Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales

Sir Charles Rosenthal Diary, 25 September 1914-31 December 1915
MLMSS 2739/vol.1

[Transcriber’s notes :
1 Jan 1916 - Arrived in Egypt from Gallipoli.
17 Feb. - Given command of Artillery Brigade of new 4th Division.
5 April - Promoted full Colonel & Temporary Brigadier General
2 June – Departs Alexandria on the "Kinfauns Castle" for Marseilles.
8 June – Arives Marseilles
18 June – Caestre, Divisional Artillery Head Quarters.
In temporary command of Australian 4th Division.
2 July – Moved to Erquingham
2nd Aug. – To Lumbres near St Omer. Training area.
13th Aug. - 7 days leave. London and Bradford.
24th Aug. – Move to front line. With Australian, Canadian, British and Belgian units.
23rd Sept. – Took over command of Division.
15 Nov. - Handed over to C.R.A. 41st Division. Now in command of artillery of 1st and 4th Divisions. 2 days leave in Paris.
23 Feb. 1917 – Relinquished command on front line.
5 April - Took over Command of Artillery Left Sector, 1st Anzac Corps
11 April – First Battle of Bullecourt
3 May – Second Battle of Bullecourt
26 May – 6 days leave. London, Oxford, Bradford, Belfast.
7 June – Battle of Messines
13 June – Handed over Artillery Command.
3 July - Assumes command of 4th Aus. Division
31st July – Third Battle of Ypres
20th Aug. – Appointed to command of 9th Infantry Brigade, 3rd Aust. Div.
5th Sept. – 12 days leave. London, Portrush, Salisbury Plain.
26th Sept. – 14th Oct. - Polygon Wood and Passchendaele
5 Jan. 1918 – Left for Training Course at Grantham prior to month’s leave.
12 Jan. Recalled to France. Temporary command of 1st Australian Division
14 Feb. Four days leave, London.
19 Mar. Convalescent leave Cap Martin, Cote D’Azure. (gassed at Passchendaele)
24 Apr. Second Villers Bretonneux
20 May Assumes command of 2nd Aus. Division. Rank of Major General
13 June Seven days leave, London and Tidworth.
4 July Battle of Hamel
19 July Sustains serious injury to right hand. Diary written by another.
2 to 6 Aug. To London for specialist treatment.
8 Aug. Major Allied offensive begun.
29 Aug. Battle of Mont St Quentin.
9 to 14 Sept. Attended Allied Tank School at Fontainbleau.
24 Sept. Refusal of troops to accept battalion disbandonment.
29 Sept. Attack on Hindenburg Line.
8 Oct. Leave. Paris, London, Cambridge, Bradford, Birmingham, Edinburgh, on board HMAS Melbourne.
21 Nov. Aboard HMAS Australia to view the surrender of the German High Sea Fleet in Firth of Forth.
29 Nov. Returns to France/Belgium]

[Page 1]
General Rosenthal’s Diary Of The Great War

Sir Charles Rosenthal informed me that he wrote his Diary from leaving Australia in a small note-book until arrival in Cairo when he purchased the two books on which this Diary is written and copied into them the original notes from his small note-book containing entries up to his arrival in Cairo. He lost this original note-book through fire in Gallipoli. These two volumes accompanied Sir Charles from December 1914 up to the time of his return to Sydney. The entries were made from day to day, at lEast when possible.

Sir Charles points out that whilst he was ill with enteric fever in Egypt there was a whole month’s gap, that is from August 25th to October 5th. He therefore did not enter up the entry under the date of August 25th until he was well enough to do so.

When he was wounded his Diary was entered up by his two Aides-de-camp, Captain P/ O’Hara Wood and Lieutenant Eric Pope. See my lead pencil note on Page 432 of volume 1. [Note: this is pg. 439 of the transcription]

W.H. Ifould
Principal Librarian

[Page 2]
S.J. Fox & Co
Mortgage Brokers & Property Agents
Suite 41
Stanton House
133 Pitt Street
(Near Martin Place)
SJF/LH 24th April 1931
W.H. Ifould, Esq.
Principal Librarian,
Public Library
Macquarie Street,

Dear Sir

During conversation with Major General, Sir Charles Rosenthal, he mentioned that you were in possession of his private War Diary, and that some doubt had been expressed as to where it had been written.

I had the honour to be closely associated with general Rosenthal as D.T.M.O. 4th Australian Divisional Artillery, from about May 1916, to August 1917, and watched him on many occasions, writing up his private War Diary in the field. The General has requested me to intimate this fact to you, as a member of Headquarters’ Staff, at that time.

Yours faithfully
SJ Fox

[Note in margin]
Mitchell Librarian – Please have this clipped into the front of the Diary
W.H.I. PL.

[Page 3]

The events which led up to the war now in progress, and the main features of the Campaign will be published in a much more complete form than I could possibly hope to arrange.

My desire is to carefully chronicle as far as possible all details affecting the 3rd Field Artillery Brigade which I have the honour to Command, and also particularly my own personal experiences from the time of the acceptance of my services by the Defence Authorities of Australia to the completion of the war, or as far as I am destined to participate in such war.

The "Grad[u]ation List" of officers published by the Military Board in connection with the 1st Expeditionary Force shows clearly the names of all Officers serving and their appointments.

There are in Australia at present in existence 26 Militia Batteries, from which 3 Brigade and 9 Battery Commanders are required for the A.I.F. artillery. The R.A.F.A. provided 1 Brigade and 2 Battery Commanders, thus leaving 2 Brigade and 6 Battery Commanders to be selected from 26 Militia Batteries.
Of these Batteries the 44th Howitzer (raised by me in 1908 and commanded by me till June 1915) has provided 1 Brigade and 2 Battery Commanders, leaving only 1 Brigade Commander and 4 Battery Commanders to be provided from the Remaining 25 Batteries. It is also significant that every officer who has graduated through the Howitzer Battery is serving in the 1st A.I.Force.

On July 1st I was appointed to the Command of the 5th A.F.A. Brigade New South Wales, and in consequence had to vacate the position of O.C. 44th (Howitzer) Battery. This Battery had been raised by me in 1908 and had always maintained a high standard of efficiency and Readiness.
Upon my vacating the Command my Captain (Major Rabett) was promoted to rank of Major and given Command of the Battery.
The Creation of the 5th Brigade had barely been completed when war was declared and the 44th Battery as a whole – officers and men – was the first Unit in the Australian Commonwealth to volunteer its services in the defence of the Empire.

When the British Authorities accepted Australia’s offer of a complete division, I was posted to the Command of the 2nd Battery in the

[Page 4]
Expeditionary Force, which was in fact really the 44th Battery, and at once commenced its organization.

The Artillery from Australia for the Expeditionary Force was made up of 1st 2nd and 3rd Brigade, Batteries numbered from 1 to 9, with their Ammunition Columns and also the Divisional Ammunition Column.
The 1st Brigade was Commanded by Major Christian R.A.F.A., and was raised in N. S. Wales, the 2nd Brigade, raised in Victoria, was Commanded by Lieut. Col Johnstone and the 3rd Brigade was Composite, and consisted of 7th Battery drawn from Queensland, 8th Battery from W. Australia. 9th Battery from Tasmania, and details of Ammunition Column from all states. This Brigade therefore has representatives in its ranks from every state of the Commonwealth, and is therefore essentially Australian.

On August 26th I was given command of the 3rd Brigade and set to work to get it organized as quickly as possible. Lt Jopp RAFA was appointed Adjutant and Lieut Clowes R.M.C. appointed Orderly Officer. I was promoted to rank of Lieut Colonel on September 17th 1914.

I visited Queensland in Company with Col Hobbs, Divisional Commander, and Major Anderson, Brigade Major, spending a couple of days in Brisbane. I then returned to Sydney where I remained some days, thence journeyed to Melbourne and Tasmania, putting in some days in Brighton Camp near Hobart with the 9th Battery. I then returned to Sydney, via Melbourne, stayed there some days attending to arrangements for men and horses embarking from Sydney for Tasmania. I also at this time inspected the Troop Ship "Rangatira" (A.22) lying at Pyrmont wharf and was delighted with the general Arrangements. The boat was fitted out by the Garden Island Authorities. I sent my Orderly & Horse to Brisbane by this Transport and some days afterwards myself left by rail for Brisbane. I found it terribly hard saying "Goodbye" to my wife and second son at Sydney railway station, and never again hope to have a similar experience.

I arrived at Brisbane on the evening of September 24th and immediately reported to the District Commandant who gave me certain instructions and information. On the morning of the 25th in Company with the District Commandant I went by Launch to Pinkenbar, and boarded the Transport which had been loaded with horses the night before and was ready to leave at noon.
I have shut down my practice and closed my doors. My connection must look after itself. Henceforward my records will be in Diary form.
Charles Rosenthal.

[Page 5]
Friday 25th September, 1914

This morning I have seen the District Paymaster and handed to him my pay allotment for my wife. I also interviewed the O.C. Army Service Corps and arranged for sand to be placed on board transport for a sand bath for horses. Horses were embarked by men of units, commencing at 5 P.M. 24th instant; finishing at 12 midnight Sept 24th/25th. One horse caused a great deal of trouble, and eventually backed over the wharf into the river. It was subsequently rescued.

The District Commandant invited me to proceed from Brisbane to Pinkenbar in the Naval launch. On arrival at the troop ship I took over custody of cash for use of men on board and had some placed in Captain’s Safe. The Commandant issued to me a message of farewell from His Excellency Sir Arthur Morgan, Governor of Queensland, to the troops of all Transports from Queensland, and as the "Rangatira" was the last to leave I was asked to transmit the message by wireless to other ships. The Commandant also personally addressed the troops. He informed me Mr Jopp’s work as Adjutant had been most unsatisfactory.
The troopship left wharf at Pinkenbar at 12.50 PM amid the tooting of whistles and sirens, and the "good byes" of the Soldiers friends and relatives.

The Veterinary Officer reported a sick horse which he had refused to accept, but which was ultimately ordered to be taken (by the Veterinary Board). This horse had been ill for a week prior to embarkation.

Weather beautifully fine and so far no symptoms of sea sickness.

Saturday 26th September
A very beautiful morning. The rugged coast in the rising sun looks particularly fine. With Col Sutton, the Senior medical Officer on Board I made a thorough inspection of the ship at 10 AM. Parades during the day of gunners at gun drill and fuze setting, rifle exercises, etc. Cleaning up ship generally. Lecture at night to all officers on general Conduct and duties on Board Troopship. Veterinary Officer reported sick horse to be very bad. I had him moved to the deck and specially fed. The Senior Medical Officer reported two cases of venereal disease. Cases were at once isolated.
I interviewed the Adjutant re very unsatisfactory report of his work furnished to me by District Commandant of Queensland, supported by a similar report from the A.A.G. I warned him his promotion to rank of Captain and the keeping of his position at all would depend on the way his duties in the future are carried out. I have given personal instruction to all trumpeters and buglers.

[Page 6]
Sunday 27th September
When I looked through the port of my Cabin at 6 A.M. I discovered we were off Sydney Heads. The rising sun on the Light Houses and cliffs made a splendid panorama. I inspected all horses at 7 A.M. with Veterinary Officer. Sick horse previously referred to is now unable to stand and had to be slung and fed through a drench. A second sick horse was also moved to upper deck. I gave instructions to move some horses into more suitable stalls, and also arranged for sand both to be prepared and saw it completed. Inspected ship at 10A.M. with Medical Officer. Sick horse destroyed at 3PM and cast overboard. Board at once detailed for same.
I forwarded to District Commandant Brisbane acknowledgement of the State Governor’s message, also acknowledgement of same from "Satr of England", "Anglo Egyptian" and "Omrah". All by wireless.

Monday 28th September
Two more cases of venereal disease discovered at morning Sick Parade. General inspection of Ship at 10 AM with P.M.O. I instituted artificers to alter certain mess Fittings to admit more light and air. Arrangements were made for the exercising and massaging of Horses and duties commenced. Gun drill and signalling detachment at work. Landscape targets in use. Rifle exercises carried out. Commencement made with evening classes for Officers and N.C.O.s. From 7.30 to 8PM. For N.C.O.s, and 8 to 8.30 or 9 PM for officers. Standing Orders for 3rd F.A. Brigade were explained to N.C.O.s and Officers. Signalling at night with Begbie lamp. Some horses were during the day moved from aft. stalls to others more centrally situated. I gave instructions for full "Marching Order" parade for each Wednesday at 10 AM, and foot parade for Medical Officer each Tuesday at 10 AM. On passing Signal Station at Wilson’s Promontory we received a signal instructing us to call at Queenscliff for Orders. Every Officer speculating as to what this May mean, our instruction previously having been to rendezvous at King George’s Sound, Albany. Coast around Wilson’s Promontory and Back Stairs Passage very rugged. Bitterly cold afternoon and night. Glorious sunset. In view of the fact that "Examination Anchorage" work is now being carried out at Queenscliff, Col Sutton and myself decided to take post on the Bridge while entering.

Tuesday 29th September
Came up on Captain’s Bridge at 1.30 AM with Col Sutton. The "Examination Boat" and the Search lights playing over the water from the Forts made a beautiful picture. The Pilot came on board with instructions for us to proceed to Melbourne. We entered the "Rip’ with the "Star of England" following

[Page 7]
in our wake, arrived opposite Port Melbourne and anchored. After the Health Officer had made his inspection anchor was weighed and we moved alongside new Railway Pier, Port Melbourne, berthing at 10 AM. I immediately went to Victoria Barracks, and reported to Colonel Hobbs, Colonel White and General Bridges.
Ordered to allow no leave. Returned to the ship with Major Glasford.
Colonel Grimwade, (Embarkation Officer) visited ship at 1 P.M. Instructed to proceed with disembarkation at 9 AM Thursday morning. Col Hobbs inspected ship at 4.30PM. with Major Anderson and Party. Notified that General Bridges would inspect at 10 AM 30th inst. I made a suggestion to Colonel Hobbs that our horses should be picketed on Crown Land adjoining wharf. Officers and men to take meals aboard ship and sleep there. Colonel Hobbs approved suggestion and promised to consult General Bridges. Adjutant compiled list of Ordnance deficiencies and submitted same to Major Anderson.

Wednesday 30th September.

General cleaning parade during morning. O.C. Troops inspection at 9 AM. General Bridges (accompanied by Colonel White) and Col Hobbs inspected ship at 10.30 AM. General Bridges expressed his entire satisfaction with the ship. General given "General Salute" on arrival. He gave permission to place horses on ground adjoining wharf. Men to sleep and mess on Board.
Inspected site for Horse lines, arranged to borrow timber from Wharf Contractor and with plumber for water service. Mr Jopp reported to Head Quarters re Ordnance Supplies; Veterinary Officer also reported to Head Quarters. Artillery horses disembarked. Infantry details and Brigade Head Quarters remaining on board till morning. Colonel Tunbridge instructed D.A. Column Section to move to Broadmeadows Camp. Col Sutton and F.A. details to show grounds.
Adjutant reported satisfactorily re replacement of Ordnance shortages.
Wrote Nell addressed to Gordon. Promised to write boys later.

