Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales

Dudley V. Walford diary, 23 September 1914 - 13 August 1916
MLMSS 982/Item 1

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A Farewell Dinner & Concert
stamp The Blue Funnel Line S.S. Uylsses
Diner- Table D’LHote

Potage Sydney
Fillet of Bream, Sauce Huitres
Ox tail, Westralia
Sirloin of Beef
French Beans
Boiled &, Browned Potatoes
Roast Turkey, Anglaise
Melbourne Ice Cream
Victoria Sandwich
Dessert Coffee
At sea. 3rd April, 1917

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The Australian Ladies
On our return journey at a farewell dinner we drank to the health of the King, the Officers, Absent Comrades and to the Australian Ladies.
In proposing to the health of the latter the speaker said, "Nearly twenty years ago I came to Australia - the land of gold. I immediately started to dig for this precious metal. I did not find any gold but I found

A Large Drawing Of A Lady Signed D. Walford

something more precious, thousands of precious pearls right on the surface of the earth in the shape of Australian Ladies"
We joyfully drank to their health. In response to which remarks were made on the able and patriotic manner in which the ladies had taken the place of men & worked unsparingly side by side of them in all walks of life.

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A diary of events that took place during Sept 1914 and April 10th 1917 briefly stating whi facts concerning the 13th & 15 Battalion and other things of interest.

Dudley. V. Walford.
Broadmeadows Victoria
13th Battalion B Company
16th December 1914

Enlisted 22 Sept. 1914

[indecipherable] H. Robertson
"Clarla Minda"
4 Imperial[indecipherable]

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Drawings 1] A Gentleman 2] A Lady

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Sept 23 rd
Joined force at Rosehill

December 18th 1914
March through Melbourne

December 22 1914
Left by Ulysses after waiting from [indecipherable]

On Thursday 27th Sept 1914 I enrolled at Victoria Barracks, and marched from there to Sydney Station en route to Rosehill only to arrive there to find no accommodation. We went back home & arrived back the next morning. The preliminary & [indecipherable] [elementary?] became monotonous, the heat intolerable but the early dawn was quite cold. The insanitary & [indecipherable] conditions were deplorable & we were glad to leave for Liverpool at the end of October. Liverpool was an ideal place for

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encampment, but there again the monotonous of our daily routine became apparent. Mother and Father & the rest of the family as well as many of my friends visited me there, all of whom I was very pleased to see.
We left Liverpool on the 22nd of Nov. for Broadmeadows, Victoria amid great excitement. Broadmeadows was even more disgraceful than Rosehill. The unsanitary conditions were terrible but were afterwards rectified. The work here was more advanced & we cherished in the change. Sham fighting, strategic positions n warfare, long marches & target practice were included in the general routine.

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The march through Melbourne took place on the 17th December & was a spectacle never to be forgotten the city streets were crowded & the reception was only fair but the people looked to the seriousness of the situation and everywhere one could hear conversations which showed how keen the citizens were about he general welfare & succer of our Australian troops. Mother, Father & Madge graciously came all the way from Sydney & were present at this review. Their presence & hospitality really bucked me up.
We left Melbourne on the 22nd of Dec. amid great excitement &

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enthusiasm . We received a great send off by the citizens who had the privilege to see their loved ones depart. We arrived on the wharf at 11.30 AM but did not embark until 5 PM the ship which is 15,000 tons, is a beautiful one, & is very nicely fitted up in every way. Every convenience possible being provided. Two incidents worthy of note took place prior to our embarkation. One was the breaking of the citizens through the guard with fixed bayonets. They were mostly girls and it showed how eager they were to say farewell to their friends. The other incident was the hauling aboard of three men who

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through insubordination or carelessness had been left behind & just arrived two or three minutes before departure of the boat. These were refused embarkation & strictly forbidden to get up the gangway. But they arranged with their friends aboard & were hauled up by ropes.

The voyage so far has been sublime. Very little work & every kind of sporting material & games have been provided.

Arrived at Albany at midnight 28th December 1914. The transports moved off independently from Melbourne meeting together in the harbour.

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Thus far we were being conveyed by Austr. Submarine AE2, these are in all the transports moving behind one another in column of three & forming a beautiful sight

The Transports are
2 Persic
3 Fort Macquarie
4 Ceramie
6 Berrima
11 Willahren
12 Knight of Gatter

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13 Vandala
14 Survic
15 A37
16 A36
17 Submarine AE2
18 N.Z.T
19 N.Z.T.

One of our comrades buried at sea 3rd Jan 1915
Men were taken ill with ptomaine poisoning. We blamed the bad meat but it’s a mystery.200 to300 were ill & were lying in agony
Played cricket on board boat & I made 21 runs the Victorians & we won by 18 runs.
We often play in the afternoons & get some good exercise from it.
We are now in the tropics & find it very hot especially in the hold but thanks to the gods we are

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permitted to sleep on the decks above. Horizon a beautiful sight.

Men are complaining about the food as indeed it is far from satisfactory.

Arrived at Colombo 13th Jan 1915. The coolies met us in their dingies, sold us fruit and cigarettes, and dived after silver coins.

Colombo harbour rather pretty but we are not permitted to land & so cannot judge the quality of the city. Some of our men climbed down the ship’s side after dark & escaped to town. They were arrested & received heavy punishment.

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Received letters from home & friends and was extremely pleased.

We heard some news here & were sorry to hear the fate of the warship "Formidable" in the English Channel but nevertheless things seem to be going on satisfactory.

We arrived in Aden in the 23rd Jan in the morning & left in the evening nothing to see there except the Arabs who sold cigarettes & dates to us from their dingies.

We are now passing through the red sea & expect to reach Port Said by Monday.

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A few deaths have unfortunately taken place since we left Colombo. Most of them being from pneumonia.

We passed by a P & O boat and a warship while travelling the red sea.

A few cases of measles have occurred on board boat No less than 8 from our own company.

Met on board C.C. Dight an old boy of the Kings School.

Arrived at entrance to Suez Canal on Thurs.27th Jan & learnt to our astonishment that fight had taken place at Kantach on the Suez Canal. So we did not proceed

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through until the following day.

We met two British warships on our way through also Indian & British troops entrenched at various strategic points along the canal banks

I am feeling well at present having developed an attack of influenza.

On our way through the Canal at a place called Ismailia, which had been attacked by the Turks we met some of the N.Z. contingent, two Indians were killed & 5 wounded

Much more fighting is expected

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in this quarter & forces are now being hurriedly concentrated there.

We arrived at Alexandria on 1st Feb 1915 we disembarked at 9AM & caught 9.30PM train to Heliopolis which is the new town situated 7 miles from Cairo.

Heliopolis is a remarkable town being built within the space of 7 years. The place was a desert before that time. The houses & public buildings are first class in design being a mixture of Byzantine & Egyptian architecture. The Palace Hotel which has been converted into a hospital is considered to be the best hotel in the world and from the outside appearances this

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appears to be true.

Our camp is just outside Heliopolis situated on a desert of alluvial soil rather than sand as they call it here. We have every convenience as regards mess, & leave but we feel horribly unclean in this dirty sand.

