot a Man of War Bird. We are now abt. 4 leagues from the shore wh. appears a white sandy beach, we can distinctly see the trees on the mountains, many of wh. are very peak'd & like Teneriffe, far above the Clouds --
The depth of Water here is 42 F. wt. a bottom of mud & small shells. The appearance of the Country is beautiful, consisting of Lofty Mountains & verdent Vallies, the one cover'd wt. lofty Trees &ca. & the other wt. Oranges, Lemons, Limes &ca. Sugar Canes also grow here in great abundance. --
Monday Just off the mouth of the Harbour; no wind; can see the City of
Augt. 6th. Sebastion abt. 2 leagues distant. The appearance of the Country wt. the No. of detatch'd Islands abt. the entrance of the Harbour is beautiful & picturesque to a degree: the Soil being every where cover'd wt. ever green trees & shrubs. This Eveng. a Sailor belong[in]g to the Scar- borough fell from the Main Y[ar]darm into the water & in his fall striking against some part of the Ship fractured his Skull &ca in a dreadful manner. I learn 5 more of the Convicts have died on board the Alexr. --
Anchor'd at Rio'Janeiro
Abt. 5 o'Clock this Eveng. enter'd the harbour & the lofty conical hills, were exquisitely beautiful: abt. 6 o'Clock were opposite the Fort wh. the Commodore saluted wt, 13 Guns & the Fort return'd the same No. - Soon after two large Canoes, wt. painted red & white awnings wt. 3 Portugueze Gentlemen in Each paddled by 4 naked Negros went round most of the Ships -- they were invited (in French) to come on board, but politely declin'd accepting the invitation, informing us (in French) that till the fleet had been visited by the Capt. of the Fort & the Health Boat the Viceroy wd. not permit them to come on board.
Every Ship was tow'd up by her Boats to within 1 mile of the City & there dropt Anchor. At night the Town was most beautifully illuminated & the Tops of the Churches & several Monasteries also, in honour of the Commodore who had some years ago been employ'd
6th. with much credit in the Portugueze Service -- Great many of various kinds of fish all over the Harbour. --
Tuesday Augt. 7th. A remarkable fine morng. many Canoes came alongside row'd by naked Negros, wt. great quantities of very fine Oranges wh. they sold 24 for 6d. & afterwards double that No. They had also the Cassada root powder'd wt. which they make bread, but the Slaves eat the
dry powder. They had also fish similar to the Spratts in England, but
much larger. Abt. 2 o'Clock p.m. started the Anchor & drop'd it again
just before the Town. Abt. 12 at noon Capt. Sever & Mr. Watts went in
the Jolly Boat on shore & at their return gave a most satisfactory
acct. of the reception they met wt. there. Upon their landing, a Soldier,
(a Serjt.) who cd. talk a little English, was appointed to attend them to
see they were not imposed upon. They first went up to the Viceroy's
Pallace to pay their Compts. to the Capt. of the Guard there, who
informed them they had liberty to go to whatever part of the City they
As the Capts. chief business on shore was to procure fresh provisions & vegitables for the Ship he went first to the Markett. The Serjt. informed him that the two grand market days were Tuesdays & Fridays & that in order to have the greater choice he shd. be there at 7 o'Clock in the morng. however notwithstanding they were so late they found a plentiful supply, & between 1 & 2 o'Clock they return'd wt. a large quantity of the finest cabages I ever saw, also Yarns, Bananas, Guavas, Limes, Lettices, Barangoles & Oranges, also some very tollerable Beef. To morrow the Capt. Mr. Watts & myself are to go on shore at 7 o'Clock. The Soldiers here make a very respectable appearance. The Country is beautiful in the extream, indeed so much so, that I find myself inadequate to the task of doing it justice by any discription I cd. give of it.
This day Mr. Wogan Surgeon of the Sirius dined on board, to whom I was introduced by Mr. Watts, & reed, an Invitation to dine wt. him in the Sirius, & to hear his Piano Forte; he is a Son of Dr. Wogan D: Music: &: seems a very sensible good kind of man. -- Wednesday The Capt. went early on shore & brot. off great plenty of Vegitables, Augt. 8th. Fruits &ca. The Canoes alongside brot. prodigeous quantities of Oranges of 2 Sorts,
one very small of a dark red colour; very sweet & rich flavour'd
& the other remarkable large -- The Officer of the Guard Boat brot. a
Bucketful as a present of the largest I ever saw. wh. measured a foot in
circumference, with the stalks & leaves adhering to Them. The Capt.
brot. off some very fine plantains &: large turnip 8th. radishes,
Cabbages, Endive & some very good Beef. -- Capt. Camp-
bell apply'd to the Viceroy for leave to haul the Seyne, which was immediately granted & a Serjt. appointed to attend us. Mr. Watts accompanied Capt. Sever on shore this morng. where they fell in wt. 6 masters of the different Ships who were there marketing & afterwards they all adjourn'd to a Coffee House to Breakfast w[h]ere they had Coffee in great plenty, sweatmeats & a great variety of rich cakes & tho' there were 8 breakfasted the whole reckg. did not exceed 2s-6d. --
This day the Commodore went on shore & some miles up the Country, & the night proving very rainy & a high wind, he slept on Shore; the Capt. this day brot. some fine green pease wh. to us who had not seen any for so long a time, were a great luxury -- The Yams he brot. off this day weigh'd many of them 10 or 12 lb Each.
Thursday 9th. The wind & Rain continued all night, in the morning several of the Ships Boats were broke lose & one was filPd wt. water. The Capt. this Day as usual return'd from Shore, wt. the Boat well stow'd wt. Beef & variety of Vegitables. Many curious birds brot. alongside in Canoes
for Sale; some of wh. were purchased by different people in the Ship,
but all dy'd on going to Sea.
Went on Shore wt. Mr. Balmain, Lieuts. G: Johnstone & Poulden.
Friday Augt. 10th.
The Town of Rio de Janeiro is very large & some of the Streets very long & wide, wt. many very good houses. Went thro' the 2 Market places where we saw great variety of Fruits, Vegitables, Fish &ca &ca
Amongst other Articles I purchased some very Curious preserv'd Birds,
natives of this place, also some Pap'a Apples. -- In walking up some of
the streets of Rio d' Janeiro the Effluvia from the Orange & other
trees was very grateful, wh. were in great profusion, full of fruit in a
gradation of ripeness & in full Blossom at the same time. -- The
Aquaduct in this place is well worthy of Notice; it consists of brick,
& is built wt. a great many regular & lofty Arches. The Churches
in this City are very Elegant. --
In this place we met with a young man of the name of Dagnell who came from Coventry in the Ber- borough East Indiaman & deserted abt. 11 months since at this place. We found him very useful being compleat master of the Portugueze language. He seem'd very desirous of leaving Rio & once apply'd me for leave to attend me as a Servt. to B: Bay & elsewhere; but this from prudential reasons I declin'd. -- especially as no individual is suffer'd to leave this place clandestanly. -- Upon our return in the Evening
10th. on board, found Major Ross & Capt. Hunter of the Sirius to whom I was introduced by Major Ross. --
llth. Being very much fatigued wt. my long walk of yesterday, I remained on board all this day: nor is it to be wonder'd at that I shd. be a good deal tired having been without any exercise for 9 weeks. This night one of the Portugueze Officers belonging to the Guard Boat dined, supp'd & slept on board the Sirius. --
Sunday 12th. A very fine day. Boats constantly passing & repassing to & from the Town & the opposite Shore.
Monday In the Afternoon accompanied Capt. Sever on Shore & hot.
some Augt. 13th. Cotton in the pod, wt. the seeds. -- Saw many black
Slaves leading abt. the streets to be sold -- Went into several Churches,
wh. were very Elegantly ornamented -- This day Capt. Tench & Lieut.
Poul- den of the Charlotte dined on board us. -- This day Capt. Campbell
very ill wt. a violent pain in his head & a Bilious disorder. Some
Prawns were bot. this day, the largest I ever saw -- Some of them when
extended were near a foot in length, & their bodies as big as my
14th. Went on shore & purchased some Medicines for my use at sea. This day one of the Portugueze Officers dined on board us was a very civil polite behav'd man; greatly delighted wt. my Phosphoric Tapers, broke one to shew him the nature there of & made him a present of one in a tin Case. This day I purchased 31 plumes of Birds natives of Rio de Janeiro of the Brasilian Magpye kind, very beautiful. -- This Eveng. Signior II deffonso, a portugueze Physician wt. 6 other Portugueze Gentlemen came on board wt. Major Ross & drank Tea; no body on board but Capt, Campbell myself & Mr. Anstis the Chief Mate.
All the other gentlemen being gone on the Shore opposite the Town to drink Tea in the Orange Grove -- Signer II dephonso is the Chief Physician at Rio & upon the first vacancy is to be appointed Physician to the Queen of Portugal. He gave a very polite invitation to me to visit him & to see all the Curiosities wh. the Queen's Museum in this place consists of, & which I shd. gladly have accepted of but unfortunately a Sister of the Physician's happen'd to die
the next day, therefore he cd. not make his appearance in public for
some considerable time after without the greatest indecorum he appeared
to be an intelligent good kind of Man, abt. 40 years of Age -- previous
to his leaving the Ship he left a considerable sum of Portugueze money
(not less than forty
14th. Shillings English) for the Convicts to be expended for their use in such Articles as Capt. Sever shd. think most beneficial to them in their unhappy predicament. -- This afternoon a Snow from the Coast of Guinea moor'd very near us, wt. a cargo of some hundreds of black Slaves for the Slave market at Rio. --
At day light in the morng. I was awoke wt. their singing, as is their custom previous to their being sold or Executed. -- They were all naked -- In the Eveng. the party return'd from drinking Tea in the Orange Grove -- the Acct. they gave of the Country was enchanting; within less than 100 yards of the Beach they were surrounded by Orange, Lemon & Lime Trees, also Indigo, Pine Apples &: many other kinds of plants & fruits all wh. they may have for the gathering. There were also great numbers of birds & enormous Butterflies, both extremely beautiful of their kind --
This Eveng. a large Monastery situated on a rock on the left side of the Bay was most superbly illuminated in honour of some one of their Saints, & many curious fireworks were display'd, the best of wh. un- doubtedly were the Sky Rockets, wh. were very good mounted a great heighth & some had Gold & Silver Rain, others very good Stars. Capt. Campbell better --
Wednesday Augt. 15
Went on Shore to see a grand procession abt. 3 o'Clock p.m. the whole of the streets were crowded wt people up to a very elegant Church situated on the top of a high hill wh. overlooks the Town & Harbour. The Church was decorated in a most superb manner, there was a Band of Music playing in the Church Yard consisting of 2 French Horns, 1 Violin, 1 Clarinet & a drum, somewhat like a Kettle Drum. The Ladies who appear'd publickly at the windows & in the procession were elegantly dress'd notwithstanding wh. they bore no small resemblance to the Actresses at a puppet shew in Bartholomew Fair, their heads plaister'd & dress'd up in a very similar manner. There were very few amongst them who cd. be call'd tollerably handsome. --
At night there was a grand display of fireworks off the top of one of the Churches & an awning spread from the Church door quite across the street to the opposite house over the door of wh. in an eligantly orna- mented recess stood an Image of the Virgin Mary & Child most superbly dressed. Under the Awning & in the centre of the street hung a very large Chandalere & an Orchestre was Erected over the Entrance of the Church, in which was an Organ & a Band of Vocal & Instrumental performers. We left the Town abt. 9 o'Clock, but the Ceremony did not close till near 11 at night.
16th. This day haul'd the Seyne, but it being late in the day, very few fish caught. -- This day I accompanied Lieut. Timmins of the Prince of Wales to the Town & went up to a very large Monastery on the top of a hill just without the Town. -- The Friars treated us wt. the greatest Civility (as indeed did Every one on both sides the Bay & seem'd very fond of the English) They shewed us
every part of the Monastery; to discribe the Elegance & Richness
which is no easy task, suffice it to say that the different Apartments
were very lofty & spacious, the ceiling of many of them painted in a
most capital manner descriptive of Religious History wt. a great
profusion of Carvings & Guildings -- The figures of the Mother &
Child -- St. Antonio, Mary Magdalin & some others were done in the
most costly manner; particularly the Virgin Mother wh. held a Beauquet in
her hand, wh. extended as high as her shoulder set very thick with very
valuable Brilliant Diamonds; she also had a plain white ribband round her
neck with a large Brilliant diamond in the centre of it as big as the top
of my thumb: The Lamps &: Candle sticks were very large & all of
solid Silver -- The Friars took us into the Gardens wh. are little more
than bare enclosures very little Art being bestow'd upon them, as I am
informed there is not a Gardener in the Town, where Nature spontaneously
produced double Myrtles (now in full blossom) Oranges, Lemons, Limes,
Bananas, Plantains & many other sorts of fruits to wh. I am a
stranger -- from this Garden you command a prospect all over the Town,
the Harbour & the Country for many miles round till the view is
intercepted by successive ranges of lofty mountains. --
Friday 17th. The first of the morng. it rain'd pretty hard but abt. 10 a.m. it cleared up. 1 went on shore on the opposite side to the Town accompanied by Mr. James Smith & Capt. CampbelPs Servt. -- we caught many beautiful Butterflies & other insects & collected many curious leaves &ca. There are here large plantations of Indigo & the Castor Nuts grow wild abt. the Hedges, also Pine Apples, Aloes, Sugar Canes &ca &ca
An old Gentleman, (who afterwards we found was Capt. of a Fort near
by) seeing us pass his Garden, by signs invited us in & treated us in
the most friendly manner, insisting upon our eating of every Fruit his
Garden afforded, vizt. Oranges of many sorts, sweet & sour Lemons,
Pine Apples, Bananas, Guavas -- he also loaded us home wt. presents of
Each -- He also insisted on making us some punch & produced a Bottle
of Excellent Port Wine, he also presented us wt. a large quantity of the
Marmalad of Guava of his own making & wh. was an exceeding good
Sweetmeat. He had in his pocket a Silver Watch, capt &: Jewel'd
17th. made by Markham of London, & wh. he appeared to set a great value upon. He had many Negro Slaves abt, him who seem'd all perfectly happy in his Service, nor indeed cd. they be otherwise if I am not grossly deceived in my opinion of his humanity & goodness of heart.
18th. Mr. Wogan did us the favor of his Company to dinner this day, & made me promise to dine on board the Sirius wt. him on monday & proposed after dinner going into the Town to visit two Monasteries where there were excellt. Organs.
Sunday Nothing material.
Monday 20th. Went accompanied by Mr. Watts to dine on board the Sirius with Mr. Wogan. When I went on board the Sirius, Governor Philip & Capt. Hunter were both walking the Quarter deck & behaved very politely to me. There were present at dinner -- Lieut. Maxwell, Lieut. Long the Adjutant of Marines, Mr. Wogan, the Surgeon, Mr. Palmer the Purser, & 3 other Gentlemen unknown to me. After dinner Major
Ross & Mr. White who din'd that day with the Governor on board,
came down to us to hear the Piano Forte. Abt. 6 o'Clock left the Sirius
return'd accompanied by Mr. Watts Mr. White & Mr. Wogan on board the
Lady P: where they all staid Supper it being too late to go to the Town
as we at first proposed. The City of St. Sebastian has 11 Churches, 6
Monasteries & 2 Nunneries -- The Country abounds in mines of precious
stones, the chief of wh. are Topazes, some of which we saw of a very
large size, particularly a large head of a walking Cane, beautifully cut
&: polish'd, one entire Topaz, of an immense value.
The Queen of Portugal obliges them to send all precious stones found here to Lisbon to be cut & polished & those we saw had been return'd from thence; you might purchase a stone here for a Guinea & Vz or two Guineas worth ten in England. I believe no part of the habitable Globe produces so great a variety of beautiful insects as the Brasils do.
Tuesday 21st. This day being the Birthday of the Hereditary Prince of Brasil, Joseph Francisco Xavier the Commodore display'd the Portugueze Colours at the Foremast head: the Commodore's broad pendant at the Main top mast head; the Union Jack at the Mizen top & the English Ensign at the stern. The Portuguese Colours were flying at All the Forts round the Bay; at 1 o'Clock p.m. the Commodore saluted with 21 Guns & all the Forts did the same. The day concluded wt Bonfires, brilliant illuminations & very good fireworks
22d This day Major Ross, Capt. Shea, Lieut. Sharpe, Surgeon Balmain, Lieut.
Poulden & a Portuguese officer dined wt. us.
23d This day Mr. James Smith & I devoted in searching for
Butterflies, Insects &ca. &ca. Every Native we fell in wt.
treated us wt. the greatest Civility. The old Gentleman, (Capt. of the
Fort) made me a present of 3 fine diamond Beetles. Another presented me
wt. a Rosiary of beeds an Artifical Shell work flower, some beautiful
flies & a walking leaf. I collected many natural Curiosities, spent
the day very agreeably & return'd on board in the Evening, wt. Mr.
Smith who was highly pleased wt. his day's excurtion -- Capt. Sinclair
lent me his Boat.
24th. Dined on board the Alexr. wt. Lieut. John Johnstone &: Mr. Balmain. Mr. Watts also accompanied me. After dinner Mr. W. & I went on Shore, where we were presented by a Gentleman shortly after our landing wt. many Diamond Beetles & many other curious insects. I extracted a Tooth for his Lady, who, all agreed, was by far the hand- somest woman we had seen at Rio. --
I prescrib'd for a Negro Slave near the above Gentleman's house, who was very ill. To the above Gentleman Mr. Watts presented an English Razor & some Cheese & I gave him a pr. of plated English shoe Buckles & 2 Phosphoric Tapers, all wh. were highly acceptable. The Gentleman &: 2 Ladies danced to a Viol play'd by a Negro Slave &: made Mr. Watts & me dance wt. them -- their dancing consists of little else than footing, turning round & snapping their fingers to the Music.
Scarcely a Day passes wt.out our going on Shore & collectg. some curiosity or other, till our leaving Rio --
This day Henry Hill one of our Sailors, who was a Roman Catholic abt. 21 yrs. old eloped from the Ship &: conceal'd himself in the Town. Capt. Sever was not sorry at his loss as he behaved very exceptionably on board.
This Eveng. I made a point of going on Shore to take my final leave of
the Old Capt. of the Fort, as he had behaved so remarkably friendly to
me. I had a Sailor wt. me who talked Portuguese, he told me the old
Gentleman was very desirous of my staying in the Country. -- Some few
days since I tap'd him for a Hydrocele & draw'd off near 4 pints of
4th. At break of Day the fleet sail'd from Rio de Janeiro -- Mr. Morton late Master of the Sirius, Mr. Sealy a Midshipman of Do. & another Gentleman (who were all invalids, & left at St. Sebastian to return to England by a Whale Fisherman, then lying under repair there, the Diana, Murry, Commander, belonging to Boddy of London) accomp- anied the fleet in a Portuguese Yatch till it reached the mouth of the Harbour; the Fort saluted us as we pass'd it wt. 21 Guns wh. the Commodore return'd with the same number.
The Governor of St. Sebastian out of a Compt. to Governor Philip dispens'd wt. the Port Duties wh. are £10 (vizt. £5 coming in & £5 going out & 5 shillings] a day during the stay there for every Ship. The whole Sum amounting to £155.5s.0d. The Sirius & the Supply Brigg are excepted in this acct. as being King's Ships, they not paying Port Duties in any part of the World. The Water at Rio ' Janeiro is not good tasted nor will it keep long at Sea. -- during the continuance of our stay at this place every Man had 21b of fresh meat allowed him every day wt. plenty of Vegitables, &ca. &ca. The Watering place at the Town is opposite the Viceroy's Pallace
Sepr. 5th. Very little Wind,
6th. A fine breeze -- go 5 Ks. Several Weather Gauls seen. The Lady P. sails much better than before we came into Rio. We were supply'd very amply wt. Plantain Suckers for the Stocks & their eating very voracious- ly thereof, occasion'd them to be very ill. The Goat Mr. Collins brot. at Teneriffe died --
8 a fine breeze -- in the night a violent storm of Thunder & Lightg. Capt. Campbell's Kid broke its thigh by the Chicken coops falling on it, by the Ship's rolling.
9th. A fine day & Gale continues.
10 Do. --
11th. a Brisk Gale, a very large Shark alongside.
12 The Gale increas'd & the Sea runs very high. Lat: 28 D. 36 M.
13th. A rainy morng. -- Abt. 10. am. a violent squall came on wh. laid the Ship so much down that the Sea ran into the Lee Port-holes. Every- thing moveable was thrown down & the usual confusion at such times ensued; the Squall lasted abt. 20 minutes, & it continued to rain the whole day. It rain'd afresh in the night & abt. 4 o'Clock a.m.
14th. Another violent Squall came on wh. lasted some hours wt. heavy
rain -- Abt. 8 o'Clock a.m. it fell calm & continued so all day. A
pidgeon went overboard & lost.
16th. Abt. 6 O'Clock a large Whale passed close alongside, a new Mainsl. &:
a new Foretop Sail bent this day
This day took a jiggerworm from my foot & dress'd it wt.
18th. Very wet wt. frequent Squalls of wind.
19th. The Squalls & rain continue -- Suppose some one has fallen over- board from the Charlotte as she back her Topsails, tho' it then blew very strong & was a heavy squall coming on.
20 A fine morng. wt. a brisk Gale. The Thermometer stood at 57 at 8 o'Clock a.m. The Gale continued all day & Night much the same. Sunday 23d This day a breeze came on abt. 7 o'Clock am. wh. blew very strong all day with a mountanous sea, many of wh. broke over the poop.
24th. A heavy Gale &: a great swell -- many Albatrosses & Pintado Birds astern. In the night there were many heavy squalls the Ship roll'd so very much that everything in the Cabin gave way -- much Lightg.
25th. & Thunder & Hail. Mr. Watts hurt himself by been thrown over the
27th. Chairs. Many of the Women also reed, hurts & bruises from falls. I cd. get no sleep all night the roll of the Ship was so great. 28th. The Gale continues, wt. frequent Squalls -- go 7 Knotts.
Saturday Sepr. 29th.
A[t] 11 at night the wind carried away the Boom of the fore steering Sail 30th. The Wind very high -- supposed this day to be in the meridian of London. Many Grampuses seen near the Ship. Abt. 6 O'Clock p.m. it fell almost a Calm & the wind came on at South very high with rain & frequent Squalls --
A very wet morng. wt. the wind at South, very cold -- a great Sea. A total Calm -- abt. 2 o'Clock a gentle breeze sprung up & continued all night --
Monday Octr. 1st.
The Brigg spoke us & inform'd us that the Longde: was 3 D. 4 M. by
the Time keeper on board the Sirius.
2d. This day just one month from leavg. Rio ' Janeiro -- kill'd a sheep & sent a quarter on board the Alexr. -- hung out a Table Cloth as
4th. a signal, wh. was previously agreed upon.
5th. A fine breeze. Many Birds & Porpuses abt. the Ship.
6th. Abt. 7 o'Clock this morng. 5 very large Sperma Caeti Whales very near the Ship for a considerable time together.
8th.This day sent for by Capt. Sharp of the Golden Grove, who is very ill. A Signal from the Commodore for all Ships to go into his wake. There were a List of Day & Night Signals sent on board every Ship, but as they are long & I think foreign to the purport of this Journal I shall not here enumerate them.
Tuesday Octr 9th. This day Revd. Mr. Johnson deliver'd some great & small Tooth Combs to deliver out to the Convicts at my discretion. A gentle breeze; this day kill'd a sucking Pig -- something supposed to be amis on board the Alexr. from the manoeuvers of the Ships.
A fine morng. wt. a gentle breeze, go 4Vz K. This day the Charlotte
spoke us & informed us that on 19th. of last month in the Squall one
of the Male Convicts on board her had fallen overboard & was drown'd
notwithstanding every means was employ'd to save him.
This day abt. 10 a.m. the Supply Brigg spoke us & informed us that there was bad work on board the Alexr. so much so that he apprehended there wd. be some hanged as soon as we arriv'd at the Cape -- we had not the particulars as Capt. Ball was not very near us when he spoke us but we apprehend it to be a Mutiny amongst the Ships Company & Convicts as they were very mutinously inclined when at Rio de Janeiro & threat- en'd Capt. Sinclair & Mr. Long, the chief Mate, &: Mr. Dunnivan 2d. Mate much, declaring they wd. do as they pleased for all Capt. Sinclair, who they sd. had no power over them, & who indeed appeared to have lost all Authority over his people -- for what reason I am at a loss to guess, but I apprehend from his not exerting a proper Spirit amongst them. We reckon ourselves this day abt. 520 miles distant from the Cape of Good Hope.
10th. A fine breeze -- in the night Capt. Sever saw a Whale close alongside. Saturday The Lady Penrhyn hoisted the signal for seeing Land, (The Cape of 13th. Good Hope) abt. 5 o'Clock in the morng. abt. 14 Leagues distant. The Commodore lay to in the night Sc fill'd his Sails again
Anchor'd at Good Hope
Lat. 34.22 S
Long: 18.45 E
abt. 4 o'Clock a.m. -- a fine breeze, go 6 Ks. -- Exactly 2 minutes before 6 o'Clock p.m. we drop'd Anchor in Table Bay, directly before Cape Town & the Table mountain. The face of the Country appears beautiful, the Town is back'd by very lofty Mountains many of wh. are cover'd Cape of wt. verdure, &: great flocks of Sheep feeding thereon, particularly that called the- Lyon's Rump.
The Town is pretty large & appears to have many exceeding good houses in it. There are many Gallows & other impliments of punishment erected a long shore and in the front of the Town. There were also Wheels for breaking Felons upon, several of wh. were at this time occupied by the mangled Bodies of the unhappy wretches who suffer'd upon them: their right hands were cut off & fixt by a large nail to the side of the Wheel, the Wheel itself elevated upon a post abt. 9 or 10 feet high, upon which the body lies to perish.
To the right of the Warf is the principal Fort -- there is also two other Forts, not very strong to the left of the Town, erected by order of the French Officers whilst at the Cape in the Service of the Dutch - This day Major Ross sup'd on board us.
14 This morng. the Commodore saluted the Fort wt. 14 Guns wh. was return'd by the Fort wt. 14 -- Went wt. Leiut. G. Johnston on board the Alexr. -- Many of the Convicts & Marines dangerously ill of a kind of Putrid fever; whilst I was there Surgeon White
came on board who had been very ill; he informed me that upwards of 30
had been very ill wt. a putrid fever & Dysentery onboard the
Charlotte Sc that he expected the death of 3 of them this day. Major Ross
& Lieut. J: Johnstone dined on board us.
This day 3 of the Sailors belonging to the Alexr. were sent on board the Sirius for being concerned in a plot wt. the Convicts to seize upon & run away with the Ship. Some of the Convicts concerned in it were chain'd to the decks. -- What punish- ment the Commodore means to inflict on them is at present unknown. This day I find myself very ill wt. a pain in my head, back &ca.
29th. This day the 2d. Mate of the Friendship (Patrick Vallance) being much intoxicated fell overboard & never came up again -- he was abt. 45 years of age. --
Phebe Norton, a Convict on board us fell from the head, into the Sea,
it was a remarkable calm day, therefore before she had time to go down,
two men jump'd overboard & saved her by hauling her into the pinnace
wh. was fasten'd at the stern.
2d. This day the signal was hoisted on the Lyon's Rump, the Sugar Loaf Mountain & on Penguin Island, for seeing a Sail, it came in abt. 1 o'Clock p.m. & proved to be the Rainger Packett, Capt. Buchan, from London to Bengal. She was saluted wt. huzzas as they pass'd a large Danish East Indiaman & also by the Sirius people as they pass'd
it -- She came last from Falmouth & to our great disappointment
brot. no Letters or News -- it was 2 months since she left Falmouth. --
The Long Boat belonging to a Dutch East Indiaman in this Harbour wt. 6
hands in her deeply laden was by a very sudden squall of wind overset
& 2 of the hands drowned notwithstanding it happen'd in The midst of
the fleet & many boats were put off to save them: the Boat was got up
the same day.
This Bay is very subject to heavy squalls wh. come so Suddenly from the adjacent Mountains as renders it extreamly danger- ous at certain times to go in small Boats wt. a Sail -- This day a Quarter Master belongg. to the Danish East Indiaman died and was carried on shore abt. 1 o'Clock p.m. to be interr'd. one Gun was fired upon the Boat's leavg. the Ship -- By the Rainger we reed, the news of Boston in America, being destroy'd by fire. The Rainger stay'd no longer than to take in water to compleat wh. as soon as possible She borrow'd many Long Boats from the Botany Bay fleet & sail'd again on ye. 5th. --
5th. Abt. this time another Ship came into the Harbour, wh. proved to be a Portuguese East Indiaman, lately the Blandford of England. -- This day we reed, on board 1 Stallion, 3 Mares & 3 Colts for Governor Philip's use at New S: Wales -- The streets of Cape Town are very wide & long & intersect each other at right Angles. The fronts of the houses are most of them white wt. ornamental Cornices, Urns, &: figures on the top painted green. In most houses the lower apartments are very lofty & in general much better furnished than the Upper ones &
before many of the houses are rows of Oak trees of a much softer
nature than the English Oak, & in general they do not seem to
flourish very well as you often saw some of them stunted & others
quite dead. There are two Churches in the Town, a Lutheran & a
Calvinistical -- in a large square at the entrance of the Town are two
Conduits, wh. are con- stantly & plentifully supply'd from the Table
Mountain & these furnish 5th. the whole Town with water, wh. the
slaves are constantly carrying in pails or Bucketts There is also, just
without the Town a new Hospital, very spacious & well calculated for
the accommodation of the sick -- There are no Taverns or Coffee Houses in
this Town, but Spelmerup
houses, as they are called, but these houses are by no means calculated for the accomodation of Gentlemen, being in general frequented by the lowest Class of people.
Therefore, if a Gentleman means to dine or sleep on shore he must find out accommodations at some private house, in doing wh. he need not be much at a loss, as there are scarce any private houses in Cape Town where they will not put up wt. the inconveniences of taking Lodgers or transcient passenger for the sake of the profit, wh. is two Dollars a day -- nor do I conceive there is any part of the Dutch possessions better calculated to exemplify the Charactaristic of Dutch Avarice than Cape Town. Every Article while the fleet lay here was advanced to treble its usual price & shd. Ships touch at any Port where necessaries are to be procured previous to their arrival at the Cape, it will be not a little to their interest to purchase all they can, rather than to pay so exorbitant
as they do here for every Article. The Company's Gardens are by far
the pleasantest spot abt. Town -- in them is the Governor's House, wt. a
pleasant Garden & walks shaded by trees. In the Garden is a walk
planted on each side wt. very lofty oak trees & dipt Myrtle hedges,
very wide & nearly as long as the Mall in St. James's Park, at the
End of wh. is the Manegerie, containing a Tyger, a Secretary Bird an
Hyena, two Wolves, a Tyger Cat, a Jackall, some spring Deer, two or 3
Ostrich's, a Cassawary, a Zebra, & a very large Baboon, wh. has been
chained at one Corner of the Garden many years: there are also many sorts
of water fowls in a Bason of water in the centre of the square --
The present Governor it seems is not fond of Natural History therefore his Collection of Beasts & Birds is very circumscrib'd being destitute of the most curious productions of Nature in that quarter of the Globe in wh. he resides vizt. Lyons, Buffalos & many other Species.
The fleet left this place without much regret on llth. of Novr. at 1 O'Clock p.m. Fleet The Fort Saluted wt. 13 Guns in return for 13 fired by the Commodore sail'd llth. on the fleet's Sailg. On passing penguin Island we met a large Dutch Ship wt. Soldiers for the Cape. -- A few days previous to our Sailing an American Ship from Boston came into Table Bay, in her way to India --
12th. Saw a Sail 3 leagues distant, some of the fleet spoke her & found her to be an English South Whaler -- Capt. Sever laid in a plentiful stock at
12th. the Cape notwithstanding the dearness of them
vizt. Sheep (remarkable for the enormous size of their Tails) Geese
(5s each/Fowls 2s 6d each) Goats, hogs &ca. &ca. -- While at Cape
Town, Governor Philip gave fresh Beef & Mutton wt. plenty of
Vegitables every day to the Convicts, &: soft bread. --
15th. A brisk gale, but quite against us. This day Ann Morton one of the Women on board our Ship, deliver'd of a Boy. - the fleet cannot yet make the tack for doubling the Cape.
16th. Towards night 3 Whales rose near the Ship, one of wh. almost touch'd the Ship's side -- Every morng. since our leaving the Cape has presented us wt. 4-5 & 6 dead fowls --
18th. Three more Whales seen. This day Jane Parkinson died.
19th. Been out just one week &: the wind directly against us all the time -- Two more Whales just under the Bows. A Signal from the Commodore for every Ship to pass in succession under his stern -- Major Ross came on board wt. orders from the Commodore to allow every man only 3 pints of water a day. He also acquainted us that the Commodore wd. go from the Sirius into the Supply Brig, wh. with the Alexr. the Scarborough & the Friendship wd. proceed as fast as possible to Botany Bay without waiting for the rest of the .fleet, in order to cut down trees & provide other matters against their arrival, who are to follow with all Expedition. This day 6 or 8 Sperma Ceti Whales rose very near the Ship. The Lady P getting water this day out of
the Scarborough, on acct. of her having so much stock on board, &:
settling other matters previous to a gales springing up when the fleet is
to Seperate & the 4 Ships before mention'd are to make the best of
their way to New South Wales. Capt. Hunter remains in the Sirius &
Major Ross goes in the Scarborough. Lieut. Shortland is to go in the
Alexr. & is to navigate that Ship in company with the Scarborough
& the Friendship to B.B. wt. all possible dispatch. The Supply wt.
the Governor in her & Capt. Ball goes off first, & the seven
remaing. Ships of the fleet are to follow. This day many Butts of water
& some hay brot. on board us from the Scarborough. This day reed, a
present of a rich waistcoat from Capt. Campbell --
20th. A Calm -- not steerage way. abt. 3 o'Clock a.m. 3 Sperma Ceti Whales playing very near the Ship a great while together. 9 Fowls 20th. found dead this morng. at 5 p.m. a gentle breeze sprung up at N.W. & increas'd gradually all day till we go 6 Knotts. many more Whales seen at a distance --
23d. Capt. Sever & Henderson one of the Sailors very ill, both wt. Bilious disorders. -- In the night wind increas'd & blew verv hard wt. heavy rain.