Thursday 1st October.

Borrowed 8x6 timbers and erected horse lines. Ship lowered rope. Adjutant received sundry stores from Ordnance. D.A.C. Section moved off to Broadmeadows. Capt McGee took some battery harness and mixed up a great deal already sorted. He told Major Hughes he intended to make up his deficiencies from other units. I decide the matter must be adjusted at once and arranged for Major Hughes and the Adjutant to visit Broadmeadows to see Col Tunbridge in the matter.
Guns disembarked and made available for drill purposes, but retained on wharf. As member of a Board convened by General Bridges I attended Col Forsyth

[Page 8]
in conjunction with Capt Matson on "Star of England" from 1.30 to 5.30 PM re condition of horse stalls and horses. Board proceedings completed and recommendation made to the effect that horses being overcrowded, it was desirable to remove 60 or 70 stalls from ship, also that an oat ration should be provided daily, such ration to be gradually increased during the last week of voyage.
Col Kendall P.V.O, inspected ship and horses. Hosing out of ship commenced. I promised to arrange for the cleaning out of stalls allotted to unit sent away from ship. Harness dubbing, and dressing. Picket ropes, rubbers, spurs etc. received from Ordnance. Large fatigue party under Captain Leslie cleaning ship. Two gun detachments from battery and two from B.A. Column at work.

Friday 2nd October
Two picket lines fixed for Horses and horses properly arranged on same. Large fatigue party on following duties: - Cleaning Horse stalls, hosing cocoanut matting & sweeping pier. Four detachments at Gun drill. Parties fitting up Harness and teaming horses. Col Hobbs and Major & Mrs Anderson visited boat. Conferred with Col Hobbs re Capt McGee’s conduct concerning harness. Decided to send Major Hughes and Adjutant to Broadmeadows to adjust same. Received letter from Alvord. Capt Louden suggested his company might provide a piano for the ship, and promised to use his best endeavours to get one.

Saturday 3rd October
Large fatigue party getting limber out of Hold. 8 complete limbers fitted. Second party under Lt Ross cleaning remainder of Horse stalls. Third party under Lieut Clowes sorting out Red Cross stores. Swam all horses. Squire John clipped.
Major Hughes and adjutant visited Broadmeadows. Arranged with Col Tunbridge that all harness should be returned to ship and there sorted out and adjusted. Capt McGee came to ship at 11 AM. I censured him for his Conduct re Harness. Limbers removed to Horse lines also A & B Subsection Harness.
Went for a short exercise run with Squire John along beach.
Concert on wharf for men at night. Recitations, Songs and boxing. Some good voices among the men. I shall try to develop a male voice chorus for Part Song Singing. Arranged for Church Service for Sunday 10 AM. His Grace Dr Clarke Archbishop of Melbourne to officiate. Dean McCarthy to take R.C. party at Port Melbourne Church.
Capt McLennan’s father donated 12 pair horse clippers. Arrangements will now be made to clip all horses as soon as possible.

[Page 9]
Sunday 4th October
Church service at 10 AM. Conducted by Archbishop of Melbourne. Good attendance. Guns flanked the hollow Square. Gun carriage draped with Ensign. Mrs Clarke and Registrar attended. Chief Engineer took photo of group.
At 2 o’clock parade the greater portion of 7th Battery refused to fall in because of lack of leave. I had three guards formed and issued instructions that ship was to be cleared of troops, and every man to parade on wharf. About 60 men ordered into arrest. I read out Governor General’s Warrant concerning Court Martials and informed the whole parade of the Powers vested in me under the Warrant. I also read out to them the penalties awarded for Certain Crimes.
Exercised Squire John in the afternoon in Company with the Chief Officer. Had two hours conference with all officers after dinner re lack of discipline, instruction, etc, and generally was successful in straightening out some difficulties. The Chief Steward reported pilfering from bottled ale cases. An ensuing investigation.

Monday 5th October
Full muster parade at 6.30 AM. I had overnight carefully considered my course of action re Sunday’s business and had decided that as the men had admitted their offence to the O.C. Battery, and had expressed their regret for the incident I felt the best interests of the Brigade would be served by publicly censuring the men, pointing out the seriousness of their position and releasing them. If I have erred on the side of leniency I must abide the consequences but I want to have a loyal command, and I feel an appeal to their honour will in the long run be more effective than fine or imprisonment. I have therefore dismissed the cases and the future must show if my confidence has been misplaced.
During the day Saddlery of Battery was checked with that of Divisional Column, which latter harness had been returned from Broadmeadows by order of Colonel Tunbridge. Capt Mc Gee was in attendance with Major Hughes. No less than 12 Battery saddles and other harness were found among Capt McGee’s equipment. Brigade Headquarters unpacking and stamping Harness. Battery at Gun drill, Column teaming horses.
Received a hint from my Orderly that leave was being irregularly obtained by Brigade Headquarters men. I resolved on a Tattoo parade for Head Quarters details, with the result that it was discovered five men (including a N.C.O) were absent without leave. I decided to wait up and check.

[Page 10]
all men returning to Ship. In the meantime in Company with Several Officers I searched the ship in an endeavour to find if any other way of leaving the ship than by the gangway had been prepared. I discovered 4 rope ships ladders hung on the side at various dark points of the ship, also planks leading from Horse decks through iron doors in ship side to jetty. These approaches had evidently been used by the men when leaving ship, with the cooperation of local boats.
I was so annoyed at these discoveries that I posted Officers at the entrance to troop decks, and myself with Capt Leslie took post at gangway. One by one, gunners, drivers and N.C.O. returned to ship, some hiding themselves among wharf piles lying on the wharf. The Guard had to turn them out.
Between the hours of 11 PM and 5-30 AM on 6th inst no less 62 NCOs, gunners and drivers returned to the ship, having been absent without leave. In this list were included 16 men who had been participants in the number who mutinied on Sunday morning.
My leniency and warning of the previous day had apparently not been appreciated or acted upon, so the whole squad was ordered into arrest.
The Officers retired at 2 AM, 6th inst, leaving a strong guard to apprehend any other leave breakers who might put in an appearance.

Tuesday 6th October
General parade at 6.15 AM. Every man checked. I had list prepared of prisoners and with Major Hughes called on Col Hobbs to explain the position. I felt there was nothing to be done but send all the culprits up for Court Martial, sentence them to imprisonment and discharge them from their units. Col Hobbs agreed with me, likewise General Bridges, but after a conference it was decided the best course was for me to deal summarily with the men – fine them and stop all leave for those concerned.
I accordingly had the whole command paraded at 2.PM. The defaulters were Marched on Board ship, and in reply to my enquiry they unanimously elected to be dealt with summarily by me.
Under the powers conferred on me as O.C. troops on the Transport, I therefore awarded penalties as follows:- NCOs to revert to permanent rank, have pay stopped to the extent of ?5 and be refused all leave till further notice.
All others to have pay stoped to the extent of ?5 and be deprived of all leave. Judging from remarks overheard by me I am of opinion the men have learnt their lesson and I shall have no further trouble.
I shall unhesitatingly court martial any similar offenders in the future.
I feel very keenly the want of loyalty of the Queensland Artillery, and can only

[Page 11]
think lack of knowledge and a lack of appreciation of the enormity of their conduct have led them into a course of action which is untenable.
Battery at work all day with eight 6 horse teams. Ammunition Column assembling and Stamping Harness. Head Quarters Signalling. Gun layers special instruction on two guns.
Handed over to "Omrah", "Star of England" and "Anglo Egyptian", their proportion of oats and rations for use in England.
Special oat ration being loaded for use on voyage.
Embarkation authorities practically completed alteration to Horse stalls and building of Horse brows.
Capt Louden informed me this evening he had purchased a piano for the Ship. All the officers very grateful. Mr Jopp bought extra Gramophone records.
Satisfactory ‘Tattoo’ parade at 8-30.P.M.

Wednesday 7th October
The Battery devoted the day to Battery gun drill and Driving drill. I attended the work of the battery during the morning and was very pleased with the ability displayed by Capt Leslie, both in instructing and in correcting faults. Lieut Urquhart also promises very well as a Section Officer. Drivers did very good work and team horses are in splendid condition. Gun Layers given consistent work on four guns. B.A. Column assembling and stamping harness. B. Head Qrs ditto. Received letter from Nell & Chris. Wrote short note to Nell at Gordon and at Sefton Park.
Piano arrived from Allan & Co. Visited Victoria Barracks during the afternoon, then called on Mr Whitehead to print me some cards. Inadvertently I discovered his sister is married to Mr Callaghan of Gordon and is mother of [indecipherable] Callaghan. Selected some Part Songs at Allan’s for the use of the men going home. Called on Major Robertson re selling "Jack". He was not in. I shall call in again tomorrow. Col Green and Col Merrington (chaplain) called and stayed to dinner. Afterwards men had a concert on the wharf. The "Omrah" band came round and assisted in the Performance. I sang a couple of songs.
Col Hobbs and Major Anderson visited us about noon. Wired to Commandants re Kitchens.

Thursday 8th October
Visited head Quarters during morning. Arranged to replace Horse in Battery that was destroyed on the way down from Brisbane. Left voucher and Certificate for sale of "Jack" to Department. Called on Colonel Hobbs and Colonel Dangar. Arranged to discharge undesirables

[Page 12]
and take on men here in their places.
Saw Colonel McLagan at Port Melbourne Railway Station.
Battery at Battery drill – B.A.C. fitting Harness. Head Quarters doing similar work. Gunners training in laying. Horse died during last night.

Friday 9th October
At Head Quarters in the morning re Gee’s promotion; extra Head ropes, Ammunition, etc. Capt Johnston, State Veterinary Officer accompanied me back to boat and inspected our Horses under Quarantine Regulations. Major Robertson promised to inspect and brand "Jack" today. Voucher not yet through. Wrote pencil note to Nell to that effect. Capt McLellan performed Post-Mortem on Horse, discovered cause of death to be Septic Pnuemonia. He has kept feet and intends illustrating to shoeing smiths the construction of bones of foot - as a guide to shoeing. Obtained 20 lbs plasticine and have commenced model of Country for instructional purposes.
Battery at Battery Manoeuvre. Col Hobbs and Major Anderson inspected all teams of battery, Brigade A. Column and Head Quarters Horses. Gunners at gun drill and thoroughly cleaning ship. Coaling operations have been continuous for a week but finished today. Everything is covered with fine coal dust. Bringing in Beach Sand for sandbaths for Horses.
Exercised 24 men at 300x,x 400x at Rifle Range.

Saturday 10th October
Cleaning Harness during morning for all hands. Myself a Model. Afternoon making gun emplacements. Intend to make 4 complete during hours of darkness as Practice for Officers and men. Horse reported missing from Head Quarters lines for 2 days. Arranged for search parties. Col Merrington and Lieut Chambers from "Omrah" called and invited us to Church Service on Sunday morning. Also invitation from local Anglican Vicar to early 7 AM Communion. Heard of big disturbance in Melbourne tonight between military and Police. Several of our officers asked leave to go to St Kilda dancing pavilion. Wanted me to go but I concluded it is no place for an old married man. Instead I walked along Beaconsfield parade from ship to St Kilda and back again – about 6 miles. Left ship at 8 PM and returned at 10 PM. Road very beautiful. Bitterly cold night. On my return to ship I was introduced to a friend of Mr Darcy the 4th officer, I discovered him to be an old Geelong friend (Mr Brown) of 20 years ago. Letter from Colonel Burns re travelling Kitchen. He promised to donate ?10-10-0 Hope to raise full amount required viz ?360 –

[Page 13]
Sunday 11th October
Communicant Service at local Church of St Andrew for Anglicans. Roman Catholic service at 10 AM at local church and General Service on Port Melbourne Wharf at 10 AM. I accepted Colonel Lee’s offer for our men to join their service, and as they have a band it made the service much more interesting. Gave General leave today (for all except defaulters) from 2.30 to 12 midnight. No Hotels open today to cause possible trouble. Evening on model, and walked to St Kilda.

Monday 12th October
Battery at Battery gun drill and driving drill. Brigade head Quarters mounted drill. At Victoria Barracks re Horse and Ordnance Supplies. Col Hobbs visited ship and informed me he wanted the Brigade out to Broadmeadows on Thursday for Divisional Drill. I pointed out the difficulty re Quarantine of Queensland horses. He then promised to let me know later. Battery drill again during afternoon.
At night I accepted Col Lees’ invitation to dinner on the "Omrah" returned at 9.30PM.

Tuesday 13th October
Battery at Battery Gun and Driving drill. BAC at driving drill. Horses being shod. In view of possible trek to Broadmeadows I arranged for all wagons and limbers to be brought up out of the hold and fitted ready for use. Attended at Central Administration seeing Col Dangar and Major Robertson
Also District pay officers and Ordnance re Head ropes etc. paid ?11.5.0 Fuel Allowance from 24th Sept to 23rd October inclusive. Letter from Nell also wire re her altered conditions.
The three remaining Gunpits were made during the night, commencing at 9 PM and finishing at 11.30 PM. Pay handed to Major Hughes for troops on board by Pay Master Brisbane checked and returned to Captains safe. Discharged two N.C. Officers.

Wednesday 14th October
Out with the Battery and Ammunition Column during the morning. Great improvements in driving generally.
Went to town at 1.30 PM, visited Barracks and pay office. Returned to ship at 3PM met Col Hobbs and rode out with him to watch Command at work. He seemed very satisfied with advancement made and told the Officers so. At night in Company with Col Lee and Col Merrington attended dinner at Federal Government House given by the Governor General. All OC - Troops and Senior officers were invited and we had a very jolly evening.

[Page 14]
Thursday 15th October
Out with Battery and Ammunition Column during the morning. Capt Waite O.C. BAC, reported from Adelaide at 11.30 AM. Was with him to 3.30 PM, discussed various details re training on way to England, and looked through his list of stores etc. He returned by 4.30 train to Adelaide.
Had huge fatigue party cleaning up ship and fitting stalls, chairs etc. Battery, A. Column and Brigade Head Quarters at mounted work during afternoon.

Friday 16th October
Battery and BAC also Head Quarters out during morning. I called at Col Hobbs Office, returned to Ship at 12.30 PM. Had all Horses sprayed for prevention of ticks. Completed at midday.
Out with the Battery and Column during the afternoon.
Special gift of oatmeal, arrowroot, salt and Mustard sent to ship (for use of Horses during voyage) by Miss Hardie.
Three men reported from D.A. Column to take the places of men discharged & deserted. All horse feed bins thoroughly washed out and ship left ready for embarkation of Horses. Received instruction for Parade on Saturday at 9.30 AM for GOC, Prime Minister and Minister of Defence, also to embark on Monday commencing at 8 AM.