Today I met some of my old school pals who came in the first contingent.

The natives here are peculiar in manners & everywhere in the streets the little youngsters want to brush your boots for ½ piastre. They crawl under the table when you are having meals & clean your boots & then ask for money

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The Egyptians are polite & obliging & generally have a great deal to say.

The Arabs & other Native races inclusive of the Turks are impulsive & horribly dirty.

A Piastre is the standard coin

About 5,000 of the first contingent have been sent back to Australia for various reasons

The Nile is a wonderful river & has been the making of Egypt. For centuries the land round & about has been irrigated by the river. Once

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a year the Nile overflows and leaves behind rich soil which is very cultivating.

This country is a mixture of many races. The Fellahin or the agriculture class, the Beduin & Town Arabs, Copts or Xtian Egyptians, Montenegrins & Syrians, Jews, Albanians, Greeks, & many other European races.

Most of the people are able to speak at least two or three languages. English, Arabic or French.

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The famous pyramids at Mena & elsewhere are very wonderful built during the 3rd & 4th dynasty or 5000 years B.C. Cheops and the Step pyramid at Sakkara are the largest & most conspicuous reaching to a height of about 400 feet

The Citadel built in 1174 on an elevated position overlooking the city of Cairo & from which the whole town could be bombarded & destroyed unmercifully. It contains a Mosque – beautifully decorated especially the chandeliers – a hospital & a prison containing many Captured Turks

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The Zoological Gardens contain all sorts of animals including the Giraffe
The Museum including all mummies & Egyptian antiques

Our training here is most severe & overdone. We are overworked, given unnecessary hardships & deprived of privileges due to us. Long & difficult rout marches almost daily, night bivouacs, reviews, divisional & brigade & company drill, and various strategic attacks on specially located towns. The sand is very unhealthy & has caused defective lung trouble to many of the men.

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Feb. 9. the first week in February 1916 saw some heavy divisional training for the men of N.Z. & Austrn. Div.
Marching out brilliantly from camp and accompanied by the Band, the respective Batts. moved out in succession of fours. Having received instructions we moved off in artillery formation & when within 2000 yds of our objective we extended to open order of fighting finishing up with an assault by storm.
On Friday night at 9 we left camp & returned in the morning at 8 after walking all night & with practically no rest at all
This most severe training after the strenuous work of the Peninsula [indecipherable] was unnecessary & was too much for the men’s stamina

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13th April 1914. Left Alexandria at 7 P.M. after waiting all day. We departed for island of Lemnos to await further orders. En route we escaped by a hare’s breath from being torpedoes. The Transport B12 containing British soldiers was only about 15 miles ahead of us when she was struck by a torpedo from an escaped Turkish torpedo boat, but she escaped with little damage.
On the 25th April at 10 P.M. we were ordered to transfer to the Torpedo boats which took us to within 500 yds of the shores of Gallipoli. We were then retransferred into large rowing boats. We arrived at 12 [indecipherable] Noon at the beach & lay down under cover till 5.A.M. and then were ordered to reinforce

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the firing line & I saw on my way up my friend Alan Mitchell coming back wounded. Some of us reinforced Quinn’s Post Courtney’s Post & Pope’s Hill from which hill a platoon was ordered to reinforce Walker’s Ridge.
Captn. Wilson was killed here & we encountered very severe fighting which was mostly open. After 3 days we were reinforced by by the N.Z.s & the various units were mustered. During the first few days of may we attacked hill in front of Popes & draw reinforcements & to relieve the strain at Cape Hellas. We accomplished our objective with heavy casualties & had to retire the following evening
Tues.18 & Wed 19. Bombardment of Scrapnel Gully by Turks

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Wed. 2nd June 1915. Visited Rex

Thursday 3rd June. Bombardment of Turks supply wagons

Friday 4 June. Violent Bombardment of Cape Hellas by Warships

June 28. Tommies attacked at Cape Hellas & gained 1100 yds. & consolidated their position
June 1 1915 4 Brigade went to Reserve Gully
Tue. June 29 Terrific bombardment at Cape Hellas
Thursday 26th May witnessed sinking of H.M.S. Triumph

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Tuesday 29 June. Enemy commenced heavy rifle fire right along our front at 12p.m. lasting until 1 p.m. & attacked over left front vigorously with bayonet & Bombs. They fell into our secret saps & were polished off by our machine gun and rifle fire. Their dead numbered about 500. They attacked again about 3 a.m. & were badly repulsed. 30 men came over the parapet at Quinn’s Post & were severely dealt with.

July 30. as the result of a movement forward by us on the right flank. Turks were

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for some time sapping ahead of their trenches towards ours forming a new firing line. This was dangerous to us. & we made saps towards theirs & blew up three. We then charged [11 Batt. Supported by fire from Second Light H. & rest of third Brigade. We were successful and killed 60 or more Turks. Our casualties were 11 killed and 74 wounded. Men behaved gallantly & deserve high praise

Aug 6. A great flanking move by us & we left Rest Gully at 7.P.M. on our adventurous exploit

Friday 28 May 1915. 40 men sniped in Shrapnel Gullly

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Aug 22. Made advance to straighten our line. Reached Murray’s Post and dug in

Aug 23. Arrived on board hosp. ship
[indecipherable Assaye ?] wounded & Lemnos 3 days later
Sept 25.Left Conv. Camp at Lemnos to rejoin regiment at [indecipherable Sarpi?] Camp.
] Camp
Oct 5. visited Thermos with Rex
Sept 14.Big left Pen. for Rest at Lemnos
Oct 23. Sports meeting & arrival of 7th& 8 reinforcements
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Sun 31 Oct. Left rest-camp at [indecipherable] for Peninsula. Embarked on Osmanich
During Nov. Lord Kitchener visited the peninsula. .He looked rather old.

Sun 28 Nov. Snow fell for 2 days which was followed by beautiful weather
1 Dec. Blowup at Lone Pine
Sat 4 Dec. Bombardment of Achi Baba by us followed the next by a furious bombardment by the Turks

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[indecipherable Thursday] 9 Bombardment of Sari Bair mountains by our land batteries
Dec 18 13 Batt. Commenced by degrees to evacuated their position on Durrant’s Post.