24th. Frequent Squalls
25th. Very little wind in the morng. & the day remarkably fine --
The Fleet separates.
Abt. 9 OJClock a.m. the Sirius hoisted a signal for all the fleet to lye to & send out their Boats. Major Ross came on board us & informed Capt. Campbell that he was going from us into the Scarborough & that he was to have a party of Marines there wt. him from the Sirius & other Ships of the fleet. -- Soon after we saw the Commodore leave the Sirius & go on board the Supply Brig.
It took up abt. 3 hours in adjust- ing all matters preparatory to the Supply, the Scarborough the Alexr. & Friendship setting off (as mention'd before), very shortly after wh. a gentle breeze sprung up which increas'd during the night; the fleet all made sail between 12 & 1 o'Clock & next morning the 4 Racers were out of sight.
The Governor's design in thus seperating the fleet was this -- As there were several of the Ships but very slow Sailors, (& I am very sorry to say the two Ladies, vizt. the Charlotte & Lady Penrhyn stood foremost in the List) he made choice of the 3 Ships above-mention'd as being the best Sailors hitherto, & these 3 Ships were by his express order'd put under the direction of Lieut. Shortland the Navy Agent.
The Supply was the Swiftest Sailor in the fleet in light breezes, but so low that She cd. make no way when there was much wind or swell, being then almost constantly under Water & in every respect a most uncomfortable Ship. The Governor therefore, depending upon the Season of the year for light winds & fine weather meant to explore the Coast of New S. Wales previous to the arrival of the rest of the fleet; but in order to have had this scheme succeed he shd. have put his plan in force long before he did as it
cd. not wt. the smallest degree of probability be supposed that the fleet wd. arrive long enough after him to compleat such a work of time as that of exploring any considerable a part of so extensive a Coast as that of New Holland. Had he conceiv'd the Idea, & put it in practice at leavg. Rio de Janeiro it might have succeeded in some measure but as it was now produced it was a mere abortion of the
25th. Brain, a whim which struck him at the time as the sequel will
sufficient- ly evince --
Tuesday 27th. A brisk breeze. Capt. Sever was standing on the Quarter deck & ex- claim'd there was a Rock ahead. Which in the first moment of Surprise alarm'd many of us; but upon a second view it proved to be a dead Whale of a most enormous size, in all probability it had been dead some time, as it was prodigeously swell'd, the Skin off its back which was a great heighth out of the Water & at first sight had very much the appearance of a Rock, especially as it was in a manner cover'd over wt. a variety of Sea Birds: notwithstanding it was at least Vz a mile from the ship, the stench of it was almost intolerable --
29th. Wind very high with a prodigeous Sea wh. continued all night & during the night the Ship roll'd to very much that every thing moveable was thrown down, in every part of the Ship. I was this day dressg. a Blister for a Sailor in the Steerage & had it not been for the Chest of one of the seamen, I must inevitably have had both my Legs crush'd to Atoms, as the whole of the great Cable tear gave way & took the above Chest in its passing
which fortunately pitch'd against the foo-t of the Steerage Ladder & stopt it's progress just as it had drove my Legs between two large Chests so as to press them gently. This day a Shark, not less than 15 feet in length seiz'd a pr. of white Trowzers of mine wh. were towing astern & snapt a new chord as big as my little finger in pieces, gave a great plunge & went under the stern -- I & several others happen'd to be on the round house at the time & look'd over im- mediately & in a few minutes after saw the Trowsers come up again & float astern & the Shark followg. them --
Saturday Deer. 1st.
Fine breeze, go 6Vz K. The 7 Ships of the fleet all in sight & not
far from each other. The Sirius rather ahead of ye. fleet. This day Mr.
James Smith, passenger in our Ship, made me a present of the 4 Vols.: of
the Dictionary of Arts & Sciences.
This day one of the Convicts in our Ship (Margaret Burn) scallded her Leg in a dreadful manner. It is pretty extraordinary how very healthy the Convicts on board this Ship in particular & the fleet in general have been, during so long a passage & where there was a necessity of stowg. them so thick together, if I except the Alexr. where many of the Convicts were embark'd from the different Goals wt. malignant disorders upon them, & consequent- ly had many died on board, not less than 30 -- The Scarborough where they were embark'd
in a healthy state had not lost a single person during the passage.
But this phenomenon will not appear so strange when I inform my readers
how very well Government have provided for the accommodation of the
I believe I may venture to say, few Marines going out of England upon Service were ever so amply provided for as these Convicts are, & the Surgeons & Officers of the different Ships pay such strict attention to their keeping themselves & their Births well air'd & perfectly clean, together wt. the remarkably fine weather we have experienced during the whole of the Voyage. -- Therefore I must again repeat, (had the Convicts been all embarked in that perfectly healthy state wh. Government meant they shd. have been, & believed were) I firmly believe very few, if any wd. have died hitherto.
In the Lady Penrhyn only 2 Women have died since leaving England; one 82 Yrs. of Age of a Dropsy wh. had long rain'd upon her & the other of a Consumption, sent on board the Lady Penrhyn in the last stage thereof, from the Friendship, whilst we were at the Cape of Good Hope. This day almost a Calm, the having bearly steerage way. -- 3 o'Clock p.m. saw a Whale, wh. tinctured the Water wt. blood for a considerable space round it every time it rose, wherefore we concluded it might have been wounded by a swordfish, the avow'd Enemy of the Whale: especially as we saw no Whale fishers in these parts. --
Deer. 2d. A fine breeze go 6 K. -- A discovery made of Thos. Kelly, a
Convict, sent on board from the Alexr. to superintent the Governor's
Horses having broach'd a puncheon of Rum between decks & drank &
given to the Women a Considerable quantity. As it appear'd pretty clear
that he was instigated by the Women to do it the Capt. did not get him
punish'd but took care to secure the Rum in future so far as it was
possible to do it.
3d. Fine breeze wh. keeps increasing till we go 6 & 7 Ks. a great swell -- Ship many heavy seas. Abt. 4 o'Clock p.m. a very large Whale rose & blow'd close alongside on the larboard side of the Ship & in a few minutes after another rose on the Starboard side wt. many large white spots on it's back. -- Saw several Sea snakes. Kill'd a pig this day. This day by observation we were ten thousand 5 hundred miles & upwards from England, have now upwards of 5 thousand 5 hundred miles to new Holland.
Thursdy. 4th. [Tuesday]
This morng. very rainy & Wind very high & in the night the Ship roll'd gunnell under. Many Albatrosses abt. the Ship one of them Steward caught wt. a hook baited wt. fat, but it broke lose before he cd. haul it up.
They in general measure from the tip of one wing to the other when extended 12 foot & some I believe more, they are in general of a black & white colour. -- The Steward got up a large black kind of Gull, & preserv'd it. -- The last Hen Pidgeon overboard & drown'd.
Wy. 5th. Almost a Calm -- a great swell -- one of the Cape Sheep died of the Cold. --
Thursday Deer. 6th.
Looks very dirty but at present almost a calm, towards Eveng. a gentle breeze sprung up -- The Sow Litter'd & had 6 pigs.
7th. So very hot can scarcely bear to sit upon the round house -- towards Eveng. the breeze dy'd away & it fell almost calm.
Monday 10th. Spoke the Sirius abt. 10 OClock a.m. the Longde: 58Vz - - Since Commodore Philip left us the remaing. 7 Ships of the fleet have kept much better together as Capt Hunter does not carry such a press of Sail as the Commodore used to do.
This day I had the Box of Necessaries got up out of the Gunroom, where from the rolling of the Ship it had been staved & some of the Sugar had fallen out, & stowed the Contents in the Lockyers of my own Cabin. -- This Box was sent on board for the use of the Sick amongst the Convicts &: under the care of the Surgeon.
It consisted of the followg. Articles Abt. 40 Ib. of moist Sugar, 61b of Currants -- 6 Ib of Sagoe -- 1 Ib of Almonds -- a small quantity of Mace, Cinnamon &ca. 100 [weight] of fine Rice, a large quantity of French barley, a 10 Galln. Cask of red Port Wine, Some portable Soup, Tea, Lump Sugar, 10 tin Saucepans & mugs, two Caggs of fine Essence of Malt. -- The Provisions for the Convicts was also very good of their kind, the Beef & Pork in particular were excellent --
A retrospective view of these different Articles may serve to justifie the observation I made some way back in this Journal, that I believe few Marines or Soldiers going out on a foreign Service under Government were ever better, if so well provided for as these Convicts are -- It is also asserted there are not less than 2000 Lw
of Medicines of different kinds in the fleet. -- I wish I cd. with
truth add that the behaviour of the Convicts merited such extream
indulgence -- but I believe I may venture to say there was never a more
abandon'd set of wretches collected in one place at any period than are
now to be met with in this Ship in particular & I am credibly
informed the comparison holds wt. respect to all the Convicts in the
10th. fleet. The greater part of them are so totally abandoned &
callous'd to all sense of shame & even common decency that it
frequently becomes indispensably necessary to inflict Corporal punishment
upon them,* and sorry I am to say that even this rigid mode of proceeding
has not the desired Effect, since every day furnishes proofs of their
being more harden'd in their Wickedness --
* Upon any very extraordinary occasion such as thieving fighting with each other or making use of abusive language to the Officers, they have thumb Screws put on -- or Iron fetters on their wrists of this form [see margin] and sometimes their hair has been cut off and their head shaved, which they seemed to dislike more than any other punishment they underwent.
At first 1 or 2 were flog'd with a Cat of 9 tails on the naked breech; but as there are certain seasons when such a mode of punishment cd. not be inflicted with that attention to decency wh. everyone whose province it was to punish them, wished to adhere to, it was totally laid aside. They were also whilst under punishment so very abusive that there was a necessity for gaging them --
nor do I conceive it possible in their present situation to adopt any
plan to induce them to behave like rational or even human Beings --
perpetually thieving the Cloaths from each other, nay almost from their
backs may be rank'd amongst the least of their crimes (tho' it is the
Crime for which most of them are in their present disgraceful situation)
The Oaths & imprecations they daily make use of in their common
conversation & little disputes with each other by far exceeds
anything of the kind to be met wt. amongst the most profligate wretches
Nor can their matchless Hippocracy be equalled.except by their base Ingratitude; many of them plundering the Sailors, (who have at every Port they arrived at spent almost the whole of the wages due to them in purchas- ing different Articles of wearing apparel & other things for their accom- modation) of their necessary cloaths & cutting them up for some purpose of their own --
Albatrosses abt. the Ship. Many Sand pipers a dozen or more in a
16 flock abt. the Ship, wh. we thought an indication of their being land at no great distance, however we saw none.
17th. a fine breeze go 7 Ks. another large Whale seen blew thrice & then went down -- Abt. 8 o'Clock p.m. 3 very large Whales were seen for a considerable time together very near the Ship: we supposed them to be 2 Males & a female & that they were engendering.
18th. This day Mary Davis one of the Convicts, fell down the fore Hatchway & pitched on her head -- wh. being well defended by false hair, rolls Scca. &ca. She sustain'd no matereal injury. I must here make a digress- ion to take notice of the beautiful appearance of the Sea abt. 9 o'Clock at night the moon shone very bright & its silver beams reflecting upon the waves (whose edges seem'd tip'd wt. Silver) exhibited a sight the beauty & Novelty whereof no one who has not been a spectator of a similar scene can form an adequate idea of. --
This day it was very cold, the Thermometer was down to 49. Many very large Albatrosses abt.
19th. But little wind -- Capt. Hunter sent Mr. Waterhouse, a Midshipman of the Sirius, on board us wt. a parcel of Magazines of June last, wh. he procured out of the Rainger Packet wh. came into the Cape a little before we left it -- This afforded us a great treat as the chief parts of the Contents were perfectly new to us having left England on the 12th. of May. Mr. Waterhouse acquainted us that Capt. Hunter desired he wd.
mention to us that it was his intention, if he found the Hay &
Provender for the Stock on board the fleet falls short (wh. there was
great reason to apprehend it wd. unless he had a much quicker passage
than he had reason to expect) to touch at Adventure Bay (or Van Diemen's
Land) wh. is the Southermost Cape of New Holland abt. 10 degrees on this
side of Botany Bay. -
Two of the Cows on board the Sirius have calved, both of wh. Calves are dead: also many of the Sheep on board the Fis[h]burn have died, as also the greatest part of the Poultry throughout the fleet.
In our Ship there are not 1 dozn. remaing. of 9 wh. the Capt. purchas'd. The rest of the Stock have done very well. Yesterday the Golden Grove /Sharp/ carried away her Foretop Gt. Mt. wh. is the 3d. or 4th. she has carried away on the passage.
20th. Very cold -- spoke the Fishburn /Brown/ who tells us he has lost 3 dozen fowls out of 4 dozen, many sheep have died & others are now very ill. Soon after we spoke the Golden Grove /Sharp/ who has also lost the greatest part of his fowls &: all parties agree in suspectg. the Dutchmen at the Cape must have given them something to occasion such a fatallity amongst them & in so unusual a way. He informed us that Mrs. Johnson, the Parson's Wife & Barnes his Clerk were both very ill.
21. This day some rock weed floated by the Ship's side. This day it became foggy &: the breeze increas'd -- go 7 Ks.
Saturday Deer. 22d. Go 7 & 8 Ks. wt. a great swell (wh. is wt. us)
several of the Victuallers
some miles astern -- a Signal hoisted on board the Sirius for them to make more Sail.
23d. A very hallow Sea wt. a great swell, so much so that the hulk of the Prince of Wales, who is within hale of us is frequently out of Sight. Spoke the Prince of Wales this day &; learn'd from her that she had lately spoke the Charlotte &: found they were very sickly on board of a violent flux & that one of the Marines was dead. He says that he also has lost almost the whole of his fowls, in a very odd manner. This day 2 Geese, 1 Sheep & a pig were kill'd against Tuesday (Xmas. Day) The whole of the Sheep for the Ship's Company. --
It is not dark here now till Vz after Eight o'Clock -- The method of reckg. time at Sea is the reverse of what they do on shore, from 12 o'Clock at noon of one day to 12 at noon the next is a day, whereas on shore they reckon from midnight to midnight. --
We have on board two dry or filtreing stones to clarify the water, & also a Tin apparatus cal'd a Ventilator, for sweeteng. the water, but it has proved so very good hitherto that we have had no occasion to make use of it. This day a large Whale rose by the Ship, it's back was cover'd over with barnacles -- By the Time Piece on board the Sirius today the Longde: was 97. -- Latde. 41.29S. This being Christmas Eve we all drank a chearful Glass to the health of our Friends in
England (as indeed we do every Saturday night) I never call'd to
mind my Relations & Friends with such Sensations as I now do -- being
so many thousand leagues distant from them; nor did I ever more Cordialy
drink to their health than now. -- many past scenes of my Life recur'd to
my busy thoughts & occassion'd such sensations as those only who are
acquaint- ed with my History, especially the latter part of it can better
conceive than I describe! Last year I was, even at this Season far, very
far, from happy, but I thank God comparatively speaking I am now happy,
except wanting the presence of my Relations &: friends, in England
Xmas. Day Deer. 25th.
We are now abt. 2000 miles distant from the South Cape of New Holland wt. a fine breeze wh. carries us 8M> Ks.
This being Xmas. day I gave a quantity of Currants out of the Box of necessaries (of wh. I had a good quantity remaing.) to the 3 Marines on board to make a plumb pudding also to the Boatswain & Carpenter's Mess wt. the 2d. 3d. & 4th. Mates in them. The Capt. allowed them a reasonable quantity of Grog to chear their hearts & to distinguish this, day as being the most remarkable in the year & wh. generally brings wt. it Mirth & Glee to the hearts of All, except the truly Misserable! As this Journal is intended solely for the Eye of my Relations & most intimate Friends I am to take notice of many things which wd be thought impertinant to the Subject of a Journal intended for the perusal of the publick, but wh. at the same time will
not prove un- pleasing to an intimate friend, if I may be allow'd to
judge from my own feelings had I a Brother or a most intimate
acquaintance in a similar predicament wt. myself; for wh. reason I shall
remark that we constantly Breakfast at 8 o'Clock, dine at 1 &c sup at
That our accommodations on board Ship are far superior to what any on Shore (who has not experienced a Life at Sea) can form a just conception of; And tho' I must allow we are constantly in want of many Articles of Cookery wh. those on Shore can command, yet allowg. for the incon- veniences we labour under I believe I may venture to say our Gates on board Ship will yield the palm to few tables on Shore: & we sometimes have the Superiority of producing Dishes at our Sea table wh. no fortune can command on Shore. --
Now to give an Acct. of my usual method of employment during the day -- As soon as breakfast is over I set abt. visiting my Patients first paying the Compt. to my own Ship's Company --
Then I visit the sick among the Convicts after wh. I put up such Medicines as are wanting -- then fill up this Journal to the moment; & lastly adjourn to the Round House or Poop, where I generally meet wt. Mr. James Smith, & tho' I had not the pleasure of personally knowing him before I met wt. him in this Ship, yet from his being a very intelligent good disposed Man & having a thorough know- ledge of my intimate acquaintance in the County of Essex I find in my Conversation with him no small Abatement of that irksomness wh. must otherwise have prevail'd in a voyage of this kind where I was another stranger to every one on Board -- Mr. Alltree also, late Surgeon to the Convicts generally makes up the Trio --
Wednesday Deer. 26th.
A fine breeze -- Abt. 10 at night a large Whale rose close alongside the Ship -- 'tis Supposed it must have gone under the Ship.
27th. Go 7 Knotts -- We suppose ourselves not more than 420 miles from the most South Westerly Coast of New Holland call'd by Peter Nutz (who first discover'd this part of the Coast) the Land of Lyons, or Shark's Bay. -- Some rock weed & blue petterels seen.
29th. The bilge water very offensive in mine & Mr. Collins's Cabins oblig'd to keep our doors open -- it spoil'd two Mezzatinted Prints in my Cabin. The Swell of the Sea this day was thought by every one to be greater than at any other time since we left Engd. Abt. 11 o'Clock a.m. a Whale seen near the Ship. We reckon ourselves this day abt. 1000 miles from the South Cape & 2000 from Botany Bay. This day I distributed a quantity of Sagoe & soft sugar to every Birth of the Women as an indulgence, as I had plenty of both by me.
30th. It rain'd great part of the night & the sea very high -- We sometimes ship'd Seas fore & aft &; the Water was sometimes ankle deep on the quarter deck. This day by the Log we Sail'd 200 miles.
31st. This day many of the Women were wash'd out of their Births by the Seas we ship'd -- The water was brot. out from between Decks with Buckets. This night was a dreadful one indeed, the Sea was mountains high, sometimes it seem'd as if the Ship was going over. The Chicken coops wh. were on the Round house & fasten'd very
securely as It was thought, gave way & came with such violence against the side as to drive the Goat house all in pieces & lamed the Goat & Kidd -- The Sea was so very outrageous as to throw the weed & grass which adhered to the bottom of the Ship halfway up the main Sail where it remain'd -- The fore top sail was also split from top to bottom. Many Port Egmont Hens abt. -- it continued to rain chief of the night & at one time some Hail fell --
This day spoke the Sirius the Longde. by the Time piece 23Vz. This day
1788 at 6 o'Clock p.m. the Rudder Rope broke: the wind fortunately at
this time did not blow quite so strongly it being in the daytime &
the Capt. & Mr. Anstis being instantly made acquainted with it, it
was soon repair'd & the ill consequences, had it happen'd in the
night, avoided -- This day Lieut. G: Johnstone made me a present of the
two Fol: Vols. of Hamilton Moor's Voyages & Travels --
This day the Sea ran so very high & we ship'd such heavy Seas so often as made it absolutely necessary to clap the close hatches over the Convicts otherwise the Ship wd. have been in danger of being sunk.
1st. just as we had dined, a most tremendous Sea broke in at the weather Scuttle of the great Cabin & ran wt. a great stream all across the Cabin, & as the door of my Cabin happen'd not to be quite close shut the water half filPd it; the Sheets & Blankets being all on a flow. The water ran from the Quarter deck nearly into the great Cabin, & struck against the Main & Mi/en chains wt. such force as at first alarm'd us all greatly, but particularly me, as I really believed the Ship was drove in pieces. No sleep all this night --
The Sea wh. broke in just after dinner had nearly washed Mr. Altree
overboard who was in the round house eating his dinner but luckily
catching hold of the Mizen mast he saved himself. -- his plate, knife
& fork & Beef were afterwards found in the Mizen chains by the
Boatswain where the Sea had wash'd them.
2d. The wind still so high, obliged to strike the Mizen top Gt. Mt. abt. 5 p.m. a large Whale arose very high out of the water close alongside -- Several Sea Hawks & blue Petterels seen.
3d. Saw a Seal for a long time together jumping out of the Sea & following the Ship. -- towards night it was seen again. Saw many sorts of Birds this day.
4th. A fine breeze &: pleasant morng. -- a large School of Porpuses abt. the Bows. This afternoon the Sirius hoisted the signal for the Longde: wh. was 35-30.
5th. a fine breeze -- This night it was so very hot I was oblig'd to throw off the Bedcloaths -- There are now in the Cabin Geraniums in full blossum & some Grape Vines wh. flourish very much, there are also Myrtles, Bananas & several other sorts of plants brot. from Rio de Janeiro. A Whale, some Rock weed & a Seal seen this day - -
Sunday 6th. A fine morng. -- Saw a Seal abt. 11 a.m. & many very large Alba- trosses. Spoke the Sirius abt. 11 O'Clock a.m. Capt. Hunter informed us he did not mean to touch at the South Cape if the wind continues, but go round it & proceed without delay to Botany Bay. --
The Sheep from the Cape of Good Hope, have all got the scab. This day
a Bird of a black plumage & in every respect like the English Crows
flew over the Ship. At 2 o'Clock p.m. the Prince of Wales hoisted the
signal for seeing Land (exactly 8 weeks this Day & this hour of the
day from our weighing Anchor at the Cape of Gd. Hope) at Vz after 3
o'Clock p.m. the Mew Stone, a large pyramidical Rock, was distinctly seen
& abt. 5 p.m. we were abreast of it, at abt. 2 miles distant. This
rock was detatch'd from the mainland & there were also several other
rocks between the Mew Stone & the main. The Country is very hilly:
thickly set wt. trees of a large size & many spots between the hills
appear'd very green. At 9 o'Clock in the Eveng. saw a large fire on one
of the hills. Tho' we did not mean to touch at this spot, yet, it being a
part of New Holland, the destination of the fleet, as soon as we saw it
we drank each 2 bumpers of Claret -- one Success to the Under- taking in
general, the other to our safe Anchoring in Botany Bay --
8th. A good deal of wind & some rain; the fleet dispersed a good way from each other.
9.th. Wind very high & frequent Squalls, wt. a greater swell than at any other period during the Voyage. Obliged to run out to Sea; the Provender for the Stock almost all expended, not more than one day's Hay left. With the heavy rolling of the Ship the Tubs in the Cabin wt. the Banana plants, Grape Vines &ca. broke from their
fastenings & were thrown out of the tubs & much hurt. -- Abt.
5 o'Clock p.m. the sky appear'd black & dismal & in Va an hour
after it began to Lighten & Thunder most dreadfully. The Lightening
was the most forked & vivid I ever saw: it rain'd very fast & the
Storm continued till almost night -- towards morng. it hail'd & was
very squally, a Seal was jumping out of the water for a long time
together, was fired at with a rifle gun but missed.
10th. The wind directly against us -- A Signal from the Sirius for all Masters to go on board her -- Upon return of Capt. Sever abt. l*/2 hour after we learnt that almost all the Sheep on board the Sirius, 13 Goats out of 15, one Cow, big of a Cow Calf & almost the whole of the Poultry had died. He brot. back wt. him a Sack of Barley for the Stock. Capt. Hunter sd. he cd. not now possibly put into any place wt. safety till he reach'd Botany Bay, wh. he hoped to be able to accomplish in a week.
The Masters had not return'd to their different Ships more than Vz hour before the Sky blacken'd, the wind arose & in Vz an hour more it blew a perfect hurricane, accompanied wt. Thunder, Lightening & Rain. In an instant as we sat at Table, the Cloth just removed, the Ship was laid alongside so very much as alarm'd every body -- Some prodigeous flashes of Lighteng. & loud thunder immediately follow'd -- The Fishburn was very near us on the Starboard side & to leeward
of us, & every body expected we must have been foul of Each other -- Every one left the Table & went upon deck. I never before saw the Sea in such
a rage, it was all over as white as snow. The Storm lasted abt. Vz an
hour so very heavy -- afterwards gradually abated -- Every- body who was
able to haul a rope, were employ'd & I am happy to say our Ship
sustain'd no other damage than splitting the Jib Sail wh. cd. be again
repaired in Vz an hour. Every other Ship in the fleet (except the Sirius)
sustained some damage. The Prince of Wales carried away her Main Yard
& Sail & Main topsail -- The Charlotte carried away her Main Sail
-- The Borrowdale split her Foretopsail -- The Fishburn's Jib sail was
split all in pieces -- The Golden Grove (in wh. were the Parson & his
Wife) split her foresail & Maintopsail all in pieces -- During the
Storm the Convict Women in our Ship were so terrified that most of them
were down on their knees at prayers, & in less than one hour after it
had abated, they were uttering the most horrid Oaths & imprecations
that cd. proceed out of the mouths of such abandon'd Prostitutes as they
are! Towards Eveng. it clear'd up & we have a gentle breeze -- a
Whale & 2 Grampuses arose near the Ship.
llth. Now abt. 520 miles from By. By. -- 40 leagues off shore, wt. a stiff breeze, at 2 o'Clock p.m. hove the Lead but found no bottom wt. 95 fathoms.
12th. Very little wind -- A very large Sting Ray under the Bows.
13th. A good breeze wh. came on in the middle watch; one of the Mares very ill wt. the Gullion, & Capt. Campbell's Cow will neither eat or drink, has got a violent flux, supposed from eating the Barley.
We have now nothing on board for the Stock to eat but Sea bread,
expect the Cow if not the Mare will die before we reach B. By.
14th. Almost a Calm, go only 1 Knot.
15th. Very little wind till abt. 9 o'Clock a.m. when there was a large School of Porpuses abt. the Ship & very shortly after a breeze came on wh. carries us 5 Ks. -- So very hot this night that I was oblig'd to throw off the bedcloaths, the Thermometer up to 73 -- This morng. the Prince of Wales so far astern that the fleet was oblig'd to lye to for her comg. up wt. us.
16th. Wind quite against us wt. a heavy swell -- The wind this morng. felt very hot, as if it proceeded from the mouth of an Oven -- at 6 o'Clock a.m. the Thermometer was up at 74 at 1 O'Clock p.m. it was at 75V2. -- Lieut. G. Johnstone & myself this night both seiz'd with a griping & flux 8c many others in the Ship complain of the same disorder. -- This morng. at 5 o'Clock the Sirius tack'd & stood in for the Land & at 12 at noon he put abt. again & tho' we are now not more than 200 miles from B. Bay are fearful we shall not get in this week - - in the night much Thunder & Lighteng. --
17th Almost Calm, go only I'/a K -- Abt. 9 at night the wind came favour- able for us -- It is so intensely hot we are oblig'd to sit wt. all the Cabin windows open, Sc I sleep wt. my Cabin door open -- Mr. Johnstone & Myself both much better.
The Thermometer this day stood at 76. A large School of Porpuses abt.
Jany. 18th. A gentle breeze -- Expect to see Land this Evening. A
Noddy taken on the yardarm -- No land seen at 8 o'Clock for wh. reason
the fleet were order'd to lye to all night -- the wind encreas'd in the
night & the Ships roll'd very much. --
Saturday 19th. This morng. I arose at 5 o'Clock in hopes of seeing Land, but was disappointed -- The Sirius & all the fleet made Sail abt. 4 o'Clock in the morng. & at 7 a.m. we discover'd Land abt. 40 miles distant. The joy everyone felt upon so long wish'd for an Event can be better conceiv'd than expressed, particularly as it was the termination of the Voyage to those who were to settle at Botany Bay, &: it is 10 weeks on monday since we left the Cape of Good Hope; the longest period of any we had been at Sea without touching at any Port. -- The Sailors are busy getting up the Cables & preparing all things for Anchor- ing - lye to all night.
Sunday 20th. The Sirius made Sail at 4 o'Clock this morng. wt. a fine breeze go 4 Ks. -- Abt. 8 o'Clock we came abreast of point Solander &: Sail'd into the Arrive at Bay, where we were very happy to find the 4 Ships who had parted wt. Botany Bay us, all safe at Anchor. The Supply Brig got there on friday night, but the Alexr. Scarborough & Friendship reach'd it but the Eveng. before us! We saw by the Assistance of a Glass, 7 of the Natives, runing amongst the trees --
This Eveng. I went on Shore in the Boat wt. Some of the Ship's Company
to the Northside of the Bay to haul the Seyne &: caught a great many
fish; all excellent eating. Upon first sight one wd. be induced to think
this a most fertile spot, as there are great Nos. of very large &
lofty trees, reachg. almost to the water's edge, & every vacant spot
between the trees appears to be cover'd wt. verdure: but upon a nearer
inspection, the grass is found long &: coarse, the trees very large
& in general hollow & the wood itself fit for no purposes of
buildg. or anything but the fire -- The Soil to a great depth is nothing
but a black sand wh. when exposed to the intense heat of the Sun by
removing the surrounding trees, is not fit for the vegitation of anything
even the grass itself, then dying away, wh. in the shade appears green
&: flourishing; add to this that every part of the grown is in a
manner cover'd wt. black & red Ants of a most enormous size. --
21st. Accompanied several Gentlemen on shore to the South side of the Bay, in order to haul the Seyne. Upon our landing 7 or 8 of the Natives came close up to us -- They were all provided wt. Lances of a great length pointed wt. the Bone of a Sting Ray at one end & a piece of Oyster Shell at the other, grown or rub'd to a fine edge & one of them had a heavy Bludgeon wh. I persuaded him to exchange wt. me for a looking glass. They were all perfectly naked rather slender, made of a dark black colour, their hair not wooly but short & curly. -- Every one had the tooth next the fore tooth in his
upper jaw knock'd out, & many of them had a piece of stick abt.
the size of a Tobacco pipe & 6 or 8 inches in length run thro' the
septum of the Nostrils, to wh. from its great similitude we ludicrously
gave the name of a Sprit Sail Yard. They all cut their Backs Bodies &
Arm wh. heal up in large ridges & scars.
They live in miserable Wigwams near the water wh. are nothing more than 2 or 3 pieces of the Bark of a tree set up sideways against a ridge pole fasten'd to two upright stick at each end -- they are abt. 2 or 3 feet high, & few amongst them are to be found wh. are weather proof --
Their principal food consists of fish wh. they in general eat raw -- Sometimes they feast upon the Kangaroo, but I believe them to be too stupid & indolent a set of people to be able often to catch them: from the appearance of many of the lofty trees we saw, some way up the Country (vizt.) having regular steps chop'd at abt. 2 foot asunder in the Bark of the tree quite up to the top where the tree begins to branch out, there is reason to suppose they mount these wt. large stones where they lie in ambush till some Kangaroos come under to graze when they heave the stone upon them & kill them. There are great Nos. of Kangaroos but so extreamly shy that 'tis no easy matter to get near enough to them even to shoot them -- &
21st. very few in comparison of the great numbers there are, were shot
during our stay at New Holland. As there is a most exact print of this uncommon Animal in Capt. Cook's Acct. of this Country I shall not take the trouble to discribe it.
There are many Cabbage trees, but scarce any fruit whatever -- There
are some tollerable springs of fresh water & but few rung, streams
& those chiefly towards the Sea wh. are many of them quite dry'd up
The Animals we saw during our stay at New Holland; (In discribing Botany Bay I take in Port Jackson also, being only 5 miles distant & in most respects the same) I say then, That during our stay there of 3 months, the different Animals we saw, were Kangaroos, abt. as big as a large Sheep a very large Species of Li/ard, Dogs, Rats, Raccoons, flying Squirrels -- very large Snakes -- a Bird of a new genus, as large & high as an Ostrich -- Many species of Cockatoos, Parrotts, Loury & Louryquets, Eagles, Hawks, (Rooks & wild fowl of many sorts vizt. Duck, Teal, Widgeon &ca.) the same as in England; wt. an infinity of small Birds, some of them very handsome plumage but none that we heard of were singing ones --
There are also (as mention'd above) great quantities of Ants of 8 or 10 different species & many flies & Musquito's. The Women are also quite naked & go in misserable bad canoes to Catch fish -- The Women in general fish with a hook & Line the men strike them wt. a kind of spear. The Hook is made of the convoluted part of the Ear Shell, sharpen'd on a stone to a fine point. The Natives do not besmear their Hair or Bodies with any kind of Oil or paint as many Indians do -- Their Teeth are in general White but both their Skin & hair have a remarkably strong fishy scent. They wear their beards wh. are quite black & inclined to be curly. They did not appear hostile; their Language is excessively Loud & harsh & seems to
consist of a very short Vocabulary; they Description seem'd surpris'd
at the Sight of the Ships. I presented many of them of New wt. Glass
Beads & several Gentlemen put Ribbands & Glass Trincketts Holland
abt. their heads but they seemed altogether a most stupid insensible
Continued set of beings -- they seem'd most desirous of Hats from their
attempting to seize the Hats of many persons on shore.