Saturday 17th October
Prime Minister, Minister of Defence, GOC A.I.F. Admiral Creswell and other Officials made an inspection of men, horses and ship. Men formed up with teams and drivers mounted on the wharf. All concerned very pleased with ship. Prime Minister made a Complimentary speech to Col Hobbs who in turn transmitted it to me for benefit of Command generally.
All units at work with teams during morning. Afternoon devoted to embarking vehicles etc. called at Ordnance. Horse chairs arrived.

Sunday 18th October
Completed embarkation of guns and wagons, using our own men to work winches and slings.
Obtained sand for use on ship during voyage.
General leave to all ranks this afternoon – No Church Services on account of Embarkation duties.
In the evening I walked to St Kilda along Beaconsfield Parade, returning to Ship at 10. PM.

[Page 15]
Monday 19th October
Commenced embarkation of horses at 10 AM and completed all units at 1.30 PM. Chief Steward not having returned to ship the Captain delayed departure till 4.30 PM.
At Pay office during morning, at Ordnance re head ropes and expense stores. Called on Colonel Hobbs, Colonel Dangar and Colonel Coxen. Said goodbye to them all. Col Grimwade with embarkation officer and Commander Brewes left ship at 4PM. "Rangatira" moved off at 4.30 and proceeded to Anchorage at Williamstown. Our Post Orderly was brought off in a naval launch, bringing our last mail for some time. Very nice letter from Nell. Wrote short letter in reply and enclosed ?20, also wrote Chris, Alvord and Charley

TUES 20th October
New Chief Steward and Assistant came aboard during morning, also Ships Stores. Moved off at 2.36 PM from Anchorage, delighted to once again get moving. Very pleasant trip down the Bay, with the "Shropshire", ‘Moldavia", and "Star of England" astern. Pilot very interesting, had served in South Africa with a brother and sister. He told us of the capture of the last German ship to enter Melbourne port and of his "bluffing" the skipper that Fort-search lights were only being run for the usual quarterly trials. Dropped Pilot at 6 PM. Arranged details for N.C.Officers classes. Very amusing incidents have come to light re Lieut Jenkinson, a lady admirer or admired and his orderly, and another re an absent gunner when time came to embark, a lady friend and a Sergeant and party sent to bring him aboard. The details hardly suitable for Diary, but the foregoing notes will always suffice to bring the incidents clearly to mind again. The Australian soldier is certainly resourceful. Pay issued to men covering period from last pay in Brisbane to date of embarkation in Melbourne.

Wednesday 21st October
Battery Horse taken very ill during last night. Vet called at midnight and managed to save him. Marching order Parade at 8.30 AM and general inspection. Afterwards boat stations were explained to all units allotments made and practised.
Units at drill morning and afternoon. Gun drill, laying and signalling. Completed syllabus of N.C.Os training for use of all Batteries of Brigade on the homeward journey. Preparing summary of evidence for mock Court Martial on Lieut Jenkinson, he having been charged with conduct unbefitting an Officer and a Gentleman. "Shropshire" gradually falling behind.

[Page 16]
Beautiful weather. water showing not a ripple. Plenty of porpoises following ship, and we saw one whale spouting. Sick horse improved during day. Effective use made of sandbath. Battery exercised 59 horses. General arrangements completed for exercising each horse every day.

Thursday 22nd October
All horses exercised during day. Sick horse very much improved. Battery at Gun drill and laying, Head Quarters at Signalling. B.A.C. and D.A.C. foot parades.
Syllabus for NCOs instruction completed and typed. Instructional Court-Martial during evening. Major Hughes a very effective Prosecutor. Accused found "Not Guilty"
Endeavoured with Captain to locate illicit trafficking in beer and spirits. Spoke to Sergeants Mess while they were at dinner.

Friday 23rd October
Blanket Parade at 8.30. Sick horse practically normal. Arranged to have five windsails fitted to various vents leading to horse decks. Very great improvement in condition of air in consequence. System of exercising horses working admirably. Still a few animals difficult to handle. Battery at gun drill and Laying. B.A. con battery drill per medium of black board. Artificers took an 18 pr gun to pieces, thoroughly cleaned same and reassembled
Instruction given to gunners while so doing.
Arranged with Chief Engineer to supply ashes for use in Horse Stalls.
Syllabus for training of officers on the journey home completed.

Saturday 24th October
Exercising again very satisfactorily carried out. Two horse suffering from colic, but recovered during day. Brigade Head Quarters had practice with ball ammunition from stern of boat. All matting brought up on deck after morning stables. Afternoon given to men for washing etc. Concert at night. Ships piano used. Boat and Fire stations rehearsed.

Sunday 25th October
Horse decks very sweet and clean this morning. Matting put down again. "Shropshire" slightly ahead of us, also another vessel apparently the "Karoo".
"Moldavia" passed us about 7 AM having called at Adelaide and now bound for Fremantle.
Church service at 10 AM. Lesson read by Colonel Sutton.

[Page 17]
Gift sweets issued to all ranks. Horse belonging to BAC died at 10.30 and was cast overboard. Suffered from Septic Pnuemonia. [pneumonia]
Anchored at King Georges Sound at 2 PM. District naval Officer Commander Jones came off and gave us latest war news. About 15 ships of convoy already in Port. Signalling at night to ‘Shropshire’. Ascertained they had lost one horse on the way round, also from Septic Pnuemonia. Major Anderson’s sprained ankle nearly well. Corporal Hare, BAC. (a Wesleyan Clergyman in Queensland) had a church service at night. Major Hughes not well. Apparently developing an influenza attack.

Monday 26th October
"Orvieto" arrived at 8 A M. Other ships arrived during day, so that now only about three transports remain to be accounted for. Work on board ship proceeded as usual, with the exception that gun drill had to be discontinued on account of rain, and for same reason horses on open decks could not be exercised. Very heavy wind and sea and driving rain. Received two long letters from Alvord. Sent off Syllabus of Officers and NCOs of Brigade Training to Bessel-Browne & Waite on board "Medic."(still at Fremantle) Message by wireless from "Orvieto" during evening complaining of use of wireless on three ships between Melbourne and Albany, also of floating boxes, etc. Long message also sent by lamp for practice of whole convoy.
Warned for Conference on 27th inst. I personally read the messages from Captains Chart room. "Orvieto" light very unsatisfactory. Lamp message afterwards repeated by wireless as a check, but was not satisfactorily received on account of atmospheric disturbance and some shore station commencing to send. Sent a lamp message to Major Burgess on Transport "Geelong" enquiring as to health of officers and men. He just commenced a reply but appeared to be cut-off and consequently his message was not completed.
H.M.A.S. Melbourne patrolling the entrance to the Sound.
The whole scene begins to impress one. – the turbulent water, many ships, cruises, etc – all foretelling serious work in the future.

Tuesday 27th October
Last night very rough. "Katuna" arrived from Tasmania this morning. As she has a large number of 3rd Brigade horses I shall get in touch with her as soon as possible and ascertain their condition. Units as usual work during morning. Obtained a voluntary boat crew in afternoon to row over to "Katuna" and "Geelong". Col Sutton accompanied me in order to see his medical details on the "Geelong". We had a very rough passage to the "Katuna" which lay about a mile

[Page 18]
from our own ship. We then had to clamber up ship’s rope ladder, no easy task with a heavy sea running. After inspecting the horses we again engineered ourselves back into the boat and rowed over to the "Geelong" which is carrying 9th battery from Tasmania. The sea had however risen a good deal and we were unable to get on board. Consequently after a few words with Major Burgess who was waiting for us, we set off from ship, and after a good solid hour and a half’s row arrived safely.
The boat was leaking a good deal and baling had to be resorted to constantly. One of our crew was very sick, but everybody else appeared to enjoy the experience. Col Sutton and myself feel that after this afternoon’s experience we have no desire to form part of a shipwrecked crew, cast off in ships boats in the open ocean. Both lamp and wireless signals through from "Orvieto" during the evening. Conference called for tomorrow on Flag Ship.

Wednesday 28th October
Usual routine work for units. Left on launch at 8.30 AM for conference aborad Flag Ship. Owing to calling at the other ships of 3rd Division Flagship was not reached till about 11 AM. Conference had then commenced. The 3rd Brigade returns were correct and in consequence I suffered no adverse criticism. Had lunch on board. Chatted with several officers. Saw the "Melbourne" pass and salute the General’s flag. She dropped a boat and sent pipers aboard the Flagship. On the return of the boat to the cruiser it was hoisted into the davits, the crew "running away" with the rope to the accompaniment of the Bugles. It was a very pretty sight.
A cinematograph operator took some pictures from the Flag ship.
Saw Olding and Major King on the "Argyleshire" as we passed her.
Strict instructions issued re posting of letters and cards and sending of wires. All to be riguorusly [rigorously] censored. In consequence I can only send home Post Cards which must contain no information about the troops, ships, or ports of call. Returned to ship at 6 PM after discharging officers at each ship of Second Division. Lamp and wireless messages during the evening. Took a few signals on the Marconi Instrument. Harbour full of boats. New Zealand Convoy arrived about 11 AM, escorted by H.M.S. Minatour [Minotaur?], Philomel and Pyramus, also H.I.J.M. ship "Ibuki". The Melbourne led the way into the Sound. The H.M.S. "Physce" (Psyche?) also accompanied the Convoy as far as Hobart and then returned to New Zealand. The fleet now at anchor makes a most imposing sight.
Last night the "Essex" a steamer from England, entered the Sound, but was promptly "hove to" when a shell from the "Melbourne" screamed across

[Page 19]
her bow. Today ships are watering as fast as local facilities will permit. A New Zealand boat came over to us this morning with several members of New Zealand Rifles on board. They looked to be fine specimens of manhood and their uniforms are of a very suitable colour and material, as well as being well made. We have been expecting the General to make his appearance this morning, but so far he has only reached the "Argyleshire".
Major Hughes has been on the sick list with influenza for three days, but is now on the way to recovery.

Thursday 29th October
Another message stating that General was to inspect just received this morning. He visited the "Shropshire" but afterwards returned direct to his own ship. Our ship had been very nicely prepared. Units at work during day. One horse took ill, suffering from colic, but has much improved. Most definite instructions received re censorship. Boat crew put off to "Shropshire" to get kits of three men recently posted to "Rangatira". Only one could be found. Reading up afternoon and evening. Received wireless instructing ship to go into harbour for water tomorrow morning.

Friday 30th October
Ordered Drill Order parade preparatory to moving into Harbour. Left anchorage about 10.30. On passing "Orvieto" troops were formed up on deck. Guard presented Arms and Trumpets sounded general Salute. Our flag was dipped to the "Orvieto" but she did not respond. On passing H.M.S. "Minatour" we repeated the salute and it was immediately acknowledged. After lunch four boat crews went over to a near beach for sand, returning about 4 PM with about 4 tons.
Mr Jopp and Duntroon Subaltern left in ships boat for "Orvieto". Mr Jopp returned to ship at 12.45. During the afternoon I paid a call on the Captain of the "Minatour". The 1st gunnery Lieutenant showed us over the ship. She carries ten 4".7 and four 9".2, the latter in pairs, fore and aft. Also several 12 prs. She has just completed 19000 knots since war was declared and is now being repainted.
We learned we are expected to leave on Sunday for our homeward journey via Colombo. I watched with interest sounding of "Retreat" on warship. Went over to Albany township at 4.15 PM and scored about 20 bags of green fodder. Our horses will much appreciate this alteration in menu, though up to date they appear very fit indeed.
Doing one reading tonight – getting ready for lectures on the way home.

[Page 20]
Saturday October 31st

Sent party on shore to take discharged men to major Meeks at Fort. Completed watering of ship at 10.30 AM. Moved out from Inner Harbour to old Anchorage. Passing "Minatour" we lined ship and saluted also dipped the Flag. Salute returned. On passing "Orvieto" the Flagship we again saluted but no notice taken. This was the second occasion on which our salute had been ignored.
All the Transports came out of harbour during the afternoon and took up original moorings. Signalling proceeding during day. Col Hobbs inspected ship during afternoon on behalf of General Bridges. Very satisfactory generally. Posted a number of Post Cards. Letters not being allowed.
Signal received from "Orvieto" to the effect that Minister of Defence had wired asking if it was true that troops on board "Rangatira" were forced to drink beer for dinner because of shortage of water. I replied that statement was absolutely incorrect.
Took from 9.45 to 12 o’clock midnight to get a reply back to the "Orvieto". Reurned at 2 AM. Five boats out during afternoon for sand.

Sunday 1st November
Rose at 5 AM Steam had been ordered for 6 AM, and instructions given for the Fleet to be put to sea. It was a most beautiful morning – and a prettier picture I never expect to see than King George’s Sound as it appeared today. The "Minotaur" followed by the "Melbourne" came out of Inner Harbour at 6AM. The "Orvieto" followed, then the 1st Division. The Second and Third followed in proper order, then the New Zealand Convoy, and last of all the "Sydney". On next Page is a diagram of the whole Fleet formation. The Medic" and "Ascanius" are not with us, but will take up their places tomorrow on their arrival from Fremantle. Today has been somewhat novel – the various ships officers practising how to "keep station" by day and night. The Captain of the "Benalla" immediately preceding us is evidently very nervous for he "backs and fills" and causes all the following ships of this Division to also lose station. Our signallers are getting excellent practice. The moon is now shining through heavy broken clouds and the whole scene is extremely beautiful.
Church Service this evening. One of the Corporals of Brigade Column, who in private life is a clergyman and a Queensland chaplain gave the address. It is now 10 o’clock and the wind is piping up. We are nearing the "Leeuwin" so must expect fresh weather.

[Page 21]

Australian Convoy

H.M.S. "Minatour"

2nd Division - 1st Division - 3rd Division
<---- 1 mile--> - -X- - <-----1 mile ---->
"Wiltshire" - "Orvieto" - "Euripides"
A.18 (103900 - A.3 (12130) - A.14 (15000)
"Medic" - "Southern" - "Argyllshire"
A.7 (12032) - A.27 (4769) - A.8 (10392)
"Ascanius" - "Pera" - "Shropshire"
A.11 (10049) - A.4 (7635) - A.9 (11911)
"Star of England" - "Armadale" - "Afric"
A.15 (9150) - A.26 - A19 (11999)
"Geelong" - "Saldanah" - "Benalla"
A.2 (7954) - A.12 (4594) - A.24 (11118
H.M.A.S. - "Port Lincoln" - "Katuna" - "Rangatira" - H.I.J.M.S."Ibuki"
"Sydney" - A.17 (7243) - A.13 (4641) - A.22 (10018)
"Karoo" - "Hymettus" - "Star of Victoria"
A.10 (6127) - A.1 (4606) - A.16 (9150)
"Marere" - "Suffolk" - "Hororata"
A.21 (6443) - A.23 (75730 - A.20 (9491)
"Clan MacCorquodale" - "Anglo Egyptian" - "Omrah"
A.6 (5121) - A.25 - A.5 (8130)
- "Miltiades"
- A.28

New Zealand Convoy
2nd Division - Ist Division
"Arawa" - "Maunganui"
N.Z. 10 - N.Z. 3
"Athenic" - "Orari"
N.Z.11 - N.Z. 6
"Hawkes Bay" - "Star of India"
N.Z. 9 - N.Z.8
"Ruapehu" - "Limerick"
N.Z. 5 - N.Z.7
"Waimana" - "Tahiti"
N.Z. 12 - N.Z. 4

H.M.A.S. "Melbourne"

[Page 22]
Monday 2nd November
Fresh breeze and confused sea with rain squalls during day. At 6AM all ships reasonably in station. "Benalla" caused a good deal of trouble during the night due to excessive alterations of speed. "Melbourne" called up "Benalla", "Afric" and "Hororata" during last evening, directing them to keep better station. Units at work during day at physical drill, gun drill, lectures and exercising of horses. All horses are now exercised daily. Read a message from "Shropshire" to "Afric" apologising for getting out of line, and explaining they did so because they had to throw a horse overboard and evidently wanted it to be clear of propellers of succeeding ships.
Orders re throwing boxes overboard apparently ignored by leading ships of 3rd Division.. Many boxes and other refuse have passed us during the day. Hatch covers removed with a resultant improvement of air condition in lower decks. Inspection at 11 AM proved ship to be well kept.
Lt Clowes and Jenkinson with influenza. Both improving.