Dec 19 Embarked at Lemnos [indecipherable] liner Tunisian which just missed being torpedoed
Dec 25. We spent our Xmas at Lemnos Island & had an enjoyable time. A Turkish Aeroplane tried to bombard our camp but without success

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Mon 3rd of Jan, Arrived at Ismailia & pitched our own camp. The conditions here were very bad for we were cramped together in marquees the accommodation being quite inadequate for the demand.
Our next camp was situated further west along the railway & the conveniences here were much more satisfactory. But our training was much too severe after the hardships endured on the Peninsula. We got together a football team and played several matches
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Tues Feb 05,1916. at 7p.m. a concert Farewell to the 4 Brig. By the N.Z. held at Moascar Camp – a great success especially the Maori war dance
Frid. 18th Feb. Saw Bill & Rex at Cairo while on holiday leave
Mon 5th Feb. Reinforcements from 45 Batt of 12 Brigade
March 2nd 1916 Transferred to 45 Battalion
Shrapnel Gully is now barrocaded and road made good right up to our firing line

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I visited Graveyard at Tel-El-Kabir & and engraved on the tombstones were the following,
Dragoon Guards [indecipherable]
Dr G Goodsell
Royal Marine Artillery\Battle of[indecipherable] Dr Major Shaw
Highlanders Light Infantry,
Irish Fusiliers
Queens Own Cameroon Highlanders
Gordon Highlanders [one died on march from Ismailia]
Kings Royal Rifles
Battle of Mahsameh & Kassassin
1st regiment of Life Guards
Corp C.Bott drowned in Canal during manoeuvres of Coldstream guards

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22nd March. Visit to Egypt of Prince of Wales who reviewed the troops
23 March. An excellent circus entertainment at Tel- El-Kebir
27 March. Departure of 4 Division for Serapeum – Canal Zone
1st April 1916 Left Tel-El-Kebir for school of instruction at Teitoum

Commenced class at school of instruction at Teitoum under L/Col. Colston M.V.O. West Africians present
4 April I arrived at Serapeum

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During April 30 Turks & 1 Austrian Officier captured by 9th L. Horse 6 Turks killed, 1 L.H. killed
18 April Review at Serapeum
25 April Anzac Day celebrated by an aquatic carnival on the canal
26 April Went to Hospital
17 May in hospital in Ismailia
Expecting labour corps
Miles from the banks of the Canal are trenches & [indecipherable] camps here, there & everywhere, trenches built with great difficulty & manual labour by means of sand bags and mats, for [indecipherable] the sand is very loose. The trenches are not connected together but are in many

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cases hundreds of yards apart & it is through the gaps that the enemy may with ease force his way to the canal provided we were not on the alert & qui vive.
The work is tiresome & very fatiguing & demands great strength and endurance. The heat of the sun is terrific &at times almost unbearable but as usual the night are delightful, and freshy.
Light horse camps are situated at different points quite close to the firing line & so are always handy in case of an attack. The horses look well & fresh & seem to bear the weather admirably.
A road runs out within a mile or two of the firing line; also a railway line at rail end are stores,water supply

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Light Horse & Infantry Camps. These various units are acting as [indecipherable]reserves while on the banks of the canal are still more camps which are all there ready equipped for action.
Canteens are as usual & Y.M.C.A. are erected there for our comfort. The water supply is obtained by condensing the canal water. The pipes run as far as rail had from which place it is transferred by means of camels. Most of the defensive work has been done by the 8 Eight Labour Corps to whom much credit is due.

June 13 1916.Memorial Service to Kitchener at Karr-0 Sth . Nil Barracks.
Sun. 13 Aug. Left in Kenownes for England.

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Malta – a fine harbour surrounded by rocks which in most cases rises abruptly from the water’s edge to a considerable height on top of which are built fortifications & houses of either white stone or painted brick mostly square in shape and quaintly common in appearance. Many of the wharves were hewn out from the rocks thus giving the harbour an appearance of solidity & majestic stability. It is well sheltered & guarded by fortifications of immence strength [indecipherable]. Maltese in small boats & around about us & like the indian gypos dived for whatever coins were thrown into the sea.
During May the 2nd A.I.F. Brig voluntary reinforced the Tommies near Cape Helles

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Scrapnel Gully
Scrapnel Gully is best known of all the gullies to those who landed at Anzac . It runs continually from the seacoast to Popes hill, the furthermost point of our firing line which is about 11/2 mile inland. From this gully on either side rise mountains abruptly with an almost impregnable appearance as if majestically denying any resistance; covered in thick bramble, gorse, &prickly trees, some parallel, some breaking off at angles forming various & immeasurable tributary gullies. Down these mountains in rainy weather run torrents of water which find an outlet through the gullies which we found ankle deep in mud & slush through which we waded our way as if pilgrims.

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on our way to Mecca. This gully was obviously well known to the Turks who continually & unmercifully shelled it so long as their shells were available.
Fatigue parties were soon at work & in wonderfully short time had an adequate & suitable number of roads, paths, & saps for safe transportation of troops and supplies. Drainage, sandbag barracades, water-pipes & tanks, field dressing stations, mortuaries, depot for food supply & ammunition, were speedily & temporarily placed in position giving it the appearance more of a great gold mining centre than a field of battle.

It was down through this valley that most of the wounded, dying, & dead were conveyed to their respective dressing stations when under the tender care & the best medical aid was administered unto them. The wounded were hurriedly dressed & the men either by donkeys or by stretchers were removed by the heroic red cross men to the back where after medical inspection they were placed on board a hospital ship bound for Egypt, Malta or England. The dead were placed in the mortuary which was situated in a recess cut away from the gully. From there at night & under the tender & sincere care of the padre they were placed in the graveyard with an insignificant & rough hewn cross & with very little sympathy to mark the spot where he rests

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in peace having given all he could give- his life.
A particularly clear view was afforded to the Turks down this valley. An advantage which he did not let slip having invariably caused our casualty list to grow bigger. Many were killed while going for water or even food & I have known as many as forty to have been killed or wounded in one day.

Sat 29 May.1915.Quinns post blown up at 3 A.m. Our artillery did good work here & together with our effective hand grenade attack the Turks were repulsed and 19 prisoners captured.

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Rest or Reserve Gully

During our stay in Rest Gully we experienced much inconvenience regards sanitary arrangements & general comforts. Hills of tremendous height and of almost perpendicular elevation with scarcely a blade of grass & of majestic stability rose immediately on either side of the valley. Everywhere was dust which blackened our ears & eyes during the inclement weather& with such inadequate space for the number of troops placed therein that dysentery & various sicknesses greatly reduced our fighting strength. Directly above to our left was Walkers Ridge of some 800 feet in altitude on top of which were placed guns of every calibre commanding an excellent view of most important Turkish

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positions. To place guns there to my untrained eye would seem impossible but by means of specially made roads the guns were easily dragged to their destination by our gunners who tied ropes to the axles & hundreds of strong arms soon pulled the guns to the summit.
The supply depot was continually being shelled as well as the 16th Battalion whose exposed target made an easy mark for the enemy. The fourth Light Horse was [indecipherable] but the water was scarce. Their mules whose possy was situated at the entrance suffered heavily from shell fire but they did excellent work. We suffered innumerable hardships in fatique parties

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here as being a reserved Brigade. Our services were being constantly required. Laying down water pipes & making innumerable saps which afterwards proved to be of great service. The work was hard but healthy as it was always carried out at night when the cool air & excellent exercise greatly helped our stamina & health.

A Drawing Of A Cottage Entitled Home Sweet Home

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Australia Gully

Gullies, during our rest hours, were our natural dwelling homes so we mention them a great deal in conversations. We cooker all our meals, held all our conversations, and fought all our quarrels & discussed all our complaints in Gullies.
This gully surrounded by low lying but ruggedly shaped mountains on all sides was particularly welcomed by us in that it led out onto a beautiful & grassy flat where we enjoyed a healthy basking in the heat of the day. There was plenty of room & the spot was healthy & sanitary but water was deplorably scarce during the

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early days, but after having dug wells we struck we struck beautiful & clear water which was always plentiful. We had an excellent view from the mountain tops of all the surrounding tops country & of the Turkish positions but on account of the open nature of the country we were frequently pepered with Schrapnell.
May 21. Turks came forward with white flag at 5 p.m. and asked for armistice. General Godly objected & asked them to come again in a proper manner.