They seemed to express a Wish to know of what Sex we were & several of the persons onshore satisfied them in that particular. -- When they found we were men like themselves they express'd their joy & astonishment by loud Exclamations & grotesque gestures, & immediately shook hands with us. Their Huts or Wigwams are dispersed abt. & cat paths leading from one to the other.
Having wandered some distance into the woods in search of Insects & other natural Curiosities, I lost myself & cd. not find my way back to the Wooding Party, which threw me into no small panic least I shd. meet with any of the Natives before I cd. extricate myself from the Labarynth I had got into. At one time I was surrounded by fern (exactly the same as in England) on every side above my head. And in this awkward situation I came very near Wigwams or Hut in which I heard the voices of Men & Women, I was apprehensive I shd. be seen by them; but, I crawl'd along gently & had the good Luck to escape being noticed by them; &: to my inexpressable Joy I shortly after got sight of the Bay; I bent my course towards it & upon clearing the wood I found myself upon a point of Rock at least a mile from the Guard & Wooding party -- I directed my course along shore till I reached the Party & in my way there I fell in with a Canoe
which was drag'd up among[s] t the grass &ca. a little way from
the Beach -- it way at least 14 ft long & not more than 2 feet wide
made entirely of the Bark of a tree -- wt. a stick the size of my finger
bound round the Edge of it with the inner bark of a tree; the Ends of it
were drawn together in form of a purse & fasten'd also with slips of
the inner bark. --
Tuesday 22d. I went on shore & stay'd all day collecting different Natural productions & Mr. Palmer, the Purser of the Sirius & myself walked a great way along the Beach (at least 2 miles) & on looking back we perceived abt. the midway between us & the Watering Party (who were intirely out of Sight by means of a point of Land intervening) 3 of the Natives & immediately turn'd back with no very pleasing reflections on our impru- dence in trusting ourselves so far not knowg. the Consequence of being intercepted by a party of the Natives.
They talked very loud & stay'd till we came up with them, before we reach'd them they hoop'd very loud & 2 other Natives came from the woods to them & upon their continuing to hoop two others join'd them so that by the time we came up wt. them there were 7 in number: We thought it most prudent not to appear frighten'd nor to walk fast from them.
They walked close to us & talked very loud; none of them had any spears or offensive weapon - In order to keep them in good humor I hung a string of Deeds over the Ear of one of them, & Mr. Palmer also presented some painted paper & some trinkets to several of them. They Behaved very friendly & one of them took hold of Mr. Palmers Arm & walked with us very sociably. Mr. Palmer happen'd to have his
Pocket Pistols abt. him loaded, one of which he deliver'd to me &
the other he kept himself in case we shd. be under the disagreeable
necessity of using force in defense of our Lives: but we Where very happy
to find no occasion for making use of them.
After walking wt. them in this manner some considerable time we got sight of the Guard at the Watering place & the Natives were going very amicably along, but on Seeing a Boat wt. a Sail coming on Shore from the fleet they cd. not by every intreaty we cd. make use of, be prevail'd upon to accompany us any further, but took themselves into the Woods.
As soon as they left us Mr. P & I both congratulated each other upon the very fortunate issue of this Event making a resolve at the same time never more to run such risks in future. The Seyne was seldom haul'd but many of the Natives attended & it was a general custom to distribute fish pretty freely to all of them --
Jany. 23d. This day the Governor return'd from exploring the Coast & determin'd to go to Port Jackson, abt. 5 miles distant from Botany Bay by land, but 10 or 12 by Sea. This is Certainly in the Opinion of everyone one of the finest Harbours in the World, not excepting that of Trincamale in the East Indies, & was the adjacent Country fertile instead of being so barren as it is, it wd. exceed anything yet known. It abound with many capacious Bays & Coves for many miles up the Country & all these surrounded wt. rocks of Stone exactly similar to the
Portland Stone, & which extends in ridges some miles up the
Country. The Water close to the sides of these rocks in all the Coves is
deep enough for a Line of Battle Ship to lye close -- With Respect to the
Soil &ca. &ca. it differs so very little from that of B.B. as not
to merit a part- icular Discription.
During our stay in B. Bay I one day went in the Long Boat wt. Downey (Capt. of her) attended by Mr. J Smith & Mr. Altree to the Extream Southern part of the Bay wt. my Oyster Drudge hoping to get some Hamar Oysters wh. Cook mentions & are sd. to be so very valuable for the singular form of their shell, of these however, no body saw any during our stay in B. B. tho' that is the spot in wh. Capt. Cook says he found his -- we caught one very large oyster with the Drudge & only one exactly like what we in England call the Kentish Oysters.
I open'd it & was very good tasted. On our return we saw many White Cranes standg. on the mud by the side of the water at least 5 ft. high.
24th. This morng. to the infinite surprise of every body we saw 2 large Ships
in the Offing standing in for the Bay -- Our Conjectures upon this Event were various, some supposing them to be two English Ships sent out after us wt. Convicts & more Stores. Others that they were Dutch Ships sent after us to oppose our Landing --- The winder then blowg. very strong out of the Bay prevented the Ships coming in.
24th. The Governor sent the Supply Brig out of the Bay wt. orders to
hoist his Colours & if possible discover what Nation they belonged
to; he shortly return wt. the intelligence that they were certainly not
English but either French, Spanish or Portuguese, but were at too great a
distance for him to ascertain wh. -- We then concluded they were the two
French Ships wh. had been so long out upon Discoveries in the South Seas
The Governor had English Colours hoisted on the South side of the Bay near the Watering place, call'd Sutherland Point, so named from Forby Sutherland, one of Capt. Cook's Sailors dying at this place & being there buried, he also issued orders for no person whatever to be suffer'd to go on board either of the Ships if they came in, as he did not wish to let them know particulars, especially that we were upon the eve of leaving this place &: going to Port Jackson.
The wind continued to blow strong all this day &: in the afternoon it became hazey at Sea & we lost sight of the two Ships. In the Eveng. there was a good deal of thunder & Lighteng. -- This Eveng. Major Ross came on board us & informed us that the Governor was resolv'd at all Events to leave the Bay at day- break in the morng. he also gave orders to Lieuts. G. Johnstone & Collins to leave our Ship upon a Signal wh. was fixt upon, & proceed on board the Supply Brig, to go wt. a detatchment on shore at Port Jackson -- & also for the Whole of the fleet to get underweigh & follow the Governor as soon as they possibly cd.
25th. This morng. tho' the wind blow'd very strong right into the Bay, a Serjt. of Marine came on board us at 4 o'Clock for Lieuts. Johnstone & Collins, the Supply Brig loosen'd her Topsails & every one was in a bustle to depart -- Our Anchor was got up abt. 5 o'Clock a.m.
as were also the Anchors of most of the other Ships & we were
endeavour- ing to work out of the Bay, but were obliged to drop Anchor
again as did also the Supply -- but abt. 12 at noon she again loosen'd
her Topsails & wt. the greatest difficulty got out of the mouth of
the Bay, & we endeavour'd in vain to follow her, the wind being
directly against us, blowg. very strong & rather increasing. At 2
o'Clock p.m. it blew almost a hurricane, Thunder'd Lighten'd & rained
26th. The fleet having thrice attempted to get out of the Bay yesterday &
being prevented, lay at single Anchor till this morng. but tho' there is now not much wind, what there is still continues to blow directly into the Bay --
Abt. 10 O'Clock a.m. the two Ships mentioned above came into the Bay, & proved to be La Bussole & La Astrolabe (the Compass & Quadrant) fitted out at the Port of Brest in 1785 to make discoveries in the South Sea -- they meant to be out one year longer -- They sd. they had made no important Discoveries that they came last from Kamschatska -- that at Beaumaris or Navigators Isles they had the misfortune to have 2 Boats Crews totally cut off & destroy'd & the Boats tore in pieces by the Natives, amongst the number of the unhappy sufferers was the Capt. of one of the Ships -- Monsr. D'Langle. --
We were obliged to work out of the Bay &: wt. ye. utmost difficulty & danger wt. many hairbredth escapes, got out of the Harbour's mouth abt. 3 o'Clock p.m. -- The Charlotte was once in the most imminent danger of being on the Rocks -- The Friendship & Prince of Wales who
cd. not keep in stays came foul of each other &: the Friendship
carried away her Jib Boom -- The Prince of Wales had her New Main- sail
& Main topmast staysail rent in pieces by the Friendships yd. The
Charlotte also afterwards ran foul of the Friendship & carried away a
great deal of the Carv'd work for her (the Charlotte's) Stern, & it
was wt. the greatest difficulty our Ship avoided the same fate, however
at last the whole fleet got clear of the Harbour's mouth without any
further damage being sustain'd, Every one blaming the Rashness of the
Governor in insisting upon the fleets workg. out in such weather, &
all agreed it was next to a Miracle that some of the Ships were not lost,
the danger was so very great.
We reached the mouth of Broken Bay, Port Jackson abt. 7 O'Clock p.m. & sail'd abt. 8 miles up to Sydney Cove, where the Settlement is made. As I have already endeavour'd to des- cribe the appearance of the different Bays & Coves in this Harbour, I shall just observe here that there are many Islands in the center of most of the Coves wh. have a very Novel & Romantic appearance; the Soil & produce of all of them the same as mention'd of the other parts. The Ships many of them lye so near the shore that they might wt. ease be fasten'd by ropes to the trees instead of putting down their Anchors.
27th. This morng. by day light a Long Boat full of Convicts from the Scar- borough were set on Shore to assist in cutting down trees & clearing
the ground &ca. -- The Thermometer at 74 -- Many Tents pitch'd
this day on Shore. -- Upon our entering the Harbour mouth, we saw many
Natives on the top of the high rocks, none of them have appear'd since we
anchor'd. No boats suffer'd to go out of the Cove, nor any Sailors to be
on shore after sunset.
28th. Two boat loads more Convicts from the Scarborough & Vz the Marines landed. This day Lieuts. G. Johnstone & Wm. Collins took their leave
28th. of the Ship & pitched their Tents on Shore: very hot. The Governor has appointed several coves for the different Ships boats to go to, to haul their Seynes, upon first calling on board the Sirius to let them know the Boat is going & either the Master himself or one of the Mates must be in the boat -- in general the boats were very successful in catching a great number of fish of variety of sorts.
All the rock near the water are thick cover'd with oysters, wh. are very small but very finely flavour'd; they also adhere to the branches of the mangrove trees, I frequently brot. the branch of a tree thus loaded wt. oysters, on board. This day visited Capt. Campbell in his Marquee who presented me wt. some curious insects &: a Loriquette.
30th. This [day] Lieut. King came on board to consult me respecting the Characters of 5 or 6 women whom he meant to take wt. him to New Norfolk, being by his Excellency A: Philip, appointed Governor of that Island, for wh. place he was to set out in abt. 8 or 10 Days --
Mr. Jameson the first Surgeons Mate on board the Sirius (a very
sensible good dispos'd man) is going wt. him as Surgeon. He takes wt. him
8 of the Convict men & 6 women -- he has made choice of such of both
Sexes who behaviour on board during the Voyage has been the least
exceptionable & has held out such encouragement to them upon their
behaving properly, as must render their situation much more comfort- able
than it cd. have been had they been at Port Jackson; At the same time he
assured them that he shd. not take upon him to punish them in case of
misbehaviour, that, as the greatest punishment he thought he cd. inflict
upon them he shd. send them back again to Port Jackson there to be deal
with according to their demerits.
He also assured them they wd. not be hard work'd & wd. be convey'd home to England if they chose it, upon the expiration of their term of Transportation -- He also informed them that it was the Governor's pleasure, that if any partiality or reciprocal affection shd. take place between the Male & Female Convicts going there or after their arrival at N: Norfolk they might marry, & that he had authorized the Surgeon, Mr. Jameson, to perform that Office & after a time the Clergyman wd. be sent there to remarry them.
The Women I recommended & who consented to go wt. him were Elizth. Lee -- Elizth. Hipsely -- Elizth. Colly -- Olivia Gascoin -- Ann Inett -- Ann Yates was recommended as a very fit person to go, having uniformly
behaved well during the whole of the Voyage, But wishing rather to
continue where she was -- another was fixt on in her room. New Norfolk is
situated abt. a fortnights sail to the Northward from hence, & is
more adapted to the Cultivation of Sugar Canes, Indigo &ca. than N:
Holland. Lieut. King being Aid de
Camp to his Excellency, & being appointed Governor of New Norfolk -- Governor P. appointed Lieut. G: Johnstone his Aid de Camp in his room.
This day all the Horses were landed from our Ship in excellent condition. -- Capt. Hunter in exploring the Bays & Coves up the Country fell in wt. a party of abt. 100 Natives, men & women, who presented the Capt. & Gentlemen that were with him, with Laurel leaves & behaved very friendly, & in return the Capt. & those who were wt. him put strings of Beeds abt. the women's necks &: gave them other trinckets.
This night abt. 10 O'Clock a most outrageous storm of Thunder Lighteng. &; rain came on, & continued wt. great severity some hours. The heat during the whole of this night was almost intollerable.
Friday Feby. 2d.
This day I caught many small Birds wt. Bird lime. Mr. Alltree this day
shot 2 curious Maccaws wh. at my return'd on board he presented to me.
Sunday 3d. This day Revd. Mr. Johnson preached on Shore for the first time --
Feby. 4th. This day our boats Crew & a boat & Crew from one of
the other Ships went in to a Cove near the Entrance of the Harbour to
haul the Seyne & were opposed by a party of the Natives, who pelted
them wt. stones & seem'd to threaten throwg. their lances. -- This
night a violent storm of Thunder & Lighteng. a tree not far off split
5th. At night another storm of Thunder & Lightg. -- very hot, Thermo- meter at 78. It Lighten'd almost incessantly the greatest part of the night.
This day Mr. Miller, the Comissary wt. Mr. Shortland the Navy Agent & Mr. Freeman, the Comissy's. Clerk, came on board & issued out Slops of every kind to all the women & Childn. on board previous to their landing tomorrow, one woman (Ann Smith) who had always behaved amis during the Voyage, upon giving here some Slops & at the same time Mr. Miller taking notice of the very indifferent Character She bore & how little she merited the Slops, throw'd 'em down on the deck & wd. not have anything. --
5 of the women, who supported the best Characters on board were this day landed on the Governor's side of the Encampment, & had Tents pitch'd for them not far from the Governor's house -- (He brot. out a Canvass House wt. him from England, wh. was erected in a few days) --
6th. At 5 o'Clock this morng. all things were got in order for landing the whole of the women & 3 of the Ships Long Boats came alongside us to receive them: previous to their quitting the Ship a strict search was made to try if any of the many things wh. they had stolen on board cd. be found, but their Artifice eluded the most strict search & abt. 6 O'Clock p.m. we had the long wish'd for pleasure of seeing the last of them
leave the Ship -- They were dress'd in general very clean & some
few amongst them might be sd. to be well dress'd. The Men Convicts got to
them very soon after they landed, & it is beyond my abilities to give
a just discription of the Scene of Debauchery & Riot that ensued
during the night --
They had not been landed more than an hour before they had all got their Tents pitched or anything in order to receive them, but there came on the most violent storm of thunder, lighteng. & rain I ever saw. The lighteng. was incessant during the whole night & I never heard it rain faster --
Abt. 12 o'Clock in the night one severe flash of Lightg. struck a very large tree in the centre of the Camp under wh. some places were constructed to keep the Sheep & Hogs in: it split the tree from top to bottom; kill'd 5 Sheep belonging to Major Ross & a pig of one of the Lieuts. -- The severity of the Lighteng. this & the 2 preceeding nights leaves no room to doubt but many of the trees wh. appear burnt up to the tops of them were the Effect of Lightening --
The Sailors in our Ship requested to have some Grog to make merry wt. upon the Women quitting the Ship indeed the Capt. himself had no small reason to rejoice upon their being all safely landed &: given into the Care of the Governor, as he was under the penalty of 40£ for every Convict that was missing -- for wh. reason he comply'd wt. the Sailor's request, & abt. the time they began to be elevated, the Tempest came on -- The Scene wh. presented itself at this time & during the greater part of the night, beggars every discription; some swearing, others quarrelling others singing, not in the least regarding the Tempest, tho' so violent
that the thunder shook the Ship exceeded anything I ever before had a
conception of. I never before experienced so uncomfortable a night
expectg. every moment the Ship wd. be struck wt. the Lighteng. -- The
Sailors almost all drunk & incapable of rendering much assistance had
an accident happen'd & the heat was almost suffocating.
This morng. at 11 o'Clock all who cd. leave the Ships were summon'd on Shore, to hear the Governor's Commission read; & also the Com- mission constituting the Court of Judicature. -- the Marines were all under arms & reed, the Governor wt. flying Colours & a Band of Music -- he was accompanied by the Judge Advocate, Lieut. Gover- nor, Clergiman, Serveyor General, Surgeon General &ca. After taking off his hat & Compting. the Marine Officers, who had lower'd their Colours &: pd. that respect to him as Governor wh. he was intitled to, the Soldiers marched wt. music playg. Drums & fifes & formed a circle round the whole of the Convict Men & Women, who were collected together --
The Convicts were all order'd to sit down on the ground; all Gentlemen present were desired to come into the Centre, where stood the Governor, Lieut. Governor, Judge Advocate, Clergyman, Surgeon &ca. &ca. -- a Camp table was fixt before them & 2 red leather Cases laid thereon, containing the Commissions &ca. wh. were open'd & unsealed in the Sight of All present & read by the Judge Advocate (Capt. Collins) constituting Arthr. Philip Esqr. Governor General
Commander in Chief over all those Territories, belonging to his
Britannic Majesty Geo: Hid. King of Gt. Britn. France & Ireland &
call'd New South Wales & Parts adjacent with full power &
authority to build Forts, Castles & Towns, & to erect Batteries
&ca. &ca. as shall seem to him necessary, with full power also to
appoint &: constitute Officers of every kind as he shall judge
In short I shall not attempt to follow the Commission thro' its various parts, I shall only observe that it is a more unlimited one than was ever before granted to any Governor under the British Crown. -- After the Commission was read the Governor harangu'd the Convicts, telling them that he had try'd them hitherto to see how they were disposed; that he was now thoroughly convinced there were many amongst them incorrigable, & that he was persuaded nothing but severity wd. have any Effect upon them to induce them to behave properly in future.
He also assured them that if they attempted to get into the women's Tents of a night there were possitive orders for firing upon them, that they were very idle not more than 200 out of 600 were at work that the industrious shd. not labour for the idle; if they did not work they shd. not eat.
In England theiving poultry was not punish'd wt. Death; but here, where a loss of that kind could not be supply'd it was of the utmost consequence to the Settlement, as well as every other Species of Stock, as they were preserved for Breeding therefore stealing the most trifling Article of Stock or Provisions wd. be punished wt. Death. That however, such severity might militate against his Humanity & Feelings towards his fellow Creatures yet tho Justice demanded such rigid Execution of the Laws & they might implicitly relye
upon Justice taking place: their Labour wd. not be equal to that of an
husbandman in England; who has a Wife & family to provide for. They
wd. never be work'd beyond their Abilities, but every individual shd.
contribute his Share to render himself & Comunity at large happy
& comfortable as soon as the nature of the Settlement will admit of.
That they shd. be employ'd erecting Houses for the different Officers,
next for the Marines, & lastly for themselves.
After this Harangue they were dismiss'd in the same form as they were assembled; after wh. the Governor retired to a cold Collation, under a large Tent erected for that purpose to wh. the general Officers only were invited, & not the least attention whatever was paid to any other person who came out from England -- The Masters of the different Ships pd. him the Comt. of attending on Shore, during the reading of the Commission (which they were not under any obligation to do -- notwithstanding wh. there was no more notice taken of them or even to provide the slightest accommodation for them, than the Convicts themselves).
8th. Dined this day wt. Mr. Jameson, Surgeon's 1st. Mate, going to N: Norfolk. I this day found a considerable quantity of Centaur: Minus, the same as that we find in England. -- This day upon Lieut. King's going to N: Norfolk, Lieut. G Johnstone succeeded to his appointment of Aid de Camp to the Governor; He is a very able Officer & a very Gentle- manlike man & I am much mistaken if he does not acquit himself in his new appointment to the Satisfaction of the Governor & all his friends.
Feby. 9th. This day 2 of the Natives came down very near the Camp they
came to within a small distance of the Governor's house but cd. not by
any entreaty be prevail'd upon to go into the Camp. The[y] were both men
pretty much advanced in life; had each of them long spears in their hands
The Governor went to them attended by several officers &: presented
one of them wt. an Hatchet & bound some red Bunting abt. their heads
wt. some yellow Tinfoil; They sat down under a tree & cd. not be
prevailed upon to go any further. They appear'd to express very little
surprize at the Governor's house, which was very near them -- they sit in
the same form in wh. the Taylors in England sit & one of them while
in this attitude sharpen'd the point of his spear with an Oyster shell
(rub'd to an edge & fasten'd in to a stick abt. a foot long) on the
Bottom of his foot --
While I was standing by them a black Boy belonging to one of the Ships in the fleet came up to look at them --
They appear'd pleas'd to see him, felt his hair, open'd his shirt bosom & examin'd his breasts & by signs express'd a wish to have a lock of his hair, wh. I made the Boy let me cut off & presented to them 9th. & in return I cut off some of their hair -- They put the Boy's hair carefully by in a wreath of grass twisted round one of the Spears.
They stay'd here at least an hour then betook themselves into the woods, & nobody has been near the Camp since -- This day one of the Sailors was caught in the women's Tents & drum'd out of the Camp wt. his hands fasten'd behind him & the Fife & Drum marching before him playing the Pursuit.
Feby. llth. During our stay in this place I frequently made Excursions
up the Country for some miles, in Company & at those times generally
collected some natural Curiosity or other: at some times we shot Birds
& at others collect'd a large quantity of yellow Balsam from a tree
or rather a Shrub wh. grows in great Nos. on the sandy hills near Botany
Bay, call'd Balsam of Tolu at least there is no doubt of this Balsam
possess- ing Medicinal virtues, as it has been repeatedly made use of by
the Gentlemen of the faculty in the Settlement in the same Cases where
they wd. have used the Bals: Tolu or any other Medicine in pulmonary
Disorders, & wt. success.
It dissolves perfectly in Spirits & is of a most fragrant & aromatic Taste & smell. I have etch'd the likeness of the Tree wh. produces this Gum, wt. my pen, wh. I have subjoin'd, & is no very bad resemblance of it. -- This day Capt. Shea shot a Kangaroo & it was brot. into the Camp. It is sd. to be nearly equal in goodness to Venison.
This day our Carpenter, one of our Sailors, & a Boy belongg. to the Prince of Wales were caught in the Womens Tents; they were drum'd out of the Camp wt. the Rogue's March playing before them &: the Boy had petticoats put upon him, they had all of them their hands tyed behind 'em. The Anarchy & Confusion wh. prevails throughout the Camp, & the Audacity of the Convicts both
Men & Women, is arrived to such a pitch as it not to be equalled,
I believe, by any set of Villains in any other Spot upon the globe. The
Men seize upon any Sailors on shore who are walking near the Women's
Camp, beat them most unmercifully & desire them to go on board --
This day Thos. Bramwell a Marine (lately Servt. to Lieut. G: Johnstone in our Ship) got amongst the women & beat one of them (Elizth. Needham, a most infamous hussy) wt. whom he had had connections while on board us, & this day he reed. 100 Lashes & is to have 100 more. One of the Convicts who had struck a Sentry on duty reed, only 150 Lashes --
The Severity shewn to the Marines & Lenity to the Convicts has already excited great murmuring & discontent among the Corps & where it will end, unless some other plan is adopted, time will discover.
13th. This day I dined wt. a party on board the Scarborough, it being Capt. Marshalls birthday --
14th. This day 9 years Capt. Cook was kill'd at Owyhee. -- Lieut. King set off this day for his Government of N: Norfolk, the 5 Women from our Ship & Mr. Alltree went from us at 6 o'Clock in the Morng. on board the Supply -- This day Ann Smith (the woman who refused taking the Slops on board from Mr. Miller the Commissary) eloped from the Camp, as she often, when on board, declared she wd. as soon as she was landed.
Feby. 15th. A Servt. of Mr. Poulden, Lieut. of Marines, who was with
his Master in the Woods shooting last Saturday stray'd away so far from
him that he was lost & has not since been heard of. This day, whilst
I was in the Camp wt. Major Ross a large female Kangooroo was brot. into
the Camp, &: likewise a young one wh. was found in its false belly,
& appear'd not to have been long dropt --
This Animal is so well discribed, & so excellent an Engraving is given of it in Capt. Cook's Voyages that I shall not say any thing of it here. I have a young one (a male) preserv'd in Spts. I have several times tasted the flesh of this Animal cook'd different ways, & at such a place as Port Jackson, where fresh meals are a great rarity, it is thought a Luxury but I cannot be so partial as to say it equals Venison, as some Gentlemen reported, or that it is even so good as Mutton it is totally destitute of fat, & the flesh as dark colour'd as Venison.
A herd of 11 Kangooroos were this day started near the Camp by one of the Masters of the Ships. A very large Eagle alighted on the Arm of a tree close by the water's edge & directly opposite our Ship -- the Steward fired a Ball at it from a Rifle piece & cut the branch in sunder on wh. it sat but did not kill the bird.
This day the Governor sent for Mr. J Smith in our Ship -- and told him that tho' he
knew nothing of his being in the fleet till he arrived at the Cape of
Good Hope, yet in consequence of what was urged in the petition (the
Governor having peremptorily refused his stayg. at B Bay, I draw'd up a
petition for Mr. S which was presented to the Governor by his Aid de Camp
Mr. G: Johnstone) & from the extra- ordinary good Character wh. Mr. G
Johnstone who came out in the same ships wt. him & Mr. Bowes the
Surgeon of that Ship & Capt. Campbell all join'd in giving him, he
had alter'd his mind & wish'd him to go on shore on monday, by wh.
time there shd. be a Tent erected for him, a piece of ground shd. be
alloted to him for a garden, he wd.
15th. be supply'd by the Governor's orders wt. every necessary sort of seeds -- he was to officiate as headborough & the chief he wd. have to do at present wd. be to superintend the Convicts who were at work, & if any of them misbehaved to inform the Governor or Judge Advocate therewith: he also assured him he shd. in due time be further promoted.
The Cook of the Prince of Wales (a Negro) going on Shore from the Ship by the Hawser rope wh. was fasten'd to the rocks, two of the Boys of that Ship playing tricks wt. him shook him off the rope & the poor fellow sunk down & was drowned; not being able to swim -- many sailors jump'd overboard to save him but he sunk & did not come up again. An Alegator 8 feet long has several times been seen near the Camp & among the shrubs behind the Camp
near the run of water wh. supplys the Camp. This day Adjutant Long of
the Marines was put under an arrest by Capt. Campbell in consequence of
some words wh. passed betwixt them.
17th. The Governor & Mr. G: Johnstone, his Aid de Camp & a small party of Marines went in two boats some miles up the Country. They saw many of the Natives along shore, but no women were amongst them. This day (being Sunday) Revd. Mr. Johnson went on shore to preach & Administer the Sacrament. --
18th. Three of the Convicts try'd for stealing & sentenced to receive 150
Lashes each. Drank tea this day wt. Major Ross & Capt. Campbell. --
This day 8 Canoes wt. 2 of the Natives in each of them, came in sight from the nearest point & paddled cross the Cove in wh. the fleet lies (Sydney Cove) they pass'd between the Sirius & the rest of the Ships, they seemed to take no sort of notice of the Ships -- their Canoes are the worst ever seen, not more than 2 inches out of the Water made of the Bark of tree ty'd together wt. slips of Bark at the ends; there were 2 men in each & they paddled along wt. incredible swiftness.
In the course of the day several of them landed on a little Island wt.in sight of the Sirius where the Sirius's Garden is; & Mr. Hill a Midshipman wt. 2 Marines were there on guard; the Natives stole an Ax & a Spade &: wd. persist in going off with them, wh. obliged Mr. Hill
to give orders to the Marines to fire at their Legs, which they did
wt. small shot, & the fellow dropt the Ax but the Spade they got
clear off with. This day 3 Frenchmen from the Ships in Botany Bay, came
overland to Sydney Cove -- The Frenchmen have erected a Fort wt. 2 or 3
Guns near the shore at B Bay. This day 3 of the Convicts dy'd.
20th. This day in the Hospital Tent the Thermometer was up at 105. This day Capts. Marshall, Read, Sharp, Brown & Mason dined on board us. --
21st. This day Mr. J: Smith left the Ship, to continue on Shore, he had a Convict (a Black man) & the boy Joseph Harris* appointed to wait on him.
A large Lizard (such as describ'd some way back in this Journal) pre- sented by Mr. Smith to me. --
23d. The Governor sent for & severely reprimanded Capt. Marshall for suffering his Steward to purchase an Animal of the Squirrell kind from one of the Convict men, & giving him Liquor for it -- he told him that all the Convicts got was the property of Government, took away the Animal from Capt. Marshall, & had the Steward punish'd wt. 50 Lashes --
At first he was order'd 100 but upon the application of several gentlemen who respected the man & thought it rather a hard case (among wh. number was Capt. Marshall who wd. have given any sum rather than his Steward shd. be so severely punish'd for a fault committed inadvertently & in which himself bore so great a share
I say in consequence it was lessen'd to 50 Lashes. And it appears to
many a stretch of the Governor's prerogative to inflict so severe a
corporal punishment upon a seaman, for a Crime (wh. at the time it was
committed was not known to be a Crime) &: that without any form of
In short, at present, I am sorry to say this Govern- ment (if a Government it can be call'd) is a scene of Anarchy & Con- fusion; an evident discontent prevails among the different Officers throughout the Settlement; the Marines & Sailors are punish'd wt. the utmost severity for the most trivial offences, whilst the Convicts are pardon'd (or at most punish'd in a very slight manner) for Crimes of ye. Blackest die, I do not except even stealing, which the Governor himself in his address to them after the Commission was read, assured them shd. be punished capitally. What will be the result of such an inconsist- ant & partial mode of acting, time (& I may venture to say a very short time) will shew. At least it is pretty certain no good Effects can proceed from it.
Monday 25th. Barrett, Lovall, Hall & another Convict were try'd for stealing bread, pork &ca. &ca. The 3 former reed, sentence of Death, to be executed tomorrow; & the last was order'd 300 Lashes.
26th. This day agreeable to their Sentence Barrett, Lovall & Hall & 5 other prisoners were brot. from the Quarter Guard Tent heavy iron'd, abt. 6 o'Clock p.m. -- three former for execution; the Arm of a
large Tree situated between the Tents of the Men & Women Convicts
was fixt upon as a Gallows -- To this tree the eight unhappy wretches
were conducted wt. a party of Marines walking before them well arm'd
&: Mr. Johnson the Clergyman attending them, a large Party of Marines
were drawn up opposite the Gallows &: all the Convicts were summon'd
to see the deserved end of their Companions.
When they arrived near the tree Major Ross reed, a respite of 24 hours for Lovall & Hall, but Barrett who was a most vile Character was turn'd off abt. Vz after 6 o'Clock p.m. he expressed] not the least signs of fear till he mounted the ladder & then he turn'd very pale & seem'd very much shock'd.
It was some time before the man (a Convict who had undertaken the Office of hangman,) cd. be prevail'd upon to execute his office nor wd. he at last have comply'd if he had not been severely threaten'd by the Provost Marshal, Mr. Brewer & Major Ross threaten'd to give orders to the Marines to shoot him. Just before Barrett was turned off he confess'd the justice of his sentence & that he had lead a very wicked life, he requested leave to speak to one of the Convict Men (a very bad kind of Man) on Seddiway, wh. was granted him, & he also expressed a wish to speak to one of the women convicts, but was refused, he then exhorted all of them to take warng. by his unhappy fate & so la[u]nched into Eternity; the Body hung an hour & was then buried in a grave dug very near the Gallows.
The Revd. Mr. Johnson pray'd very fervently wt. the Culprit before he
was turn'd off, & perform'd every Office appertaing. to his function
wt. great decorum.
28th. This day by invitation I accompanied Mr. Holt Midshipman of the Sirius in the Sirius's Pinnace to a Cove a great distance from Sydney Cove, where we saw great numbers of the Natives both Men, Women, & little Children. I got an Hatchet of one of them. They were very social, assisted in drawg. the Seyne & made a fire at the Bottom of the Rocks as soon as they saw us coming to cook the fish with.
In our return we pass'd by 18 Canoes wt. men & women in them fishing -- Every Canoe had a fire in the midst of it made upon a hillock of Earth placed there for that purpose to broil the fish upon. --
Upon our reachg. the Sirius I was invited to dine on board by several Gentlemen but it having proved a very wet day & I being wet thro' & very uncomfortable refuse acceptg. their invitation & got on board my own Ship as soon as poss- ible, where I found Capt. Marshall, Sever, Sharp, Walton &; Mr. Watts who jeer'd me not a little upon my day's Excurtion being oblig'd to strip every thing off me before I cd. eat any dinner.