Tuesday 3rd November
I am informed this is Cup Day. I suppose we will receive a wireless telling of result as we yesterday received wireless stating that Great Britain had declared war on Turkey. We received wireless today stating that British Cruise "Hermes" had been sunk in the Strait of Dover by a German submarine. All units working well. Today special fatigues, cleaning out and disinfecting all horse stalls, also eyes, nose, decks and health of Horses. Strong breeze with heavy confused sea. Ship pitching a good deal. A couple of the officers and some of the men ill. I have experienced not the slightest sensation of sea sickness since leaving Brisbane. Quite a pleasant change for me.
At 3 PM traces of smoke from "Medic" and "Ascanius" with their escorts were noticed. The escorts were the Japanese ship "Ibuki" and the "Philomel". At 4 PM the "Ascanius" had taken up her place in convoy, and at 4.30n the "Medic" was also in station. The Japanese ship has moved to starboard of the Fleet, the "Melbourne" taken up a position astern, the "Philomel" has apparently returned to Australia, the "Sydney" is on the port beam and the "Minatour" is leading the Convoy. During the evening I tried to raise the "Medic" which is carrying the 8th Battery and Ammunition Column details, but I could not raise her.
I called up the "Katuna" and ascertained that all Artillery horses were in good condition.
During the night the "Benalla" and "Afric" caused great difficulty in Station keeping, so much so that during the middle watch our Division dropped astern of the New Zealand ships. Mr Faulkner, the second officer, who was on watch,

[Page 23]
was much incensed. Thereafter all ships kept better station.
Major Hughes again taken to bed. He appears far from well.
Result of Melbourne Cup sent through by wireless. Most of the officers joined in a sweep, but a few of us including the Captain did not participate. In fact I do not know the name of winning horse.

Wednesday 4th November
Usual routine duties during the day. Marching order inspection carried out. Much improvement. Station keeping better during day. Spent most of day on Bridge learning International Code Signalling and at night sent a long message to Major Bessell Browne on the "Medic". The "Katuna" reported she had lost 2 horses. So far ours are doing exceedingly well. The Horse decks are beautifully clean and well kept. Weather warming up.

Thursday 5th November
Beautiful morning. A good deal of trouble during night due to faulty station keeping of ships ahead. Gun drill, lectures and physical training going on. About 11 AM the "Minatour" came back from her position at the head of Convoy, passed down the lines severely criticising ships which were not keeping station, and returned up the line to her place again. As she passed us our troops fell in on their Parade Stations and we gave the salute. During the afternoon number of Horse casualties in Convoy were transmitted to "Orvieto". Fortunately we have so far lost none from Albany. The following are the losses. Pera 1, Katuna 4, Hymettus 3, Anglo Egyptian 5, Medic 1, Port Lincoln 5, Karoo 9, Clan MacCorquedale 7, Marere 9, Shropshire 1. Total 45 . weather very warm today. Our position at noon. 24o 6’ South, 106o 55’ East. All awnings spread much to the satisfaction of all ranks. At 5 PM the "Osterly" showed up on the Horizon astern. She attempted to cross our line but the "Melbourne" ordered her off. She came up abrEast our line just after we had finished dinner. Our men gave her cheers, and they were very
heartily responded to by the ship. The rigging was full of Blue Jackets evidently on their way to join their ships. She looked very fine steaming past us.
I should have referred to the appearance of the "Minatour" as she passed us today. She was ploughing along at about 20 knots with her sailors manning the decks. They and the officers were all dressed in white and with the various signal flags flying she looked a pretty sight.
As I write 8 bells has just sounded and the Lookout in the bow has called ‘All’s well". A big crowd of gunners is singing all sorts of songs on the forward deck. They have just finished ‘Absent". I feel inclined

[Page 24]
in consequence never to sing it again. Major Hughes still confined to his bed and our veterinary Officer too is not well today. Influenza appears to be going round the ship.

Friday 6th November
A dull and cloudy day. Much cooler than yesterday. All the ships officers out in white. They look so nice that we tell them we must have a photograph of them to remind us of our trip home in "Rangatira". Special rehearsal today of procedure of Convoy on sighting an enemy. Satisfactorily carried out. All boat stations manned, men wearing life belts, all ports and watertight doors closed, and men discarding boots.
Fairly warm in Horse decks – 80o – So far horses in good condition. Station keeping of ships today much improved.
Our position noon today 20o 41’ South 104o 14’ West. Last 24 hours run 250 miles.

Saturday 7th November
A dull overcast day but by far the hottest we have had so far. We found
the awnings over main Horse deck made the atmosphere very close indeed.
In consequence we removed part of the forward awnings and rigged four
new wind sails, beside opening to the full two meal doors on each side of
the ship. This improved air currents considerably.
Gun laying and signalling instruction carried out during day. At night from 8 to 8.30 all lights except stern shaded light were extinguished by order of Flag ship, and troops paraded on parade stations. This as a rehearsal in case of attack at night by an enemy. Most of the ships in convoy implicitly obeyed instructions but some omitted to quench their lights. As a consequence I expect we shall receive a sarcastic wireless tomorrow from the "Orvieto". The "Benalla" immediately ahead of our ship, as soon as lights were ordered out, veered quite out of the course before complying, and generally made a sorry exhibition. I rather think I should be a little afraid to take along cruise in that ship with its present officers.
Returns from ships showing horses lost since last return (Thursday last) are as follows: - "Wiltshire" 1, "Star of England’ 1, "Port Lincoln" 1, "Karoo" 1, "Southern" 1, "Armadale" 1, "Katuna" 2, "Star of Victoria" 2, Total 10 – making grand total so far of 55 horses since leaving Albany.
We are drawing near to Cocos Islands, being at noon today 381 miles distant. Our position at 12 today 17o 14’ South, 101o 36’ East. Total run for last 24 hours 255 miles. Then had concert tonight prior to "attack"

[Page 25]
Parade. Exceedingly hot as I write 9.30 PM. Stewards have just brought us cold lemon drinks, which are just the thing now.

Sunday 8th November
Another very hot day. About 3 PM a heavy rain and wind squall came up, very materially cooling atmosphere and horse decks. Message sent through to Major Bessel-Browne O.C. Troops Medic, re First-aid classes and medical Certificate.
Early this morning the "Minatour" passed down the convoy to the "Melbourne", which latter ship was keeping station in rear of convoy. After travelling for about 15 minutes beside the "Melbourne" the ‘Minatour" steered off to the westward and has not since been seen, the "Melbourne" taking up position in "Minatour" station at head of Convoy. Tonight special orders came through to travel without lights. I am of opinion the "Minatour" has received information concerning German ships, and is doing reconnaissance work. "Afric" hauled out of line this morning also "Argyleshire". It looked as if they were passing horses overboard but we could not see clearly.
At 10.15 a wireless message came through telling of the death of Private Kendall 5th Battalion on board "Euripides". This ship drew out of line at 10.30 and conducted burial Service, all Ensigns being flown half-mast.
I think this is the first Casualty in the A.I. Force.
Lecturette this evening by Lieut Urquhart on "Employment of Artillery".
Church service at 7PM. Big attendance and very good singing.
One of the ship’s crew caught broaching beer. Dealt with by Captain, fined & logged. Last 24 hours travelled 238 miles, leaving about 150 miles to go to "Cocos Islands" from noon today. Expect to pass about 3 AM tomorrow morning.
Position at noon 13o 55’ S, 99o 25’E.

Monday 9th November
Exceptionally hot night. All ships travelled with lights out. Hosing of horse decks carried out every half hour during the night to reduce temperature. Thermometer reading this morning in main Horse deck 85 o
About 7 AM the "Sydney" whose position has been protecting our port flank, suddenly stoked up and moved very rapidly towards the Cocos Islands. We have no knowledge of any movement of enemy but doubtless will have later. The "Melbourne" which yesterday took up position at head on convoy, has now moved over well in advance of the Port Flank of convoy. Battery work as usual. Twenty men as volunteers

[Page 26]
assisted the ships crew to work coal from No 4 hold to Bunkers. This will involve about a fortnights work. The Captain has allowed each man a pint of beer per day – and doubtless with the very hot weather his action will be appreciated.
Just before noon both the "Melbourne" and "Ibuki" bolted off to the westward but returned in about an hours time. In the meantime our wireless operator was listening at his receiver and presently brought us information that the German Cruiser "Emden" had been run aground (presumably at Cocos Island) to prevent her sinking, and that the "Sydney" was scouting for her merchant colliers. Information was also received that two men had been killed and fourteen wounded in the engagement.
We do not know which ship accounted for the "Emden" but hope it is the "Sydney". We expect the ships May return to the Convoy tomorrow and they will certainly receive a rousing reception.
At 3.15 the "Euripides" drew out of the Column and word was received to hoist Ensign half mast. Apparently another of her men has died, but we have received no information concerning the matter.
Horse returns were again rendered today with result as follows;-
"Karoo" 1, "Marere" 2, "Armadale" 1, "Katuna" 2, "Hymettus" 11, "Shropshire" 2, and "Star of Victoria" 1. Several ships displayed no signals, so I do not know result. "Hymettus" total seems large, but her signals were very clear. Total losses during the last two days according to our readings are therefore 20, which added to previous total makes 75 since leaving Albany.
Total run up to noon today for last 24 hours 244 miles. Position 10o 38’S 97o 2’E. About 630 miles to line. Expect to cross about noon on Thursday.
Lecture tonight to N.C.O.s by Major Hughes. Two more wind sails fitted to Horse deck.

Tuesday 10th November
Another exceedingly hot and trying day. About 1 Am a mare belonging to the AMC gave birth to a foal. She is very frisky this morning and is another addition to ships pets.
We expect another foal arrival in about a week.
The second officer and our signallers on watch report that about 3 AM the "Melbourne" and "Ibuki" rapidly moved forward and later flashes were seen and sounds were heard resembling discharge of ordnance.
At 11.40 the "Medic" drew out of line, and notification came down the Division to hoist Ensign at halfmast. There has evidently been a burial from the "Medic", and as she carries mainly artillery the chances are it is one of our men.

[Page 27]
Two horses sick today. Heat is very trying to them. Men are all at work with only a pair of dungaree trousers as covering – Position at noon 8o05’S, 93o46’ East. Mileage 252.
Splendid news came through today re German ship "Emden", telling us that H.M.A.S. "Sydney" had captured her. I read out the news to the men on Parade, and we all gave lusty cheers.
The following is a copy of the wireless message officially sent out by the "Orvieto".

"Sydney" started off for Cocos at 7 AM. At 9.30 she had sighted the enemy. Travelling at full speed she was able to get within range in 20 minutes, at the same time she signalled that the chase was steering north. At 10.45 "Sydney" was engaging the enemy briskly and at 11.10 the latter had to beach herself to avoid sinking. Her foremast and three funnels were down but the flag was still flying. "Sydney" then went after "Emdens" collier, took the crew off and sank her. "Sydney" returned again to "Emden" who surrendered. The extent and nature of the German casualties are not yet known, but they are bound to be severe. The "Sydneys" own casualties required hospital treatment which was promptly found on "Direction Island". The "Emden" had had time to destroy Wireless Telegraph Station and to cut one of the three cables. A second cable was intact and possibly the third. All the instruments were destroyed excepting one. This had been buried and is in use again. The Wireless Telegraph and Cable operators deserve much praise for sticking to their post, and sending out distress signals, also for saving instruments. "Sydney" will sail for Colombo as soon as she has succeeded in getting German wounded and prisoners on board. The operation May take 24 hours as it presents considerable difficulty."

Naturally such a message (received 1.30 PM) has given us food for conversation. We are all delighted the "Sydney" has done such good work and acquitted herself so well.
The following are censorship arrangements for Colombo. All mails from A.I.F. Transports will be sent to "Orvieto" for censorship. Open letters, plain post cards and urgent telegrams will be passed by Censor for immediate despatch provided all references to ships, places and date are omitted. Closed letters and parcels will be delayed.
This afternoon we noticed one of the New Zealand ships stop and lower a boat. The "Ibuki" steamed off rapidly in her direction, but presently we saw the boat again hauled up into the Davits. Presumably a

[Page 28]
man fell overboard but was promptly rescued.
Terribly hot tonight. By far the worst night we have had yet. Not a movement in the air.

Wednesday 11th November
Again a very hot day, but cool breeze sprang up during afternoon. Men at physical drill, laying & semaphore. Artificers dismantling and cleaning third gun.
Received wireless pointing out that "Emden passed within 20 miles of us on Sunday night, and complained that some masters were not careful enough in darkening ship".
Arranged that mens ration of meat should be reduced and stewed fruit provided in lieu thereof, chilled in cooling chambers.
Lime juice brought out of No 5 hold and made available for troops.
This afternoon "Ascanius" dropped out of line for burial service. This makes the fourth death on the journey from Albany. I think in each case cause of death has been pneumonia supervening on Influenza. About 200 men inoculated against typhoid. I received our first injection tonight. Some of the N.C.O.s refuse to be done, but I think I shall be able to overcome their prejudices.
One horse very sick tonight. I am afraid we shall lose him before morning. Today’s horse casualty list is as follows: - "Wiltshire" 1, "Port Lincoln" 2, "Karoo" 2, "Marere" 1, "clan MacCorquodale" 2, "Armadale" 2, "Shropshire" 1, "Star of Victoria" 1, making a total to date of 95 lost.
Position at noon today 5o25’S, 90o39’E, run for 24 hours 247 miles.
Slept on deck last night, roused about 2 AM by heavy thunder and rain storm, had to shift to more secluded part of deck.