Sketch Of Wounded Soldier On A Stretcher

The armistice was granted a few days later and excellent discipline was maintained.   

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Under Fire &

In preparing for an attack in present day trench warfare in which you are a participant an immediate sentiment of nervousness, anxiety, & excitement overrules one’s temperament together with an almost certain feeling of death. This is only natural considering the deadly & murderous weapons utilized now days. The thought of death instinctively elevates ones thoughts nearer than ever before to God & to those who are dear to him. But thought changes with alacrity & the looking optimistically to the future, says it will be the other fellow who will go with me.

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He then becomes askance & inquisitive preparatory to the attack which on its actual commencement he becomes callous, indifferent & determined being very cautious knowing full well that every moment [indecipherable] means the sacrifice of his life. This is followed by hysterical cries or movements subsequent to the final dash when pure madness, excitement, & carelessness control his being. This follows the consolidating & duty to the fallen, the dying & the wounded.

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This rock together with its neighbouring harbour depicted

an excellent view as we moved slowly to our moorings.
The houses & general appearance of the township looked remarkably clean & neat, situated on the slopes of this magnificent & solid rock which is literally covered in guns commanding a dominating position over the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea. Their warships and merchantmen lay in the harbour.

May 18. A terrific & determined onslaught by the Turks to drive us into the sea. They were repulsed everywhere and their dead numbered approximately 7,000.

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Anzac Beach

The name of Anzac will bequeath an heritage of honour to be handed down to future generations of the Australian & New Zealand people. Innumerable deeds of bravery, of heroic sacrifice & of mutual friendships some of which are [indecipherable], forgotten, were committed there on the memorable 25th April 1915. The beach is narrow & at 60 feet from the waters edge, hills of a very steep incline rise to a considerable height, covered in thick gorse & brambles giving it a very rugged appearance. During the early days all the necessaires of warfare were packed up on the beach & hillside, - all equipment, supply food stores, guns, wood, and ambulance

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giving it the appearance of some terrible shipwreck. But as time flew by suitable roads & byways were laid out, stores were properly & neatly stacked, watertanks & lighters containing water, machinery for condensing water [which by the way was blown to pieces], dugouts built of sandbags & boarding in true professional artistic style, maintenance railway, mules with their limbers of supplies, piers of quite substantial quality, workshops for wireless & electrical fittings, gave it the appearance of some prosperous & progressive township especially at night when the lights were glowing in the pale moonlight, & the traffic of mules with the chattering Indian mule drivers

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& men packing & unpacking stores reminded one of an Egyptian business quarter. The field ambulance in well sheltered dug-out at the foot of the hills did great work, and were subject to much shell fire. At the northern & southern ends of the beach were situated the most pathetic of all the sites – graveyards where the heroes lay at rest with crosses well moulded & painted & neatly arranged with reverence so well deserved & perhaps in years to come the wattle trees planted there will pay a better & more homely tribute to heroes almost forgotten.

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26 Aug. 1916 Arrived at Southhampton on Kanowna. By rail to [indecipherable]. In Military hospital. Everton. Liverpool.

Liverpool – England. [indecipherable]

Liverpool was a fine town of some 800,000 inhabitants. Some of the buildings were magnificent especially St. Georges Hall, the Museum, the Art Gallery, the library, and the Technical College which all lay within the same area. The theatres were good and also the restaurants and parks.

Oxford is a very old town of vast importance in which is located the buildings of Oxford University which are of a debased & form of

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Gothic excellently built. It is the headquarters of the Royal Flying Corps.

Brighton is a seaside resort of very pleasant surroundings.

London containing a population of 7,000,000 souls. The streets are wide and clean. The buildings are excellent and in spite of their age look remarkable new and stately. The bus cars are excellent & are very mobile and convenient. Their underground railways are perfectly planned & run to all parts of London. They are remarkable for their engineering construction. The traffic is tremendous and very congested, & the populace seem

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to be going to & fro in hurried confusion bent on business or pleasure. The restaurants are remarkable for their refinement of decoration as are also the hotels which are numerously situated. All the relics were full of interest especially those situated in the United Service Museum, Whitehall. The people seem right enough but try to get all the money they can from the Australians. The parks were nice and spacious. The Tower of London, St. Pauls Cathedral,
Westminster Abbey, Westminster Cathedral, the Houses of Parliament, the law courts, the united service museum Madame Tussaud’s Waxworks, temple court inn

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were all visited by me many pleasant hours were spent at these various places. London was full of soldiers especially Anzacs who seemed to have all the money. The weather was dull during November but the rain kept well off. The plan of this wonderful city is rather complicated but as I possessed maps and excellent information I was easily able to find my destinations even during the fogs & the much darkened streets.

Weymouth. A seaside health resort with an excellent harbour, and comfortable hotels & private residences

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The Australians in Egypt

The first and second contingents of the Australian Imperial Force, a fine and sturdy a body that ever left the Commonwealth, had embarked on a strange and adventurous career for parts an unknown destination. Intermingled among this vast host of some 50,000 men were men who had seen service in South Africa but most of the lads were young & full of an adventurous and selfless spirit, and not a few had ever left the shores of Australia. They were young, and had the misfortune to be deprived of the benefits of true home life, &   of suitable education and so embarked, as they were,


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in a strange land among strange races of people whose morals were far from righteous, they [indecipherable]. The niggers were dirty and dishonest and although pleasant enough at times were untrustworthy. The familiarity of the Australians to the Egyptians and the other races only brought about contempt, & naturally enough they had not a good word for our boys. The French and Egyptian girls disgraced themselves upon thousands of our men who fell to their disgraceful coquetry. Partly for this reason and various other complaints the lads in a mood of drunken delight and anger set fire to several buildings which were burnt to the ground. They cut the fire hoses, threw stones at

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the police and ambulances. They raided the silk and other various shops and threw the contents out into the street. They heeded not their general’s advice who rode out to them on horseback with words of friendly advice. But in retribution, they upended the general’s motor car in front of his own eyes at the very doors of Shepherds Hotel and burnt set it aflame utterly destroying its further use. These were disgraceful acts and greatly to be regretted. The casualties were amounted to about 35 in all, & the destruction cost the Australian government £20,000.

From this onwards to the present day the behaviour was much better. Police and Patrols paraded the

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streets and although there are still misunderstandings among the obliging natives towards us yet the behaviour since then has been good and respectful. And the behaviour of the Australians in England has been a credit to the nation for they respect themselves here, dress neatly, and are seldom seen intoxicated.

Egypt lacked theatres or play houses of any interest, and this led our men to parade the streets at night, & pass their time away in drink and other harmful luxuries. During the daytime however, the pyramids, the citadel, Mosques, obelisks, etc occupied their time in sight seeing. The donkeys & garries were busy with Australian patronage and their owners will never forget the boys from Aussie. It was the night that brought forth mischievous and disgrace upon many Australians.