This Eveng. the Respite for Lovall & Hall expiring they were taken as before from the Quarter Guard & conducted to the place of Execution, where they reed, a further Respite for 24 hours. --
Feby. 29th. At 5 O'Clock p.m. the two Convicts Lovell & Hall who
had Reed. 24 hours respite were again conducted to the place of Execution
& the ladder was set to the tree; they were joined by two other
Convicts who were try'd yesterday for stealing Wine &: Provisions
from Mr. Clark the Agent victualler out of the Store house, (there were 3
try'd but one turn'd Evidence) Whilst they stood at the place of
Execution expecting every minute to be order'd to mount the Ladder Major
Ross informed them that his Excellency the Governor (wishing still to try
what in- fluence Mercy wd. have upon them) authoriz'd him to acquaint
them that he wd. pardon them upon the followg. terms --
The 2 who were to have suffer'd wt. Barrett were to be transported to wherever his Exellency shd. think proper; one of those convicted of stealing Wine &ca. shd. be the common Executioner -- the other had his free pardon. Major Ross then inform'd All the Convicts that the Governor declared upon his Word & Honour that whoever after this was found guilty of Theft shd. most assuredly suffer & that no interest or applica- tion whatever shd. save them. --
This day Philip Screven one of our foremast men was missing -- Lieut. Collins (formerly in our Ship) very ill wt. a Dysentery, expected not to live; there are now on shore upwards of one Hundred sick. --
This day Revd. Mr. Johnson taken dangerously ill wt. a Dysentery -- in
the Afternoon I call'd upon him. -- No intelligence of our Sailor Philip
Screven, suspect he is lost in the woods, or that the Convicts have
murther'd him, as the last time he was seen was near the Women's Tents
just before dark on friday Eveng.
Sunday 2d. Mr. Johnson continuing very ill, no service this day. no News of our Sailor -- This morng. Early the Governor set out in a Boat wt. his Aid de Camp &ca. upon another Excurtion up the Country, & means to stay 4 or 5 days. I went this day in our Jolly Boat wt. Capt. Campbell Mr. J: Smith & Major Ross's Gardener up to a Cove some distance off to look at the
2d. soil of a spot of Ground wh. Capt. C: & Major R: mean to fix upon to build a House & cultivate the land.
3d. As we can hear nothing of Philip our Sailor, two of the Sailors in our Ship, ask'd leave of Capt. Sever &: Major Ross to go up the Country into the woods with a firelock, & look for him. I furnish'd them with a small pocket Compass least they also shd. be lost. A very Large Allegator sd. to be seen near the Tents 14 ft. long. --
4th. This day the Natives were very troublesome to our Sailors hauling the Seyne at a Cove near the mouth of the Harbour. This day our Sailors return without hearing or seeing anything of Philip Screven.
Saturday This day Mr. Bryant Mate of the Sirius made me a present of a
flying March 8th. Squirrell -- Drank Tea wt. Major Ross & learned
from him that the Natives had kill'd several of the Convicts who had
elop'd from Port Jackson & taken up their residence near Botany Bay,
by the side of a lagune. It was certain that one Alien & Macdonald
were kill'd as their cloaths were found hanging up in a tree in
9th. The Governor return'd in perfect health, and as wise as he set out, having made no discovery of the smallest importance. -- In the Afternoon one Allan, Gamekeeper to the Governor who is almost constantly out in the Woods shooting, happen'd of our Missing Sailor abt. 8 miles off the Camp, beyond Botany Bay, half starved & perished &: quite naked, & conducted him home to the Ship, to the surprise & joy of his messmates, (he was a very good man) he sd. in all the time he had been absent he had eat only 1 dozen perriwinkles he pick'd up on the rocks -- that he fell in wt. a party of the Natives who stript him & pelted him wt. stones -- that he got sight of the Ships lying in Botany Bay & bent his course that way, but was always opposed by the Natives who wd. he believes at last have murther'd him but he ran into a swamp up to his Neck &: there lay conceal'd among the rushes -- He continued very weak & feeble for along time, but by proper means perfectly recover'd.
Monday March 10
Five of the Convict men died last week; there are great number ill on Shore now, chiefly of Dysenteries -- Lieut. Collins some days ago went by the advice of the Surgeon on board the Sirius for the change of Air; at first he thought himself better, but he has relaps'd & Mr. White thinks him in the greatest danger -- his disorder is a Dysentery -- Several Store houses on shore a finish'd for the reception of Stores from the different ships, & there is a wharf building on the south side of the Cove opposite the Governor's house.
llth. Very hot -- the Thermometer is at 80. -- This day 2 of the Convict women elop'd from the Camp & took their beds & baggage wt. them. Several of our Ship's Company are now ill of a Dysentery & it prevails very much in the Camp. The two French Ships left Botany Bay on Sunday last, 9th. of this month & wh. way they steer'd their course we know not.
15th. Two Kangooroos shot. This day one of the Convict men was wounded on the Collarbone with a Spear which one of the Natives throw'd at him as he was cutting rushes in a Cove some distance from the Governor's farm in company wt. 4 other Convicts -- He said the Natives wanted their tools but on refusing to give them they hove their Spears at them & afterward pelted them with stones: they immediately return'd to ye. farm.
Wednesday March 19th. This day the Supply Brig return'd from N:
Norfolk Three day after She Sail'd from Port Jackson she discovered an
Island, but did not touch at it in going -- The surf at New Norfolk was
so very great that they cd. not effect a landing till 4th. day after
their arrival & even then one of the quarter Masters was wash'd out
of the Boat & drown'd. The Soil of New Norfolk is discribed to be
quite as bad as that of Port Jackson - it abounds in fine timber chiefly
of the Pine kind -
The Supply in her return landed at the Island she made in going out & were very agree- ably surpris'd to find great numbers of fine Turtle on the beach, & on the Land amongst the trees great Nos. of fowls very like a Guinea hen, &: another Species of fowl not unlike the Landrail in England, & all so perfectly tame that you cd. frequently take hold of them with your hands but cd. at all times knock down as many as you thought proper wt. a short stick. --
Within side the reef also there were fish inumerable wh. were so easily taken wt. a hook & Line as to be able to catch a boat full a Short time. -- She brot. 13 large Turtle to Port Jackson & many were distributed among the Camp & fleet. - The Dysentery prevails very much on Shore & many have dyed of it. We are now getting out Government stores & hope to be discharged the Service very shortly. --
March 25th. This Eveng. abt. 7 o'Clock died John Fisher, Seaman on
board our Ship of a Dysentery -- Several of the men on board had the same
disorder & recover'd, & I attributed the death of this young man
(abt. 20 years old) in a great measure to his own imprudence, in swiming
on Shore naked in the middle of the night to one of the Convict women wt.
whom he had formed a Connection & who had a Child by him while on
board -- he wd. lye abt. wt. her in the woods all night in the Dews,
& return on board again a little before day light, whereby he caught
a most violent cold & made his disorder infinitely more putrid than
it wd. otherwise have been, (if he did not wholey occasion it by . such
improper conduct). --
The Sailors of the Sirius this day caught a shark alongside, upwards of 13 feet in length, its jaws when extended were two ft. wide -- There are now upwards of 200 sick in the Hospital on Shore. -- This day the Ship was discharged from Government Service.
Satury. 29th. Went wt. the Steward of the Golden Grove (Stephen More) to the hills
near B.B. to collect Bals: Tolu & in our return he shot a female Kang- ooroo, wt. a young one in it's false belly, the young one I preserv'd in Spts. & the other he stuffed for himself -- got home just after dark. -- I collected some seeds from a plant in blossom wh. was exceedingly handsome & different from any shrub I ever before saw.
Went into the Woods wt. the Steward of the Golden Grove & our own
Steward to collect Balsam & other things. The Steward of ye. Grove
kill'd a very large Snake among some rushes in a swampy place, it was
nearly as big as my arm, upwards of 8 ft. long, a very wide mouth wt. 2
rows of very sharp pointed teeth in the upper jaw & 2 in the under
one -- the teeth were Vz inch long, it was of a very dark colour
approachg. to black wt. large bright yellow spots regularly dispers'd
over the whole body --
Saturday 19th. Our Steward shot a Kangooroo abt. 3 parts grown; we had a leg of it roasted for dinner on the Sunday & was tollerable good Eating. -- Sunday 20th. Weigh'd Anchor abt. 7 o'Clock a.m. & drop'd down out of Sydney Cove astern of the Sirius, meang. to water the Ship on the North shore -- The Capt. means to leave Port Jackson on Sunday next, 27th. Inst. -- This day I apply'd to the Governor for his Letter to the Secretary of State respectg. my superintending the Convicts & to the Surgeon of the Settlement (Mr. White) for his Certificate; reed.
20th. very politely by the Governor & am promised the Letter & Certificate to morrow. On friday night abt. 8 o'Clock Mr. Watts (very much intoxicated) fell over the Jolly Boat's Stern in coming from the Sirius & very narrowly escaped drowning not being able to swim, & only 2 Boys
in the boat, but it being a very moonlight night they back'd astern time enough to haul him into the boat before he sunk. 21st. Rec'd my Letter from the Governor & Certificate from Mr. White wt. thanks for my Attendance --
Another Convict Boy, abt. 18 yrs. old, hanged for stealing.
3d. Weighed Anchor & fell down below Convict Island, near the Entrance of the Harbour, as did the Scarborough soon after us -- This day many Gentlemen pd. us the Compt. of coming down to us in boats, to take their final leave, wh. we did wt. some reluctance, (notwithstanding our wishes to get to Sea in hopes of falling in with some Island wh. wd. afford us fresh provisions wh. this place wd. not do) for after lying in a Port so many months & being constantly visited or visiting it had some resemblance to our first parting wt. our Acquaintance in Eng- land. --
(Sail'd)Monday 5th. a.m. from Port Jackson
At day break all hands call'd to weigh Anchor, & set Sail abt. 7 o'Clock
-- A very rainy morng. but a gentle breeze & quite fair for carrying us out of the Harbour -- The Scarborough did not follow us till the next day. -- The bree/e continued till almost 10 o'Clock a.m. when it fell almost calm & so continued till abt. the middle watch in the night when
a gentle breeze sprung up, directly ahead of us from the N.E. The
Capt. determin'd to find out Ld. Howe Island, if possible, in hopes of
getting some Turtle wh. wd. have been an almost inval- uable acquisition
to the Ship's Company, after livg. so long on salt provisions. --
7th. at break of Day discover'd the Supply Brig on our Lee Bow at no great distance, but soon lost sight of her -- it rain'd this morng. very heavy wt. a good deal of Thunder & lighteng. &: frequent Squalls. Many Albatrosses, Pintato birds & a very large Shark (14 ft. long) seen this day, & also several Mother Carey's Chickens.
8th. This morng. it appeared very greasy all round, but only slight Showers ensued, &: at length it fell almost calm. abt. 11 o'Clock a.m. a large Turtle seen under the stern. --
9th. It look'd very dirty in the morng. all round & a large Water Spout was seen in the Western quarter at no great distance from the Ship, wh. continued suckg. up the water from the Sea for at least Vi of an hour & at 8 o'Clock a.m. Another was seen on the Eastern quarter still larger wh. draw'd up the spray of the Sea to an astonishing height (near as high as the top of our Main Mt.) & continued near half an hour -- these are the only Water Spout[s] hitherto seen during the Voyage. Upon the first appearance of these Water Spouts a breeze sprung up wh. carries us 3 & 4 Ks. but soon after it fell
calm again & continued so all this night & Saturday except now
&: then a squall of very short continu- ance, after wh. it fell calm
as before till abt. 7 o'Clock in the morng. of Sunday llth. when a fine
breeze from the N.W. sprung up & increas'd gradually till wego3&4
- 5&6 Ks. an hour. The Sky clear'd & the breeze con- tinued all
day. -- We are in hopes of reachg. Ld. Howe Island by tuesday & there
to supply ourselves wt. Turtle & Vegitables wh. is an first object
not to be lost sight of as the Scurvy begins to make its appearance
appearance among the Seamen. This day kill'd a very fine pig wh. we hope
will of the Scurvy last the Cabin 4 days &: in that time wt. any
tollerable good we must see Ld. H: Island.
12th. A fine day wt. a gentle breeze, go 4 Ks. till abt. 7 p.m. when the breeze sunk &: continued so all night, went only I'/z K. The Scurvy begins to appear among several of the Sailors, their gums are principal parts affected at present -- Give them Bark &: Elixer of Vitriol 3 times a day & have Essence of Malt brew'd for them every morng. of wh. every man has 1 pint at 10 o'Clock a.m. Fixton one of the Sailors, who has been dangerously ill wt. a Dysentery is much better & in a fair way of recovery.
13th. This day a gentle breeze -- by our observations on board we reckon ourselves abt. 49 miles from Ld. Howe Island. In the Afternoon
we caught a very large Shark, surrounded by Pilot fish 6 or 8 of wh.
were taken wt. a small hook. These fish appear very beautiful in the
water, but not so much so when out of it, they are abt. the size of an
herring, are of a shining White barr'd wt. black: they are exceeding good
eating very much resembling a mackarell in taste. -- I preserv'd the Jaws
& fins of the Shark --
14th. At 6 o'Clock a.m. a very fine breeze and at that time had a very clear
sight of Ld. Howe Island to the N.E. but abt. 8 o'Clock a.m. the breeze
Arrive at Ld. Howe Island
fell & we go only IVz K & 2 Ks. & the Sun being directly over the land cd. not see it till abt. 12 o'Clock at Noon, when we again had a perfect sight of it & also of a pyramidical rock abt. 1 league distant from the Island (wh. was call'd Ball's Pyramid from Lieut. Ball who discover'd the Island). Abt. 3 o'Clock p.m. the horizon appear'd very black astern & we heard thunder at a great distance, & a breeze attended with a slight shower sprung up which carries us 5 Ks. At 4 o'Clock p.m. we are abt. 5 leagues distant from the Island -- Lay to all night & abt. 10 this morng. it blew a gale, at 6 a.m. we set Sail & go 5Vz Ks. - abt. 4 leagues from the Land. At 7 o'Clock a.m. we discover-'d the Supply Brig abt. 3 leagues to the Westward
& at 8 a.m. she tack'd & stood towards the Island. We shortly
after hoisted our Colours & at 9 a.m. She fired a Gun, (wh. we
perceiv'd only by the smoak, the wind blowg. so very high we did not hear
the report) as we thought to speak us, we therefore shorten'd Sail; in
abt. an hour after, she came up wt. us & inform'd us that we were too
near the reef (we were then within a Vz a mile of it) that it was a most
dangerous place, & that he had narrowly escaped being lost the night
before, being obliged to cut away his Anchor --
That he had seen a Turtle since he came there. We did not attempt to land this day, but Mr. Anstis went in the Pinnace to sound the shore & make every necessary examination; who Upon his return confirm'd the report of Capt. Ball & sd. the swell near the reef was so very great as obliged him to return to the Ship.
A very fine day & the wind very much sunk. This forenoon the Char- lotte / Gilbert / hove in sight in the offing & soon after came & spoke us & the Brig -- This forenoon I went shore wt. Capt. Sever & Mr. Watts in the Pinnace; we went thro' an opcng. in the reef over which the Sea broke wt. a tremendous noise & swell. We landed in Hunter's Bay & saw great numbers of Boobies, Pidgeons, & many other birds.
The Capt. & Mr. Watts return'd to dinner but as Mr. Anstis was
coming on shore after dinner I continued there hunting Birds &ca. in
the woods -- Mr. Anstis &: the Steward wt. several of the Ships
Company came in the Afternoon & stay'd on Shore all night. The sport
we had in knockg. down Birds &ca. was great indeed tho' at the
Expence of tearing most of the Cloaths off our backs. We made a fire
under the trees & supp'd upon part of our Game broil'd - wh. was very
sweet & good, the Pidgeons were the largest I ever saw.
We afterwards slept in thick great coats carried on shore for that purpose, cover'd over wt. the leaves of the Cabbage tree, which are here innumerable & many of them so small & tender that you may cut them down with a pocket knife. --
When I was in the Woods amongst the Birds I cd. not help picturing to myself the Golden Age as described by Ovid to see the Fowls or Coots some White, some blue & white, others all blue wt. large red bills & a patch of red on the top of their heads, & the Boobies in thousands, together wt. a curious brown bird abt. the size of the Landrail in England walking totally fearless & unconcern'd in all part around us, so that we had nothing more to do than to stand still a minute or two & knock down as many as we pleas'd wt. a short stick -- if you throw'd at them & miss'd them, or even hit them with out killing them, they never made the least attempt to fly away & indeed they wd. only run a few yards from you & be as quiet & unconcern'd as if nothing had happen'd -- The Pidgeons
also were as tame as those already described & wd. sit upon the
branches of the trees till you might go & take them off with your
hand or if the branch was so high on wh. they sat, they wd. at all times
sit till you might knock them down with a short stick -- many hundreds of
all the sorts mention'd above, together wt. many Parotts &
Parroquetts, Magpies & other Birds were caught & carried on board
our Ship & the Charlotte.
There has never been any Quadruped or Reptile seen on the Island, wh. is 5 or 6 miles in length & 1 mile broad, at the broadest part & in some parts not so much. The trees on it are chiefly Mangroves, Cabbage trees, Bambo Canes a species of large Aloes plants -- After discribing the number & tameness of the feather'd inhabitants of this Island, I must take notice that our Surprise was no less in the morng. upon going into the pinnace to fish with hooks Be lines in the Bay within side the reef.
The water in many parts not more than 4 or 5 ft. deep wt. a fine white sandy bottom wt. Coral, Brain stones & many other Marine plants growing at the bottom, wt. the Sun shining bright upon them, & the inumerable quantities & varieties of fish swimg. amongst this Coral Grove (if I may be allow'd the Expression) exhibited such a novel &: beautiful a scene as but few places in the World I believe will afford. The fish bit so very fast that in abt. 2 or 3 hours we had caught some hundred weight - & the Pinnace was half Loaded -- the Bait made use of was a piece of the flesh of the Boobies of wh. we had some hundreds
also (alive & dead) in the pinnace - I must not omit to mention
that this Island produces, Broad Beans (exactly in pod, size & taste
the same as the Windsor Bean) Scurvy Grass, Samphire, Endive &
Spinnage. The fish we caught in the space of 3 hours served the whole
ships Company 3 days.
17th. Abt. 11 o'Clock a.m. Mr. Anstis, Myself & the rest of the people belonging to our Ship return'd on board; as soon as we had cleared the reef we descried a Ship in the Offing wh. we judged to be the Scar- borough, Capt. Marshall & so it proved to be. He came on board our Ship in the Afternoon & Capt. Sever & Mr. Watts return'd wt. him on board his ship, where they supp'd &: at 11 o'Clock this night we made sail & at 7 o'Clock on Sunday morng. (18th.) we were 30 miles to the Northward of Ld. Howe Island, wt. a fine breeze. Capt. Marshall meant to stay there abt. 24 hours to get some Birds & Vegitables for the Ship's Company wh. they stood much in need of -- No Turtles were seen during our stay there, wh. induced us to think those Capt. Ball was so lucky to fall in wt. when he first landed there, were on their passage to some more northern Islands.
Sunday 18 This day at 12 o'Clock in the presence of Mr. Watts, Capt. Sever, Mr. Anstis & Myself the papers relative to our future destination were open'd, wh. specified the Mackenzie M'Cauly had engaged
to pay such a Sum of Money pr. Month for the hire of the Ship after
She was dis- charged at Botany Bay, for so many months previous to her
going to China, the Ship to be Navigated by Capt. Sever under the
Direction of Mr. Watts (All unforeseen Accidents or contingencies
Now the plan was for the Ship to go to the North West Coast of America to trade for Furrs, under the management of Mr. Watts whom M'Cauly had appointed to that Trust --
After wh. the Ship was to proceed on her voyage to China where she was Charter'd to take in a Cargo of Tea on acct. of the East India Co. but as the Voyage was rather an uncomfortable one & not free from danger it was thought necessary to promise premiums to the different Officers & people in the Ship, & wh. premiums Mr. Watts was authorized to use his discretion in giving so as the sum so distributed did not exceed two hundred pound & wh. he intended upon his Arrival at China to assign as follows.
To the Capt. 50£. Chief Mate 20£. Surgeon W£. Second Mate 15£, Third Mate 10£. Four Quarter Masters 4£ Each. Steward 6£. Boatswain 10£ Carpenter 12£. Cook 4£. Thirteen Seamen 3£each, To one Ordin- ary seaman £l.l5s.0d. To 5 Boys £1.10s.0d. Each --
19th. Fine weather & a good breeze, go 5Yz Ks -- sometimes Squalls of short Monday Continuance wh. being astern all help us on. This day one
of the Boy (David Duncan) overset a pot of boiling pitch on his foot
wh. Cover'd the whole of it & [h]it his Toe & scalded him most
terribly. The breeze continued all Tuesday & Wednesday --
20 a Hog kill'd this day for the Ship's Company. A very large flying fish drop'd on the deck this day.
23d. A Tropic Bird seen, frequent Squalls.
27th. Abt. 2000 miles from Oteheite. A Sea Hawk seen over the Ship -- Calms prevail'd till 30th. when
30th. a breeze sprung up & carried us 3'/2 K: Many large flocks of Birds abt. the Ship, with great Nos. of flying fish.
Saturday 31st. A fine breeze, go 5 Ks. at 3 p.m. discover'd 2 Islands, the one bearing N.E.Yz E, 6 Leagues, the other E & by S. seven or Eight Leagues. The Joy which this circumstance afforded is not to be described -- the greater part of the Sailors labouring at this time under evident Symptoms of Scurvy &: wh. was hourly gaining ground upon them, the hopes we entertain'd of finding Vegitables & other Antiscorbutics were very sanguine besides the honour of having been the first to Discover an Island was no unpleasant circumstance. Abt. 8 p.m. we tacked & stood off from the Island till 2 o'Clock on Sunday morng. when we put abt. & stood for it again. --
Sunday June 1st.
At Eight o'Clock a.m. within 3 leagues of the southernmost Isle. It
appears of a huge Pile of Rocks, with here & there a spot of verdure
-- Upon approaching them we found them to be 2 huge Rocks, distinct from
each other, without the smallest appearance of Soil upon them, only here
& there a patch of green moss. We did not think it at all necessary
to land upon them as we were at last so very near them as to see they
were nothing more than mere Rocks, however as it is highly proper to lay
down these Rocks, that future Navigators may avoid the danger of coming
foul of them, we call'd 'em Curtis's Isles in honour of Messrs. Wm. &
Timothy Curtis of London, part Owners of the Lady Penrhyn, & I have
Subjoin'd an Etchg. wt. my pen of them, as they appear'd at first view
like one Island. --
After this we put abt. & stood to the leeward Island abt. 16 Miles distant, we came up wt. it abt. Vz after one o'Clock p.m. It had a very different appearance from Curtis's Isles there being many Trees, Shrubs & grass upon it, it was abt. 3 miles in length & Vz a mile broad, sur- rounded on all sides by Rocks, upon which the Sea broke in a dreadful surf, except one small spot where Capt. Sever & Mr. Anstis wt. the 1st. greatest danger & difficulty Effected a landing being oblig'd to watch their opportunity of jumping out of the
Boat on the rocks & there hung by their hands to prevent the Surf
washing them off again. They also carried a rope wt. them of several
fathoms long whereby they des- cended, in their return from the rocks
otherwise they cd. not have got off the Island. They found some Mangrove
trees upon it & some low insignificant Shrubs, many of the mountains
were compos'd entirely of a pumice stone wh. plainly indicates that the
Island originated from a Volcano. --
The Soil was very sandy with a mixture of rotten leaves & the 'dung' of Sea fowls many sorts of wh. resort to this Island. There were many Tropic Birds under the trees, some of wh. were asleep & those they took by hand & brot. on board wt. them: they also knock'd down some Parroquetts, several of wh. they brot. on board also --
Mr. Anstis also brot. on board some small pieces of the pumice stone Rock mention'd above & also some of the largest Limpett Shells I ever saw. he said also that there were in the standing waters in the Cavities of the Rocks many Crab fish of peculiar beauty, that he took several of them in order to bring on board but that they all twisted off their legs as soon as he took hold of them for wh. reason he did not bring any away with him. They also saw both rats & mice on Shore; how these vermain cd. possibly come there (where
no Ship had ever before been, & situated as this Island is in the
midst of a prodigeous Ocean) is a matter to be consider'd by future
Naturalists. I intended going on shore myself but the Jolly Boat having
lain bottom upwards for so long a time (since we left B Bay) leaked so
very fast that it kept two men constantly employ'd wt. 2 bucketts to bale
the water out, & notwithstanding this before the Capt. &; Mr.
Anstis went from along- side, the water in the boat was nearly up to
This alarmed me so much that I declin'd all thought of going on Shore & it was a fortunate circumstance that I did, for the difficulty of getting on Shore was so great that I shd. not have left the Boat & the difficulty of getting from the rocks in to the boat again was still greater.
It was with the greatest difficulty imaginable that Capt. Sever cd. get into the boat -- the Surf was so very great. Indeed the difficulty of landing was so much that neither the Capt. nor Mr. Anstis wd. have attempted it if it had not been to have hung up a quart Bottle wt. a Note in it wrote upon parchment, strongly cork'd up & rosin'd over the cork wt. a Bladder tied over all wt. strong twisted Wire, & wh. they did hang under a rock wh. projected immediately opposite the only landingplace round the Island; the Note in the Bottle was wrote by Mr. Watts & is as follows. Navis Lady Penrhyn 1st. June 1788, Jno. Watts - Gulielmas Sever, Prost. Geo: 1st. Hid. Rex we called it
Arrive at M'Cauley Island
Long. 180.59. 30.E.
M'Cauly Island, in honour of Alderman M'Cauly of London, who was Mr. Watt's friend & an intimate Acquaintance of Messrs. Curtis's. The Capt. & Mr. Anstis return'd on board abt. 5 o'Clock p.m. & we very soon after made sail for Oteheite -- The Drg. of this Island I have delineated in the best manner I was able with my pen & is subjoined a small detatch'd Island near the Extremity of M'Cauly Island we named Roaches Isle, from Charles Roach a very good Seaman on board & one of the Quarter Masters, who was the first that discover'd this & Curtis's Isles. M'Cauly Island is situated E Longde. 180 D. 59 M. 30 S. - S Latde. 30 D. 7 M. 26 S.
2d. A gentle Breeze, go 3 Ks. many Tropic Birds seen --
Abt. 5 o'Clock p.m. discover'd land of a very considerable extent to the southward 10 or 12 leagues distant but being to windward of us & at so considerable a distance the Capt. thought it most adviseable to pursue his course to Oteheite as we were certain of meeting there wt. plenty of Vegitables & Pigs wh. we cd. not tell this Island wd. have afforded us had we spent two or three days in the Experiment & indeed in the present Situation of our Ship's Company not an hour was to be thrown away, as the Scurvy now began to make great havock amongst the Sailors, & in spite of Medicine was gaining ground dailey -- 4th. This Morng. Capt. Sever had a Sheep kilPd for the Ship's Co. The Scurvy now making a formidable appearance amongst them --
June 5th. A gentle breeze -- This day gave every Scorbutic patient a
quantity of Lime juice to mix wt. his Water. Every day fresh men are
complaing. of foul gums, swell'd legs & pains in their knees,
attended wt. great lassitude & debility. This morng. Mr. Watts gave
me 1 pound canister & IVa Ib Do. of powder'd Sago for the use of the
sick who were not unable to eat the Sea bread from the rotteness of their
gums. -- There is in the Ship a great deal of most excellent Sour Grout
wh. is deliver'd out to the people every day & of wh. they eat
plentifully -- I am sorry to say the Essence of Malt is all expended,
there being only one Cask wh. I saved out of 3 wh. were sent on board for
the use of the Convicts & it is much to be lamented that so essential
an Article as this shd. have been neglected to have been supply'd by the
Ship's Husband (Capt. Leigh) especially in so long & tedious a
voyage, where it cd. not but be expected that the Scurvy must prevail
more or less, &: so very ill we cd. bear the loss of 3 or 4 or Vz
dozn. hands out of the Compt. we had on board.
6th. A Brisk breeze -- Ship barely lies her course -- Abt. 5 p.m. the wind increas'd & it blow'd so very hard all night tha,t the Ship roll'd gunnel in; the fore topsail was carried away & several of the Ropes gave way -- The constant hard
rolling of the Ship, with the motion of the Round house so much
loosen'd all the seams in the different Cabins, & it raing. very
hard, all the beds were on a flow -- I did not get one wink of sleep all
the night. The Capt. was on deck greatest part of the night. I got up at
6 o'Clock every part of the bedcloaths being wet thro', & it blow'd a
perfect hurricane rain'd very hard &c look'd very greasy, & so
continued till noon. The mischief done amongst the
June 6th. different Articles in the Steward's pantry & great Cabin was great. Some iron pigs for ballast in the Steerage gave way &: stav'd the Boatswain's Cabin in -- Mr. Anstis, Chief Mate, had the misfortune to have the cleats of his Bureau give way, wh. was upset, the drawers were all thrown out & the leaf of the Bureau split in half. The Car- penter's large Pitch pot was split asunder, &: many of the Sailors who were sick below were thrown out of their hamocks & some of the Hamocks themselves were broke down, in short this has been the most tremendous night I have ever experienced since I have been at Sea.
Saturday 7th. A fine breeze, Many Albatrosses & Pintado birds abt. dry'd my Bed- cloaths &ca. --
8th. A fine breeze on our quarter wh. carries us 7 Ks. abt. 10 a.m. a very large Blubber Whale rose very near the Ship & kept up a
considerable time. It spouted the Water in one stream & that
forward; it's tail was not falk'd as we in general saw them but rounded
at the Extremity - as were also the tails of several large porpuses wh.
were near the Ship at the same time. Many of those Luminous bodies
appeared in the water this night, the same as mention'd to have been seen
near Teneriffe --
9th. But little wind go on 2Vz Ks. The Scorbutic Patients get no worse, but others are coming into the List -- Many Albatrosses near the Ship. -- This morng. I was seized wt. a gripg. & flux. -- The Steward is employ'd in cleang. up all the Ship's Musquets & hangers, Pistols &ca. & in making up Cartridges for the great guns. Towards Eveng. we go 7 Ks. the breeze has so much increased.
10th. This morng. 105 Ks. -- This day kill'd a Boar, abt. 1% Yrs. old for the accommodation of the Sick, havg. no other fresh stock on board except a breedg. Sow, wh. was now in pig. The weathe[r] now very Cold.
llth. Tt: D: Fair! -- wh. did not pass unthought of - nothing matereal seen.
12th. A foul Wind -- The Scorbutic Patients no worse, but the List increases. --
Saturday 14th. The wind continuing directly against us, the Capt. put
abt. Ship & June stood to the Southward abt. 12 o'Clock at noon. --
This day I found myself very ill wt. cold chilly fits & pains abt.
me, the Effect of Cold from damp bed &ca. --
The Scurvy does not abate & it's ravages in the Ship are so great that few are totally exempt from this their greatest Enemy. I cannot help again regretting the sordid negligence of those concern'd in fitting out this Ship - that scarcely any Article necessary to cope wt. this grand pest of the Seamen in long Voyages was provided; & particularly that That most matereal one Essence of Malt, shd. be totally omitted: whereas had that been supply'd liberally so as to have enabled me to have distributed it to all the Seamen at so critical a juncture, to those who had the Scurvy in copious quantities, & to those who had it not more sparingly by way of preventative, I wd. gladly have dispens'd wt. a large Catalogue of other Medicines, (wh. are call'd Antiscorbutic & wh. are a mere ship in Wort) since I am firmly persuaded That alone given in proper quantities wd. have kept this dreadful disorder in narrow bounds, if it wd. not altogether have eradicated it -- Which nothing Else yet discover'd wh. can be carried to Sea in long Voyages will Effect. But as we are circumstanced & the Case is irremediable I greatly fear we shall not carry home half the
Men we brought out of England with us -- Sunday June 15
The wind as yesterday. -- Many Porpuses abt. the Ship, one of which the Steward struck wt. an harpoon but did not hold it immediately after wh. all of them disappeared in pursuit of that wh. had been wounded wh. they constantly do & tear it in pieces & devour it.
16. Wind the same -- The Carpenter is so reduced & the Scurvy increases so rapidly, I am apprehensive of his not living & nothing but shortly arriving at some Port can save his Life. Both him & the Boatswain have a Ibi of Wort morng. & night, put of the few pounds of Ess: of Malt remaing. of the Cask sav'd at Port Jackson. --
June 16th. We are now abt. 300 miles from Oteheite. -- I confess I have apprehension of Danger even at Oteheite when I consider the smallness of our Ship & the very few hands on board able to crawl out of their Hammocks, & on the other hand, how very numerous &: Artful the Oteheiteans are & the daring Attack they made upon Capt. Wallis who first discover'd this Island. We have all the great Guns loaded as also the firelocks & the Hangers are all ready to defend us wt. shd. we be under the disagreeable necessity of using force. At all Events 'tis prudent to be prepared for every Emergency
to Make the most formidable appearance we can to deter them from any
sinister Attempts. -- The Ships Co. have had .Rum serv'd out to them
twice a week for Grog but the Scurvy making so formidable an appearance
amongst them, I judged it wd. conduce more to the checking that disorder
to substitute Wine in its room, wh. the Capt. agreed to - therefore All
the Sick had Vz Ib of Wine every day & those who were free from the
Scurvy had 1 pint 3 times a week in order if possible to keep them so, at
least it wd. have the good Effect of keepg. them in Spirits wh. is no
small point to be consider'd in the present alarming situation of the
Ship's Co. -- The winds are extreamly unfavourable, for this day at 12 at
noon we were oblig'd to tack Ship again & stand to the Southward.