Thursday 12th November
Felt very restless during last night on account of inoculation. Went up on Bridge at 3 AM and read some signal messages. At early dawn "Orvieto", "Melbourne" and "Ibuki" conferred on our flank. Later the "Melbourne" bade farewell and steamed off.
Prior to leaving she sent the two following messages;-
"Captain of "Melbourne" to Commander and Officers of Convoy. "Melbourne" is ordered on other service. On leaving the Australian Convoy with which I have been connected since it first began to move I hope I May be forgiven for any criticisms I have signalled from time to time. Such signals have only been made with a view to the efficient development of this great organisation, and the safety resulting therefrom. I fully understand the difficulties that

[Page 29]
have to be overcome in ships which have no facilities for station keeping, or darkening ship. I am equally certain that the zeal and cooperation of Bridge and Engine room will overcome them, and safely leave the splendid body of men that has been entrusted to them. I wish you "farewell" and "good luck’.
The Second message read. "I hope to hear that the Third Division will continue to keep up its good reputation for keeping such good station. I thank them for having done their utmost in this respect. Good bye, Good luck".
As she steamed past us with her flags showing "Goodbye", "Good luck", we signalled our thanks and Goodbye. The Orvieto signalled "Advance Australia". The "Ibuki" then proceeded to take up her station at head of Convoy, she being the only man’o’war with us. We expected the "Sydney" might have caught us up today from the Cocos with German prisoners and wounded, but perhaps she has gone direct to Colombo. At lunch time a big three funnelled armoured merchantman (we think it was "The Empress of Asia") passed us and signalled "Good luck". With the exception of the "Osterly" this is the only vessel we have seen in our run from Albany.
Sick horse died last night. Post mortem this morning showed it had died from Pnuemonia. This is our first loss since Albany, but we have all done our best and could not save the animal.
This is the day Alvord commences his exam for entrance to Australian Navy. I wish I could send him a helpful cable.
Today the "Hororata" signalled she had 80 cases of measles on board. We luckily have so far had nothing really serious on our ship.
Our position at noon today 2o26’S, 87o38’E days run 255 miles. We had from noon a run of 195 miles to the Equator.
Feel very "groggy" today as a result of inoculation Very severe headache and strong local reaction in the side and under the arms.
Hope to be fit tomorrow. Preparation being made for "Crossing the Line" sports tomorrow. Understand some of the officers are to be victims. Another horse apparently very sick. Horse decks much cooler. There was a good fresh breeze last night and it has continued through the day.

Friday 13th November
Fully recovered from effects of inoculation. A second battery horse died suddenly during the night. The Post mortem showed Pnuemonia to be the cause of death. This morning another Man’o’war appeared in view. It was the "Hampshire". She took up position leading Convoy and the "Ibuki" took up her old position on "Starboard" beam.
At 8 o’clock we received orders to proceed in rear of the New Zealand Convoy

[Page 30]
and the "Anglo Egyptian" and "Karoo" of 1st Division also received similar orders. The New Zealand Fleet with our three boats is moving ahead to Colombo to get in early re watering arrangements etc. As we passed the "Shropshire" I sent a message to Colonel Hobbs informing him that our losses in horses was 2. He replied to the effect that we had done very well. Received message from Flagship prohibiting all leave at Colombo.
We crossed the "line’ about 7.30 AM. Gave all ranks half holiday for ceremonies incidental to the occurrence. At 2 o’clock we found a large canvas tank rigged up and filled with salt water. The "Bosun" as "Father Neptune" came Forth properly attired and with him Doctors, barbers & assistants with their huge combs, scissors and razors also shaving bucket and brush. Headed by Bugles and Kettle drum, they paraded the ship, followed by about 12 stalwart policemen. Presently we saw Capt leslie being led Forth for initiation, then several other officers including my adjutant Colonel Sutton. All took the proceedings in good part excepting one Army medical man who fought vigorously, and in consequence got a more severe ducking than if he had acquiesced at once. Rain fell during the day but did not spoil the proceedings except for the fact that no photo could be taken.
Altogether the men had a good day, finishing up with a concert at night. I sang a few songs and played some accompaniment for the men.
Strict orders again received re censorship of mail matter at Colombo. As we are steaming faster than the main convoy we should be well out of their sight by daylight. The "Hampshire" is with us and the "Ibuki" with the rest of the Convoy.
Nearly all men inoculated. A few still object but I think they will fall in line tomorrow. Run to 12 noon today 260 miles. Position Oo44’N, 84o41’E. New Zealand Convoy disregarding order re floating materials. I counted 27 boxes afloat today, a number I actually saw thrown overboard from the "Waimana", the ship immediately ahead of us.

Saturday 14th November
Almost out of sight of Australian Convoy at dawn. Have not gained much on them. The "Waimana" dropped a horse overboard this morning making their total 7. Balance of men inoculated today. About 30 refused and were placed under arrest for disobedience of orders. At 5PM I had them all paraded, told them of the advantage of inoculation and then ordered them to go to the Hospital for treatment. All but one refused. I therefore called a guard of 40 men, and ordered two men to compulsorily take the first man in. When they found I was determined to be obeyed they "caved in".

[Page 31]
However I kept the guard standing by till all had been done, then I dismissed the Guard and gave the culprits a good talking to.
Have had all the officers tonight on "Sketching". I am afraid some that were handed in were very primitive.
Horses making a big noise just before feeding tonight, and many were neighing. Mr Faulkner, second officer, referred to it as "shouting". The Captain was today watching horses exercising on deck and one animal on nearing an iron bollard put one leg on one side and another leg on the other side.
"Look" said he "that horse has got his after starboard leg on this side of the bollard and his after port leg on the other side." Everybody roared with laughter. Rifle practice today.
Wrote post-cards to Father & Mother, Alvord and Chris ready for posting tomorrow. We are now nearing Colombo. Expect to reach there about 8.30AM tomorrow. I then am ordered ashore to make arrangements at transport Office, Saddlers and Chemist Shops for Australian Convoy’s requirements. Expect to have about 3 hours ashore.
Strong gale has just blown up (10PM) Very heavy wind but – no sea. Run to noon today 248 miles. Position 3o54’N, 82o1’E.

Sunday 15th November
Arrived off Colombo about 9 AM. The Pilot came off to some of the New Zealand fleet first and we had some time to wait. At 10.30 the "Sydney" hove in sight together with the "empress of Russia" not of "Asia" as I previously stated. She was carrying German prisoners and wounded. We had received instructions that there must be no demonstration, and much against our wishes we had to agree. However I hoisted Flag Signals meaning "new South Wales Congratulates you" to which the "Sydney" replied "thank you". We lined up our troops on deck, gave the salute, and dipped the Ensign.
At 11 AM I went ashore in a ships boat with the Adjutant and Capt McGee. The latter took with him a gunner who had an accident the previous day with his false teeth and required dental treatment. I called at transport Office, Times Office and Post Office on official business. Then we waited at the jetty and saw the wounded landed from the "Sydney".
The German wounded were landed in the afternoon. It made a big lump come into my throat to see our lads. Some badly wounded, amputated limbs, burns, etc. It brought home the horrors of war to us. With the exception of those who were very seriously wounded and were

[Page 32]
in evident extreme pain, the remainder were very jolly and apparently happy. I only hope the Government will adequately provide for those who are mutilated. At 1 o’clock we went to the G.O.H. for lunch and when nearly finished Capt McGee looked in. "I am very glad to find you here Colonel" he said. "I want a little extra leave." He then proceeded to explain that Dr Smith (who came in with him) was a dentist who had recommended him to a brother dentist in a small way of business, who would do his gunners’ dental work at a cheap figure. In addition he drove Capt McGee in his car to this dentist’s residence about 11/2 miles out, near the Cinnamon Gardens. The necessary dental work could not be completed till evening so Capt McGee wanted more leave. This I granted. Dr Smith then invited Mr Jopp and myself to go out with him after lunch in his car. At 2.30 we left the G.O.H., went to the R.A. Mess and left cards, then on to the Galle Face Hotel, thence on to Mount Lavinia, returning to the jetty at 5PM. We there met our Ships Captain who took us to afternoon tea. The motor drive was most enjoyable. The beautiful palms, narrow roads, oxen, Cingalese men, women and children, the beautiful foliage and fine bungalows made a very pleasing impression.
I much admire the beautiful copper coloured skin of the Cingalese men, many of whom are a fine type. The little children are very quaint and pretty. Dr Smith invited me when returning to Australia to look him up again. Capt McGee stayed to dinner with him, and I have chaffingly told him that if he can pick up a similar friend in every port of call, with a car to place at our disposal, we will get some false teeth smashed at regular intervals.
On the way back to the Ship we called at the "Sydney". I left cards and had a few minutes chat with Lieut Bell Satter of Sydney. He told us the "Emden" put 11 shots into them, her first two being fired at a range of 11000 yards. The Germans lost 112 killed, about 80 wounded and the rest prisoners, except 40 who were destroying the Wireless Station when engagement commenced and appropriating a schooner on the other side of Cocos Island, got away. The Kaiser’s nephew is a prisoner. I wish I could have participated in this engagement. Our fellows deserve all praise. Colombo is a very beautiful spot. The breakwater has made a good harbour and there are about 40 anchorage buoys. The Convoy has of course filled up the whole roadstead. In addition to the Russian 5 funnel "Askold" and the Japanese

[Page 33]
"Ibuki" there are also innumerable small steamers, schooners, Arab Dhows, and all sorts of small craft at Catamaran. We saw about 20 of these latter at Mt Lavinia drawn up on the Sandy Beach. The buildings are very good, and the natives in their many coloured but scanty dress, and the rickshaws make a splendid picture. I could spend a week here very easily indeed.
The "Anglo Egyptian" is moored alongside us and we have transferred 50 tons of chaff from the ship to ours. About half of it is very wet, heated and fermented and will be practically of no use.

Monday 16th November
Awakened at 6 AM by firing of two sunrise guns in quick succession. About 1.30 AM this morning Capt McGee came aboard in a greatly disturbed state of mind. His gunner had failed to be at the G.O.H. at the appointed time and he had to return alone to the ship. To make matters worse the launch which brought him off did not know where our ship was lying and he had an hours search in the Anchorage before he reached home. I told him to take a boat’s crew ashore early this morning and find the missing lad. Later they returned with him, and it transpired he had been at the Hotel the whole evening, so I informed Capt McGee that it was apparent his Doctor friend’s dinner had been too good, and in consequence his vision must have been affected.
We drew off from the "Anglo Egyptian" about 8.30 AM. I left at that time with a boat’s crew, visited the "Medic", met Major Bessel Browne and the Officers of the 8th Battery, then on to the "Geelong" to meet the officers of the 9th Battery, then on to "Katuna" to see 9th Battery Horses. Major Hughes, Mr Jopp and Capt McLennan accompanied me. Returned to "Rangatua" at 12.30 at her anchorage in the roads. Early this morning some Cingalese came aboard selling papers. One of them in some way was left on the boat and is now in a great state of mind as to whether he will ever get ashore again. Have just received wireless informing me that 1st and 2nd Divisions are to leave tomorrow at 11 AM and our Division will leave at 6PM. They will thus get about 70 miles start of us. We expect to go into harbour early for water. Sent off a boat’s crew tonight with letters for "Orvieto" but owing to a strong current they were unable to

[Page 34]
get more than ½ a mile from our ship in over an hours rowing, so they returned, taking only 7 minutes.
The Port is a beautiful sight tonight. The town and shipping lights also all the signalling lamps at mast heads making it very gay in effect.

Tuesday 17th November
Units at work as usual. Lieut Urquhart Ross and Clowes and Capt McLennan went ashore in launch. I asked them to get me a few photo frames of Eastern design, for my family photos in my cabin, but they brought me back Common English frames. Launch brought off a big supply of cocoanuts, oranges and bananas. Cingalese returned to shore. Sent letter to "Orvieto" by Capt Matson, who had called in a launch to deliver veterinary requirements. Second and Third Divisions of Convoy together with New Zealand ships left Port at 10 AM. The "Hampshire" escorted them. We left at 7 PM escorted by the "Ibuki". We are now formed into two divisions of which the second is led by our ship. We expect to overtake the main convoy in about 36 hours. Beautifully cool today. Horse decks have much benefited. All horses so far well. Search lights from forts playing round harbour tonight and shipping illuminated makes a pretty sight. Quite a number of fishing boats out around the fleet. Another stage of our long journey entered upon.

Wednesday 18th November
When I appeared at the Bridge at 7AM this morning, India was showing up on our starboard bow. The mountains appeared very high and rugged and capped with clouds. I can at lEast say I have seen India. Spent the morning preparing ranging model. After lunch a number of the Officers had some practise on it. We have now taken up station as leader of Second portion of Third Division. It means a big relief to our Ships Officers. As I write at 8.30 PM a cluster of electric lights is burning on main deck. Some of the men are dancing to music supplied by an Accordeon, some are card playing and some reading. All are in their pyjamas for it is a close night. The sea has been as still and smooth as glass today, and the sunset this evening was particularly fine.

[Page 35]
Have just been in Signal Communication with Col Hobbs. He tells me he has lost 8 horses. We are fortunate for so far we have only lost four. I asked Major Christian how he was getting on with his horses, but I cannot get a reply. We are now travelling in two lines of 5 ships each with the "Ibuki" leading us. Horses are making an awful row through the ship. They are fed at 9 o’clock and well they know it. They stamp and whinney for some time prior to feeding. Attended Battery N.C.Os lecture tonight. Position at noon 7o45’N, 76o 44’E. days run 191 miles.

Thursday 19th November
Units at work at Usual Parades. Arranged ranging model for work during afternoon. Made use of Director and Landscape drawing for Officers class in sketching. Ranging during the afternoon with all officers. Myriads of flying fish about the boat all day. Smoke visible ahead of main convoy. Plenty of boxes and other debris floating past us, clearly indicating the path traversed by previous ships. Had a game of bridge tonight with Captain Jopp and Colonel Sutton. This afternoon commenced rehearsal with Double Quartette party. Some very fair voices.
Attended Lieut Urquharts lecture at night. Days run to noon 268 miles. Position at noon 8o58’N, 72o23’E.

Friday 20th November
At daylight Australian Convoy and New Zealand Convoy about 15 miles ahead. Lead column formation retained.
Squads at signalling, gun laying, fuze setting, etc. Arranged model range. Ranging in afternoon for all officers.
Oral exam for all the N.C.O.s
"Afric" which has fallen behind ordered to change places with "Ascanius". We are now travelling at 13 knots and have just passed main portion of Australian Convoy. Our orders in this Division are to proceed to Aden to coal, and I understand we are then to steam straight home. As this Division can do 13 knots we should reach England about a week ahead of main Convoy.
Position at noon 10o8’N, 68o0’E. Mileage 269

[Page 36]
Saturday 21st November
At daylight our Convoy was very mixed up owing to the fact that during the night a collision had occurred between "Ascanius" and "Shropshire". We had to wait some time for them and in consequence the main Australian Convoy had overtaken us. Tonight we are again well ahead, and the Australian Convoy is out of Sight astern.
Ranging during afternoon. Details of all units at work during morning. "Washing" afternoon for the men. Very good concert tonight of about eighteen items. The Captain attended with our officers. Capt McLennan gave us a splendid recitation. He is a "dark horse".
Made arrangements for issue to each O.C. Unit of Red Cross goods. Run to noon today 289 miles. Position 11o17’N, 63o14’E.