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The Indian Mule Corps

Throughout the Gallipoli campaign the Indian Mule Corps played an important part for it was to them that we trusted all our supplies of ammunition, water, food and necessary timbers being punctually brought to the firing lines, many of which were situated on almost precipitated & inaccessible mountains. But these were cut away, & suitable roads were made for mule & foot transport. Mules were certainly very stubborn and sometimes unmanageable. I have seen them to be so troublesome that the Indians lost all control, & so mule, transport and all have tumbled head first over the cliff. They never seemed to be hurt but

[Page 64]

they were of constant danger to us whose dugouts were situated directly beneath the mule tracks.

Their quarters were situated in Rest Gully, No. 3 outpost and various
other places of refuge but the Turks seemed to have knowledge of their whereabouts & consequently they suffered heavy casualties from shrapnel & high explosives.

The transport were unceasingly at work but mostly after dark as our positions were too exposed to the Turkish observation posts.

The mules were very enduring, and sure of foot, & were easily able to climb mountains of some 800 feet high. We daily awaited their arrival & their cheerful Indian leaders whom we called Johnny as we knew that [indecipherable] to bring us our daily bread.

[Page 65]

The unburied Dead

Of all the ghastly spectacles that a battlefield can bring, the unburied dead in their mangled forms are the most forbearing and compassionate.

These unfortunate heroes fallen in their desperate attempt to vindicate the right are forgotten, and are given practically no sympathy or sentiment which they so thoroughly deserve.

Their bodies being in no man’s land are unabled to be buried, and no one left to [indecipherable]. Their names are forgotten, obliterated, and their deeds of heroism unknown, but some will [indecipherable] hope that their names shall be

[Page 66]

honoured, and their memories cherished and upheld for all time.

Suvla Bay

We all knew that Aug. 6 was to be a great day of great events and expectations. A final dash for the key to the situation controlling the forts of the Dardanelles. We now know that it failed completely but the battlefield of Suvla is worth recording for its spectacular display of artillery duels and the splendid but futile attempts of the English and Australasian regiments to gain impossible positions under such conditions as then existed. The water supply was hopeless & badly organised as also was the

[Page 67]

necessary reinforcements of both men and ammunition & food. Nobody knew or seemed to know the right thing to do. Perhaps it was the lack of initiative, of leadership. The English regiments were hopelessly late, & were badly managed, and instead of joining hands with the troops from Anzac on the night of Aug. 6 when all would have meant success. They were almost 48 hours overdue. But we could see them in broad daylight coming across the marshy salt lake in open formation & being soundly pelted with shrapnel. We had a beautiful clear view of the whole of the battle field for fifteen miles or

[Page 68]

more for we were on high ground on mountains adjoining abrupt sheer hills. The thick gorse and brambles were alight & flaming furiously here there and everywhere. Kuchuk{?} hill was covered by Turkish shrapnell while our warships replied furiously & set fire to the town of Anafarta{?} besides annihilating two Turkish heavy guns. Regiments were moving for position everywhere & in vain did they fail to push forward. After severe fighting the lines were joined, & all remained quiet [indecipherable] the few following days. The land beyond was green and smooth & would probably be very cultivating & fertile.

[Page 69]

Turkish trenches were visible for miles to the rear and having brought up his reinforcements it was impossible to make way & from Aug. 21 to the evacuation the lines remained the same & our objective was never gained. On the right too, we could see clearly the fight for Sari Bair mountains which were the key to the situation. The N. Zealanders gained the summit but the Turks outnumbered there strength & they were forced to quit. The artillery fire from our warships & land batteries was very severe & the Turks were
obliberated with the help of our machine guns.

[Page 70]

Wretched & ghastly fighting took place here for several days but all was in vain. The casualties were frightfully heavy & shamefully cruel. The line here was consolidated on the Rododendron Ridge. And so all failed. The trenches were made to look pretty, winter quarters were prepared & from then on we looked at the impregnable mountains & admired the barren scenery until ordered to evacuate after having endured a few days of a most severe winter blizzard and all the miseries that cold can bring.

[Page 71]

Our Land Batteries

Many guns and howitzers were of a fine quality and were manned by men worthy of the highest praise. But the shortage of shells was horribly deplorable and so we did not get the full benefit of their capabilities as they were only allowed to fire four rounds per day.

The artillerymen naturally had the best of quarters & food available under such trying conditions as they are a smaller body of men than the infantry. But they had trying times,& suffered rather heavy casualties. Their guns were skilfully located

[Page 72]

and concealed and in some cases on the summit of mountains some 500 feet high having been dragged there by means of mules tied to the axels along specially built roads

{ Sketch of a warship on top of page and of an camel and rider enttled A.I.F. Camel Corps Egypt}

[Page 73]

{sketch of H.M.S. Queen Elizabeth and of five Anzac types}

[Page 74]

The Missing

The most regrettable of all sorrows of the Gallipoli campaign was the list of missing. These unfortunate soldiers were either drowned during the landing on account of their weighty packs or were either killed in no man’s land and so their names or identification were absolutely impossible to obtain. This is most heart-rending & painful for the parents & relatives and causes the Military authorities much inconvenience and regret. But it is one of those regrettable incidents of war and cannot be overcome.

[Page 75]

Cape Helles

Simultaneously with the landing at Anzac a landing was conducted on much the same lines at the most southerly part of the Peninsular at Cape Helles. And deeds of unprecedented valour and heroism were accomplished there just the same as at Gaba Tebe. The River Clyde was run ashore & men leaped through her broken sides straight into the midst of well directed Turkish machine gun & rifle fire. The warships assisted greatly with great fire at the various landings
committing fearful casualties amongst the terror stricken Turks.

[Page 76]

As the 4th Brigade were in reserve they did not arrive at their destination until 5 PM on the afternoon of April 25 so on our journey we obtained a clear view of the conditions at Helles, & from all appearances the spectacles from the sea was much the same as at Anzac. Warships firing broadsides in quick succession & transports in great numbers, some empty, some loaded with troops to be landed were well out to sea, depicting a veritable battle field of mobile infantry advancing to the attack, together with a fine display of bombardment from the warships which were partly obscured by the gloomy atmosphere. It must

[Page 77]

be admitted that Achi Babi was the main objective from which full command of Narrows could be easily obtained. But it failed miserably. The Turks were in readiness and the position seemed impregnable. For weeks & weeks after the landing furious onslaughts by us to gain the objective were always frustrated, and on May the 6th the 2nd Australian Brigade & the N.Z. offered their services voluntary to help in the decisive attempt. A good advance was made but it all failed. Many Australian dead lay in the village of Kithnia and the soil round about having lost half their strength they

[Page 78]

returned of Anzac. So at Suvla Bay, Anzac, & Cape Helles the Australians had done their share.

The bombardments by the warships on Archi Babi lasted at times for 24 hours without ceasing & it is marvellous how any Turk could remain alive. But Achi Babi was of solid rock & was built up by masses of solid concrete, & so the shells seemed to have little effect. They took the warning & buried themselves in the specially constructed refuges far below the bowls of the earth.