Many Albatrosses & Blue Petterels abt. the Ship -- notwithstandg. the Scurvy was making such progress amongst the Sailors it was aston- ishing wt. what obstinacy they at first refused eating the Sour Grout nor cd. anything but the fear of dying prevail upon them to eat it, & when they did, they liked it very well. -- Every thing proposed to ignorant Sailors on board a Ship tho' ever so calculated to promote their health, if it has the least appearance of Novelty, is sure to meet wt. an incorrigibly obstinate opposition nor is it in the power of the most potent Arguments to induce them to change their
Notions till Death stares them in the face, when they will conform to
anything proposed & are in general the greatest of Cowards. Such I
believe I may venture to say is the general Charactaristic of two thirds
of the British Sailors.
17th. The wind the same -- Sailors no worse, nor are they at all better -- Employ'd chief of the forenoon putting up Medicines for them.
18th. At 2 o'Clock a.m. The wind came a little more favourable at the same time put abt. Ship &: it blowg. very hard abt. 4 a.m. carried away the Main Top SI. & at 9 O'Clock a.m. the fore top SI. went away -- a great Swell -- blows very hard extreamly cold -- Many Albatrosses
18th. abt. -- The Sick much as yesterday.
19th. The Wind the same -- Sick getting rather worse -- The wind in the forenoon rather sunk, therefore there not being so great a head swell the Ship lies up better E.N.E. & we gain something -- It is impossible for those not used to Sea & to the disorders concomitant upon long Voyages to form an Idea of the Anxiety & Ardent wishes of a Ship's Crew to reach a Port when Diseases prevail wh. turn every day wt. danger of the most fatal consequences &: wh. no medicines that can be administer'd at Sea can vanquish!
The utmost that can be expected from them (in the Sea Scurvy at least)
is to keep the disorder from increasing & even this Consolation is
not always to be acquired it depending in a great measure upon the con-
stitution of the patient previous to his being attack'd -- I this day
gave Flor: Camomal: to those who were most affected to chew instead of
Tobacco wt. strict directions to swallow their spittle as I judge there
is considerable Antiscorbutic properties in them taken in this
20th. The wind continues the same as it has been for 8 Days past -- The Scurvy gains ground; most of the Sick getting worse one of the Boys (Richd. Dawson) who is naturally of an indolent disposition & by no means a cleanly boy, has several very foul Ulcers on his Legs, & tho' they are daily dress'd wt. powerful digestives & he takes the Bark in substance 3 times a day, yet still his blood & juices are so vitiated & impoverished by the Scurvy, that nothing will make them digest or remove a disagreeable livid hue, wh. they have constantly assumed. --
I am this day very ill wt. pain &: in my head a tertian ague from cold caught by the dampness of my Cabin, am taking the Bark during the intermission. A shoal of Porpuses abt. the Bows, & many Pintado birds.
Saturday June 21st
Very squally all night & this day wt. a great swell & some flying showers -- The sick much as yesterday -- Mr. Anstis, Chief Mate, ill wt. a Rheumatic complaint. -- The Cabins all leak very much -- the Carpenter too ill to caulk them --
Sometimes the Sea gives the Ship such prodigeous shocks that it throw us from one side of the Cabin to the other & yesterday one of the nails wh. holds my Medicine Case draw'd out of the board wt. a violent roll of the Ship just at the time I had open'd the door to get something out & it was wt. the greatest difficulty I cd. secure it till assistance came, otherwise every- thing in it must have been broke & destroy'd & notwithstandg. a great 21st. many curious insects wh. I had got at.Port Jackson &: were in a deal box in the upper part of the Case fell out & were totally demolish'd. 22d. This day very little wind -- Two more Sailors taken to their Hamocks -- There are now so few hands on board capable of doing duty that the Capt. himself & the Chief Mate are forced to do the duty of a foremastman.
23d. The Sick (except the Boatswain who grows evidently worse) are much the same as yesterday -- There being a Considerable quantity of Wine in the Ship I requested the Capt. wd. allow a day to every man who was well in order if possible to keep them so, as it answer a double good purpose, first by obviating
access of the Scurvy, & 2dly. by keeping them in good spirits.
This the Capt. very readily agreed to; as June 23d. also to my request to
allow a quantity of Tea for breakfast every morng. to all the sick, who
have Wine in such quantities besides as I judge necessary; indeed I must
do the Capt. the justice to acknowledge he was never reluctant to giving
up any indulgences from himself, for the accommodation of the sick, &
that All in the Cabin most readily coincided wt. him in so laudable a
Abt. 8 o'Clock p.m. it became suddenly so dark you cd. scarce see yr. hand, if held up, & shortly after the rain descended in perfect torrents attended wt. almost incessant flashes of Lightg. & some very loud peals of Thunder, wt. the wind outrageously high. The great Cabin & almost all the sleepg. Cabins on a flow. One very deep roll throw'd Mr. Watts, who was sitting at the table, wt. great force against the door of the Capt's. State room, & the back of the chair went thro' the sash door -- The storm continued wt.out any abatement till near 11 o'Clock at night when the wind sunk & came abt. to the Southward & the Ship lay her course --
24th. A gentle breeze wt. the wind fair, go 4 Ks. The Sick not worse. The other Sailor in much better Spirits for being allowed the Lbi of Wine a day. --
25th. The breeze continues fair, this day at 12 noon, 100 Ks. on ye. board.
The sick much as yesterday, except the Carpenter who is getting rather
worse. This night a good deal of Lightg. but no thunder.
26. The weather much warmer, & the breeze continues -- this day at noon 113 miles on the board, hope to reach Oteheite in 5 days --
26 Several different species of Birds abt. At noon of this day - bore
down towards Oteheite wt. a fine breeze go 7 Ks. & the Ship quite
27th. It fell almost calm -- Mr. Holmes 4th. Mate much worse wt. the Scurvy his Legs very much swell'd & very livid, wt. petechio all over them.
28 Wind very high, several of the braces broke &: the Sails split & it rain'd violently all day, a great sea -- The Capt., Mate, Steward & Mr. Watts in this critical conjuncture labour'd as hard as any of the Sailors -- indeed if they had not there wd. not have been hands sufficient to have done the necessary work. This weather lasted till 12 at night when the wind shifted & came fair for us.
29th. This morng. gave out 32 dwt. of Tea to every sick man onboard (17 in number) scarce a day passes wt.out one or more of the Sailors throwing up workg. & to do several of them justice I must say they kept the deck beyond expectations
At the same time I cannot help observing that several of those who
have been so long laid aside, retired from doing their duty long before
there was an absolute necessity for so doing --
Monday June 30th.
A fine morng. & gentle breeze, go 3 Ks. This day another of the Sailors took to his hammock &: the Quarter Masters are obliged to take the Wheel, as the watch on deck is reduced to so very few. --
31st. A strong breeze from N W. directly in our teeth -- a very disheartening circumstance in our critical Situation -- The Sick are all getting worse, & medicines of every kind seem totally thrown away upon them -- Several of them bleed at the nose every day, their Hams more contracted, their Legs more swell'd & blacker, &: their bodies emaciated very much. --
This day the Sow littered & had 7 pigs -- The Capt. & Mr. Anstis both very much indisposed, from cold being often wet thro' for several hours together. Abt. 11 at night it thicken'd very much &: began to blow very hard & at 12 p.m. it rain'd prodigeously &: blow'd so very hard that they were oblig'd to double reef the Topsail, The sea was very high. We are now abt. 560 miles from Oteheite.
Wednesday July 2d.
A fine morng. -- a gentle breeze -- the Ship lies her course -- Some sea weed pass'd the Ship -- The Boatswain is worse, the rest of the sick much as yesterday -- Two or 3 Gulls abt. the Ship.
3d. Breeze continues -- At 5 o'Clock this morng. died John Robinson (lately from the Supply Brigg in exchange for Bruce) of an ulcer in the neck of the bladder or in the Prostrate Gland: he was an old man & the disorder had been on him long before he came on board us. He had but very slight symptoms of Scurvy.
The rest of the Sick are much as yesterday; Philip Screven (the Sailor who was lost at Port Jackson &: return'd on board in such an emaciated state) is so extreamly debilitated that he cannot get out of his hammock & I am fearful of his not reachg. Oteheite. With respect to all the rest I am in great hopes they will weather it. Mr. Watts gave me 3 Cakes of portable soup for Screven's use; all he had, wh. will make him Ib2 of soup every day & may con- tribute to .saving his life, as he can eat nothing else --
All the 7 pigs litter'd a few days ago are dead, none of them wd. suck the Sow --
At 5 o'Clock p.m. Robinson was committed to the deep wt. the usual Ceremony -- the Capt. read the Burial Service -- This day Some disagreement happen'd betwixt the Capt. & Mr. W: respectg. going to the N.W. as the Ship's Co. were in so deplor --
able a situation. -- July 4th. This day fine & warm -- Thermometer
at 70 at 6 o'Clock a.m. very light breezes -- now abt. 400 miles from
Oteheite. Several small birds call'd Egg birds seen. -- The Sick much as
they were --
This day Jos. Downy, one of the Quarter Masters, (an old Seaman) as he was standing at the Wheel was suddenly seiz'd wt. a violent Spasm in the breast attended wt. a great sickness at his stomach & vomiting. I gave him 32 dwt. of Ricini & afterwards an Opiate Draught & he is somewhat better. The weather is now very warm & pleasant, therefore I compell'd All the sick who cd. possibly be got on deck to be got up & to have their hammocks got up also & air'd & this day they seem better, wh. I attribute in a great measure to the warm weather. The lividness of their limbs is evidently better & their Spts. also are much better.
At 8 o'Clock in the Eveng. cross'd the Tropic of Capricorn.
6th. Last night it Thunder'd & Lighten'd very much.
7th. It rain'd very hard wt. a great deal of Thunder & Lightg. & now (9 oClock a.m.) looks very greasy & unsettled. In the night the Ship's head was all round the Compass, it being quite calm, at 7 o'Clock a.m. a gentle breeze sprung up S.W. wh. carries us 3 Ks. The sick are no worse except the Boatswain, who gets weaker, & his jaws &: gums are very putrid & swell'd very much, wh. he may attribute to his obstinacy in peremptorily refusing to take
any medicines to stop the progress of the disease -- All those who
have taken medicines, & whose symp- toms at first were as alarming as
the Boatswain's are now by no means in so bad a state as him: wh. plainly
demonstrates that Medicines will check the progress of the Scurvy at Sea,
tho' there is but little room to (Medicines) expect they will Effect a
Cure. -- The greater part of the Medicines are expended, especially those
most essential ones Bark, Salts, Cream of Tartar, Elixir of Vitriol,
Essence of Malt, Portable Soup -- Downey the Quarter Master much better
of the Spasm in his breast. This day several Weather Galls seen.
8th. (Tuesday) Loaded all the Great Guns & Musquets, ready for use, as shd. the breeze wh. we now have continue we expect to get in to morrow night. The sick no worse. At noon this day 112 Ks. on the Logboard --
9th. Saw Osnaburg Island (call'd Miatea in the Indian language) abt. 6 passed leagues distant -- & at 10 O'Clock a.m. saw the high Land of Osnaburg Oteheite from the Masthead. Three or 4 Whales near the Ship at 7 Island o'Clock a.m. 2 or 3 Canoes came on board wt. Breadfruit.
Thursday 10 Abt. 10 O'Clock a.m. anchored safely in Matavi Bay, Oteheite -- in the morng. the wind was very high & directly against us, wh. forced us to work in, being very dubious of
fetching the Bay, but by great good fortune we got in as mention'd
above. The joy wh. possess'd every breast upon this happy & long
wish'd for Event was not a little, especially when we saw, before we
dropt. the Anchor many double Canoes coming off to us -- As the
Oteheiteans know the English Colours from those of Spain & France the
Capt. order'd the Union flag to be hoisted, immediately upon wh. we cd.
hear the Natives in the Canoes shout & seem'd very pleas'd.
Upon the Canoes coming near the Ship they stopt. & call'd out Taio or Tyo, wh. signifies a Friend, & held out green branches as signals of peace, they very soon found we were from Britannia as they call it & that we cd. converse with them in their own language, whereupon many of them came on board & brot. with them Cocoa Nuts & Bread fruit, wh. we had cook'd for supper &: was to us in our present Situation a great treat -- Before night many
July 10th. more Canoes came along side wt. several Chiefs & brot. wt. them Hogs,
Bananas, Breadfruit, Cocoa Nuts &ca. &ca. in great plenty, the Chiefs came on board & enquired after Tutee (Capt. Cook) we told them that he was alive in Brittain, but an old Man; they appear'd very highly delighted & stay'd till near dark when they took their leave not for- getting to ask permission to come on board again
tomorrow & bring with them war kow war kow (a great many) Hogs,
Bananas, Cocoa Nuts, Yams, Tarrar, Fowls, Breadfruit & in short
everything the Island afforded. Friday July llth.
By daybreak the Canoes were along side in great numbers & frequently we had not less than 500 on board at a time -- they stuck abt. every part of the rigging & ship's sides like Ants upon a Hill --
Arrive at Oteheite
The men are a race of as fine tall muscular people as any in the
World, & they have certainly a great share of Understanding, &
are by no means bad mechanics as many of their utensils testify. Every
Chief upon his first coming on board selected his Taio, wt. whom he
exchanged names & ever after his attatchment & friendship to him
was unalienable, & scarcely a day pass'd but they came on board
loaded wt. presents of Hogs, Oteheitean Cloth, Fowls, Bananas, Cocoa
Nuts, Bread fruit & all the Catalogue of things wh. their Island
produces each for his Taio.
These people are extreamly docile & it is in the power of their Taio to keep them in as much awe as they please. The name of Mr. Watts's Taio was Mona: of mine was Pooetare -- of Mr. Anstis's was Tarta (the King brother) & the Capt's. was Otoo, the King himself -- who not being at Matavi Bay when we arrived there but at Operree he sent a dog as
a present & notice that he wd. come to us the next day loaded with
everything the Country afforded, wh. he thought we stood in need of-
July 12th. This day as usual the Ship was surrounded by Canoes inumerable both double & single, & not a single Canoe came off wt.out something of Eatables or presents in it: amongst wh. this day were Hogs, Suckg. pigs, some alive others barbacu'd, Bred fruit both green & baked. -- Yarva, Cocoa Nuts, Cloth of various kinds & patterns & many other Articles too numerous to mention, I shd. not have forgot fish, of many sorts some weighg. 12 or 15 Ib a piece all wh. were purchased by an Hatchet, a Spike nail, a piece of an Iron hoop abt. 5 Inches long, beeds, 2d. knives, lookg. Glasses a few red feathers &ca. & a Hog of 8 or 10 Score was readily parted wt. for a 9d. Hatchet -- in Short the presents we daily reed, from our Taio's were more than Sufficient to keep the Ship's Co. wt. -- tho' we have been in so little awhile, there are 12 large Hogs & 8 small ones alive for stock, & many dozen fine fowls. Cocoa Nuts innumerable & we have daily more provisions brot. than we can tell what to do with.
It is wt. great pleasure I can pronounce all the Sick better to admiration, tho' we have not been in harbour more than 48 hours. This night 8 or 10 of the Oteheite Girls slept on board &: in the Eveng. they all danced the Heeva on the quarter deck &: their different Attitudes & Gestures during the Dance were grotesque & laughable to a Degree.
There are constantly some of the Sailors walking the Decks wt.
Cutlasses & firelocks in case of any disturbance happening &
sometimes the Ship has been so immoderately throng'd with Natives that
there was not room for the Sailors to do their necessary business, for
which reason they were oblig'd to drive them away, when they wd. jump
overboard by 20 or 30 at a time into the Sea, both men & women, &
swim like fish -- The men are such very expert divers that we frequently
amused ourselves for a considerable time together wt. throwg. small nails
into the Sea, when 5 or 6 Natives wd. dive down after them, & so very
swift were they in their motions that it very rarely happen'd that one or
other of them did not bring it up wt. them -- the same by a piece of Iron
hoop -- frequently, when the Ship has been 4 or 5 miles from the shore,
numbers that had no Canoes wd. swim off to the Ship, sometimes making use
of only one hand, (holding up a roll of Cloth for Sale) in the other, wh.
wd. be irrecoverably spoil'd if it got wet --
12th. With respect to the general manners & customs of the Oteheiteans they are already so well & accurately discribed by Capt. Cook that it wd. be superfluous to repeat them here; I shall therefore only observe such particulars as have escaped notice, & wh. I think ought to be mention'd. Their Heeva or Dance consists of as many Girls as are present, & there are very few of
those Girls but can blow the pipe wh. they do wt. one Nostril,
compressing the other with the thumb of the left hand wt. which they hold
the pipe; they have a variety of different figures & attitudes in
their dances, & some they accompany wt. a droll kind of song of wh.
we were not sufficient masters of their language to under- stand any
part. -- The greater part of their action during the Dance wd. in England
be thought the height of indecency, & indeed they seem calculated to
excite Venereal desires to a great degree, as we have reason also to
think their Songs are.
They are very cleanly & in general good looking people, but by no means so delicate a Complextion as the plates in Capt. Cook's Treatise represent them. The Men are exactly the Colour of a new halfpenny & the Women (at least many of the young ones) are much fairer, but not to be compared to an European -- Saturday 13th. This day, as usual, brot. us plenty of Visiters & plenty of presents -- to go on shore tomorrow to bring Otoo, the King, on board.
14th. Several Chiefs came to inform us that Otoo waited our going on Shore for him, a Boat was therefore immediately sent (the Pinnace) in wh. went the Capt., Mr. Watts & Mr. Anstis -- I being engaged at the time did not accompany them -- I do not exceed the bound of Truth when I say there were 10,000 Natives assembled upon the Beach
when the King & Queen came into the Pinnace & an innumerable
quantity of double & single Canoes all round the Ship & the whole
face of the Water between the Ship & the Shore in a manner cover'd
The King was attended by many Aurees (or Chiefs.) The dress of the King exactly corresponded wt. that of the Chiefs only that he had more Cloth abt. his waist, his hair was some of it fasten'd back wt. plats & stuck wt. yellow flowers of a very fragrant smell, & a blossom of the Cape Jessmine in his Ear. He is at least 6 ft. 3 Inches high & a very muscular strong made man, & by no means bad featured. He dined on board & was fed by an attendant, & the Cocoa Nut shell was also held up to his mouth by an Attendant when he wanted to drink - he never lifting his hand to his mouth --
The quantity they All of them eat at a meal is astonishg. & it is a universal custom amongst them to fill the mouth as full at a time as they possibly can. After the King & Chiefs have dined the drink off a Cocoa Nut shell of the Juice of the Yarva root, wh. two attendant prepare for him while he at his dinner, by first chewing the root fine & afterwards straing. the juice thro' some fibres of the Cocoa Nut tree, rinsing their mouths wt. Cocoa Nut milk wh. is also straind thro the fibres, & all together makes a most delicious Draught for his Majesty -- This was the only custom, bordering upon uncleanliness, wh. we observ'd during our stay amongst them. The Women never
attempt to Eat in the presence of the Men -- A little before dark our
Royal guests took their leave, the Capt., Mr. Watts, Mr. Anstis &
Myself accompanied them on Shore. We walk'd abt. Va a mile amidst groves
of Cocoa Nuts, Breadfruit Plantains Bananas &ca. till we arrived at
the House of one of the Chiefs. The King stop'd a little before he came
to the House, we all went in except the King who retired to a little
distance & there sat under a tree; for had he enter'd one of the
houses the populace wd. have demolished it as soon as he had quitted it,
as nobody wd. afterwards have been permitted to have entered it.
15th. The King came on board this morng. & brot. wt. him in great pomp Capt. Cook's Portrait, painted by Webber in 1777, It was very little damaged by keepg. -- It was fixt in the Cabin in full view of All & he left it on board till the next day, when he sent a Messenger for it. -- He brot. wt. him exceedg. large pieces of thick Cloth, wh. was hung all round the outside of the Ship & a large quantity of the same kind of Cloth was spread on the quarter deck to lay the other presents upon, wh. consisted of 4 very large live Hogs, great quantities of Bread- fruit (green & baked) Cocoa Nuts, Fowls, Bananas Mahy, Mangoes, &ca. &ca. -- He return'd on shore a little before dark & invited us to go on shore next day. --
July 16th. This day agreeable to invitation we went on shore &:
were introduced to the Houses of many of the Chiefs, where large presents
were made by our different Taios to the Capt. Mr. Watts & myself. Mr.
Watts' Taio (Moreea) was under a tree at some distance from any house,
sitting by many Articles wh. were intended as presents for Mr. W. &
are as follow. Several rolls of Cloth & Matting, (all wh. were put
round him) & a Tawmy or War Gorget hung round his Neck, (& the
Weather so very hot that he was in no very comfortable situation before
he got on board) two large live Hogs & a large string of Cocks
feathers tied round his waist. --
My Taio also (Pooetare) presented me wt. a very large piece of fine white cloth wh. he put over one shoulder & fasten'd round my waist in many folds, & his Madua put a Tawmy on my neck & a machine made of Cock's feathers in my hand to brush off the flies &ca. -- The heat of the Sun & walking under such a load of Cloth & feathers made me almost ready to faint -- The King we then saw at a small distance sitting as usual under a tree a little distance from a house, & his Queen by him, he accompanied us to the boat & on board, & stay'd 3 or 4 hours. I fasten'd up his hair wt. some long Iron pins wt. cut glass heads, & presented him wt. same [&] a small pr. of tweezers to pluck his beard with, which pleased him very much, in return for wh. I reed, a piece of figured Cloth &: a Lock of his Hair --
The King & most of the Aurees seldom miss a day coming on board
& frequently dine on board. -- The crowd of Natives, whenever we went
on shore & sat down on the Matts in any of the houses, was so great,
& they surrounded the house in such a manner that we cd. hardly
breathe, till one of the Chiefs wd. rush out wt. a large stick & make
all fly before him, by this means a passage on each side [of] the house
was kept open wh. admitted a free draught of Air & made it
comfortable: their houses are nothing
16th. more than long Sheds, open all round & very stron[g]ly & neatly thatch'd with Plaintain leaves, their furniture in the Houses consists of some clean dried grass on wh. Matts are spread, & some concave stools, wh. they call pillows & wh. they make use of as such when they sleep. We have now at least 30 Hogs on board besides a considerable quantity salted -- The Sick mend daily --
18th. Many Flying fish (the largest I ever saw) with some very fine Crawfish were this day brot. us -- the Crawfish do not seem wholsome, as most of us that eat of them were seiz'd in the night with fluxes. Shell fish also abound here, & I have some muscle shells at least a ft. in length &: 8 Inchs. in breadth. The Heeva is danced on the Quarter Decks every Eveng. by as many
Girls as are on board (seldom less than 10 or 12) & the men are
mending so astonishingly fast, that those (whom a fort- night ago we
daily expected to throw over board) increase the Number by getting
Bedfellows. These Girls are total strangers to every idea of Shame in
July 19th. This day I was tattowed on both arms, as were the Capt. & most of the people on board -- The Oteheiteans seeing the smallness of our Ship in comparison of Capt. Cook's & the small No. of Hand[s] & most of oo'-o those valetudinarians, plainly hinted to us how easy a matter it wd. be to take the Ship from us, tho' they never shew'd the least inimical disposition towards us, but on the contrary supply'd us daily wt. such a quantity of every thing their Island produced that we had more than we cd. well dispense wt. --
In consequence of the Ship's Co. being so amazingly recover'd as to be able (to a man) to do Duty, determined to Sail on Wednesday 24 July, just one fortnight after our arrival, & at the same time not to let the Natives know the day of our Sailing, least any thing shd. be attempted against us, as in that Case we must either have fallen a Sacrifice or have been under the disagreeable necessity of killing great Nos. of them, therefore the day preceeding our
Wednesday July 24th.
Sailing, we told them (as they were very often enquiring how long we shd. stay) Sail'd on that we shd. Sail in 4 days: but they seeing the preparations the day before & the Sails loosen'd at day break on Wednesday morning, suspected we were abt. Sailing & came off immediately -- The King, Queen, Mona Mr. Watts's Taio & Pooetare my Taio -- Tarta the King's Brother & Mr. Anstis's Taio, & every one's Taio thro'out the Ship came on board & the Canoes wh. attended were almost innumer- able.
The King, Queen & all the Chiefs attended us for abt. 6 or 7 miles, when they all took a most affectionate leave of us, first extortg. a promise from us that we wd. Shortly visit them again, many both Men & Women shed tears at parting. Odiddee, who was wt. Capt. Cook & sail'd wt. him to the Southward, cry'd much & both his Wives; he wd. gladly have accompanied us to England cd. we have permitted him: previous to our parting most of our Taios requested us to exchange a lock of Hair wt. them, wh. we readily comply'd with.
As the King always express'd a wish to hear the great Guns, two of them were fired off a little before he left the Ship, wh. greatest delighted & astonish'd him & all the Natives, especially when they beheld the Ball strike the Water at so great a distance! There cannot be a more affectionate people than the Oteheiteans nor is any Country
more capable of affording refreshments of various kinds both animal
& vegitable, to Ships long at Sea, or any people more ready to part
wt. them &: all for the trifling barter before mention'd vizt.
Hatchetts, Knives, Nails, old Hoop, Lookg. Glasses, red feathers &ca.
We have now on board at least 70 live Hogs, small &: large, 2 Goats *See the (Each a 9d. Hatchett) & 2 Kidds, (Each a 2d. Knife) Great quantities Drawing of *Breadfruit green & baked, & sour (call'd Maki) Plantains, Bananas & Yams in great abundance, Sweet potatoes, Tarra, & Cocoa Nuts without number, & great plenty of Mangoes. Pumkins & plantain stalks to fead the stock wt. --
Two days since the only surviving Sheep, got at Ryde in the Isle of Wight, died by eating too freely of Bananas &ca. to the regrett of all of us, he was in very good condition & the Capt. meant, if possible, to have carried him back again to England, there to have kept him well as long as he lived.
It was observ'd in all Capt. Cook's Voyages to these Islands that the Natives were universally addicted to Theft but we have been so remarkably fortunate in that respect (from the strict precautions we took to guard against it) that we have lost only a knife out of the Steward's pantry &: a small Hatchet wh. the Steward used for his pur- poses on board Ship, & wh. was incautiously left on the outside [of] the door -- This I shd. deem a temptation equal to an Oteheitean wt. that of a Diamond to an Englishman, therefore the blame (if any) rested upon the Steward for his carelessness in leavg. the valuable Articles exposed to their view --
July 25th. I had the misfortune to loose my pocket Book on Shore,
containg. a pair of Small Silver Bais'd Sissors in a Silver Case, &
some private memds. (wh. I had very fortunately transcribed into another
Book). Therefore the loss was the less as I never recover'd the Book -- I
made a point of procuring as many of the different Articles of this
Country as I cd. to oblige my friends wt. them at my Return --
Their Cloth stand first in the List of Curiosities as it discovers no small degree of ingenuity to manufacture it even in the manner in wh. it is done. It must be consider'd that it is in its original state nothing more than the simple Bark of a Tree (the Paper Mulberry tree) & the Art consists in properly blending the different Lamina of it with each other so as to make Cloth of different consistances, & in the 2d. place of colouring it, together wh. their discovery of the proper menstrua to tincture it -- & by the Bye it ought to be observ'd by me that at the time Capt. Cook was amongst these Islands, many of the Patterns wh. now exist among them &: of wh. I have Specimens, were never seen -- therefore we may rationally conclude that they borrow'd the idea from the patterns of those English Linnens wh. Capt. C & his Ships Co. distributed amongst them in the way of Trade, & is a very strong indication of the ingenuity of these people & how very serviceable & clever they might become under proper instructors. It is with concern we learn from every inquiry we have made that Omai died
some years ago at Ulietea, where he went to reside & indeed it was
the place of his Birth -- tho' he was left at Huahiene -- From every
acct. we cd. possibly collect from repeated Enquiries both of the Chiefs
& others he died a natural Death, & the different European
Articles of Domestic & Culinary use wh. he had been liberally
supply'd wt. by Government upon his return wt. Capt. Cook, were in so
little esteem, or at least the use of them was so little known or
attended to by his Countrymen, that several of the Articles were brot. on
board us & offer'd for Sale, vizt. a Cast Iron pot wh. Mr. Watts
purchased & several other Articles; his firearms were from every
acct. we cd. collect totally destroy'd & broke in pieces, as there
was reason to apprehend he had made rather too free an use of them.
26th. This day, (a gentle breeze) we discover'd the Island of Huaheine, abt. 4 o'Clock p.m. & lay to all night -- during the night a heavy squall came on attended wt. Thunder & Lighteng. of short duration & after it abated the wind sprung up directly off the Island wh. makes it impossible for us to fetch it till the wind shifts. The Capt. does not mean to go into the Harbour, but to ply off & on, to give the Natives an opportunity of comg. off in their Canoes, to supply the deficiency since we left Oteheite. This Island produces exactly the same as Oteheite & their Customs & Manners
exactly correspond -- 3 o'Clock p.m. the Wind continued to blow
directly from the Land, we tack'd twice & hope to reach the Island
July 27 A fine morng. -- tack'd twice in the night -- & this morng. at 9 o'Clock we are abt. 2 leagues from the Shore. -- The Islands of Ulietea, Otatia & Bolabola are all in sight -- during the day, made Off the frequent tacks & each tack fetch'd nearer the Shore, at 5 o'Clock p.m. only 4 miles Distant a Canoe wt. 9 Natives came along side & 2 of them came on board: they brot. some Cocoa Nuts wh. we purchased for some small nails -- they informed us that Omai was dead but that one of the horses left there by Capt. Cook was still living & invited us strongly to go on Shore, but as that was not our intention at calling there we declined all thoughts of quitting the Ship.
Island of Huaheine
Lat: 18.30 S.
Long: 150 W.
28 This morng. many Canoes came off wt. Cocoa Nuts, Bananas, Fowls, Breadfruit &ca. & before noon we had 20 or 30 Canoes alongside, some few Hogs were also brot. & many of the Natives came on board, behaved very friendly & intreated us much to go on Shore; but not chusing to depend too far on their friendship, nobody went on Shore, as nothing was wanting but a Supply of Plantains & Cocoa Nuts wt. some few Hogs, to supply the Consumption since our leaving Oteheite. --
amongt. other Articles we purchased 2 or 3 Bushells of most excellent
Yams, a quantity of Terra & some sweet potatoes, one of the Chiefs
dined on board -- They are rather lighter coloured than the Oteheiteans,
but in every other respect exactly similar -- The Island of Huaheine is
very similar to Oteheite excepting that abt. the Centre of it there is a
very deep Bay wt. a reef of Cbral Rock almost across the Entrance, but
yet a Ship might go in. The Cocoa Nuts & Breadfruit trees (as at
Oteheite) extend almost to the water's edge --
Like the Oteheiteans also the Natives live upon the plains between the Sea & the Mountains & in the Vallies between them, & none inhabit the Mountains themselves. -- Every night brings so many Canoes on the Reefs near the shore to fishg. wt. lights in Each (the Doe Nuts) that it has very much the appearance of a Town illuminated Several of the Chiefs came on board & several Girls -- who slept on board.
29th. This morng. we were a considerable distance from the Shore no Canoes
came off till pretty late in the forenoon wh. at first we thought had rather an unfavourable appearance, but it afterwards turned out to be owing to the distance we lay from shore
as many Canoes came off abt. 10 o'Clock wt. Hogs, Fowls, &ca. as
usual. -- This day Capt. Sever bot. a live Turtle of Ib 20 weight for a
2d. Knife. Three or 4 Whales were this day seen 3 or 4 miles from the
Ship; they spouted up the water very high, it was quite calm & very
30 This morng. we Sail'd round to the other side of the Island, to Owharree harbour, & soon after Eight o'Clock a.m. many Canoes came off wt. plenty of provisions & the Natives on this side the Island were equally friendly as those on the other side, during our Standing off & on in the Afternoon we were at one time so near the reef of Coral Rock wh. every where surrounds this part of the Island, that it was wt. the greatest difficulty we cd. clear it -- the Ship not staying, & being obliged to wear ship. Many on board, who knew the danger we were in, were not a little alarm'd -- for my own part tho' I was on the round house at the time I was under no apprehensions, not knowg. the critical predica- ment we stood in. --
Thursday 31st. During the night we tack'd Ship again & stood in for the Island, & abt. 8 o'Clock in ye. Morng. of [July 31st.] many Canoes came off & many Girls in them, several of whom slept on board -- this day intensely hot -- A pretty large quantity of provisions brot. off this day. -- This day a very large Shark was near the Ship amidst the Canoes, wh. the Natives caught in a most dexterous manner, by fixing a bite of a rope round the tail & hauling it into the Canoe, first knockg. it brains out by the side of
the Canoe --
Friday Augt. 1st.
Abt. 5 o'Clock p.m. we made sail &; steer'd for Tinian in the
Seas. -- Our Taio's at this place also first taking a most affectionate leave of us -- my Taio at this place was a Lad abt. 16 or 17 Yrs. old, Leave his name was Taaree. -- I cannot take a final leave of Huaheine wt. Huaheine out observg. the very great friendship wt. which we were treated by the Natives -- they brot. off every produce of their Island in as liberal a manner as the Oteheiteans did, & (as at Oteheite) upon our parting wt. them many of them shed tears. Several of the Natives of this Island also voluntarily offer'd to accompany us to England & all express'd the most fervant wishes for our wellfare & Return to the Island before long. It is very fortunate that we had no fracas or disturbances wt. the Natives during our stay among them.