Sunday 22nd November
All units at Stables and Signallers on Bridge. Ranging with officers. Church Service in evening. Beautiful day, again innumerable flying fish. Wrote to Nell and the boys also Father and Mother. Received wireless that letters to Australia from Aden would not be subject to censorship. Run to noon today 298 miles. Position 12o23’N. 58o17’E.

Monday 23rd November
Run today 298 miles. Position 13o11’N, 53o16’E. Very warm day. Signallers, Gun layers, and gun detachments at work. Ranging for officers. Had a game of bridge with Captain, Col Sutton and Capt Dixon. Horses in splendid Condition.

Tuesday 24th November
Today’s run 290 miles. Position at noon 12o57’N, 48o19’E. Was finally inoculated for typhoid, together with a number of officers. All units at work including Physical exercises. Coaling nearing Completion. Very hot day. Numbers of flying fish again seen also porpoises. An Arab Dhow passed us in early morning in full sail and made a very pretty sight. Fleet slowed down a little so as to reach Aden not before daylight tomorrow.

[Page 37]
Wednesday 25th November
Arrived off Aden at 5 o’clock. I went up on the Bridge at 5.30 and remained there till we anchored about 8 o’clock. A very rugged group of cliffs marks both sides of the Entrance to Port, rocks appearing to be volcanic. The whole country is exceedingly desolate. A large number of Imperial transports are in harbour, evidently having taken home Indian troops, and now returning empty. The H.M.A.S. "Sydney" was also in Port. She left after us at Colombo, and must have passed us during our first night out.
As we entered Port she steamed away at a good speed in the direction of Perim. We delivered our mails during the morning to H.M.S. "Hampshire", going over with the Captain in one of the Ships boats, and returning to the "Rangatua" at 1 PM.
Aden looks a very forlorn spot. No signs of vegetation. Groups of buildings, Forts, Signal stations and Clock tower were all the points of interest visible from our anchorage. As we did not go inside we could not see the inner harbour. Felt a little seedy after inoculation.
Received through Courtesy of local agents of "Rangatua", files of Reuters cables, and Orvieto also sent me a full account of the "Emden" fight. After dinner I assembled all the officers in the Smoke room and read the news out to them.
We are under orders to leave Aden at 6AM tomorrow. Numbers of boats have been around us today endeavouring to do business with their wares.

Thursday 26th November
Weighed anchor at 5.30AM, ships got into station during the next hour and about 7AM we got a fair move off from Aden.
The Japanese Man o’ War "Ibuki" which acted as escort from Australia is going no further, and last night a message of thanks was sent to her captain from "Orvieto". This morning as we passed her she was flying several groups of flags which on reference to International Code read as follows: - "I wish you further victories. Goodbye.". We now only have the "Hampshire" with us, a ship somewhat about the size of "Sydney" or "Melbourne".
We have passed several British Transports today returning to India.

[Page 38]
I received a message from the "Katuna" today stating that they had lost 12 horses since leaving Tasmania, five of which belonged to the third F.A. Brigade. I am now waiting to receive a message as to losses on the "Medic". Our losses so far since leaving Melbourne total four. Colonel Everett of the "Star of England" informed me they had lost 14 horses on their ship.
The Arabian coast and Country beyond is absolutely void of vegetation and appears to consist of nothing but rock and sand. We reached Perim at about 4 PM, and it too appears a desolate place. The Signal Station and Coaling station, also I believe a British Garrison are the only evidence of life. A Russian vessel entered the Port just as we passed. Just before reaching Perim we passed some very prominent peaks right on the coast line, with what appeared to be mud houses built upon the slopes, one particular cottage being right at the summit of the highest peak.
During the night we passed Moccha and islands in the Red Sea. All lights are extinguished, being controlled by Turkey.
Exceedingly hot day but evening fairly cool with good breeze.

Friday 27th November
This morning early we passed Jebel Tir with its Lighthouse. New Zealand transports now out of sight ahead. Four British Transports passed us today returning to India, removal of coal to bunkers completed after about three weeks work, but as the ship provided a midday pint of beer for all workers in the coal, I am of opinion the job has been unduly drawn out. Gun layers and fuze setters at work, also signallers. Exceedingly hot and trying day, by far the worst we have had so far. I spent the morning reading but found it very hard work owing to the heat. During the afternoon made use of the Plasticine model to illustrate method of supplying Ammunition in the Field. Capt McGee and Lieut Jenkinson representing D.A.C. and B.A.C. respectively dealt with their particular units, and Capt Leslie dealt with Battery Ammunition Supply.
Col Sutton then followed with a description of the method of evacuation of wounded from field of Battle, and illustrated lecture on the model. While this lecture was in progress the "Orvieto", "Geelong", and "Hampshire" steamed ahead. The "Geelong" lowered a boat which apparently went to the "Orvieto". It rather looks as if a Court Martial was being held. Just as the sun was setting the "Orvieto" & "Hampshire"

[Page 39]
which were by then some distance in rear, moved ahead again, but the "Geelong" is still a long way in rear. As one of my Battery Commanders is on the "Geelong" I will doubtless hear full details later.
Tomorrow afternoon the ship is to have a series of sports events. Tonight the boxing events were concluded. We had a group of electric lights and the men were arranged around as in an amphitheatre. Major Hughes was Referee. Jopp and Clowes judges, and McClennan time keeper. All seemed to thoroughly enjoy the evening, but I can see no fun or pleasure in boxing.
While these events were in progress we afterwards ascertained that a private message had been sent through from "Shropshire" stating that she was to draw out of line at 8 o’clock for a burial. We do not know who has died, officer or man, but it is doubtless an artilleryman. Night terribly hot. Captain assures us we shall only have a couple of days hot weather to face and then the weather will gradually pass through cool to cold. We are now in proper Convoy formation, all ships being together. As I write several officers have come into the smoke room, all in pyjamas for our 9.30 drink of cold lime juice. It is very acceptable these nights. We have now had a lime juice issue daily since nearing Colombo. Most of us sleep out on the deck at night.

Saturday 28th November
Another terribly trying day. Temperature in horse deck up to 100o. If this is Red Sea winter I can duly appreciate the fact that it was not our misfortune to come on this journey with horses during the Summer Season. Rather an "off" day. Ordinary routine work and drill during the morning. Sports in the afternoon. Just before men’s midday meal a series of tug of war contests took place, the units providing teams being Head Quarters, battery (2 teams) B.A.C. and D.A.C. (the AAM.C for some inexplicable reason held out of all sports). The D.A.C. team proved to be winner with the Head Quarters team "runner up". During the afternoon sports of all kinds were held - Potato race, Alarm & Obstacle races, Rooster in the ring, Sling the monkey, etc, also the finals of the tugs of war, and a special match between Officers and Sergeants. I was anchor man for the officers. We won, much to the disgust of the Sergeants. At night the men had a very good concert. While at dinner at night Capt McGee of

[Page 40]
the D.A. Column, made a statement to the effect that their "anchor man" in the winning Tug of War was the most powerful man on the Ship. He weighs 17 stone 3 lbs and is a hefty farmer. I could not stand this, so there and then issued a challenge to pull him after the concert at night. This raised no end of excitement in the Dining Salon. However Capt McGee at once went out, consulted his man (generally known as "Tiny") and coming back notified his acceptance of the Challenge. Then betting commenced. Some of our officers backed me, while two officers of the D.A.C. and the Chief Engineer backed "Tiny". After the concert we set to work, and I proved to be the winner by the best two out of three pulls. For a few moments I was quite a hero, and am now acknowledged the "strong" man of the ship.

During the morning we received a wireless message notifying that instructions had been received for Troops to go to Cairo in Egypt for final training, and from there proceed direct to the Front. Under these circumstances we do not know how long it will be before we see England – if ever. The "Orvieto" has gone on ahead and the "Euripides" now leads the Convoy. Yesterday’s return for horses showed about 9 deaths since previous return. Fortunately no losses on our ship, Medic or Katuna, which carry artillery horses.

Sunday 29th November
A much cooler day. Early this morning a strong breeze arose, which has cooled the horse decks and ship generally very much indeed. We heard today that a death had occurred on the "Suffolk", one of the ships crew having succumbed to heat. This makes six deaths during the voyage. Measles broke out on our ship yesterday, two cases being isolated from the D.A.C. They had evidently carried infection from Broad Meadows camp in Melbourne, where they were stationed during our delay in Melbourne. As a consequence we are now faced with the problem of disinfecting all clothing, blankets, etc of all troops on board. In view of the fact that we expect to land either at Port Said or Alexandria we shall not have much time. This will very much interfere with our training, particularly that for first aid which had been arranged for the last fortnight at sea prior to reaching England. This latter instruction will now have to be given when we reach camp. Church Service this evening.

Monday 30th November
A howling wind blowing all night. Today

[Page 41]
we have had an exceedingly strong head wind with plenty of "White Horses". Great drop in temperature about 25o. Marching order inspection of all units today in view of early disembarkation. Two horses bad with Colic last night. Improved this morning. Ships boats swung inboard in preparation for Suez canal. Fumigation continued today. One more case of measles. Commenced packing of Head Quarters stores, Completed checking of Harness of all units. Mr Jenkinson’s hopelessly mixed. Red Cross issues made to all units. Wrote special letter to Nell. Tonight roaring winds and heavy sea. Most beautiful sunset behind the African hills just as we entered the Gulf of Suez. Mount Sinai ranges showing up prominently in Arabia. All ships are now proceeding in Single line. All told about 20 miles in length. Expect to reach Suez before lunch tomorrow. Run to noon today about 250 miles.

Tuesday 1st December
Reached Suez about 8.30 AM. Though very desolate the Country looked very picturesque in the morning Sunlight. Harbour full of ships. Trading boats at once surrounded all ships and I am sure cleaned out all the last week’s pay of men on our ship. water taken in about 60 tons. Received instructions to disembark at Alexandria and to proceed through canal this evening. Also instructed to have armed guard posted on ship to reply to possible hostile fire from banks of Canal. Accordingly 56 men have been armed and posted to positions. In addition two 18prs have been made ready on deck on suitable bearings of sandbags. If required they will certainly be used. I had a photo taken this afternoon of all military and Ships officers on the ship. I hope they turn out successfully. This afternoon all new Zealand Ships and two men o’ war entered the canal and tonight X Division with a couple of W Division are going through. As I write the "Wiltshire" is ahead of us in the Canal, and the "Argyleshire" and "Shropshire" following – all have their electric search lights. The Pilot of this ship who is a Frenchman has just informed me he has been Piloting on the Canal for 27 years, yet this is the first ship he has ever taken from Suez to Ismailia. He always works from Ismailia to Port Said in Suez, returning to Ismailia by train. Plenty of cheering along the bank from workmen on the Canal. Tomorrow 30 Troop ships are due at Suez from India. We expect to reach Port Said about 11 tomorrow. No chance to post letters today.

[Page 42]
Wednesday 2nd December
Arrived at Port Said at 8.33 AM. Just 13 hours less 1 minute from Suez. Almost a record run. I am informed when the King visited Delhi his ship took 13 hours, which was up to then a record trip. The journey through the Canal proved very interesting. On the left Bank the fresh water canal runs, and has a fair amount of vegetation on its banks. On the right bank there is nothing but a desolate waste. We had no occasion to use firearms during our journey through the Canal. Troops lined the banks, mostly Indian and Egyptian to the extent of 35,000, and on the Right (East) Bank the Country has been flooded from the sea to a distance of 15 miles inland by 8 mile wide. This makes an effective barrier against invasion from Arabian territory. We saw innumerable flocks of pelicans and flamingos. As we neared Port Said an armoured train passed us, carrying troops, evidently for the canal. As we arrived at Port Said a veritable hive of industry opened up before us. The New Zealand transports had arrived ahead of us, and with innumerable other ships all coaling, and several French and British Man o War (among the latter being the "Swiftsure") made a very busy scene. We were anchored just off the Custom House. The Anchorage is full of trading boats and presents a very lively scene indeed. We are taking in coal and water here. The French Men O War are carrying Hydroplanes for use in the Canal Zone. We moored our vessel about 10.30 AM. Immediately surrounded by native trading boats. Coaling operations commenced. It was exceedingly interesting to watch how this work was carried out by natives and how rapidly it was done. During the afternoon Colonel Sutton, Capt McLennan, Mr Jopp and myself pulled off to the "Orvieto" regarding certain returns, etc. Walter Hounain came on board to same from "Maunganui". He is electrician on board. He told me an A.M.C. officer was killed in the "Neptune" celebrations through diving into shallow tank. I have been informed that this evening we go to an anchorage some distance outside canal, so have arranged for all officers to go ashore this evening returning by launch later to steamer. Visited several ships and walked round the town generally. Much interested in the market quarter. Peculiar trams, many donkeys, persistent guides and hawkers. At 9.30 found we could not get our launch. Nearly all have been commandeered and are being used as river boats fitted with maxims. We could only arrange with the "Ports and Lights’ office to go aboard the "Swiftsure". I obtained copy of November navy list (from the Consular Officer) which

[Page 43]
shows Charley posted to H.M.S. "Charybdis", and also date of posting, etc. We all stayed the night at the "Eastern Exchange Hotel" and had a good look through newspaper files available in the Reading room.

Thursday 3rd December
Reached Customs House landing place at 6.45 AM. Took boat on to the "Swiftsure". While waiting for the Torpedo boat we were shown all over the vessel. At 7.30 we left in Torpedo boat, had an interesting run through the Shipping at about 15 Knots, called at a Picket Torpedo boat doing duty outside, and then headed for the "Rangatua". We had an interesting time while reaching our ship. The boat plunged into the waves and rolled very much. Many of us got a wetting. When we reached our ship it was impossible to get alongside owing to the heavy swell, consequently our ship lowered a boat. The 4th Officer took charge with an Artillery crew. Gradually the Torpedo boat got alongside the Ships boat, and the fun commenced. As each big roller came along the Torpedo boat bumped the ships boat alarmingly. One by one we jumped off one boat into the other, and just as we were all off there came a particularly big roller which mixed us up a little, and dashed the Torpedo boat against us, stoving in the side, and in consequence we shipped a great deal of water. Gradually we got back to the "Rangatua", and we had a difficult task to get to the davit falls. These hooked we were hauled up clear of the water, and then got aboard per medium of a rope ladder. Capt McGee was greatly excited, was sure we were going to sink and as soon as he saw the Ships rope ladder within reach, he shinned up first at a great turn of speed. He much resented my remark later, when I observed he was first up the ladder, and wanted to know if I questioned his courage.