[Page 79]

The Hardships of Gallipoli

Gallipoli like Mesopotamia was full of hardships & general inconveniences. Nearly every trench was located on the summit of tremendous steep mountains, & the continual going up & down their steep inclines required great stamina & determination especially as we had to transport by hand all the heavy boxes of bully beef & biscuits. We were short of reinforcements & so had to do double our share in the trenches & when liberated for rest we were invariably called upon for fatigue which was always heavy & most tiring. The water supply at times was deplorable, & one would given all he possessed

[Page 80]

[Sketch entitled A Little Bit of Maidos]

[Page 81]

for a glass to quench his unquenchable thirst. Even at times of quietness one always had to walk a mile or more & then have to wait for his turn for at least an hour. The food supply too was bad and nearly always consisted of bully beef & biscuits except at rare intervals we received small portions of fresh meat & a little bread. This state of things was only to be expected as the transportation encountered many difficulties & had to be brought for a long distance. Sickness too was rife & men were constant victims to diarrhoea which accounted for many of our casualties. The life was dreary & monotonous as there was no town life or even a

[Page 82]

touch of home comforts excepting the mail from Australia which we so much appreciated. There was no scenery to appreciate, no concerts or canteens to enliven our weary spirits always tired & weary with the monotony & hardships of the day which invariably consisted of di gging trenches, or making roads. All were glad to leave at the evacuation but sorry to depart a broken and beaten foe.

[Three head sketches]

[Page 83]

Deaths in England

Unfortunately the climatic conditions of England are unsuitable & far too severe for the Australian troops. In our camp alone at Westham & [indecipherable] the average rate per day of deaths is two, due mostly to pneumonia & meningitis. While at the training camps were conditions of camp life are far worse than here the deaths amount to a far larger proportion, and I believe the average rate of deaths per day throughout all camps in England amount to about 20.

All the corpses are buried in the beautiful burial grounds of [indecipherable]

[Page 84]

Regis situated close to the railway line and facing the sea.

[sketch of a four funnel cruiser]

[Page 85]

Very Regrettable

During the many dreary months spent on the Peninsular, men who were in charge of fatigue parties on the beach or who belonged to the ordinance & or A.S.C. stores had much liberty and spare time
& taking advantage of

[sketch of four funnel cruiser]

this they obtained eatables from Imbros only twelve miles distance or from the hospital ships, & sold them at very exorbitant & extravagant prices to their comrades. They sold tins of milk, cost price 6p at 2/6, & chocolate worth 6p at 2/-. The

[Page 86]
The Stretcher Bearers

The stretcher Bearers were always at hand working day and night unceasingly, accomplishing deeds of heroism and self sacrifice. Their arrival was always awaited with eager expectation by those who lay wounded & helpless on the battlefield or who lay at the dressing stations longing to be transported to the hospital ships. Their work was most tiring & monotonous & was invariably accompanied by great danger, from shrapnell when in the gullies & from rifle & machine gun bullets when in the open but they always carried out their work cheerfully & obediently. They deserve great praise & high honours for the great benefits & comforts they bestowed on the weary & worn out wounded and dying.

[Page 87]

Indian transport corps were also great offenders in the same direction. They, too, sold milk, sugar etc. at ridiculous prices & these articles were not always obtained by honest means as they were meant to be our daily rations & not to be sold.

[sketch of donkey, cart and driver entitled "The Soul of Glory is not Victory" ]

[Page 88]

The Army Medical Corps

To the Army medical corps is due much credit and skill in saving many valuable lives under most trying and difficult conditions. Our own Battalion medical officers did splendid work, & their untiring energy & unbounded attention saved many whose condition appeared hopeless. From the battalion they were transferred by stretchers if unable to walk to the nearest field dressing stations which in the early part of the campaign were situated on the beach & were subjected to much heavy bombardment. It was

[Page 89]

here that many operations were hurriedly performed under most dangerous conditions, and many officers and men were killed in the execution of their duty. They were invariably over taxed for accommodation notably so after our advance, and the remarkable cool manner in which all cases received the best medical aid brings high credit to the officers & men of the Army Medical Corps. They often sacrificed their lives & spent sleepless nights in the execution of their duties. From the dressing stations they were placed on board the hospital ships where the officers & sisters tended their wounds & sicknesses with all the best modern aid that the medical professions can give.

[Page 90]


Imbros is an island situated directly opposite Anzac at a distance of about fourteen miles, and further south lay the island of [indecipherable] which was of no military value but of interest as being a visiting place of St. Paul.

Imbros, however, was far more important as a military base containing a most suitable harbour as well as supplies of fruit and groceries. It was the headquarters of Sir Ian Hamilton & also of the aeroplanes, & was the sheltering place for the warships and transports. A bakery was erected there from which all supplies of bread were obtained.

[Page 91]


Abdul as we saw him was not a bad fellow to meet. He was generally well built, and sometimes fat & glowing in health. He was a clean fighter, and a very brave man, and under the leadership of their German masters he made an admirable and an excellent soldier. The majority of the prisoners were badly clothed especially their boots which were worn out in many cases & sometimes only wrapped in bandages. He has the reputation of being cruel but we certainly never experienced any ill treatment at his hands during the Peninsular Campaign.

[Page 92]


Lemnos was the intermediate base and contained a well sheltered harbour and good green lands which were apparently very fertile for cultivation. Hundreds of warships and transports lay in its beautiful harbour as well as the Greek sailing vessels, and overhead the aeroplanes were continually flying to & fro giving it a most unique spectacle while on land could be seen thousands upon thousands of Bell tents & marquees where the infantry were quartered previous to transportation to Gallipoli. Hospitals, too, were clearly visible. They were built either of weather boarding or

[Page 93]

marquees, and were responsible for much good work.

Everywhere the allies had erected extensive works which showed that they meant business & that it was to be a permanent base for Salonika as well as Gallipoli. Piers and breakwaters were erected wherever necessary; and a large water condenser on the southern beach. The water supply gave great anxiety as the water from the wells was far from sufficient, and was causing much sickness amongst the men. The island was very suitable for rest camps for men from Gallipoli who cherished in an open game of football. cricket or

[Page 94]

athletic sports. The fields were beautifully level & afforded excellent playgrounds. The population consisted of about eight villages giving a population of 25,000. But the houses were far from clean and respectable, & seemed to be owned by the poorer classes. The sunset here was most wonderful illuminating the sky with its many radiating and glorious colours. At [indecipherable] were glorious & ancient Grecian baths whose interior was paved with marble. The water from the ever flowing wells was naturally hot & gave very invigorating effects. This island is certainly very valuable and would make an ideal locality for residential flats & private houses.