2d. At day light we had quite lost sight of the Society Islands having a very fine breeze wh. carries us 6 Knotts. It rain'd hard once or twice in the night, is now very hot. The Thermometer this morng. 81. --
3d. The breeze continues 94 miles on the board this morng. Two of the Sows we had from Oteheite pig'd this day.
3d. The Sailors are now all able to do duty -- there are none now on
the Sick List -- Many Birds seen this Eveng. & amongst them a Booby,
which induces us to think we are at no great distance from Land. There is
constantly a man on the forecastle lookg. out for Land or Rocks, as the
Tract we are now in was never before navigated. --
Augt. 4th. The breeze continues; the weather very hot, the Thermometer 84 -- Many flyg. fish abt. -- Mr. Watts a good deal indispos'd.
5th. Almost a calm, -- Thermometer at 87. -- several Tropic birds over the Ship. This day another of the sows from Huaheine pig'd -- Mr. Watts -- the Capt. & Mr. Anstis all not at all well, nor am I very well, my right Leg & foot swelling & pitting very much: I believe the Effects of Cold. Caught a Noddy on the Mizen top yd. Arm -- Extracted a tooth for Mr. Watts --
6th. The breeze continues -- This day made mould Candles for the use of the Ship for the first time; burnt extreamly well -- Stow'd away a Cask of Shells, the joint property of the Steward & myself.
7th. Breeze as yesterday -- Kill'd a pig & a Kidd. -- There are generally 2 Hogs kill'd every day for the accommodation of the Cabin & the Ships company. -- Thermometer this day at 81. a Man of War bird seen.
Many flying fish abt. -- This day I prepared [2 lbs?] of K:Cort:Hux
having fortunately a sufficient quantity of Ingredts. in my own Medicine
Case for that purpose.
8th. at Daybreak discover'd Land to the N.E. abt. 3 leagues distant, it appear'd flat & to be at least 12 miles in length, we cd. very plainly discern the Cocoa Nut trees on the Island, but as it was to windward of us & we had a plentiful stock of Hogs, Poultry & Vegitables on board, it was most likely to produce the same kinds of refreshments as we had already got as much of as we cd. dispense wt. while it was good the Capt. did not think it adviseable to lose a day or two in bearing down to it. We call'd it Penrhyn Island -- This day the K. Thebaic: being all expended I prepared some fresh from my own Ingredts. -- Several Man-of-war Birds seen --
I am a good deal indisposed, & took some Blood from my Arm.
9th. The Breeze continues -- All the Bananas & Plantains got from between decks (where they were rotting & injuring the Casks) & hung over the sides of the round house; some of them are remarkably large -- I measured one wh. was 10 Inches in circumference. -- This day made up 5 Bails of Oteheite Cloth, the joint property of Mr. Young (the Steward) & myself, Each Bail contains at least 25 pieces of Cloth.
A fine breeze go 4 Ks. -- Two blue petterels seen -- the Thermo- meter at 9 o'Clock this morng. was at 87. -- Many Bonetos abt. the Bows -- I am much better as is the Capt. & Mr. Watts. At 12 o'Clock at noon the Thermometer was up to 90.
llth. Several squalls in the night - of short continuance, attended wt. pretty heavy rain, & this morng. the showers continue wt. a gentle breeze go 4 k -- 4 f -- We have not expended 1 Gain, of fresh water (except for tea in a morng.) since our arrival at Oteheite, constantly using Cocoa Nut milk.
12 A fine breeze -- we are now in a regular Tradewind wh. upon an
avarage carries us not less than 5 Knotts, & wh. has attended us ever
since we left the Society Islands.
13th. The breeze as yesterday -- many Tropic birds abt. -- &; some Man-of-war birds -- I cannot get rid of the Odemetous swellg. of my Legs, it is attended wt. red blotches as high up as the calves of my Legs.
14th. Breeze continues -- many Tropic birds abt. & great Nos. of flyg. fish.
15th. This night at 12 cross'd the Equinoxial Line.
16th. Many Porpuses abt. the Bows -- the Steward struck one wt. an Harpoon in the middle of its body & it was stowed along side a con- siderable time, bleeding at a prodigeous rate but afterwards tore out
the Harpoon & got away, but was directly surrounded by great
numbers of porpuses & tore in pieces by them. -- a Noddy taken this
Eveng. on the Main Yd. arm.
17th. Breeze as usual -- The Steward caught a Shark -- many flying fish
18th. Fine breeze, 2 Curlews seen.
19th. Do. -- a Noddy seen -- frequent squalls --
20 A fine breeze -- another Porpus struck wt. the Harpoon by the Capt. & after it was got close alongside the Steward struck him wt. the Grains notwithstanding wh. he got away by breakg. off one of the wing of the Harpoon & tearing out the Grains, & as usual was immediately devour'd by the other porpuses in our sight. Abt. 5 p.m. several on board thought they saw Land on the Larboard side to leeward, therefore the Capt. lay to all night & in the morng. it proved to be only Clouds. Set Sail at 1 after 5 a.m.
21 A fine breeze -- go 4 Ks.
22d. Do -- a Noddy taken on ye. Yd. Arm.
23d. Fine breeze go 5 Ks. -- just before dark a very large Man-of-War bird over the Ship; the Cabin Boy sent up to the Maintop Gt. Mt. head where he very soon after had an opportunity of catchg. hold of its wing & one of the Sailors going up to his assistance, he brot. it down safely. -- It measur'd 6 ft. 9 Inches from the tip of one wing to the tip of ye. other & 2 ft. 9 Inches
from the tip of its Bill to the tip of its tail -- Its feet were Vz
webb'd -- It's wings & back of a rusty black its head white & the
breast white tinged wt. orange. It's Bill was very remarkable &: 6
inches long --
Augt. 23d. This night lay to, as there are some Rocks & shoals laid down in some charts (in this Latde. 9'/a) just above & in many parts level with the water.
24th. Set Sail again this morg. abt. 6 o'Clock wt. a fine breeze go 6 Ks. --
25 breeze continues
28 Do. nothing matereal happen'd on these last 4 days.
29th. Caught a Boneto -- breeze continues -- KilPd the last remaing. Sheep purchased at the Cape of Good Hope -- We have now got abt. 1800 miles to Tinian wh. wt. the favourable breeze we have, we hope to reach in abt. a fortnight.
From 29th. to ye. 4th. of Sepr.
Nothing matereal -- the Breeze continued as usual, & on the 4th.
Sepr. a very large shoal of Bottle-nosed porpuses were alongside -- This
day at 12 at noon 910 Miles from Tinian --
Sepr. 7th. This Eveng. -- the Moon being very bright exhibited a very curious &: to me a very novel sight vizt. a compleat Rainbow wh. was perfectly white, & reflected another all round it, which also, occasion'd by the Rays of the Moon reflecting on some very
light misty Clouds, as the Sun occasions those we see in the daytime
in England. It continued at least Vt of an hour when a very light misty
rain fell &: in a few minutes after it totally disappear'd. This
sight several on board has seen at sea before, tho' they are not common,
nor do the Sailors like their appearance, conjecturing they portend bad
Sepr. 8th. On the morng. of 8th. Sepr. it fell calm at 6 o'Clock & continued so for Monday abt. 3 hours, when a gentle breeze sprung up. We now seldom see any birds except now & then a Tropic bird, during the Calm this morng. it was very hot, the Thermometer at 84. We are now abt. 500 miles from Tinian, expect to get there abt. Saturday next. The Carpenter is repairing &; caulking the Jolly Boat ready again we get in.
Tuesday 9th. A gentle breeze, wt. frequent showers of Rain.
10 Do. --
llth Thermometer at 83. This day not more than 250 miles from Tinian. in the Afternoon Therm: 84l/2. The Sun bears so great a power on the poop that it burn thro' the thick soals of our shoes in such a manner that 'tis impossible to stand long from under the Awning. The Tar wh. was this day put on the Jolly Boat boils up wt. the heat of the Sun the same as if it was over the fire!
12th. A fine breeze, go 4 & 4Vz Ks. -- this day at noon a Booby near the
Saturday Sepr. 13th.
Almost a Calm, go only 1 Ks. many birds, Boobies, Noddies & small white birds abt. -- abt. 97 miles from Tinian.
14th. Do. Weather -- Thermometer SlYi, very sultry. This morng. caught a large Shark: its liver remarkable large wh. was saved for its oil for the Lamp. -- frequent heavy rain but little or no wind.
15 Looks very greasy. -- a large Shark along side &: a Dolphin also, but cd. not take either -- abt. 12 at noon saw land. -- toward Eveng. a breeze came directly off the land & the horizon look'd very black all round. This night the Moon was at the full.
16 A fine morng. wt. a gentle breeze -- the Island of Saypan abt. 10 leagues distt. -- &; Tinian & Aiguigan are both in sight. -- In the Afternoon it fell quite calm.
17 Close haul'd go 3 Ks. but cd. not weather the point of Tinian, but drove between that Island &: Saypan; during the night the Currant was so very great as to drift us very near the rocks of Saypan, & we were preparing oft Saypan to drop Anchor to prevent going on shore but fortunately She drifted in the North off again. Mr. Anstis went in the Boat to examine the shore & found Pacific Ocean we might Anchor there in case of necessity.
While Mr. A was sounding the Bay he saw a Guanico on Shore -- very
hot, the Thermomr. at 88.
18 Quite calm -- abt. 8 o'Clock a.m. the Pinnace & Jolly Boat hoisted out & 10 hands in them to tow the Ship round the point of Tinian wh. is abt. 3 miles from us, but they cd. gain very little & the weather was so intensely hot that being fearfull the men wd. throw themselves up wt. the fatigue, the boats were order'd alongside again & Mr. Anstis the Chief Mate wt. 4 hands in the Jolly Boat, wt. each a musquet went on Shore; early in the morng. we cd. wt. a glass distinctly see a herd of at least 50 wild Bulls &ca. feeding on the lawns, they are perfectly white except the tips & insides of their Ears wh. are quite black, abt. 9 o'Clock a.m. a very large Shark some distance from the Ship; its fin on the back was at least a foot out of the water so that it must have been of an enormous size.
Mr. A. had his instructions were to come to us in case a breeze shd. spring up during the time he was on shore, which did come on very gently abt. 1 o'Clock p.m. & carried us round the point & we lay there all this night directly opposite the sandy beech described in Ld. Ansons acct. of this Island -- abt. nine o'Clock in the Eveng. Mr. Anstis return'd & brot. off wt. him part of a fine Bull
they had shot soon after their landing, with which we immediately had
some Broth made for the Cabin 8c all the Ship's Co. -- & some steaks
also were cook'd for the Cabin, but they I confess required very sound
& sharp teeth to get them in pieces, however anything fresh tho' ever
so tough was better to us than salt meals, therefore what we cd. not chaw
we swallow'd whole: the broth was excellent. Abt. 12 at night a violent
squall came on wt. heavy rain.
18. Arrive at Tinian
At 7 a.m. a gentle breeze came on & abt. 9 we cast Anchor in 18 fathom, abt. 2 miles from the shore, Aiguigan being abt. 3 miles on our stern. As soon as we made sail in the morng. we discover'd betwixt us & the Shore two Bouys wt. an Anchor to one of them --
Cast Anchr. in the North Pacific Ocean
These we were sure must have been left here by some Ship that had been blown out & oblig'd to cut her Cable, & as we had reason to think that either the Scarborough (Capt. Marshall) or the Charlotte (Capt. Gilbert) or both meant to touch here in their way from Port Jackson to China we naturally concluded it belonged to one of them; especially as by the appearance of the Bouys & Cable they cd. not have lain here longer than a month or 6 weeks & the next day our conjecture was verified, since upon getting up the Anchor (a very large one) it proved to be the Charlotte's as it's name was upon the Anchor stock: also upon going on Shore we discover'd a little way up from the
beech 3 water casks & a no. of top Gallt. Masts & spars,
standg. wh. had been a Tent for the sick &: a bag was also left there
with a quantity of bread in it & one of the people's shoes. --
These things convinc'd us that Capt. Gilbert had met wt. dreadfull weather here & put us upon our guard to be alway ready to sail at a short warning & never to leave any article on shore for the night, & if there was the least appearance of bad weather, everyone on shore were strictly enjoin'd to hasten down to the beech wt.out delay otherwise there might be no possibility of avoiding their being left behind, as the ground wd. not hold at all if it came on to blow hard & it was almost every where cover'd wt. patches of Sharp Coral Rocks, for tho' the depth of the water where we lay was 108 feet, yet you cd. clearly perceive the Rocks & fish at the bottom! --
This Island abounds in Cattle, Hogs & Fowls, many of all wh. were taken & served to refresh us greatly during our short stay here, (10 days) -- There are also prodigeous quantities of Limes, many Oranges very large & between the Seville &: the China orange; not so sweet as the latter nor so acid as the former. There were also many Cocoa Nut trees, Bread fruit, Guavas & Papas, but these were most of them in a green state & therefore not so
good as they wd. have been if we had arriv'd here a month later. The
plumage of the Cocks & hens is very beautiful; there are here also
great Nos. of remarkable large Batts, just the same as those at Sr.
Ashton Lever's in Leicester Sqr. wh. I think he says came from the Island
of Madagascar: many of these we shott -- but it was impossible to
preserve them either dry or in Spts. as the flies blow'd them in 5
minutes after they were taken --
To say how numerous the flies are here wd. exceed all belief -- but this I may vouch as a fact that it was totally impossible to open yr. mouth to speak, but several wd. be down yr. throat, & this Evil the greatest (except the heavy Squalls) we experienced at Tinian prevail'd nearly as much on board as on shore. -- There are various kind of Shrubs wh. bear berries but being totally new to us we did not venture to eat any of them. There is also great Nos. of Cotton trees & an herb somewhat like mint, also wild Indigo in great abundance -- we saw very few esculent plants -- Butterflies were also very numerous some of them very large &: handsome, other insects were but few in com- parison of the flies & Butterflies.
There were many Hutts, not ill built & cover'd wt. cocoa nut leaves, wh. the Spaniards erect every year near the shore when they come here from Guam to jerk beef & continue here for several months; the usual season of their
coming is from Novr. to June. There is a spring of excellent water
very near the Hutts, which enabled us to replenish all our empty Cask,
together wt. the Charlotte's 3 wh. we found on the first beech we landed
at, there we 3 Canoes left in one of the Huts -- but the greatest
Curiosity we saw at Tinian remains yet to be mention'd vizt. many stone
Pillars some 7 or 8 ft. others from 18 to 30 ft. hight, square wt.
semiglobes inverted upon their tops -- the semiglobes were clearly a
composition of the shore sand & some kind of cement, but many of the
pillars were real stone, there were generally 4 of these very lofty ones
together & in form somewhat like this - with many others in regular
rows for some paces from them & others lying almost flat on the
ground -- at first sight they do not look very unlike Stone Henge on
Salisbury plain --
There were also a great many square flat stones abt. all parts of the woods wt. a Cavity wh. wd. contain abt. a quart or 3 pints of water wh. was certainly done by Art & designed most probably to catch the rain water for the use of the Natives before the Spaniards expell'd them (as we saw no spring anywhere in the Island except that already men- tion'd near the Huts) -- the form of these stone reservoirs (as I may call them) was not unlike this f -- The Hogs are universally black, & some of the old Boars are of a
great size -- The Batts mention'd above measured 3 ft. & upwards
from the Extremity of one wing to that of the other & they emitted a
very rank & disagreeable scent from the skin very like to that
of a fox's kennel: their Colour is black except part of the head &
neck wh. is of a foxy colour, they fly by day as well as night & when
upon the wing appear quite as large & not unlike the English Raven
Many Limes have been brot. on board & squeez'd for the juice to take to Sea wt. us. -- Abt. the full & change of the moon at this season, this road is very subject to most violent Squalls of wind & rain, tho' we have been so fortunate during our being here (one week) as to have had none very heavy: once we were obliged to sail out a little way to sea in consequence of our draging the Anchor, (& 3 or 4 were on shore at the time) but had the good luck to fetch in again & drop Anchor. The Pinnace & Jolly Boat are hoisted in every night.
Went in the Jolly Bt. wt.Mr. Anstis on the reef to collect Shells & Coral, got many large Clamps which were cook'd for Supper & were very good. -- The Cattle now are so very shy that the gunners are obliged to go 3 or 4 miles up the woods before they can fall in wt. any & then the intense heat, together wt. those torments the flies renders the bring- ing the Beef down to the beech a task of such labour &: fatigue as
more than compensates for the use of them. The Hog are extremely lean
indeed, but the fowl very fine & their flesh the whitest I ever saw.
Mr. Watts very much indisposed wt. a sore throat & fever. This morng.
it rain'd very hard &; some loud peals of Thunder. Steward went on
Shore abt. 6 o'Clock a.m. & having shot a fine Boar pig abt. half
grown return'd on board wt. it abt. 9 as it look'd very black &
This Eveng. from the appearance of the Sun's setting & the Horizon all round, there was reason to expect bad weather, & our fears were but too well grounded for on monday 29th. at day break the Horizon look'd dreadfully & abt. 7 o'Clock a m a most violent squall of Wind & rain came on, the Pinnace was already in & the Jolly Boat was soon got in also, in a very Short time after it began to blow the Ship, as usual drag'd her Anchor & she went a great pace bodily to lee- ward; luckily no body was on shore & we got up the Anchor & Cable safe & just weather'd the point when another violent squall succeeded & the Capt. put to sea, determined no more to subject himself no longer to the dangers attendant upon lying in this very unsafe Road. There is every appearance of a continuance of bad weather. We are now steering for the Bashees & from thence to China.
Sail from Tinian
Tuesday Sepr. 30th.
It rain'd all last night & this morng. looks very wild & greasy -- a gentle breeze --
A fine morng. with a moderate Breeze, go 2Vz Ks. -- A great many
Boobies Sc Tropic birds abt. the Ship all day. This Eveng. the wind
shifted & came directly ahead of us, but did not continue so more
than 2 or 3 hours: this is the only time we have had a foul wind since we
left the Society Islands. -- it rain'd very hard all this night & the
wind very high: a little before dark a large Shark was caught --
preserved its Jaws -- Thermometer at 80. -
2d. A fine morng. &c but little wind -- A large Shark astern carried away my biggest Shark hook in its jaws, having snapt. insunder a large line -- Thermomr. 83 --
3d. A good deal of rain fell in the night. -- this day a gentle breeze &> fine morng. -- a Booby caught on the poop by ye. Steward -- Thermomr. 84. --
4th. & 5th. Fine breeze wt. frequent Showers a heavy swell, Ship rolls much.
6 & 7th. Both these days it blew a gale wt. frequent heavy squalls. The Horizon looks very black & unsettled. As the Capt. wishes not to get into the China Seas till after the full of the moon (abt. 6 days hence) he goes under a very easy Sail, only the fore & main topsails & those double reef'd in order to avoid if possible the
breakg. up of the Monsoons, wh. happens in these Seas, generally abt.
the full of the moon in this month, & are usually dreadfully heavy --
great Nos. of Tropic birds
abt. -- it now look very black astern --
8th. Blows a gale wt. a mountanous sea. -- many birds among wh. were 3 or 4 Swallows, exactly the same as those in England, abt. the ship, also great shoals of fish, took 2 large Bonetos wh. were stew'd for dinner & very good. -- frequent heavy squalls accompanied wt. some lighten- ing. Wind extremely variable & the Sky very wild. -- Thermomr. 84.
9th. Gale keeps up & it still continues to look very wild. Many fish & some swallows abt. -- kill'd a pig -- abt. 700 miles this day from the Bashees. -- in the morng. 8 oClock the Thermr. 84 at noon 89 --
10th. The swell of the Sea very much sunk -- & the wind also -- many Dolphins abt. the Ship's Bows. -- cd. not strike any. -- also many Bonetos & Skipjacks -- at 9 oClock am. Thermr. 86 -- this day some rock weed swam by us. --
llth. A fine morng. wt. pretty breeze, go 3 Ks. -- Many Dolphins abt. two of wh. were caught in the space of a % of an hour, one wt. a hook & Line the other struck wt. the Grains -- These were dress'd
for dinner & not being very large, were very fine eating. The
beauty &: variety of Colours these fish exhibit whilst dying (wh. is
in abt. 10 or 15 minutes after they are out of the water) wd. beggar all
discription. -- Many large Dragon flies (the same as in England) abt. the
Ship. -- Sunday 12th. A fine morng. & gentle breeze - weather appears
much more settled --
The moon at the full on tuesday next, when (if no bad weather prevents,) the Capt. means to push for China wt. all speed - - Therm- omr. at 86 (9 o'Clock am). - abt. 9 o'Clock at night (the moon shining very bright) one of the Sailors struck a very fine Dolphin wt. the Grains: it weigh'd 25 Ib after it was gutted -- Thermomr. 86 --
13th. The Breeze increased during the night & seems fresheng. -- this morng. the Horizon looks wild - o- go 5 &: 6 Ks. - Thermomr. 83 - at noon 90. -- many Dolphins & flying fish abt. -- Kill'd a suckg. pig --
14th. Clear Weather & a fine breeze -- at noon upwards of 100 miles on
the board -- now abt. 20 leagues from the Bashees -- Thermomr. 85 -- Some rock weed pass'd the Ship -- a Land Hawk seen -- many flying fish & Dolphins abt. -- this night during a heavy squall the Ram Goat went overboard & was drown'd -- Wednesday 15. At 2 o'Clock this morng. pass'd Grafton Island (one of the Bashees)
Pass'd the exactly situated as laid down by Dampier -- It blows a Gale wt. Bashees frequent Squalls of Wind &: Rain wt. a very great & hallow Sea -- This day all our Sugar expended -- Kill'd a suckg. pig.
Abt. 10 o'Clock abreast of the Island of Formosa; looks very dirty all
round - go 6 Ks. -- 124 miles on the board at 12 at noon. abt. 10 at
night the Gale died away & we went only 3 Ks. -- the Cat went
overboard & drown'd --
16th. But little wind in the morng. but encreas'd towards noon -- go 4 Ks. -- 112 miles on the board at noon -- Thermomr. 80 -- We are now abt. 70 Leagues (or 210 miles) from the Grand Ladrones -- Hope to arrive at China abt. monday next. -- Abt. 8 o'Clock a.m a large trunk of a tree pass'd the Ship --
17th. Blow'd strong all night &: this morng. a very heavy swell -- 102 Ks. on ye logboard at 7 o'Clock. This morng. -- A Hawk taken on the mizen top, very similar to the Sparrow Hawk in England. -- Abt. 2 o'Clock p.m. Saw many fishing boats, but none came along side us. hove the Lead & got bottom with 50 fathom, soil mud & small shells.
18th. At day-break saw a great No. of Islands & many Chinese Junks -- abt. 9 o'Clock a.m. a boat came alongside wt. a Pilot the Peak of Lantoo ahead of us in sight. The Pilot at first
asked 80 Dollars to take the Ship up to Macoa, but afterwards
consented to take 35, &: came on board accordingly -- In the
afternoon 4 Compradores came on board from Macoa. The office of a
Compradore is to attend upon the Ship every day during its stay in China,
to take orders for whatever is Arrival wanting & bring it on board --
their usual Salary is 200 Dollars -- at Macoa The Capt. did not engage
any of these, rather chusing to stop till he arrived at Wampoa, & see
his friend Capt Marshall of the Scarborough --
We got wt.in 4 miles of Macoa when the wind came directly ahead of us & blow'd strong -- dropt Anchor -- it continued to blow strong all night. Many Porpuses seen wh. were quite White!
Sunday 19th. Continues to blow strong -- got up Anchor abt. 11 o'Clock a.m. -- This morng. at day break saw an American Ship at anchor abt. 1 league astern of us; She proved to be the Washington, Capt. Donnalson, from Rhode Island -- Thermometer at 66 -- we are now sur- rounded by some hundreds of Fishg. Boats -- dropt Anchor at G.p.m.
20th. Still blows hard & directly against us. There are now some hundreds of Islands around us: some of them of considerable extent but most of them barren rocks. The Fort on the Island of Macoa is in sight, got up Anchor at 9 a.m. & endeavour'd to work the Ship nearer in - Thermometer 68 at 9 o'Clock a.m. --
At 11 o'Clock a.m. got up abreast of the City of Macao, abt. 1 league distant -- the Capt. & Lieut. Watts went on shore in the Jolly Boat *Similar to soon after -- at 8 o'Clock a.m. a *Sanpan came alongside wt. Oranges, the Bumboats Pumoloes, Tea, Sugar, soft Bread, Eggs, Bananas &ca. &ca. -- wh. in England were greedily purchased by us, & sold very reasonably --
We this morning enjoy'd the Luxury of Eggs, & Sugar to our Tea wh. we had been long since obliged to drink without being all expended -- A
bt. 2 o'Clock p.m. 2 Chinese Pilots came on board from Macoa, to enquire what we were, from whence we came, the name of the Capt., the Ship, No. of Guns & men, & repeatedly asked if we were TRULY not Americans --
He assured us if we were americans & went to Macoa, he shd. lose his head for giving in a false acct. of us -- We now sent our first pilot on shore thinking very soon to get another to carry us up to Wampoa, but we were much disappointed in our Expectations, for after waiting in vain for 2 or 3 days no Pilot came nor cd. the Capt., in Conjunction wt. a Mr. M'lntyre who resided at Macoa, make interest enough to procure one; the Case was this, when the 2 Chinese mention'd above learnt we had no Dollars on board or any other Loading but Fire wood on board (brot from New Holland) they took it into their head to fancy we were a Ladrone Ship, (Pirates) especially as they saw we were so very inferior in size to the Indiamen, therefore the Capt. weighed Anchor &
Pulo Penang a new Settlement of the French
determined by the Assistance of his Charts to carry up the Ship himself -- We took in 4 Gentlemen from Macoa to give them a Passage to Wampoe, vizt. Capt. Beckett, Capt. Naison, Capt. Wilson & a French Padre, going to 'Cochin China We pass'd 2 forts when the Ship was aground, notwithstanding the Boat was ahead & ye. lead kept constantly going. There was only 2 fathom water, it was the extreme point of a Sand wh. ran out a great way upon wh. She struck & was very soon got off again --
The appearance of the Country round us is very beautiful, & the Fishg. Boats are innumerable. We are now in no want of Boats alongside wt. great variety of Provisions & fruits. Upon entering the Bocco Trigris 2 Mandarines came on board & enquired if we had a Pilot -- We told him one was shortly expected to follow us from Macoa, that we were blown out of the roads & cd. not wait for him. They procured us a Pilot & stay'd on board them- 21st. selves till we arrived at Wampoe wh. was 7 days from leaving Macoa --
Sailing up the River was very pleasant, verdant hills & paddy fields on both sides of us, & when I say there were between Macoa & Wampoe at least 10,000 Boats of different kind, I shall not be thought to exaggerate by those who have been Eye witnesses of this Scene -- As soon as we arrived at Wampoe, Sanpans came along side with washg. Girls in them, to
ask for our Washing -- The day after our arrival Capt. Octr. 23d.
Marshall of the Scarborough came on board & dined on board us. The
Joy every breast felt upon meeting again so much sooner than we Arrival
at expected may be better conceived than express'd; but we learnt from
Wampoe him that since we parted at Ld. Howe Island he had lost his
Brother,  his Boatswain & a Sailor by Sickness.
On Sunday 26 I accompanied Capt. Sever, Capt. Humphreys. Capt. Willson & Mr. Anstis on board his Ship to dinner, where we met a Mr. Nason, Chief Officer of a Large Sweedish Indiaman lying at Wampoe & Mr. Hibbs chief Mate of Capt. Humphrey's Ship, (the Carnatic).
Went on board the Shaw D'Adheseer, Capt. Ramsay, a Country Ship (by far the Handsomest fitted up of any of the Country Ships I saw).
Mr. Watts left our Ship a few days after our arrival & chiefly resided at Capt. Humphreys's Factory at Canton. The Gentlemen at the Factory live very freely & it is a very Expensive place paying most exorbitantly not only for the use of the Factory but for every Article of provision --
Went on board the Ld. Camden Indiaman to look at some Madrass Cotton for Shirts, where I met a Mr. John Timins, Brother to Mr. Thos. Timins who came out wt. our fleet to Botany Bay as a Marine Officer, & who was very glad to hear of his Brother. --
Capt. Marshall of the Scar- borough supply'd. me wt. some paper & Magazines for 1788 wh. afford- ed me no small pleasure, having heard
nothing from England for so long a time -- Thinking it may not prove unentertaining to some whose hand this Journal may fall into to know the No. of Ships lying at Wampoe wt. their Commanders names, & the different places they came from, I have procured a List thereof, as accurate as I have been able & are as under --
List of the Ships lying at Wampoe Octr. 1788
|Ship's Name||Commanders||Where from|
|Admiral Do.||Smith||Do.||1 ) All|
|Shaw D'Adheseer||Ramsey||Do.||2 ) these|
|Carteer||Nash||Do.||3 ) are|
|Shaw Biramgore||Morris||Do.||4 ) Country|
|Milford||Tasker||Do.||5 ) Ships|
|Ship's Name||Commander||Where from||——|
|Carnatic||Humphreys||Do.||12 ) All|
|Prime||M'lntosh||Do.||13 ) these|
|Clive||Robinson||Do.||14 ) are|
|Ship's Name||Commanders||Where from|
|Britania, Snow||Hardy||Bombay||15 ) Country|
|Minerva||Robertson||Do.||16 ) Ships|
|Genl. Elliott||Lloyd||Malay Coast||19)|
|Prince of Wales||Wilcox||Do.||23 )|
|Argyleshire||Fowles||Bengal||24 ) — missing|
Ships missing from India
Indiamen from London 1788
|Ship's Name||Commander||Where from|
|Prince of Wales||Collinet||N.VV. Coast of America||35|
|Scarborough||Marshall||London & Botany Bay|
|Lady Penrhyn||Sever||Do. Do.||37|
|Ship's Name||Commander||Where from|
|The Britania||French Ship The only one there this Season|
|Canton||) Traxton||New York|
|Jenny.||) Thompson||American Ships — Do.|
|Washington||) Donaldson||Rhode Island|
|The Gottenburgh||a Sweedish Ship & 2 others (names unknown)|
|Three Danish Ships||— —|
|Four Dutch Do.|
|One Spanish Do.||from Manilla — wt. Dollars|
Novr. 15th. 1788
This day Wm. Gunthorpe, the Boatswain was Turn'd before the Mast & Wm. Marshall, (late Quarter Master) elected in his room -- The Shaw Biramgore, a Country Ship from Bombay, sail'd 17 Deer. -- abt. this time we reed, intelligence of an American Brig having been cut off wt. a great part of her Crew near some of the Islands not far distant from the Bocca Trigris. This Ship had been cruising a long time among the Islands in a contraband Trade & this was the occasion of the 2 Pilots who came on board us off Macoa enquiring so particularly if we were not Americans. --
This day Sail'd the Scarborough, Capt. Marshall for England, as also
the Charlotte, Capt. Gilbert for Do. -- This day wrote to Brother A &
Sister A: & Mr. Hays by Capt. Marshall of the Scarborough, intrusted
to the care of Lieut. Watts, going home in that Ship, passenger, who
promised to deliver them himself at No. 12 Mark Lane.
We have now got in our China Boheas &: expect to Sail in 3 weeks. We have been in this Harbour now 6 weeks & have had in all that time only one slight shower of rain & that in the night -- The weather here is sometimes extreamly cold & the damps wh. constantly arise from the Circumjacent
Paddy grounds occasion frequent Agues, fluxes, & other Disorders
incident to similar situations -- Stay'd a week at Canton at Capt.
Humphreys's factory; saw the Padre House & the grand Country Seat of
a Hong Mercht., Roses & many other fine aromatic flowers presented to
us there &: Tea wt. dry'd Sweetmeats served out to us in one of the
Apartments in the garden. Saw an Aviary in wh. were some of the largest
& most beautiful Peacocks I ever saw --
As the manners" & Customs of the Chinese are so well discribed by different Authors as well as known to the different Ship's Companies who annually visit this fertile Quarter of the Globe, I judge it wd. be super- fluous for me to say any thing more on that subject, than add voice to the united assent of all who have seen them that they are a most engen- ious & subtile set of people, polite to all degrees, but at all times ready in their dealings wt. Europeans to impose upon them if they do not use the utmost caution wt. them. One remark I hope to be excused making as it struck me so forcibly vizt. that the fish here (which abound in variety & Nos. are carried abt. the Streets alive in float Tubs of Water & are at all times to be had in the greatest perfection --
I mention this wt. astonishment when I consider how well known this
mode of preserving the fish in China is in London that a similar method
shd. not long ago have been adopted there! -- In their Markets it was no
unusual sight to see great Nos. of Dogs, Ratts and Catts fleed &
split & exposed to sale -- The immense flock of wild Geese &
Ducks seen flying over the River are incredible -- Their Beef is small
& by no means equal to the English -- Their China Manufactory is
exceed- ingly ingenious, but it wd. exceeds the bounds of a Journal to
describe the different processes of it --
The impositions of the Mandarines (who abound in every part of the Chinese Territories) are too well known all over Europe to need discribing here, I have only to observe I think them one of the greatest Nuisances in the Chinese Dominions, not only when view'd wt. respect to their insufferable conduct towards Europeans but even to their own people the greatest part of whom are kept in the most abject poverty in order to aggrandize a Set a worthless Miscreants, of no use whatever to the Community.