Friday 4th December
Still at anchor. We do not yet know when we will be leaving here for Alexandria, but expect it will be tomorrow or Sunday. Assistant wireless Operator left ship this morning to be returned to Australia. The Ship’s captain also went off in a Torpedo boat. This boat returned about 4.30 PM, and dropped Captains of several Transports at anchor. While sea was very smooth in the morning when they left, it was very rough when they returned, and as a consequence our Captain had a hard job getting back to his ship. The Torpedo boat could not safely come along side so a boat had to be lowered. The Captain and crew

[Page 44]
had eventually to scramble up a ships ladder hung over the side, and the boat was left astern till morning when perhaps the sea will be smoother. Many Transports here waiting for orders. The "Argyleshire" is just behind us with all the N.S.W. Artillery. Another horse foaled tonight, quite an unexpected arrival. As we are so near to disembarkation the foal had to be destroyed. As I write one of the gunners is playing an Accordeon on the deck, and the crowd is singing all sorts of songs. Have been sorting my clothes today and packing same. Wrote letter to Charley and John Halford and had same taken ashore. Units at work at Gundrill, laying, Semaphore, and rifle exercises. Now getting all gear sorted up ready for going ashore. Most glorious sunset this evening at about 4.45. Days are very short and nights quite cold. A marked contrast to the Red Sea.

Saturday 5th December
Dull and wet morning, clearing off in afternoon. Two New Zealand ships returned here today from Alexandria, having disembarked their troops. They are apparently returning to New Zealand. Heard yesterday of loss of H.M.S. Bulwark. On looking through the navy list today I notice that eleven cadets who belonged I think to Charley’s term went down on her, and another 10 in the Monmouth. We are all preparing on board ship for packing. Units getting their blankets and camp equipment (also landing ration) ready. We shall be very glad to finish the journey. We are still anchored here but on present appearances expect to leave tomorrow evening. Again a beautiful red sunset, enhanced by the movement of two hydroplanes passing over our ships and being silhouetted against the evening sky. Chief Steward arranged a special dinner tonight. He did things very well indeed. I have given him letters to his own Company and Shaw Savill, telling them of the satisfactory carrying out of his duties.
A chorus just outside the Smoke room is singing "It’s a long long way to Tipperary", and others singing "It’s along long way to Sunny Queensland". All seem very happy and anxious to get to serious work.

Sunday 6th December
Another very nice day. Early this morning the 10 Australian transports here moved anchorage to allow Indian transports to take up our old position. Nine came out of port today. A French Hydroplane has been circling over us this morning and afternoon, once or twice coming down on to the water.

[Page 45]
I had Major Bessell Browne, Major Burgess and Capt Waite to lunch. Discussed many matters with them. Reduced to ranks two of major Burgess’ men for drunkenness. Officers returned to their respective ships at 5PM. Church service this evening. Band performing on the "Geelong" near by. Music sounded very nice coming over the water. Major Burgess is to visit our ship again in the morning re further disciplinary measures. Have not yet received instructions to proceed to Alexandria.

Monday 7th December
Slept in this morning. Did not wake till 7 AM. French Hydroplane flying about all the morning. Major Burgess and Lieut Gee came over from "Geelong". Wrote home to Nell, Alvord and Chris, also sent photo to Nell of leaving Brisbane, Church parades in Melbourne, and group of Officers on ship, taken at Port said. Convoy of 24 Indian Transports left Port Said today escorted by a French Man o’ War. They made a very effective show. Beautiful mirage effect about 9 AM this morning in the direction of Port Said. Sent mails off to "Wiltshire" at 2PM. Col Sutton visited his section on "Medic". "Wiltshire" signalled tonight that "Southern", "Anglo Egyptian" and herself were leaving for Alexandria. It looks as if we have done well with our horses and we are to remain till the last. We are all very anxious to get ashore. Our horses look very well, particularly "Jack" who is by far the best-looking horse on the ship.

Tuesday 8th December
Still at Anchorage. Very disconcerting hanging about so long. Invite Major Parker and two subalterns from "Medic" to lunch. They brought the veterinary Officer with them and had a good look around the ship. During the afternoon a French hydroplane soared over us, took the water several times and made a very pretty show. Received word this evening to move off in time to reach Alexandria tomorrow at 2 PM. We are to leave at 11 tonight. Two serious cases of appendicitis. They are to be removed to Hospital for operation immediately on arrival. Had a game of bridge with the Captain, Col Sutton and Capt Dixon. This makes the third game I have had since leaving Brisbane. I shall be very glad to see our horses landed. They have had a desperately long journey and every day more tells on them.

[Page 46]
Wednesday 9th December
Sailed at 11 last night for Alexandria reaching entrance to harbour at 12.30PM. Pilot came aboard and took us in to an Anchorage. Two acute appendicitis cases landed for operation. Adjutant and myself went ashore in Police Launch. Interviewed embarkation officers – arranged for berth no 60 for tomorrow.
Obtained a good deal of detailed information. Saw Major Gellibrand, received from him authority re coaling wages for men. Police launch took us back to ship. Mr Dowson, assistant Director of Coast Guards took us and stayed to dinner with us. He is a marine officer and very entertaining in conversation. He has been here 10 years.
Eighty one men again broke leave tonight and went ashore in bum boats. Toast to the King at Dinner, also captain and officers of Ship.

Thursday 10th December
Moved into berth at 1 o’clock. Raising of Horse brows and removal of Hospital patients prevented disembarkation commencing before 2.15PM. Arranged for Head quarters, 7th Battery and A.M.C. to proceed by first train. Loading of horses successfully carried out. Three men injured (not seriously) from kicks. Train moved off at 8.20 PM. Unloading of vehicles and stores continued to 9.30PM. Then gave general leave to remainder on board. Interview with Major Gellibrand, Commander Parker and Captain re payment to men for coaling. Arranged to refer to Captain who will minute the correspondence, then I shall forward claim to Head Quarters for settlement. During the afternoon a horse broke away, galloped a mile, then jumped into the harbour. He was rescued with difficulty, but appeared uninjured. Foal was left on board and given to the Chief Officer whose father has a farm in England. The Ship seems deadly quiet. The town is very interesting especially the native quarter. An enormous amount of shipping in port, including 22 German prizes. Good news tonight of the sinking of the "Gneisenau", "Scharnhorst" and "Dresden" by Admiral Sturdee’s squadron off the Falkland islands. Sick A.M.C. horse shot. Letters received from Nell dated Oct 16th, and Nov 1st.

Friday 11th December
All remaining units at work early excepting Infantry detail, who refuse duty and were placed in guard room. B.A.C. and D.A.C. units left by train at 5.40PM. horses went on

[Page 47]
train splendidly. Telephoned Cairo for an officer and 20 men to take over Infantry details. These arrived about 8.30PM. Handed over unit.
Unloading of vehicles proceeded all through the night till 4 AM. All very tired.

Saturday 12th December
Left Alexandria at 4 AM. Reaching Cairo at 10.15. Bitterly cold in train. Stood on platform of carriage from daylight till Cairo was reached. Most beautiful Delta country, irrigated and every inch cultivated. Barley, maize, cotton, sugarcane, and vegetables growing luxuriantly. At intervals we passed Arab villages and occasional grave yards. Houses very quaint, generally built of mud. Date Palms in abundance. Interesting wheels to raise water from canal levels to level of ground to be irrigated. Country full of Arab men, women and children journeying both ways along canal banks, some riding donkeys, mules, buffaloes and camels. I should love to ride through this Country on horseback at my leisure. In nearly all the villages we passed through, many minarets could be seen. On arrival at Cairo we at once detrained, unloaded vehicles and spent the day assembling parts for final removal of vehicles to camp.
Arranged for parties to come in from Mena to assist. Left Mr Ross in charge, and came to camp arriving at 11 PM. Met Mr Parker who directed me to 3rd Brigade lines. Very tired and slept soundly till 8 AM.
Before coming out I met Tasmanian and W. Australian Second trains and assisted to detrain their vehicles.

Sunday 13th December
Breakfasted "Al Fresco", as much sand as food. Pyramids looming up in front of the camp. The camp is pitched on very sandy country but quite close to Pyramids and Mena House. Today the chief Pyramid has been covered with soldiers, clambering all over it. I have spent the day in looking after Brigade generally. I reported to Colonel Hobbs this morning. Have arranged for Brigade Mess to be run by ourselves. Mr Clowes to be mess Secretary.
Had a visit from Majors King and Rabett, Capt McLaughlin and Lieuts Olding and Thornthwaite. I hope to see my old Battery tomorrow.
General Bridges and Colonel White rode around the camp this afternoon. Getting my own tent settled. Have fine E.P. about 21’ x 14’. I shall use it also as my private office and will be very comfortable.

[Page 48]
Received two letters from Nell yesterday and one from Alvord. Nell’s last letter acknowledged receipt of ?20 sent to her. An old letter from Mr Baron received also one from Mr Philp in England. He wants to join us as a gunner if he can get across here.
Camp is full of small mule and donkey teams and wagons, doing all the transport work for the troops. Train lines are laid through the camp for supply of materials, etc, and various macadamised roads are also being made. The camp is a huge show. The Accommodation House at foot of Pyramids, known as Mena House has been turned into a Hospital, and all Australian nurses are stationed there. The large swimming pool is made available for troops, 100 swimming at a time. Hope to find time in a few days to visit both Mena House and the Pyramids. We never expected we should get into this part of the world. I understand we are to stay here till March, certainly till the cold weather is over at the front. Just killed a fine healthy specimen of a mosquito.

Monday December 14th

Very cold night. Beautifully fresh morning. Strenuous work all day getting tents for Units, having some erected and getting in stores and vehicles. It will take a few days to settle down. Majors King and Rabett also Lt Olding called along to see me. I have not yet had time to look at the old battery. Infantry are moving out in the mornings now to the accompaniment of their Bands. Lecture tonight by Major Hughes on "Artillery Tactics".

Tuesday 15th December
Again very cold crisp night. Went into Cairo with Major Browne to see about 8th Battery vehicles and B.A.C. vehicles. Had lunch at Kan el Nil barracks. Afterwards visited three shops to arrange for enamelled mess kit, it having been decided that all officers shall join in a Brigade Mess. Shops close from 1PM to 3 PM, so we did not quite complete our task before returning to camp. Had an Arab guide with us, the son of the Sheik of Mena Village right against our camp. He explained many things to us, incidentally telling us of his approaching marriage, and the customs in connection therewith. These guides are evidently feeling the loss of trade in connection with tourists, there being no "Season" this year. We are trying to learn Arabic.

[Page 49]
Wednesday 16th December
Some tables and forms arrived for the Brigade. Erected the officers mess tents. Mess gear came out from town. All units settling down and vehicles coming along gradually. Horses being exercised daily. Trumpeters receiving instruction. Have arranged for Brigade and Battery Head Quarters, also Trumpeters and Officers patrols to form one large class for instruction by myself, Adjutant and Lt Clowes. Lecture given tonight by Capt Waite, OC. BAC, on Ammunition Supply, illustrated by diagrams. All Sergts and Sergt Majors and officers attended. Arranged to start our mess tomorrow. Another foal arrived a day or two ago, this time in 7th battery. It will surely become the Battery pet. Jack looks splendid. Gordon, the coach driver at Port Hacking, spoke to me last night. He has joined the Infantry.

Thursday 17th December
Again bitterly cold night. Brigade classes commenced, consisting of H.Qrs Battery Staffs, Trumpeters etc. Work established and signalling commenced. Mr Jopp drew pay for HQrs. Other units also drawing pay. Units getting the horses into working trim. B.A.C. gradually getting vehicles etc together. Signalling with lamps with class from 7 to 8.30PM. Major Martin RAE promised to give us assistance with Mess kitchens etc.

Friday 18th December
Early start with Signallers. Lecture to whole class from 9 to 10.30 on "Reconnaissance duties". Officers mess fairly going. Major Rabett and Col Johnstone called on me. Horses all looking very well. Jack very much scared of camels. Mess Kitchen erected. Materials to hand for store and cooking trench. Engineers will assist us tomorrow. Arabic class commencing tonight. Interpreter Mr Suki attached to us. French and German classes commencing at Headquarters. Regret I know nothing of the languages and therefore it is useless to attend with those who already have a fair knowledge. Lecture tonight by Major Burgess on "Employment of Artillery in War" in conjunction with other arms. Good discussion.
Major Nicholson called in to listen. Rabett and Lloyd called this afternoon. I strolled into 1st Brigade lines. Saw Callaghan. Arabic class

[Page 50]
commenced tonight after lecture. Hope to learn to speak fairly well while here. All officers given a start tonight with verbs, nouns, sentences etc.

Sunday 19th December
Very solid day getting returns completed and seeing units fitted out with camp equipment.
Engineers erected camp cooking fire for our mess, and will erect camp oven on Monday. Gave lecture to all specialists this morning. Signalling morning and afternoon. Arabic class at night. Several officers on leave. Had ride on Jack for first time since leaving Melbourne. He is very fit. Called on Playfair at Hospital.

Sunday 20th December
Checking over all vehicles this morning. Found correct. Church parades all over the camp from 9.30 to 10.30 this morning. Our C of E service conducted by Dean Talbot. Band from Infantry very "sick" indeed. This afternoon had large party of specialists out doing patrol work and doing helio work in addition. Very useful afternoon. Spent evening in writing home letters. Beautiful sight this morning from our church parade ground. The tents of various kinds, horses, vehicles, moving bodies of troops, sand hills, Pyramids, Palm trees and cultivation were all visible in one panorama. Hope to be able to secure a photograph showing everything. Colonel Hobbs wife and daughter have arrived at Cairo, also Major Parker’s wife. Mr Rogers wife who is a nurse at Mena House completes the party of W.A. wives. Mrs Christian is also at Cairo. I wish I could afford to bring my family here. No such luck. British protectorate established in Egypt. Special function in Cairo at which some of our Australian troops were present officially.

Monday 21st December
Solid work throughout the Brigade. Teaching my class use of helio, also on model for reconnaissance. Out mounted in the afternoon. Lecture at night by Major Browne on Horse mustership and fitting of saddlery. We had a horse in the mess tent as a model. Arabic class afterwards. Posted letter to Nell, Alvord & Chris, also parents.

Tuesday 22nd December
Out signalling all the morning with Brigade class, and using Artillery abbreviations. In the afternoon I took a party

[Page 51]
of 50 mounted men for reconnaissance duties, past the Pyramids and round the Sphinx. Very interesting old ruins. I have not yet ascended the chief Pyramid ("Cheops")
Lecture to Brigade class tonight on "Message Form". Capt Marks returned from his trip to Luxor, and Lloyd of 1st Brigade called in re Head Quarters signalling class. Arranged to let my Brigade H.Q. Signallers attend. A horse died today in 8th Battery from sand ‘colic’.