[Page 95]

The Trenches and Saps

The most extraordinary of all the feats performed at Gallipoli was the tremendous amount of trenches and saps. Day after day and night after night men were continually digging and improving the safety and usefulness of our trenches. Whole Battalions & Brigades were specially held in reserve on this most strenuous work under the most trying and awkward conditions. The trenches were generally + 8 feet in depth and two to three feet wide with recesses containing standing platforms which the engineers improved as time went by with short wooden steps bound & secured by means

[Page 96]

of wire gauge. So extensive was the amount of digging performed

[sketch of head and shoulders of an attractive female signed D.V. Walford]


[Page 97]

Dugouts were cut into the exterior elevations of the trenches giving the whole an extraordinary aspect. Previous to the winter months tunnels and even underground rooms of considerable size were dug some fifteen or more feet below the earth, and they gave ample room & ventilation for winter quarters a and a wonderful amount of warmth. Roads for artillery, paths ascending the highest mountains for mule traffic and foot transport, hidden saps miles in length & broad enough for limber transportation were all dug with the greatest speed and in a remarkable short time completely altering the geographical outlay of the country occupied. This work was the most hated amp; tiresome

[Page 98]

of all the fatigues especially as our bodies were weak from exhaustion & insufficient food. Nevertheless the battlefield is remarkable for the tremendous amount of trenches and their wonderful skilful execution and will always prove of interest to those who may be fortunate to visit this historic battlefield when peace once more shows its glorious & shining light.

[Sketch of Rising Sun badge and battalion colour patch]

[Page 99]

[Sketch of an artillery piece and crew entitled Walkers Ridge Gallipoli – A Heavy Battery In Action Firing In The Direction Of Sulva Bay]

[Page 100]

Walker’s Ridge

There were at least seven guns on the summit of Walker’s Ridge which was approximately 600 feet above sea level. The guns here dominated all the Turkish positions to the rear of hill 971.,Pope’s hill, Courtney’s Post & Quinns Post. They were responsible for thousands of Turkish casualties which were particularly severe on the nights of May 18 and Aug 6. The trench running along the ridge was captured from the Turks during the early days of the fighting and was utilized for dugouts and for the storage of the ammunition,.

[Page 101]

Fleas & Insects

Insects of various species commonly & better known as lice, were our worst constant companions & they used to stick to us with more tenacity & friendship than the greatest of all our friends. Though constantly served with clean underwear they did not take long to accumulate for water was scarce, & we scarcely had even a sponge for weeks on end. the clothes were soon dirty again, the lice found their resting place, & we consequently suffered the tortures of an everlasting tickling sensation which could only be overcome with a violent frontal attack with our nails as a substitute for the bayonet.

[Page 102]


Pay day was always awaited with eager expectation by all, but that day invariably brought forth mischief and regrettable incidents, especially when the new men were gathered together on the transport ships or at places like Gallipoli, Lemnos etc. they could not be spent on [indecipherable] or where amusements were not to be had. In these cases the men gathered together to gamble at crown & anchor, two up, [indecipherable] and other gambling games. Money was wasted & thrown away as if pound notes were only shillings. As usual nearly all lost everything they possessed except a few who were lucky. One particular case stands out above

[Page 103]

all others. A man named Williams of our battalion won 200 pounds at two up, & gave it to our adjutant who placed it to his account.

[A sketch of the head of a Turkish soldier entitled Abdul].

[Page 104


Life on board a transport was always dull and monotonous especially as they were nearly always overcrowded and the deck space was always limited. Some transports were well fitted with suspended hammocks, & suitable mess tables, rifle rackets, and shelves for our kit and valuables, but others which were commissioned over hurriedly by the Government were horribly unclean & wholly unsuitable for the health and general comfort of the men, especially was this apparent during the early days, and, also at the evacuation when the demand was so great. Games were played

[Page 105]

at intervals but the military were always slow & nothing of note ever took place. The various trips were always an education, and the different sights were scrutinized from top to bottom, & many keen & vigorous arguments were always taking place. We were, however, always glad to touch land once more, & to depart from the confusion and general inconvenience of transportation..

[Two head sketches entitled Jock and Tommy]

[Page 106]

Anzac Cove

The word "Anzac" was formed from the first letters of the words "Australian and New Zealand Army Corps" who were responsible for most of the fighting that took place at Gallipoli.

Anzac Cove was the name of the beach which runs in a semi-circular wave, and which lays about half a mile walk from Gape Tepe.

It was here that the landing on 25th April was effected by the 3rd brigade who acted as the covering force while the 1st, 2nd & 4th brigades in that order reinforced during the morning and afternoon and

[Page 107]

formed the main assaulting party.

At the extreme south of the peninsular lay Cape Helles where the British troops affected a landing on much the same lines. Achi Baba, a strongly fortified Turkish position, was their main objective but every attempt to capture it was hopelessly frustrated. From Anzac we could hear & see the shrapnel & high explosive shells bursting on the hill almost ceaselessly for 12 to 24 hours. But the effect never gained the desired results, and Archi Baba still stands [indecipherable] as formidable as ever dominating the entrance to the narrows.

[Page 108]

[A Sketch Of Anzac Cove To Cape Helles Entitled Right Flank Shewing Anzac And Cape Helles]

[Page 109]

Thus it was that both the attempts at the Cape & Anzac failed miserably after desperate and determined pushes were made to make good a bad beginning.

Our determination to conquer did not end there. For weeks the minutest details were arranged for a fresh landing to take place at Suvla Bay which lay two miles to the north of Anzac. This landing was entrusted to British troops backed up by the Australian troops who were to make a flanking move on the left to gain the heights of Sari Bair mountains. This

[Page 110]

enterprise failed too after a golden opportunity had been lost, and victory faded from view. Desperate fighting took place here, but loss of time, the failure to take the offensive and the shortage of water spelled disaster. The evacuation proceeded during the month of December [Sketch Of Head And Shoulders Of A Sailor] and was carried out with remarkable skill, and it was only the strict adherence to discipline, and the competent handling of the situation by the divisional officers that all was a complete success.

[Page 111]

All the Australian hospitals were excellently equipped both with Doctors, Nurses and general convenience. Everything was

[Photograph: Australian Concalescent In Harefield-Harefield Park England]

managed in the most efficient manner. Motor cars supplied by the Australian red cross did excellent work in conveying

[Page 112]

the wounded & lame from the railways to the hospital depots. The food was always good and nourishing and the sleeping accommodation very satisfactory.

[Photograph of a ward entitled Hut 27 – Harfield Park Hospital No.1 Auxiliary]

Recreation rooms with billiard tables, writing and reading material were always welcomed by us as also was the moderate prices of the

[Page 113]

well equipped canteens and the fair Australian ladies behind the counters. The leave was generally liberal but was often hard to obtain on account of the great

[Photograph of a man in bed entitled A Shellshock Case]

many applications, and concerts often bearing great talent were frequently arranged, and they supplied many pleasant hours to the invalids and

[Page 114]

kept many of the would-be adventurers in doors. Saturday & Sunday wer

e the most welcome as friends and relatives visited the sick and wounded on these days,

[Photograph entitled A Handy Substiute]

and brought many presents and revived pleasant memories of days gone by. The red cross were always at hand and supplied us regularly

[Page 115]
[Two photographs entitled Harefield House Kangaroo Mascot And An Hospital Nurse & Patient]

[Page 116]

[Two photographs and four sketches entitled The Main Wing Of Harefield Hosp. - No 1 Auxilary Hospital Harefield England Has Accommodation For 1500 Men & Consists Of 40 Wooden Huts & A Stone Building Depictured In Photo And A Small Lake In Harefield Park]

[Page 117]

with comforts from friends who always gave so liberally to the Australian funds. The Medical officers & Sisters were always obliging and carried out their duties most efficiently and with the best of good heart.