With respect to the washg. Girls, they apply upon all the Ships daily
& the terms they wash for are very inconsiderable vizt. now &
then a few fragments from the Table & at going away they expect a
Dollar or 2 - but their method of washing is so very bad, & it so
frequently happens that the Things are miscarried to other Ships &
too often altogether lost that I wd. recommend no one to have the Cloaths
they set any store by wash'd by them, but sent by the Compradore up to
Canton where they are much better done & much more likely to return
safe to you --
In going up & down to & from Canton there are no less than 3 different Chop Houses, where every boat wt. Europeans is obliged to put in & suffer their Parcells to be overhaul'd by the Mandarines, & they frequently exact bribes from those who are not acquainted wt. the manner of treating them --
18th. This day I got a Supply of Medicines from Mr. Fea, Surgeon of the Button East Indiaman .- who made me a present of 3 very good Corn- elian stones cut & polish'd.
This morng. Capt. Hunt of the Button Indiaman had the misfortune to be drown'd; he had been indisposed
it seems for some days &: 'tis conceived jump'd overboard in the
night in a frenzy, as he was not missing till the morng. & was soon
got up wt. nothing but his Shirt on; he was directly under the Ship's
Counter. Mr. Hutchinson (late chief Mate) took command of the Ship --
It is a pretty singular circum- stance that the father of Capt. Hunt was some years ago drown'd at Warnpoe by being knock'd over board by a Sail --
19th. This Eveng. the Body of the late unfortunate Capt. Hunt of the Button was inter'd wt. every requisite solemnity on Dane's Island, a Boat attending from every English Ship in the Harbour, & all the Ensigns hoisted half Staff up: the Burial Service was read by Mr. Fea Surgeon of the Dutton. at Xmas night the Jolly Boat was cut away & never cd. be found again
Weigh'd Anchor & dropt down below the Shipping & this Eveng. Capt. Sail from Sever &: Capt. Humphreys return'd from Canton wt. the Company Wampoe Packett & on llth. the Pilot came on board abt. 12 o'Clock & abt. 4 p.m. weigh'd Anchor & let go again abt. 6 p.m.
Jany. 12th. At 3 o'Clock p.m. weigh'd Anchor & dropt down very
near the 2d. Bar, directly opposite The 2d. Bar Pagoda then brot. to
& when the Anchor - was let go, (from the unskilfulness of the Pilot
& the Cable being a very old one used ever since we left England) it
parted &: a day or two was lost in attempting to recover it, but to
no purpose as one was got up in sight wh. instead of our own proved to be
the large Anchor of some Indiaman wt. the stock broke it was therefore
let go again & the Capt. thought it not prudent to lose any more time
in trying to recover it, he therefore as there was a favourable breeze,
made Sail wh. by day light on 14th. carried us out of sight of the Grand
Ladrone & the breeze increas'd as we got out to Sea. The Ship Sails
remarkably easy but is very crank --
The joy wh. every breast felt in the idea of being returng. to their native Home after so long an Absence was great & will opperate as a counter- poise to many little disasters (shd. we be unfortunate enough to meet with any) --
14th. At 11 O'Clock a.m. the Pilot left us abreast of Macoa wt. a fine breeze.
15th. Saw a Sail at a distance, wh. proved to be a Chinese Junk
loaded with cottonsupposed from Formosa. --
Jany. 17th. A fine breeze & fair; the Ship very easy. 120 Ks. on the board at 8 o'Clock a.m. -- in the night it rain'd pretty hard & abt. 2 o'Clock in the morng. there was a squall.
22d. At 2 o'Clock a.m. saw Pulo Sapata -- breeze continues.
23d. At 5 O'Clock a.m. saw Pulo Condore 5 leagues distt. -- many flying
fish, boobies & Gulls abt. --
27th. At 5 O'Clock a.m. saw Pulo Timon, abreast of it abt. 10 a.m. wt. many small rocky Islands on both sides of us. The Malay Coast abt. 10 leagues on our starboard side -- saw 2 large Sea snakes close alongside.
The side of a Rock in the Island of Timon (close by wh. we sail'd) at least a mile in height from the level of the sea, exhibited a most novel & beautiful sight, vizt. a very extensive Cascade, wh. fell from a prodigeous height; it emerg'd from thick groves of trees of a beautiful green, then fell from Rock to Rock wh. were bear of trees & therefore by the reflection of the Sun upon the Water attracted our Notice, till at last it was lost in thick clusters of trees similar to those it emerged from.
Pass'd Pulo Pissang abt. 8 o'Clock a.m. & very shortly after dropt
Anchor in a very fine sandy Bay Vz a mile from the shore of Pulo Auora
(comonly call'd Pulore) where we stay'd 2 days to compleat our water wh.
we got from a very fine rung, stream not 100 Yds. from the beech.
Anchor at Pulore or Pulo Auora
We also exchang'd old Cloath, Handkerfs. &ca. wt. the Natives for fowls, Cocoa Nuts (wh. everywhere abound in this Island) Baranjoles, marrow Apples, a small live Turtle &ca -- This Island produces the above mention'd Articles besides a great quantity of Pine apples wh. grow amongst the rocks in all parts -- there are also Goats, & Squirrells innumerable.
It is not very numerously inhabited; the Natives are of a Copper colour & always appear wt. large knives or Creeses in their hands or conceal'd under their garment -- their dress consists of a short pr. of Trowsers &: a covering in form of a mantle loosely thrown over them wt. a Handkerf. fasten'd about their head in the manner of a Turban, all of the Malay Manufacture; they many of them had Silver & Gold rings on their fingers wt. ordinary stones in them, & some of their principals had belts wt. large Silver wrought clasps, & silk Trowsers embroader'd wt. gold -- Our people never went on
Shore wt.out being well arm'd & always strictly on their guard --
&: under these precautions this Island is a very commodeous &
safe place for Ships to & from China to water at - being infinitely
more thinly inhabited than Prince's Island, wh. lies at the Extremity of
the Streights of Sunda, whereas this lies just at the Entrance of the
Streights of Banca, in Lat 2 1/2N. -- several Boats Crews have lately
been cut off at Princes Island, for wh. reason, we being a small Ship
& but thinly man'd, took the Advice of Capt. Humphreys as he had
himself touch'd here & water'd in the Carnatic.
They have many Canoes neatly made of plank & some larger craft wh. wd. carry 10 or 12 Tons, 4 of wh. lay at Anchor near the Shore loaded wt. Cocoa Nuts &ca. They are immoderately fond of chewg. the Beetel Nut wt. Chenam & whereby their teeth are render'd very black, rotten & disgusting to look at. --
At 6 o'Clock a.m. weigh'd Anchor & left Pulore wt. a fine breeze -- very hot -- We now found the Ship so very crank & from the great weight upon deck that it was found indispensably necessary to shift every
weighty Article below & get up lighter in their stead.
At 5 o'Clock a.m. saw Pulo Lingin --
Saw Pulo Taya at day break & shortly after saw ye. 7 Isles. All to
day the surface of the sea was cover'd for miles together wt. the spawn
of fishes wh. gave it a red appearance. At 10 o'Clock p.m. dropt Anchor
at the Entrance of the Streights of Banca; the weather very hot & in
the Eveng. it Lighten'd very much; got soundings in 12 Path, water, sand
& small Shells --
Feby. 2d. At day break weigh'd Anchor & at 8 o'Clock a.m. Sumatra on our Starboard side Banca on our Larboard; the distance from shore to shore abt. 3 leagues. The Island of Sumatra is much larger than England & on this side for many 100 miles together very low & flat -- it some few years ago was no unusual thing for Ships passing thro' these Streights to be attack'd by the Malay Prows, & sometimes taken by them; but now they have had experience of the Ships being properly fitted up for their reception they seldom venture to attack them. Sumatra is very rich in most productions of the East, Gold Dust in particular, in
great abundance; it belongs to the Dutch -- At noon abreast of Monopin
Hill in the Isle of Banca. Let go the Anchor abt. 9 o'Clock p.m. &:
weigh'd again abt. day break on the [3rd]
3d. At 8 O'Clock a.m. abreast of Mt. Parmasan Point Lalang in sight, a very light breeze --
4th. A very gentle breeze -- abreast of Lucypara. The Island of Java on our larboard side. Sumatra still in sight.
5 Almost a Calm -- Saw 2 large Ships under the Land of Sumatra abt. 3 leagues dist. -- abt. 5 p.m. two Malay Prows came off to us wt. each an Officer on board, one a Dutch, the other a Portuguese, in the Dutch service, they were both loaded wt. a great variety of Articles for sale -- vizt. Fowls, Turtles, Eggs, Sweet Potatoes, great quantities of Pines, very large & high flavour'd, a fruit call'd Mangustines, wh. is a prodigeous fine fruit & its rind a certain specific against all fluxes & Dysenteries.
I purchased 18 very fine Pines for a Silk Handkerf. wh. cost in China only 2s.6d. The Capt. bot. 8 fine live Turtles for a Mus- quet, a little Powder & 2 Dollars. They had also many Sorts of Birds & Monkies many of wh. were purchased for old Cloaths &ca.
The Paroquets are very beautiful; they had great Nos. of Canes. We
learnt from these people that the 2 Ships under the land were an American
& a Dutchman & were last from Batavia, waiting for the Arrival in
the Streights of a Dutch Ship from China to get Anchors & Cables from
-- Another Ship has just now hove in sight a head of us. cannot yet
discover what it is -- The weather extremely hot & sultry. --
6th. At 6 o'Clock a.m., came up wt. & spoke the above mention'd Ship wh. proved to be the Button Indiaman from wh. the late unfortunate Capt. Hunt was drown'd at Wampoe. This day almost calm; rather gain upon the Button, are now nearly out of the Streights of Sunda --
Sunday 7th. Calm continues -- now very near the Button. Kill'd 3 Turtle for the use of the Cabin & Ship's Co. -- there are this day frequent squalls 8th. A brisk breeze -- many heavy squalls gone astern some of them white squalls. This day many pieces of Timber floated by us. The Small Turtle wash'd over board in a squall last night.
9th. Wind directly against us; great many Tropic Birds abt.
Feby. 10th. Wind continues the same -- a great many Birds a Booby
caught on the Yd. arm -- many Dolphins abt. the Ship's Bows, frequent
heavy showers & cloudy. --
11 Do. 12th. Do. & many Tropic Birds Abt. the Ship --
13th. Almost a Calm & exceedingly hot -- the Button in sight from the Masthead -- at night some Lighteng. & showers
14th. Very little wind & that very variable -- many Tropic Birds & Boobies abt. -- many very large pieces of Bambo floated alongside.
Sunday 15 Almost quite calm -- the poop so very hot that it blisters the feet thro' the shoes to stand long upon it -- the Sun is now nearly vertical -- a very large Shark seen. -
16th. Very little wind, this day caught 2 Sharks, one a very large Blue one, measur'd 9 ft. & Vz in length. 9 or 10 Dolphins abt. the Ship, one or 2 hook'd but not got in - great Nos. of Tropic Birds abt. -- frequent appearances of Wind & rain but comes to nothing --
17th. Very little wind - very hot & sultry --
18th. 2 very large Logs of Wood on our Larboard Bow, Capt. Humphreys wt. 3 hands in the Canoe wh. he purchased at Pulo
paddled to them --
they were cover'd wt. Boobies & surrounded by great Nos. of Sharks, Old Wives & variety of other fish - some of the Sharks very large - they caught a small Shark & a Booby, & cd. have taken many more but a breeze springing up & lookg. like a squall comg. on they judged it most prudent to return in board. It rain'd pretty smartly, but little wind & that of short duration, extremely hot. --
But little wind & that very unfavourable. Several Men of war Birds, Tropic Birds, Boobies &: Albercores abt. the Ship, -- prodigeous shoals of Squibs seen, wt. Albercores & Boneto's pursuing them. This day caught a very large Blue Shark. Wind very frequently changg.
Wind very unfavourable & very hot disagreeable weather. -- made but 5 miles Southg. ye. last 24 hours.
Wind still the same, & very hot.
At 5 a.m. a gentle breeze came on fair for us wt. frequent heavy showers of rain & extreamly hot & at 11 o'Clock a.m. the breeze increas'd -- This day abt. 5 p.m. the Carpenter's Dog, Jockey (a great favourite of all the Ship's Co.) went over board & was drown'd.
This Morng. a fine breeze -- go 4 & 5 Ks. 70 miles on the Log board at 9 o'Clock a.m. --
The breeze continues: go 4 Ks -- not quite so Sultry as yesterday.
25th. Breeze freshens, go 5 &: 6 Ks. -- 121 miles on the board at noon -- many Albatrosses, Boneto's & flying fish abt. -
26th. Fine breeze, 135 miles on the board at noon, many Shoals of Alber- cores, flyg. fish, Squibs &ca. abt. The Steward struck an Albercore wt. the Grains, but it got off again.
27th. Breeze Continues -- 141 miles at noon on the Board.
28 Continuance of the breeze -- 134 miles on ye. Board at noon, many
flyg. fish abt. --
Breeze Continues -- 150 Ks. at noon on the board.
2d. Do. 154 Ks. at noon on the board, many flyg. fish & some Tropic birds abt. -- a great Swell -- at 5 o'Clock p.m. the Steward caught a fine Dolphin, weighed 15 Ib, the best flavour'd I ever tasted.
3d. Breeze continues -- 154 Ks. at noon, -- many flying fish abt.
4th. Do. 137 miles at noon -- many flyg. fish abt. --
5th. Do. 152 miles on ye. Board at noon.
6th. Do. 150 at noon -- on the board. --
This day upon Examination I found my Sandwich Island Matts & Cloth
very damp & getting mouldy, wt. a profusion of small Ants abt. them,
-- got them all on the Poop, Air'd & brush'd them well -- & took
every precaution to annihilate them in future. This day many flying fish
abt. & some Shirewaters --
Sunday 8th. Rather less wind -- 120 Ks. on the board at noon --
9 Very light breeze -- go only 3Vz Ks. -- weather very Sultry -- many flyg. fish abt. --
10th. Breeze rather freshens -- go 4Va Knots -- 100 Ks. on ye. board at noon.
11 Very little wind, go only IVa Ks. -- 75 Ks. on ye. board at noon.
12 But little wind till 4 O'Clock p.m. when a fine breeze sprung up - go 4 & 5 Ks. -- day excessively hot. In the Eveng. as soon as the Sun was down it began to Lighten, & continued to do so (at a great distance) till abt. 11 at night when a most violent Storm of Thunder, Lightening, &; Rain came on (without much wind) which lasted till one O'Clock in the morng. when it gradually abated, during the Storm what wind there was was ahead of us. --
An Acct. of the No. of Miles the Ship has gone from Portsmouth
|From .. Portsmouth to Teneriffe||1757|
|Teneriffe to Rio de Janeiro||3045|
|Rio de Janeiro to the Cape of Good Hope||3302|
|Cape of Good Hope to Botany Bay, New S: Wales||7378|
|Botany Bay to Port Jackson Do.||30|
|Port Jackson to Ld. Howe Island||509|
|Ld. Howe Island to M'Cauley Island||1595|
|M'Cauley Island to Oteheite||4406|
|Oteheite to Huihane||90|
|Huihane to Tinian||4118|
|Tinian to the Bashees||1363|
|Bashees to Wampoe (China)||528|
|Wampoe to Pulore||1500|
|Pulore to St. Helena||10967|
|St. Helena to Culver Cliff, Isle of Wight, England||4252|
|Total No. of Miles||44,840|
March 13th. A gentle breeze go 3!/2 Ks. -- looks very unsettled --
many Boneto's abt. the Ship one of which (weighg. 14 Ib.) was taken by a
hook & Line by one of the Sailors -- many Tropic birds & Shire-
waters abt. -- it rain'd chief of this night.
14th. Very light breeze & that not very fair -- looks wild & unsettled this day cross'd The Tropic of Capricorn; frequent Squalls. --
Bonetos & Tropic birds abt.
March 19 A gentle breeze -- 83 Ks. on the log at noon, many Tropic birds & some Boneto's abt. one of wh. was caught by the Steward.
20th. Breeze rather freshens -- go 4 & 5 Ks. -- 104 miles on the Log at noon still many Tropic birds abt. -- this day one of the Sows wh.
20th. was diseas'd was knock'd on the head & thrown overboard by the Captain's order.
21 A gentle breeze -- still attended by many Tropic birds, & some very large flyg. fish abt. -
22d. But very little wind, go only 2 ks. Some Tropic birds & Dolphin abt. - last night caught a remarkable fish astern, it was somewhat similar to the Barracuta wt. a fin extending the whole length of the back - a great shoal of Dolphin abt. 3 of wh. were caught wt. hooks & got on board & 3 others were hook'd but dropt off again -- in the Eveng. just before dark 3 large Sharks astern, two of which were caught at the same instant & got on board; they measur'd between 14 & 15 ft. Each in length -- I preserv'd the Jaws & fin of one of them -- many Pilot fish abt.
Monday Very little wind & very hot. many Pilot fish abt. the
Ship's bottom --
March 23d. also many Tropic birds &: Shirewaters abt. -- all the Dolphin left us. -- This day Squires 2d. Mate, ty'd a large stone to the neck of his Chinese dog, (Buff) & throw'd him overboard in consequence of the Captain's speakg. to him for cruelly treating his (the Captain's) Oteheite Goat! This day the Captain order'd a hog to be kill'd for the Officers
24th. A gentle breeze -- very hot. 80 miles on ye. board at noon --
25th. A fine morng. & a good breeze, many flyg. fish, Bonetos &ca. abt.
26th. A fine morng. & a moderate breeze, rain'd very hard in the night, it is worthy of remark that we have been exceedingly fortunate in all our Stock on board, but particularly the Hogs the increase of which since we left Wampoe has been so great that the No. is as great as when we sail'd from thence. Abt. 3 o'Clock p.m. discover'd a Sail from the foretop a great distance ahead, & shortly after another. The breeze rather freshens.
27 At day break cd. plainly discern two Sail ahead from the deck, & at the same time saw another Sail on the N.E. quarter
Abt. 3 leagues distant, This morng. a great many flyg. fish, Gulls
& large Albatross abt. & a very large shoal of Bonetos abt. 7 of
wh. were caught wt. Oteheite fish hooks & 4 struck wt. the Grains;
there is now a fine breeze & a great swell, go 6 Ks.
28 Breeze kept up all night &: still continues, 140 Miles on ye. board at noon, many flyg. fish, Bonetos & Boobies abt. -- & many Albercores abt. 1 of wh. the Steward caught weighg. 151b.
Abt. 4 p.m. it fell almost Calm & soon after the wind came directly ahead, many black Shirewaters & some flyg. fish abt. -- The Ships all out of Sight. -- Sunday Rains very hard wt. a very black dismal lookg. Atmosphere; cd. plainly
29 see 3 Ships on our Larboard Bow abt. 3 leagues dist. -- there is every appearance of a heavy Gale of wind, therefore every precaution was taken to be ready to receive it, & abt. 8 o'Clock a.m. it began to blow, & continued all that day. wt. the wind ahead. Last night during the Calm a Grampus arose near the Ship's stern & blow'd twice or thrice, down fore & Mizen Top Gallt. Yds. at 8 o'Clock a.m. & close reef'd Fore Top SI. & double reef'd the Main Top SI. -- Handed Mizen Top SI. & reef'd Main SI. &ca. &ca.
P.M. Still continues to blow very hard & every reason to expect
it's blowg. harder: it rain'd very hard & towards Eveng. & during
the whole of the night it blow'd a perfect Hurricane.
30th. The Gale not at all abated but rather fairer. Ship lies her course & goes 4 Ks. -- many Bonetos abt., some of wh. were taken by hooks & some by ye. Grains, plenty of fish now for all hands, many flyg. fish, Gulls, Boobies &ca. abt. ye. Ship.
This day a great quantity of rock- weed floated alongside us. at noon the wind rather abated & came more favourable. There was such a mountainous Sea as to wash away great part of the Pumkins which were slung under the Cabin window & Vz of a pr. of Sharks Jaws I had hung there to dry. The dead light was put into the quarter Gallery window, (wh. was the Lee side of the Ship). Abt. 6 p.m. the wind & swell were both much abated. --
31st. Fine breeze on the beam, go 6 Ks. -- 120 miles on ye. Log at noon many Albercores, flyg. fish & Boneto's abt. caught many Bonetos wt. hooks & Line -- the Albercore were supposed to weigh not less than 150 Ib Each --
Abt. 4 o'Clock a.m. the wind shifted & came nearly ahead wt. light
rain -- many Gulls & Shirewaters abt. --
2d. Brisk wind but still ahead; Ship does not lie her course by 5 points -- many fish & birds abt. Steward caught 2 Bonetos &: 1 Albercore.
3d. Wind not so much but still foul -- Steward caught another Albercore weigh'd 17 Ib & 2 or 3 Bonetos. great Shoals of different kinds of Fish abt. -- abt. noon the Wind began gradually to subside & by 3 o'Clock p.m. it was nearly calm, & continued so the remainder of the day and all night, the Ship's head being all round the Compass. The calm con- tinued till abt. 8 o'Clock in ye. morng. of the [4th]
4th. when a gentle breeze sprung up, fair for us, wh. seems gradually in- creasing: go 2 Ks. -- Very large Shoals of Albercore abt. wh. abt.
4 o'Clock p.m. began to take the bait & between that time & dark there were no less than 25 taken wt. the pearl fish hooks. & got safe on board, besides many that were hook'd but dropt off again. Upon an average they weigh'd 16 or 17 Ib Each: so that now there was great plenty of fish for all Hands both to Eat fresh as also to Salt.
The flesh of the Albercore is very white & sweet tasted tho'
rather dry -- but, in my opinion, far exceeds the Bonetos or Dolphin.
This day a large Shark was caught wh. came along wt. the Shoal of
Sunday 5th. A fine breeze & fair, go 6 & 7 Ks. - great Nos. of Boneto all round the Ship - 9 of wh. were caught this day by the Ship's Co.
6th. Wind came ahead & there was every appearance of an approaching Gale. All hands call'd to furl Sails &ca. it rain'd slightly for abt. 1A of an hour, there were some few flashes of Lighteng. & peels of thunder, when it clear'd away & the wind was moderate tho' still ahead: there were ll!/z miles on the Log at the time the wind came foul.
The Air is extreamly cold & there are very heavy dews fall a'night a very large Albatross seen -- abt. 12 at noon it blew strong Capt. weer'd Ship, still con- tinues very cold; we are now by Calculation abt. 808 miles from ye. Cape of Good Hope.
7th. Wind still the same, but not so strong, weer'd Ship at noon, a large Albatross seen, still continues very cold wt. a heavy swell.
Wednesday April 8
The wind still the same, but rather less of it. Swell greatly abated: at 8 o'Clock a.m., it became more favourable but continued so only a short time when it return'd to it's old quarter.
9th. Wind directly ahead, & very cold -- the Ship does not lie her course by 3 points. --
This being the Birth-day of Capt. Humphreys, (Passenger) the same was observ'd wt. the usual Ceremonies. A Ham & Chickens, a Goose, & some *Apple pies
*Made of Dry'd Apples from the Cape of G:H.
constituted the Dinner wt. excellent Sherry & Grog in plenty -- This day a very large Batt -- (vulgo a flying Fox) was seen flying near the Ship, which soon alighted on the Mizen Top & was taken by the Carpenter: it appeared so exhausted as to be near dropg. into the Sea once or twice before it alighted, & 'tis most probable it had flown from the Island of Madagascar wh. abounds in these kinds of Animals as well as the whole sea coast of the Continent of Affrica, from wh. we are not many 100 miles distant, it was exactly similar to those in the Late Sr. Ashton Levers Museum wh. came from Madagascar.
April 10th. The wind still foul &: blows pretty brisk. A great
many Mother Gary's Chickens abt.
llth. Wind came on fair abt. 1 o'Clockp.m. -- I am very much indisposed wt. a violent Eruption all over me & itching, took 16 Oz of Blood from my Arm, used Cathartics &; other Antiphlogistic Medicines -- The weather exceedingly cold.
Sunday The Ship has barely steerage way -- a very fine morng. & much ye. famous warmer than yesterday. A large Albatross abt. many Mother Gary's
12th. Chickens abt. in the Eveng. look'd very cloudy, but very little wind abt. 6 o'Clock p.m. 2 Grampuses arose near the Ship. In the night it rain'd pretty smartly & abt. 7 o'Clock a.m. fair.
ye. 13th. A gentle breeze came on &: seem'd increasing, & is fair, a large Shoal of Mackerell seen at a small distance from the Ship; but there is not wind enough to attempt catchg. any of them. It fell calm abt. 11 o'Clock a.m. The water appears very green wh. induces us to suppose there is a Bank near. Last night there was a most remarkable
heavy dew fell, in the Eveng. it Lighten'd very much.
April 14 The first watch last night it fell calm, but abt. 12 o'Clock a gentle breeze sprung up. many Shirewaters, Gulls & Mother Gary's Chickens abt. -- This day by Lunar Observation we are exactly 600 miles from ye. Cape of Good Hope 30,41.45. East from Greenwich. -- go 45/2 -- at 8 o'Clock p.m. go 6 Ks. & continue to go so all night.
15th. Breeze continues -- go 6 Ks. -- 124 miles on ye. Log at noon, many large white Gulls & some large flyg. fish abt. -- not so cold;
15th. we are now, by Calculation 480 miles from the Cape of Good Hope -- rain'd pretty hard this night.
16th. But little wind, directly Aft; -- go 3 Ks. -- increas'd towards noon & in the Afternoon a thick haze came on & a breeze wt. it. go 5 Ks. - 2 F. Lighten'd very much last night; several Albatrosses abt. -- at 10 o'Clock p.m. a violent Tempest of Thunder & Lighteng. came on, wh. continued the greatest part of the night. The Lighteng. was almost incessant & at one time very near us as the Thunder succeeded very quickly after -- it rain'd very hard.
17 This morng. very little wind, but a great Swell, directly Aft
wh came at one time into the Cabin windows & wash'd away the
Pumkins wh. were at the Stern -- now very little wind & that very
variable the Ship's head being round the Compass, there is a very strong
Current -- several very large Albatrosses abt. -- Abt. 10 o'Clock a.m. a
breeze came on directly ahead, very thick & foggy this morng., but
towards noon it clear'd up, & was a clear afternoon & in the
Eveng. it fell Calm, at 12 at noon tack'd Ship. This day a young Oteheite
Sow kill'd for all hands, in the Eveng. very little wind; some Lighteng.
at a great distance, a shark seen astern at night, but wd. not take the
18th. Calm all night & this morning, go only l'/2 K -- many Mother Gary's Chickens &: black Shirewaters abt. -- at 11 a.m. a gentle breeze came on upon the quarter & seems gradually increasg.; go 3 Ks.
This After- noon Joseph Downy, one of the Quarter Masters, being intoxicated, & playing tricks, fell down & Dislocated his Left Shoulder, at 7 o'Clock p.m. the Breeze increas'd & we go 4 & 5 Ks. all night. --
Sunday 19th. A fine breeze this morng. go 6 Ks. a remarkable thick Fog, all night &
this morng. till abt. 8 o'Clock, when the Sun dispersed it & the breeze continued -- many Shirewaters, Mother Carys Chickens & Albatrosses abt. -- Sea weed floated alongside, at 2 o'Clock p.m. the Wind came directly ahead wh. cast us all into the Dumps as we have been
14 weeks from Macoa & hoped to have been round the Cape long
before this time; besides many matters in the Ship do not wear so
pleasing a Prospect as cd. be wish'd. With respect to our Stock we have
plenty yet (vizt.) 49 Fowls 18 Hogs & Pigs besides several Sows which
are near pigging, great plenty of Salt Provissions &: Rice & abt.
6 weeks water but then our provissions for the Stock begins to grow low.
-- This day caught a Curious large Moth - tho' so very far from Land.
19th. &: the greatest part of the night it Lighten'd very much all round the atmosphere, wt. some distant thunder & looks very dirty. -- Lighten'd & Thunder'd all this night.
20th The wind foul, Ship does not lie her course by 1 point, & still looks very dirty. Abt. 10 a.m. it fell calm & at 11 look'd very black to the southward & thunder'd at a great distance, the Tempest did not come on, but it rain'd the greater part of the day, & was very cold -- at 2 o'Clock p.m. it again fell calm. --
21st. A gentle breeze, go 3 Ks. Ship 1 point from her course, & sometimes 2 or 3 points. Sky looks very wild & unsettled all round; at 11 a.m. a Squall came on wt. a very mountainous Sea & blow'd very hard chief part of the day. an appearance of a heavy Squall arising to the W. the most compleat Rain Bow I ever saw its two Extremities reachg. from the water almost to the Ship's side --
many Mother Gary's Chickens abt. -- at 8 o'Clock p.m. the Tiller Rope
broke & as it was blowing very hard at the time the Consternation
this untoward accident occasion'd was great; but fortunately at the time
it happen'd several of the Sailors were down in the Steerage & saw
the rope break & had the precaution to seize the End of the broken
rope & secur'd it round a stantion, till another rope was fixt, which
by great Exertion was accomplish'd in abt. '/a an hour wt.out any
accident happening to the Ship, since it very frequently falls out upon
such an accident that a Ship is either poop'd or carries away some of her
There is now a very great sea. At 12 o'Clock at night we were all a good deal alarm'd by Squires (the 2d. Mate's) calling out in a strange manner, a sudden shift of wind took the Ship all aback however by proper Exertions & the Captain jumping immediately upon deck, the danger was soon obviated, by taking in Sail veering Ship &ca. &ca. --
This accident also frequently occasions, (like the Tiller rope's breakg.) a Ship's carrying away the Masts or being poop'd; but these disasters were prevented by the indefatigable Exertions & constant Watchfulness of the Captain since I am sorry to say the Conduct of some of our Officers is such as renders it totally unsafe to relye either
upon their Zeal or Abilities. April 22d. The wind & weather still
very unsettled, the Ship seldom lying her Course for Vz an hour together.
-- Abt. 11 o'Clock a.m. hove the deep sea lead, & found sounding at
the depth of 80 Fathoms (small
shells and sand) wh. afforded great satisfaction as it gave us a reasonable presumption of shortly getting round the Cape, wh. the foul winds wh. have for a long time baffled us prevented our accomplishg. & as our Water is so far expended, if the wind shd. continue unfavourable much longer we must have been under the disagreeable necessity of standing for Madagascar & losing our passage round the Cape for this Year. This day it is very cold indeed wt. a thick fog -- many Gannets abt. --
23d. A fine morng. but very cold, no wind, but a very strong Currt. at day- break saw Land all along upon our Starboard quarter (the Continent of Africa) at 10 o'Clock p.m. tack'd Ship. This night was calm & at one
24th. time the Ship drifted bodily on Shore wh. in the morning was not more than 1 League distant, this alarm'd us not a little & the Cable was got up & Anchors prepared to let go in case of necessity, but, fortunately abt. 10 O'Clock a.m. a breeze came off the Land when Tack'd Ship & in a short time were reliev'd from our Fears of going ashore. Caught some few fish, a red Snapper & some weakfish.
April 25th. A fresh breeze, but directly ahead. The land almost out of
Sight. A[t] 7 o'Clock p.m. a Ship pass'd our Stern, going before the wind
at a great rate, she did not speak us, & we conceive she did not see
us. Sunday 26th. Blows very hard; as it has done all last night, with a
prodigious Sea & the wind directly in our teeth. Down Top Gt. Yd.
weather exceedingly cold. The Capt. took off 1 pint of water a day from
every Man's allow- ance (wh. used to be 5 pints) till we get round the
Cape, &: we discon- tinued to have Tea of an Afternoon in the Cabin
in consequence of the Small stock of Water on board. Some porpuses,
Gulls, Shirewaters & Boobies abt. --
27th. Wind still continues foul -- at 8 o'Clock last night tack'd Ship & at 7 o'Clock this morng., veer'd.
28th. Wind still foul, tho' but very little of it being almost Calm, at day break saw a point of Land abt. 2 leagues ahead, but cd. not ascertain whether it was Cape Agulhas, -- at same time saw a Ship on our Larboard quarter abt. 3 leagues dist. upon the same tack as ourselves -- at 4 o'Clock p.m. a gentle breeze came on wh. gradually increases & is fair for us. Abt. 12 this night weather'd Cape Agulhas with a staggering
29th. A fine breeze directly Aft -- go 6 Ks.- -- at Day break saw a
Sail on our Larboard quarter, at 7 o'Clock a.m. She hoisted Dutch Colours
& a long Pendant, wh. we directly answer'd wt. our Ensign, she bore
down to us abt. 2 o'Clock & spoke us; She proved to be a Dutch
Pacquet from Batavia to Holland & was going into the Cape of Good
Hope -- at 10 o'Clock A:M. -- the wind again draw'd forward, & we are
now close haul'd Land in sight on our Larboard quarter All the News we
cd. learn from Europe by the Pacquet was, "that there was War" between
the Russians & the Sweeds --
30th. But little wind this morng. & that foul, the weather fine. At 10 o'Clock it came on to rain & a fine breeze came with it, quite fair for us which carries us 4 & 5 Ks. whereby we hope to be able very shortly to get round the Cape G:H: The fair wind continued all night.
The breeze continues; go 6 Ks. -- 109 Miles 6 Paths, on the Board at
noon. Many Albatrosses & large Bottle nos'd Porpuses abt. --
2d. A staggering breeze & fine morng. -- went 7 & 8 Ks. all night & also this morng. -- at noon this day 172 miles on the board wh. is a greater Log than we have had before since we left New South Wales.
Sunday _ A fine breeze, & a fine day -- 177 miles on the board at
noon -- May 3d. A great swell of sea -- many Port Egmont Hens abt. --
Wind directly Aft --
4th. A fine steady breeze; go 5 Ks. -- not so cold -- 141 miles on ye. board at noon.
5th. A fine morng. wt. a gentle regular breeze, go 35/2 ks. - 92 Miles on the board at noon --
6th. A fine grey morning & fresh breeze -- go 5 Ks. -- 122 miles
on ye. board at noon -- A large piece of Sea weed floated alongside -- at
9 o'Clock a.m. a very large Fish rose alongside; it was nearly as big as
a Whale, & supposed to be not less than 40 feet in length; it had a
remarkable sharp long snout & a blow hole situated a considerable way
back from the snout -- it had a large fin on its back near the Tail.
The oldest Sailor in the Ship never saw any fish of the kind before -- Abt. the same time, from the masthead saw a Ship abt. 3 leagues distant on our Starboard quarter; a Shoal of Porpuses near the Ship in the
6th. Evening -- All this night but very little wind -- 7th. Nearly calm this morng. -- the Ship seen last night astern of us abt. 3 leagues is this morng. at day break abt. 2 leagues distant on our
Larboard Bow -- A grey morng. wt. some few heavy Clouds to Eastward.
It continued nearly calm till towards night when a foul wind sprung up
directly ahead. -- this Eveng. the Sea was cover'd wt. porpuses as far as
the Eye cd. reach.
8th. The foul wind continues - the Ship does not lie her course by several points -- it looks very squally -- the Ship seen on our Starboard Bow last night is now out of sight.
9th. At 9 o'Clock this morng. a heavy squall came on, wt. rain, wh. continued abt. 1 hour. Wind still continues foul -- there is not much of it but what there is is directly against Us. A remarkable heavy swell rolling in from the Westward, wh. induces us to think it has blown very hard to W. --
A large shoal of small fish call'd yellow tails (abt. the size of a herring) abt. the Ships bottom & stern, several of wh. were caught wt. a crooked pin & one put on a hook over the Stern wh. abt. 7 o'Clock p.m. caught a very fine Dolphin -- at 11 o'Clock at night (the Shark hook being put overboard before we went to bed & a string fasten'd to the rope & ty'd to the Cabin bell) we were awoke by a violent ringing of the Bell & found a very large Shark hook'd wh. was' got in --
Sunday 10 A fine morng. but Calm, as it has been almost all night -- the Shoal
17th. Sunday of yellow Tails still abt. the Ship; many of wh. were caught this morng.
by the Sailors -- also another very large Shark was alongside, but wd.
not take the bait --
Still calm - The Shark caught at 4 p.m. -- at 7 o'Clock a.m. a breeze
came on & seems increasing: in the forenoon a large shoal of Dolphin
astern, caught 3 & got them on board & 4 others were hook'd
&: nearly got up but broke the hooks & fell into the water again.
A moderate breeze, go 3V6 Ks. -- 84 miles on ye. Log at noon --
13th. A fine morng. & gentle breeze -- go 4V2 [Ks.] -- 110 miles at noon. --
Do. -- 111 miles at noon on the Log. --
15th. Fresh breeze -- 120 miles at noon -- a very large Shoal of Bottle nos'd Porpuses alongside: a flyg. fish dropt on the main deck this morning.
16th. A Close dull morng. wt. a fresh breeze -- 96 miles at noon, a large Albercore &: shoals of flyg. fish abt.
Sunday 17th. A fine morng. & regular breeze -- go 4'/2 Ks. -- 7 Albercores astern, Caught 4 of them.
18th. Sunday from Wampoe
Arrive at St. Helena
At Day break saw the Island of St. Helena, the Capt. was
the first who saw it -- a gentle breeze, go SVa Ks. but toward noon
the breeze fail'd &: we do not expect to get in to night: but shortly
after the wind freshen'd again &: we neared the Island very much --
At 4 p.m. -- the 3d. Mate was sent on Shore in the Pinnace wt. a Note to
the Gov- ernor, to signifie what Ship we are & from whence we came,
as no Ship is suffer'd to pass the first Fort wt.out this ceremony,
otherwise they wd. be fired at from the Fort, & a large board is fixt
on the most con- spicuous part of the Rock signifying that they must send
their boat on Shore &ca. &ca. it is wrote in English, French
& Portugueze --
The Pinnace returning at 7 o'Clock p.m. we learnt that there was War between Denmark Russia &; Sweeden (the 2 former against the latter) & also the Melancholy News of the distressfull situation of our King wt. the appointment of the Prince of Wales to the Regency &ca. &ca. There is now in this road the Carnatic Indiaman, Capt. Conner wh. came in yesterday from China -- 2 large Danish Indiamen, we learnt that 2 large Sweedish men had left St. Helena a few days since & were waiting a small distance from the
Island for the Danes, wh. we heard wd. continue here till the arrival
of a Danish Man of War to protect them, but however they Sail'd in
Company 2 days before we Sail'd -- they Each of them mounted 26 Guns --
& were determined to risk an Engagement shd. they fall in wt. the
Sweedish Ships -- The Britannia Store Ship, Capt. Cuming was also at
Anchor here --
The Capt. was invited to dine at the Governor's, (Robt. Brooke Esqr.) to Morrow wh. he accepted & went accompanied by Capt. Humphreys -- The appearance of the Town from the Ship, is exceedingly picturesque, The Church, the Governor's House (astraw-colour'd Front) the principal Street, wt. the stupendous Rocks on Each side The Valley in wh. the Town is situated with the Forts & Batterys on the Tops of them, & the Platform wt. the large Guns 32 Ibs. & a beautiful row of Banyan Trees
18th. in the front of the Governor's House all together form an Assemblage of Beauties of wh. it is easier to form an Idea than to give a just descrip- tion wt. the pen --
We also learn that Mr. Wm. Collins (Lieut.of Marines who went out wt.
us to B Bay & whom we left at Port Jackson in a very ill state of
Health) had arrived here in a foreign Ship in his way to Europe; it seems
the Governor of New South Wales (A: Philip) having lost his stock was
under the necessity of sending the Sirius to the Cape of G: Hope for a
fresh supply in which Ship Lieut. Collins came to the Cape & from
thence got a passage in a foreign Ship as above --
We reed. Letters at this place from Capt. Marshall & Lieut. Watts of the Scarborough wh. informed us of the very melancholy fate of Several of Ships of the Botany Bay Squadron, wh. we left at Port Jackson -- vizt. that the Alexr. Capt. Sinclair had proceeded to Sea in Company wt. the Friend- ship, Capt. Walton, that the Crew of the Alexr. had been so distress'd wt. the Scurvy as to bury 18 hands in 3 Weeks, & the Friendship had suffer'd tho' not in so great a degree from the same dreadful disorder, whereby they were necessitated to scuttle &: sink the Friendship, Capt. Walton, & take over the remainder of her Crew to strengthen that of the Alexr. -- Capt. Mason of ye. Prince of Wales died at Sea, soon after leaving Port Jackson & Capt. Read of the Borrowdale (one of the Victuallers) parted company with the Alexr. & Friendship &; after enduring very great
Hardships in her passage round Cape Horn at last arrived safe at Rio
de Janiero wt. only 4 hands able to stand the Deck - The Golden Grove,
Capt. Sharp & The Fishburn Capt. Brown were detain'd at Port Jackson
by the Governor -- they were ill provided wt. necessaries when we left
them &: the Scurvy had begun its ravages, wherefore there is every
reason in the world to conclude the most fatal consequences have ensued
'ere this! --
Thus fatally &: thus unexpect- edly has terminated the famous Botany Bay Expedition -- & I presume so soon as this dismal acct. reaches England, it will prove a difficult matter to procure Sailors to engage in a future voyage to this unpropitious settlement, wt.out a very considerable advancement of Wages or some other very lucrative offers.
St. Helena abounds in innumerable flocks of Pheasants & Partridges & Pidgeons -- great Nos. of Rabbits -- & the Air is sometimes darken'd by the prodigeous flocks of Avedevats -- but as these delicate little Birds will not long survive their being confined in Cages few people who touch here chuse to purchase
them for wh. reason the Inhabitants had none to sell. The road abounds
in small mackerell, many Thousands of wh. were caught in a day -- there
are also many
18th. very large Albercores -- many of wh. we saw in the boats alongside
wh. weighed at least 60 Ib Each, there are also many Other sorts of Fish wh. we met wt. at Gentlemen's Table where we dined --
The Capt. & Capt. Humphreys return'd on board abt. 12 o'Clock at noon; they learnt there had been an Earthquake at Botany Bay since we left it, & that Capt. Campbell had been dispatch'd up the Country wt. a party of 40 Marines. I reed, a Letter by Capt. Sever from Lieut. Watts left to the care of Major Robson the Lieut. Governor of St. Helena. & at same time an Invitation to dine on the morrow wt. him in company wt. Capts. Sever & Humphreys. Lieut. Watts had mentioned me in the most respectful terms to the Major, who assured him he shd. be happy to shew me every attention to render my stay at St. Helena agreeable -- wh. promise he most amply fulfill'd as I never reed, so much Friendship & Civility from any Family (to whom I was a stranger) as I reed, from his.
19th. May The Major is a great Virtuosi, & has wt.out exception
the first private Collection of Natural Curiosities I ever saw; wh. I was
very happy to encrease by some few Articles I possess'd & which he
thought worth his acceptance, & for wh. I reed, other Curiosities in
The Major is a Man totally devoid of all State & pomposity, & seems never so happy as when he is in the Company of persons of a similar cast of Temper wt. himself -- & his Lady is also a most agreeable accomplish'd woman, they have a numerous little family abt. them & I must do them the justice to declare I never saw Domestic Happiness shine so conspicuously before as in this Circle.
We dined & drank Tea several times at the Major's Town House, & we all went one morng. by the Major's Invitation to his Country House to Breakfast -- 3 Horses were provided by him Sc Mr. Kennedy (the Gentleman at whose House we lodged) for our accommodation, wh. we used alternately -- it is abt. 6 miles from the Town, & one of the most beautiful Spots on ye. Island
The Major has a small Organ & a very good Toned Forte Piano --
& as I reed, a general invitation I frequently call'd Sc had a Tune
upon them. Mrs. Robson also presented me wt. a parcel of Magazines &
2 packages of Newspapers, wh. will prove an acquisition at Sea -- 20th.
At the desire of Capt. Sever I went on Shore & Lodged at Mr.
Kennedy's where the Capt. & Capt. Humphreys Lodged (at 12s.6d. a day
Each) & I continued on shore till the day we Sail'd -- Mr. & Mrs.
Kennedy are both very polite good kind of people Sc treated us wt. every
mark of Attention & respect; The parting wt. whom, as also wt. Major
20th. Robson from whom we had Reed, such marks of Friendship & Esteem Exhorted Tears on both sides; having been so long from Home, & strangers to the face of any European, will I hope plead in Excuse for a Sympathizing Tear upon so affecting an occasion, especially when we reflected that in all human probability we shd. never see each other more, Mr. & Mrs. Kennedy are both Natives of the Island nor were either of them ever out of it --
Three days previous to our leaving St. Helena a small Danish Ship arrived (Capt. Kurt) in wh. came passengers from India the Countess of Berkhausen &: Capt. Loy her Husband, who took Lodgings at
Mr. Kennedys by the recommendation of Major Robson &c shortly
after they engaged a passage to England in our Ship, as the Danes were at
war & they saw the Risk of being taken prisoners --
The Island of St. Helena abound in a variety of Articles which a stranger on first arriving there cd. not possibly expect to meet wt. -- vizt. Pheasants, Partridges, (no Hares) Rabbits, Pidgeons, Turkeys, Bullocks, Sheep, Hogs, Goats, Fowls; (the Hogs & sheep very indifferent) it abound also in water cresses & purslain, Potatoes & many other Species of Kitchen vegetables -- The fruits here are Apples, Bananas, Figs, some few Peaches, & melons, pomegranites & some few other things -- Oranges & Lemons, Chillies, cucumbers &ca.
There is a most beautiful Cascade abt. 1 mile out of the Town, to wh. Capt. Sever myself & Mr. Kennedy walk'd one afternoon; the stream of water from a perpend- icular height of at least 100 Yards upon a bed of Rock in the Valley beneath, & The Columb of Water being in its descent dispersed by the Wind falls in the form of a heavy shower of rain, it takes its course from the valley in a meandering stream edged on both side[s] wt. prodigeous thrifty watercress
19th May 1789
to the Town, where it terminates in a very handsome Conduit for the accommodation of the Inhabitants -- the Water is extreamly clear & pure -- Our Ship's Co. were refresh'd wt. 2 fresh meals of Beef & Vegitables by the Capt. during our stay here, wh. was as often as cd. be granted by the Governor.
An accident happen'd during our stay here to one of the Artillery men at the Battery on Ladder Hill, in returng. the Salute of the Danish Indiamen, thro' inattention in springing the Gun before it was loaded again it went off & blow'd off one hand & 2 fingers of the other Hand besides shattering the Bones of the Elbow &ca. -- it is Supposed the Man cannot survive.
27th. Leave St.Helena
We dined this day at one o'Clock & abt. 4 p.m. Capt. Sever, Capt. Humphreys, the Countess & Capt. Loy, accompanied by Major Robson, his Son, & Mr. Kennedy took leave of this Hospitable Isle & proceeded on board Ship -- the Major & Mr. Kennedy staid on board abt. 1 hour when we made Sail wt. a most propitious breeze & by the followg. night we lost sight of the Island. A fine morng. & gentle breeze 49'/z Ks. at noon on ye. Log board.
A fine breeze, -- 129 Miles on the Log at noon --
Do. -- 123 at noon.
128 miles at noon. )
131 Do. Do. )
142 Do. Do. )
102 Do. Do.
Do. -- 104 Do.
Almost a Calm -- 60 miles at noon on ye. Log. Hardly Steerage way & intensely hot. a Shark caught. This day a Devil fish astern wt. 2 very large White suckg. fish adhering to it, wh. gave it a very grotesque appearance, a Dolphin also astern wh. wd. not take a bait, this night it rain'd in Torrents & very hot. Looks very heavy & squally wt. frequent Showers, & very hot -- another Shark caught this afternoon.
There is one Circumstance wh. I forgot to mention in my discription of St. Helena, wh. as it redounds so much to the Credit & Humanity of the Governor I must not omit -- vizt. there is just
without the Town in the Valley a most beautiful & usefull Garden; to wh. the Governor has very emphatically given the name of Botany Bay -- This spot upon the arrival of the present Governor, Robt. Brooke Esqr.(2 Years ago), was a barren rock wt. here & there detatch'd patches of Soil -- the very laudable method he took to improve & fertilize this barren spot, as well as to shew his humanity to Delinquents was to send every defaulter who was convicted of Crimes, wh. in general are punished wt. flogging, to work in this Garden, some for a fortnight, others for a week, 3 or 4 days &ca. &ca. according to the Heinousness of their Crimes -- & if they quit their work but a single day before the expiration of the Term they are sentenced to work they undergo the flagitation the same as if they had not work'd there at all -- They are left to their choice, to receive the lashes or work in the Botany Bay Garden, & it very rarely happens that any one prefers the former as they wd. be stigmatized as idle worthless fellows by their Messmates --
June 9th. But little wind & very sultry --
10th. Ditto --
llth. A fine breeze: go 4 Ks. (memd. T:D: Fair) -- We cross'd the Equi- noxial Line abt. 4 o'Clock this Afternoon --
12th. a Gentle breeze; go 3 & 4 Ks -- many flying Fish abt. ye. Ship. This morning saw a Sail abt. 3 leagues dist. -- caught a large Shark in the middle watch -- very hot --
13th. Almost a calm & very hot. The Sail we saw yesterday is still in sight, but a considerable dist. astern & is steering a different course -- A large Shoal of Dolphin abt. the Ship -- caught 3 or 4 of Them --
14th. Very little wind & very hot -- The Ship out of sight we suppose her to be a portugueze going to the Coast of Guinea for Slaves for Rio Janeiro -- Many Dolphins abt. the Ship, but will not take the Bait as the Ship has so little way thro' the water. Many Nautiluses on the Water --
15th. Not much wind & very rainy chief part of the day. it rain'd greatest part of this night wt. some Thunder & Lightg.
June 16th. This morning, & the greatest part of the day, the rain
descended in perfect torrents & the Atmosphere looks very dirty &
squally all round; there is a pretty brisk breeze, -- 101 miles on the
Log at noon --
17th. A fine morng. wt. a moderate breeze; go 3 Ks. -- 87 miles on the Log at noon -- now got into ye. N:E: Trades, --
18th. Fine morng. wt. a brisk breeze, but wind not so fair as we cd. wish, go abt. 4 Ks. -- 94 miles on ye. Log at noon.
19th. A fresh breeze, but not very fair, much cooler than it was -- I am much troubled wt. an Odematous swelling in my left Leg --
20th. N.E. Trades as before --
21st. Do. 22d. Do. 23d. Do. a large Shoal of Porpuses (bottle nosed)
24th. A moderate breeze; a Ship seen abt. l'/2 to leeward of us on our Larboard quarter, wh. we suppose to be an English East Indiaman, did not speak her
25th. The Ship out of Sight -- The Trades the same as yesterday. Wind the same -- go 3 & 4 Ks - in the Afternoon the breeze freshen'd
June 26th. A gentle breeze -- go 3 & 4 Ks. -- 90 Miles on the
board at noon, in the Afternoon it fell almost calm &: continued so
27th. Calm this morng. hardly steerage-way, & very close & warm.
28 Quite calm this day & all night.
29th. A Light breeze sprung up this morning abt. 8 o'Clock & the Ship lies her course, but soon after it fell almost calm & continued so all day &:night.
30th. A brisk N.E. Trades - The Ship does not lie her Course by 3 or 4 points.
A brisk breeze - the Ship does not lie her course by 3 points. At day
break saw a Sail abt. 2 miles off on our larboard quarter, She was a
Sloop & supposed to be a Portugueze from some of the Cape de Verd
Islands to Rio de Janeiro wt. Wines.
2d. A gentle breeze, go 4 Ks.
3d. A brisk breeze - go 3 Ks. l/2 Trade wind continues the same. This morng. Early cross'd the Tropic of Cancer - No birds of any kind seen for this week past --
July 4th. Do. wind & weather - great quantities of Gulph weed all
round the Ship wh. continued to float by for a week in prodigeous
quantities - frequent squalls all day wt. slight showers of rain - 95
miles on the Log at noon.
Sunday 5th. Pleasant morning wt. a gentle breeze, go 3V4 Ks. at 9 O'Clock a.m. a Ship in sight on our N:W: quarter: supposed to be an homewardbound East Indiaman from China.
6th. A fine morning & a gentle breeze. The Ship seen yesterday is now abt. 2 miles dist. proved to be a Spanish Palacre - the Sea almost cover'd wt. Gulph of Florida weed --
7th. A stark calm this morning & very close & hot. looks squally abt. -- many Bonetos abt. the Ship.
8th. A breeze came on abt. 8 O'Clock last night, & continues this morng. but directly ahead. Ship does not lie her course by 4 points - No bird of any kind seen for this fortnight past --
July 9th. Fine morning -- gentle breeze, but foul --
subjoin a painting of it whilst dying taken by Richd. Young our
Steward - in the best manner the time & Circumstances wd. admit of
July 14th. Almost Calm & very hot. abt. 10 O'Clock a.m. a large log of wood floated alongside - by its being cover'd with barnacles we judged it to
14th. have been a long time at Sea. Abt. 10 also a Sail was seen ahead of us, wh. by the glass we discover'd to be a Brig - A large Shoal of Dolphin alongside; 3 or 4 whereof were taken.
15th. Abt. 7 O'Clock a.m. a gentle breeze came on; go abt. 3 Ks. -- at 6 o'Clock p.m. a large Turtle pass'd us & abt. the same time the breeze freshen'd -- go 4 Ks. - 6 Fs. -- a Shoal of Porpuses seen.
16th. abt. 3 o'Clock this Morng. the wind being very foul, put abt. Ship & tack'd again at 7 o'Clock a.m. -- but very little wind & that very foul -- 3 Grampuses or Sperma Ceti Whales near the Stern -- The Brig abt. 3 leagues dist. on our Larboard quarter --
17th. But little wind & that very foul: at 8 o'Clock a.m. tack'd Ship -- the Brig we saw yesterday is now abt. 1 league dist. on our Larboard Bow. at 10 O'Clock a.m. tak'd Ship again, at 12 o'Clock we had 6 different Sail in sight, but none near enough to speak them. The Brig is also 1 league ahead of us &
we are in expectation of coming up wt. & speakg. her shortly.
18th. A fine morng. & moderate breeze. Ship lies better up. The Brig seen yesterday is abt. 4 miles distt. on our Larboard Bow. Three more Sail in sight on our Larboard Bow, seen from the mast Head, & one very large Ship in sight from the deck on our Starboard quarter. A small Turtle pass'd us this day -- at 3 O'Clock p.m. the wind came fair, Ship lies her course, but shortly after She broke off again. Several Mother Carey's Chickens astern in our wake. No rock weed seen now. --
Sunday 19th. A Brisk breeze & quite fair, go 6 Ks. -- At 1 O'Clock this morng. the Steward caught a very curious Fish, it was taken just out of the water wt. the Line & held there till it was struck with the Grains -- It was of the Xiphias (Sword Fish) Genus -- was 6 Ft.-4 Inches in length &: weigh'd 80 Ibs. the Flesh of it was very white & good tasted; (after taking what was wanting for the cabin) it afforded a fresh meal for all hands on board. On the Otherside is an Exact Representation of it. The 2 Fins under its Belly were elastic & Black exactly like Whale Bone: it had no Teeth but the Inside of its snout or Beak was very rough; it had a Number of small Fish in its Maw of the Gemfish Genus --
The Brig & 4 Ships all out of Sight this morning.
July 20th. A fine breeze all night 8c this morning. -- go 5 Ks. 4 F -- 123 miles on the Log at noon. A Sail seen on our larboard quarter abt. 3 leagues dist. -- & is coming towards us very fast - Looks very squally all round; there is the appearance of a Thunder Storm coming on from both the E & W quarter, it Thunders pretty much to the Westward, &: some flashes of Lighteng. - At 10 O'Clock a.m. the Ship was abt. 5 miles dist. on our Larboard quarter & fired a Gun to Wind- ward & hoisted Danish Colours, &: haul'd up to us.
We shew'd our Colours &: took in Spanker &ca. - Shorten'd Sail, & abt. 2 o'Clock she was pretty well up wt. us in our wake - when Capt. Sever at the request of Capts. Loy &: Humphreys order'd the Pinnace to be hoisted out, & they went on board her. She proved to be the (Norge) Norway, (Capt. Kraig) from Bombay & was going to Fayall, there to wait for a Convoy - she carried 20 Guns. She sail'd from Bombay in feby. last & stopt at the Cape where She staid 8 Days*. She informed us that She 3 days since passed 2 Danish Indiamen (the 2 mention'd some way back wh. sail'd 7 Days before us from St. Helena) which were bound (by Express Orders from Danmark) to Fayall there to meet a Convoy, or (if the Convoy was not in waiting there) to stay till it
arrived. They presented us wt. 2 fine Geese, 6 Bottles of Constantia
Wine, a large Bag of Almonds & another of Raisins. &: half a Gag
of very good Butter. She yesterday spoke the Northumberland E.Indiaman.
almost Calm for some hours.
21st. Abt. 3 o'Clock a gentle breeze came on again, go abt. 3 Ks. --
22d. Last night there was a storm of Thunder, Lighteng. & Rain, fine this morng. wt. a gentle breeze - at noon 100 miles on the Log Board -- Many Bonetos abt. -- We are now abt. 1190 miles from the Lizard, having weather'd the Northernmost of the Azores & are steering a straight course to the English Channel - Mother Careys Chickens astern.
23d. A fine morng. with a gentle breeze, go 3 Ks. 4 F - Wind frequently Shifting from S.E to N.E.
24th. Almost Calm this morng. -- go only IVz Ks. - the Sea quite full of a singular kind of Blubber or Jelly, near 8 ft. in length & 6 or 8 Inches wide, sometimes coil'd up in a circular form & of various colours, at 2 O'Clock p.m. saw a Sail ahead, coming towards us: when She was abt. 1 league distant, (it being almost calm) the Capt. order'd the Pinnace to be hoisted out, & himself, Capt. Loy & Capt. Humphrey's wt. six hands in her, went onboard her.
She was an American Brig, call'd the Joseph, from the Isle of Rhee in
the Bay of Biscay, bound to Boston in America, She went to the Isle of
Rhee loaded wt. Butter &ca. & had met wt. a very bad market. She
had got a quantity of Salt on board from the Isle; She had been beating
abt. wt. contrary winds for 28 Days since She left the Isle & they
were in great want of provisions to carry them home there were only 6
hands & a Boy on board, Capt. Sever spared them Vz Cask of Pork &
a Bag of rice & in exchange took 2 Gags of bad wine & 2 cags of
Worse Butter, wh. was equally served out amongst our Ship's Co. --
The Capt. of the Brig was himself at the wheel & was so exceedingly illiterate & unintelligent a man that we cd. not even learn from him for a certainty whe-ther the King of England was living or dead, he sd. he heard some English Lady at Rhee say he was alive & well -- When our Pinnace was hoisted out they tack'd Ship & endeavour'd to avoid its getting on board her, suspecting we were Algerines, when the Gentlemen went on board they had got up all their Cutlasses & one swivel, but they had no powder on board -- Soon after we parted Company & saw another Sail (a Snow) abt. 6 miles
dist.-on our Starboard quarter, but were never nearer to her. Abt. 3
O'Clock p.m. a Sperma Ceti Whale arose 3 or 4 times near the Ship -- It
rain'd pretty much in the night & there was but little wind all
25th. Very moderate breeze this morning & that very variable. - Several Mother Gary's Chickens abt.
Sunday 26th. A gentle breeze go 3'/2 Ks.; there are now very great dews fall on an Eveng. & during the night - The decks being as wet wt. them as if it had rained -- This day the colour of the Water appears to be changed -- there are many Nautuluses passg. by the Ship - at noon 80 miles on the Log -- A Shirewater seen -- In the Afternoon abt. 2 o'Clock the breeze increased, go 5 Ks. -
27th. A light breeze & very thick fog - several Shirewaters abt. - a Shoal of bottle-nosed porpuses -- but very little wind all day - many Naut- uluses passing by all day - this day the Steward caught 2 Albercores - wh. were equally divided amongst the Ship's Co. - after saving a small piece for the Cabin --
July 28th. The fog nearly dispersed this morning -- & a gentle
breeze, go 4 Ks. at 9 O'Clock a.m. the fog rather increas'd again --
29 A fine morng. & gentle breeze, go 4 Ks. -- at 7 o'Clock a.m. the wind was directly aft wh. made the Ship roll a good deal, being so light up on deck but at 8 o'Clock the wind came more upon the quarter & she is easier -- A Shirewater & several Gulls seen -- a little before dark 2 Grampuses near the Ship &: shortly after a large Shoal of Bottled- nosed Porpuses.
30th. A fine breeze - go 4Vz Ks. - but a very thick fog - & a heavy swell -- rain'd very heavy all night.
31st. A fine breeze, the fog clear'd away &: a fine morning but soon after breakfast it thicken'd & rain'd great part of the day. At 3 p.m. a Sail in sight abt. 4 Miles dist. on our NW quarter.
It rain'd chief part of last night & abt. 12 at night it blow'd very hard & still continues to rain this morning & looks thick all round; a fine breeze -- go 6 Knots: a heavy swell, are now abt. 370 miles from Scilly --
100 miles on the Log at noon. Last night in the middle watch a large
Whale alongside for 2 hours.
2d. A foggy morning & very little wind, go 2 Ks.
3d. A gentle Breeze, go 3 Ks. - two Gannetts fly over ye. Ship, at 12 at noon, hove the Lead & found Bottom wt. 95 Fathoms (a grey sand) a Sail in Sight at this time from ye. Deck, a Brig - This Afternoon (at the request of the Sailors) the Capt. deliver'd every man his Acct. for Cash had at different Ports, Slops &ca. &ca. since we left England in 1787 --
Abt. 4 o'Clock p.m. the Capt. confined the Chief Mate Nicholas Anstis, to his Cabin for repeated Abuse & improper Language reed, from him on the Quarter Deck. 3 Sail in sight from the Masthead on our larboard Bow. Abt. 8 O'Clock p.m. hove the Lead again; 90 Fathoms, grey sand as before.
4th. This morning little wind & that foul, Ship does not lie her course by 3 or 4 points -- 1 Ship in sight on our Larboard Bow, abt. 2 miles dist. - standing the same way as us --
A large Shark alongside this morning -- 4 Sail in sight this
Afternoon, standing towards the Chan[n]el. At 11 o'Clock a.m. the Wind
came fair, go 4 Ks. -- A Ship passed us in the night --
5th. A very fine breeze; go 6 Ks. -- sometimes pretty clear, at others, hazey -- A Ship on our Lee Bow &; another astern of us. At 8 O'Clock a.m. saw the Rocks of Scilly, abt. 6 Leagues ahead of us. At 10 a.m. it blow'd strong. At 4 p.m. passed the Lizard. A great many Ships, Brigs, Snows &ca. in sight.
6th. A fine morning and a good breeze. At 7 O'Clock off the Start -- Abt. 3 O'Clock p.m. a Pilot Boat from Cowes in the Isle of Wight, (Philip Francis, Master) came alongside -- The Capt. agreed with him to take Capt. Humphreys (with the Company's Packet) Capt. Loy & ye. Countess of Berkhausen (Passengers from St. Helena) on shore at Portsmouth for 6 Guineas, half to be pd. by the Capt. & the other half by Capt. Loy. They left the Ship abt. 4 o'Clock p.m. & expected to reach Portsmouth
abt. 12 at night --- When they were to set off post for London wt. the
Packet -- I sent Letters by Capt. Humphreys to Brother A: Sister A: &
Mrs. Hays -- All to be left at No 12 Mark Lane. Just before the Pilot
came on board us, the King pass'dus in the Magnificent, 74 Guns -- he
generally cruises for 15 or 20 miles out from Weymouth every day, for the
Benefit of the Sea air -- It afforded All on board great Satisfaction to
learn the King was living & so much recover'd -- We also learnt the
disturbances wh. had happen'd in France, And this was the very first
opportunity we have had of hearing any News since we left St. Helena.
7th. At 6 o'Clock this morning, the Culver or Swan Cliffs at the Easternmost extremity of the Isle of Wight are on our Larboard quarter abt. 6 miles dist. -- At 3 o'Clock p.m. a Boat from Dover came alongside to enquire if we wanted a Pilot or any Provissions from Shore; they asked a Guinea to fetch a Pilot, but the Capt. offer'd them Vz Guinea wh. at last they agreed to take & set off, leaving one hand on board till [we] were off Dover, when they wd. return wt. the Pilot & some Fresh
provissions: at 2 o'Clock in the morng. let go the stream Anchor, till
the next Tyde -- at 1 o'Clock got up Anchor
8th. A fine warm morning -- At 11 o'Clock a.m. off the high Land of Fair Leigh, wt. the Town of Hastings in Sussex & several other Towns in sight, wt. some Gentlemen's Seats on the Hills. The beautiful appear- ance of this fertile County was picturesque to a degree. At 7 O'Clock a.m. hove short; at Va after weigh'd Anchor & came to Sail under Reef'd Topsails, at 8 made all sail, at half past Tack'd Ship & work'd up during the Tyde, &: continued tackg. & workg. up all day. At 10 o'Clock a.m. saw Dungeeness Light House - the Wind piercingly cold.
9th. The wind still foul & very cold. At 5 p.m-. we were off Folkestone abt. 2 Miles from Shore; Dover Town & Castle in sight, at 7 p.m. the wind blowing fresh, went in Shore, &: Anchor'd directly opposite Sangate Castle (just below Folkestone) & at abt. IVa mile from shore, in 12 Fathom Water. Soon after we were at an Anchor a Boat came off
from Shore; to know if we wanted any thing from shore to be brot. off.
The Capt. commission'd them to bring off a V4 of Mutton, some Loaves of
Bread, Vegitables, Butter, Cheese & wt. which they return'd abt. 11
o'Clock & charged 15 s[hillin]gs --
10th. At 2 o'Clock this morning got up Anchor and set Sail - at 4 were off Dover when the Pilot (Mr. John Cowley) came on board &: the people in the Boat brot. off the different Articles wh. the Capt. had order'd them to bring, vizt. a Vi of fine Beef, Do. of Mutton, 2 Loaves, Butter, Cabbages, Lettice, Cucumbers, Carrotts, cheese &ca. &ca. -- At 6 o'Clock the Pilot let go the Anchor again, till 12 O'Clock at night when we again set sail - When the Boat return'd on shore the Capt. sent Letters to his Owners acquainting them of the safe arrival of his Ship off Dover & having got a Pilot on board -- This Pilot went wt. us as far as Gravesend, when a River Pilot wd. come on board - at Va after
llth. 4 p.m. Anchor'd wt. the small Bower in 15 Fathom Water -- the Southforeland Lighthouse & Dover Castle in sight; at noon hove Anchor &: came to sail under single reef'd Topsails & Courses, it blowing fresh. - At 5 o'Clock p.m. let go the Anchor again. Deal mill, Deal Castle, the Buoy of the Break, & Sandown Castle in sight
2 Leagues dist. of shore - at 12 at night hove Anchor & got under
12th. At 4 this morng. abreast of Ramsgate, in Kent, at 7 a.m. the Fine Seat of Ld. Holland on the N:foreland, near Margate, in sight - at 10 a.m. haul'd up for the Queen's Channel; at Vi after spoke the Honle. East India Company Yatch, who informed us there wd. not be water enough on the Flats for us to get over, for Vz an hour, &; she directly after drop'd astern of us &: lay to by backg. her Topsail & we did the same for half an hour, when we made sail preceeded by the Yatch wt. a fine fair breeze -- at 12 o'Clock opposite Mersea Island. --