Nearly every Australian Soldier has at some time or other passed through the hospitals as it will be seen that at least 200,000 men have passed through their hands. This is remarkable work, but the overtaxed hospitals were always under competent hands, so the comings & goings of the men were always arranged efficiently

[Page 118]

and carried out in the true military fashion.

Many of the most wonderful & unprecedented operations have been carried out, and most marvellous cures effected. So good luck to the hospital officials and all those who carried out their work in so cherry a manner

[Sketch of crossed Australian flags]

[Page 119]


[A number of actual signatures]

[Page 120-125]

H.M.T. Ulysses Sergeants Mess

[A number of signatures]

[Page 126]

[One signature and a sketch of a soldier dancing with a girl with the title The Dancing Hall, Weymouth]

[Page 127]

Back home

On the 12th Feb. 1917, 1,500 men embarked at Devonport, England for Australia on H.M.A.T. Ulysses after spending three months at Westham camp, Weymouth. We were glad to leave Blighty on account of the winter season and the regular monotony of camp life.

The submarine scare greatly hindered our progress, and caused us to often deviate our course to a great distance beyond the land, & to steer in a zig-zag direction, which caused us to loose nearly 100 miles per day.

[Page 128]

There were seven ships in our convoy. Each ship left Devonport at the dead of night independently, and [indecipherable] was escorted by an British Torpedo Destroyer.

After two days sailing the destroyers departed from each ship, and the next evening the seven transports concentrated at a given point where they were escorted the rest of the journey by an armoured transport fitted with ten 4.7 guns [amendment 8.6 inch guns]. The food on board is quite delicious, the deck space allotted to the men is ample, and the general comfort is highly satisfactory.

[Page 129]

We were taking our course round the cape, and on the 26th February we arrived at Sierra Leone which is an important gold mining & palm oil centre. The weather there was dreadfully hot. The place has always been known to be the white man’s grave. Six months active service there is counted as a year’s service. Sierra Leone is greatly being used now as a meeting place for transports and warships. The inhabitants are very black, well built, and have very flat noses. I drew a sketch of the place as it appeared from our transport. Leave was granted from

[Page 130]

[Sketch of the port]

[Page 131]

2 to 11 p.m. during which time we spent on excursion trips the principal places of interest. The residents received us with hearty enthusiasm, & the Governor General entertained us at a dinner and concert.

[Head and shoulders sketch of an Australian soldier entitled Australia]

We entered Durban on Sunday 18th and were received with a unique example of chivalrous hospitality. Train rides were free and free meals and entertainment were provided. The city is a faithful example of what a modern city should be. The roads are wide and well laid. The gardens and natural surroundings lend a freshness and beauty to the very

[Page 132]

artistic buildings which surround the well planned and beautiful city. The rickshaw boys, who are a fine specimen of manhood of the Zulu tribe, are to be seen everywhere pulling their rickshaws through the streets. They wear gorgeously coloured clothes; their feet and other parts of their bodies are painted different [indecipherable] and to their head is attached horns from the Springbok.

Surf bathing, a luxurious swimming bath, and amusements are a feature of the township. Marine parade – this place is much similar to Manly, and is a pleasure resort which is greatly patronised by the holiday excursionists. It is only ten minutes ride from the city.

P.T.O. 134

[Page 133]


The Gurkha Regiment were responsible for much valuable work on the pen. They were very active rather small but well built, On co-operation with the N Zealand they gained the summit of the Sari Bari mountains . They were under the leadership of English officers.

[In a box in the middle of the page a sketch of a Gurkha soldier entitled A Gurkha with the following text]:

On the peninsular the Gurjhas wore light [indecipherable] uniforms with short trousers and a felt hat similar to our own. They were well built but small, and were in appearance very much like a Japanese.]

[Page 134]

Sketch of a poster – The West is Proud
Of You Sketch Of A Swan Two Crossed Australian Flags Soldiers’ Welcome Committee Of W.A.

[Page 135]

Sketch of a soldier wearing a kilt entitled A Dinkum Canadian

[Page 136]

A sketch entitled High Street Oxford. England

[Page 137]

[A sketch of four soldiers in the prone position entitled : At Walkers Ridge. A Typical Illustration Of Open Fighting That Occurred During The Early Days At Anzac]

[Page 138]

Theory of Grenades

All encased explosives thrown by hand are to be called grenades. Two kinds of grenades

[A] Shrapnell Burst

[B] Fragmental Burst

Heavy grenades weigh about 2 lbs. Light grenades weigh about 1 lb

Affected area of light grenades is roughly 6 yds in diameter while a heavy grenade is dangerous at a diameter of 30 yds.

There are two types of grenades fuses [A] Percussion & [B] [Fuse].
All dummy grenades have a yellow band around the outside. Live grenades have a red band painted on the outside  

[Page 139]

Blind grenades should always be buried.

In handling detonators charge does not need much to cause explosion.


1. Ordinary live fuse, recognised by its colour black. Delivered in fathoms of 8.

The centre consists of gun powder of salt petre. The more salt petre the slower the fuse.

Salt petre enclosed in a rubber tube. Around rubber tube is placed flax bound by wire insulation tape.

Fuse will soak for 24 hours before getting damp. Fuse consists

[Page 140]

of three strands of red tape in case powder is separated. Burns five seconds to the inch.

2. Instantaneous fuse . Colour bright orange. At night recognised by touch. Fuses top to bottom are cords crossing each other plus. Inside instead of gun powder is strand of quick match.

3. Bickford’s Cordeau or detonating fuse in a zinc or lead tube.

Column running through fuse is [C.N.T.]

Rate of burning travels at the rate of 6 ? per second. Is used extensively for demolition purposes/

[Page 141]


No. 6 Detonator enclosed in a copper tube. Closed at one end. About 1 3/4 inches in length & containing about 35 grains of fulminate of mercury. Bursting power = about 20 lbs per sq. inch.

No. 8 Detonator generally painted red and contains about 60 grains of mercury. Bursting power = 120 lbs. per sq. inch.

Friction tube. Copper solid down tube. Two inches long head part painted green. At open end is small paper wad held in place by shellac. In head

[Page 142]


Pressure / lbs per aq. inch

[Sketch of soldier wheeling a barrow entitled Transport.]

[Sketch of Turkish soldier entitled Abdul, I Runneth, For The Australians]

[Page 143]

Sketch of a soldier.

The Grenadier

Note. for the benefit of those inclined towards inquisitiveness the animal depicted below is a very rare specie of a she-bullock to be found during moonlight in the very wilds of Africa.

[Page 144]

No. 5 Mills Grenade

Sketch of parts of Grenade

[Page 145]

Sketch entitled Rough Details Of Helipolis Egypt.

Sketch entitled Helipolis

[Page 147]

Two Sketches of boats on rivers

[Page 148]

Sketch of head and shoulders of a young woman

[Transcribed by John Brooker, Trish Barrett, Adrian Bicknell for the State Library of New South Wales]