Wednesday 23rd December
Paraded at Col Hobbs office this morning with Brigade Commanders concerning detention and promotion of officers. Endorsed my previous recommendation re Jopp and Gee. Prepared plasticine model to illustrate lecture on "Contours". Mr Clowes explained "Conventional Signs". Practical map re4ading during afternoon. Col Hobbs came out and asked for recommendations for promotion of 2nd Lieutenant. I recommended all excepting Jenkinson. Lecture at night. "Billets &Bivouacs". Col Hobbs and full staff attended. Talked afterwards with Rabett and King.

Thursday 24th December
I interviewed Major Gellibrand at 8.30 AM re coaling on board "Rangatua", also Capt Matson re drugs for horses urgently required. Major Austin informed me Molasses etc from Alexandria was coming forward, and asked for fatigue party as "consideration". Out all day with Patrols. Passed through an interesting Arab village where we were very curiously observed. Further on we passed a Police station, belonging to Coast Guard Service in preventing smuggling.
Here there were Soudanese officials with their wives, all as black as pitch. Came back at 4PM very tired. Practised helio work with moving stations. Discovered a man in the B.A. Column who is a professional artist, employed on the Bulletin Staff I understand. He is acting as a Patrol. I must secure him for Brigade head Quarters. Sent letter to Philp informing him I could give him a place as Corporal on head Quarters. I hope he can come here. Brigade signallers working under Capt Mackworth in helio station work. Signallers from 7 to 8PM, after that a free night.
Major Browne bought yesterday for me a dozen very good pictures of Cairo and surrounds.

[Page 52]
Friday 25th December
Christmas day – Very beautiful weather, but no "Peace on earth". Major Hughes, Capt Waite and Mr Jopp went out early, snipe shooting, only succeeding in bagging two brace.
Turkeys, geese and lamb for Christmas dinner. Cooks made a specially good showing. Callaghan & Olding, also Capt Morton, N.Z.S.C. also present. Rabett and King could not get round.
Church service at 9.30AM
All units faring very well. Major Browne’s battery had an exceptionally good show, Turkeys, hams, beef, vegetables, fruits and sweets of all kinds. If they never obtain worse fare in their campaigning they will have no cause for complaint. Mr Phillip, tailor of Cairo, a friend of Mr Larcombe and Mr Short called on me.

Saturday 26th December
At work during morning with Specialists class, then went into Cairo re British Warm and a cap. Called at Phillips shop, but finally decided to get what I required at Davies Bryan & Co. Returned to camp at 3 PM.
Major Rabett came over to dinner, and we had an interesting yarn about old times.

Sunday 27th December
Major Hughes and party again went out shooting. They were the guests of an Englishman who is the manager of a large estate here. They came back with one duck and about a dozen waterfowl, the latter no good for eating. At 4 o’clock we left to visit an old gentleman in Cairo who is a most loyal subject and an influential Egyptian. Major Hughes & Martin, Capt McLennan and Lieut Jopp accompanied me. This man’s wife is a sister to the present Sultan’s wife, and he himself is the son of the late Governor General of the Soudan. Our chief interpreter here (Mr Bayley) has known him for many years and it was he who arranged the visit. On arrival we were shown into a fine hall, filled with most beautiful Oriental furniture and Turkish and Persian Carpets. He and his sons did all in their power to entertain us.
They gave each of us presents, drawing lots to ensure equal division. He gave me several interesting souvenirs and in addition has promised to frame my family photos in wood carved frames. My table

[Page 53]
will then look quite Oriental. We sat down to a sumptuous dinner of about 15 courses, all exquisitely cooked. The table was set out in faultless British style, but the foods were prepared in Egyptian style. We left at 9PM and were escorted on foot through old Cairo.
He showed us many old historic buildings. The streets are very narrow. I am hoping to get one of my Head Quarters men who is good at water colour work to do me a few sketches. Altogether it was an exceedingly interesting evening.
The house is fairly pretentious, of three floors. The basement is used for the servants, the ground floor for guests, and the upper floor as the family’s private quarters. The women folk do not appear. All servants on first floor are Soudanese Eunuchs. I was placed in the post of honour at the head of the table while the father sat on my left. The sons waited at table, this being an especial way of honouring a guest. They afterwards dined by themselves. The father made a very interesting picture smoking his "hubble bubble’. In fact I had a try but was not very successful. Reached camp at 11PM.

Monday 28th December
Head Quarters at work on Telephone Construction. Several men are expert electricians so we should have no trouble in maintaining our phones in a high state of efficiency. With Capt Waite paraded Mr Jenkinson before Col Hobbs. I had to report against him. Col Hobbs asked him if he was prepared to resign, and he agreed. The matter is now going before General Bridges. He has proved totally unfitted for his job. A good deal of trouble with B.A.C. defaulters. They seem to have a bad lot among them. Have now to arm the guard. Lecture tonight by Major Hughes on "Battery Tactics". Plenty of discussion afterwards.

Tuesday 29th December
Battery and Brigade Headquarters at work on Telephones. All units at battery drill. Went out with O.C to inspect routes to manoeuvre ground. Area proved to be very satisfactory, but roads leading thereto very bad indeed. Interview with Col Hobbs and Brigade Commanders re training areas. Jenkinson paraded before Colonel Hobbs. He agreed to resign. General lecture to all units at 2.30PM regarding conduct of troops in Cairo and behaviour generally. Members of 3rd Inf Bde not implicated. Rumours that howitzer Brigade to be formed.

[Page 54]
Wednesday 30th December
Battery and Brigade Headquarters at work on Telephone and Signalling. Batteries at Battery drill. Visited Cairo with Capt McLennan to be measured for uniform and cap, also have boots repaired. Returned to camp at 2.15PM.
Sir George Reid to address our Divisional Artillery tomorrow and other units today. Colonel Hobbs delivered lecture in 2nd F.A. Brigade Mess. Full attendance of officers. He referred to pamphlet issued by war Office giving details of war at the front, especially with regard to Artillery. Makes one feel the seriousness of the situation and if prevailing conditions hold on, how few of us will return to Australia.

Thursday 31st December
At work on Telephones and signalling. Batteries laying. Sir George Reid addressed troops today. With him came Mr Mackenzie (High Commissioner for N.Z.) and Generals Maxwell & Birdwood. Sir George made a good speech and specially asked all ranks to uphold the good name of Australia. Invited to dance at Continental Hotel but did not accept. Plenty of noise at midnight and bands playing out the old year and ushering in the new.

[Page 55]
Friday 1st January 1915

New Year’s day – and plenty of hard work. Beautiful day. Batteries are at work on Gunlaying and battery drill. Lecture by Major Browne on the "use of Aircraft in relation to Artillery". I missed the lecture as Colonel Hobbs had asked me to dine with him at Headquarters Mess. Very nice dinner and interesting discussion on present military situation. Promotion of officers notified today, presumably as New Year gifts. Col Christian received promotion, also Capt Jopp, Callaghan and Kingsmill. Mr Jenkinson tendered his resignation.

Saturday 2nd January 1915

Digging gun pits and epaulments. Afternoon holiday. I went out on manoeuvre area with Major Hughes, Burgess, Browne and Capt Waite. Designing gun emplacements at night.

Sunday 3rd January
Easy day for all units. Church parade in the morning. Good attendance. Major Browne & Burgess completing gun emplacements. Took Benson out during the afternoon over the manoeuvre area and gave him instructions in Field sketching from a military point of view.

Monday 4th January
The whole Division moved out to manoeuvre area. Col Christian and Col Johnstone delayed us considerably. Very good ground to work over. Started on gun layers tests for 9th Battery. Very solid going for horses. Returned to camp at 3.45PM.
Discussion with Colonel Hobbs. I suggested we should leave all vehicles on the area permanently and only bring teams back. Guard to be left consisting of gun layers who will thus get more time for their very exacting work. water tank burst tonight and flooded portion of the camp. Luckily our camp is too high to be affected. Mr Jenkinson’s resignation accepted.

Tuesday 5th January
Left camp at 8.30 for manoeuvre area. Difficulty about water carts. Short measure for horses. Very useful day for all ranks. Layers being tested. General Birdwood looked round my Batteries about 1.30 PM. He had General Bridges with him.

[Page 56]
He seems generally pleased with the Artillery. Mr Jenkinson took his departure from camp and joined up in Lt Col Stoddart’s Light Horse.

Wednesday 6th January
Left for training ground at 8.30, returning to camp at 1.45. again trouble with watercarts. Not sufficient in number. Terribly dusty road. Everybody covered when they returned to camp. Our tents also full. Adjutant out on Area at 7AM, testing layers. The 7th Battery furnishes layers as picket tonight carrying out tests tomorrow morning. Received from 3rd Infantry Brigade four watercarts for use of Brigade. (on loan).
Received letter from Nell dated Dec 9th – last received dated Nov 1st. lecture at night to officers and N.C.Os on work of day.

Thursday 7th January
Left for manoeuvre area at 8.30, returning at 4 PM. Again terribly dusty day. Very difficult to carry on any work. Layers tests had to be discontinued.
Went into Cairo at 4.30 to ft on British Warm, and get a few sundries. Returned to camp at 8.30. Ali Bey came out and brought Nell’s photo very nicely framed.

Friday 8th January
Marched out of camp at 8.30, returned at 4.30. Another evry dusty day with rain showers late in the afternoon. Major Burgess arranged miniature range. Good work at battery manoeuvre. Many mistakes made, noted, and pointed out to all Officers at night. Laying tets continues. Not very satisfactory results. The 7th battery especially requires a great deal of practice.

Saturday 9th January
Horses resting. Batteries harness cleaning and shoeing horses. Damaged water cart of 3rd Inf Brigade being repaired. B.C?. and Subaltern Officers out on manoeuvre area with myself reconnoitring positions for occupation by batteries at night. Moved out at 7.30PM tonight to take up these positions. Had a very interesting March. All succeeded in finding their positions in reasonable time. Returned to camp at 11.30. at 12.30 I was awakened by Light Horse officers who were having a hilarious evening. I had to ask them to shut down.

[Page 57]
Sunday 10th January
Laid in till 7.30 this morning. Would have appreciated another hour. Major Burgess took church parade while I wrote letters to Nell, the boys, home, and Arthur King in Melbourne. I also sent Post Cards of Port Said to Chris and Alvord and 12 cards of Cairo environs to Nell. The latter were very good pictures indeed. During the afternoon Ali Bey and his son motored out and stayed to dinner with us. He seemed to enjoy himself thoroughly and was much interested in the Ammunition Column wallaby. He also brought me out three extra photo frames, for Alvords, Charleys and Chris’ photos. I have them all framed now. Ali Bey left at 8PM. I saw him past the guards and then returned to my tent.

Monday 11th January
Left camp at 8.45 for training ground.
Obtained 5 small tanks to supplement water carts for units. Gun laying tests for balance of 9th battery. Remainder practising gun laying and Battery manoeuvre. While on the training ground the Brigade orderly brought me a cable from England re Artificer Herring of D.A.C., asking for information. Also brought me two very welcome letters from Nell, dated Nov 30th & Dec 6th 1914 respectively. Also notification re Colonel Pethebridge’s promotion and appointment.
Colonel Hobbs lectured in First Brigade lines, criticising work of batteries during past week.

Tuesday 12th January.

Arranged in future to leave camp at 8 AM for training ground. Gun laying tests and Battery Manoeuvre being carried out. Arranged to water Brigade horses at Mr Pengelleys pumps. Lecture by Col Sheen on "Graphs" at Mena House at 5 PM.
Divisional Column arrived in Camp. Capt McGee and 4 Subalterns had dinner with us.

Wednesday 13th January
Left for training ground at 8AM, returned to camp 3.30PM. Provided gun and carriage for funeral of Infantry Sergeant. Received letters from Nell and Chris dated 13th and 12th December respectively. Good training done on area.
Col Hobbs invited the Adjutant and myself to afternoon tea at his Head Quarters, also Col Johnstone & Christian and their respective adjutants.

[Page 58]
Mrs Hobbs, Miss Hobbs, Mrs Christian, Mrs NewMarch and Mrs Anderson were present.
Think the sun ‘got me" this afternoon. I feel very seedy.

Thursday 14th January
Had to lay up today. Feeling very queer. The Doctor thinks I must have received slight sunstroke yesterday. Had to provide another gun and carriage for funeral of Infantry Corporal today.
I am informed about 6 generals are to visit the Manoeuvre area today. I wish I could have been there. Major Burgess is absent too in a court martial.
Lecture given tonight at Mena House by Col Sheen on "International Law respecting war". It was very interesting. I should not have attended as I felt very rocky, and I was very glad to get to bed.

Friday 15th January
Not feeling much better, but decided to go to training area. Returned at 2.30. received two letters from Nell dated Nov 16th and Nov 22nd, also Christmas card from charley.
Layers of 7th Battery tested, 5 passed in test "A". Talk with all O.C.s re certain points of Battery training and discipline. Impressed on them the necessity for making their ideal "Perfection".
Mr Phillips, tailor from Cairo, called to see me with his wife, and invited me to go out to dinner as soon as I could find a spare night. They are friends of Mr Chadwick, Rofe, Larcombe and Short. Very small world.

Saturday 16th January
On training area for a short time this morning. All units in Camp, cleaning harness and guns. Interview with Chaplain Richards and McPhee re Sunday Services. Arranged to have weekly parade for 2nd and 3rd F.A. Brigade, 4th L.Horse and D.A.C. at head of 3rd Brigade lines.
Night alarm – Turned out the whole Brigade. Checked time in which units got ready and also checked all harness, stores and equipment of all units.
I turned in again at 2.40 AM.
Wrote to Nell, the three boys, Father and Mother and John Halford. Very cold night.

[Page 59]
Sunday 17th January
Church Service as arranged yesterday. Band of 2nd Brigade assisted. Presbyterian parson officiated. I understand Rabett was married yesterday in Cairo.
Had a good afternoon rest and went to bed early at night.

Monday 18th January
At manoeuvre area all day. Working on tactical scheme. Enemy occupying villages near Pyramids, our Artillery cooperating with 1st Infantry Brigade. Very useful day. Gun layers being tested. All men and horses absolutely white on return to camp, from dust of area and road.
Went into town at 4 PM with Gunner Benson. Made arrangements for sketching blocks for units, water colours and blocks.
Called at Davies Bryan and got British warm, also made enquiries re Kiwi polishes. Had evening meal in Grill room of Continental Hotel with Benson. Reached camp at 9.30PM.

Tuesday 19th January
At manoeuvre area all day. With 7th Battery all the morning while their layers were being tested. With 9th Battery during afternoon. Letter received from Mr Cowlishaw re delayed Policy premium. Also notified that my pay had been received on 23rd November up to 15th November, amount ?79.10.0 –
Attended lecture at Mena House at 8.30PM. Found it had commenced at 8PM so had to wait outside. Bitterly cold night. Glad to have no less than five blankets on me.
Got my British warm home from tailors, it will be a great comfort.

Wednesday 20th January
Left for training area at 8AM. Moved off Easterly portion of range which was required for 1st Infantry Brigade, and got over to area used by 1st Artillery Brigade. Shooting going on all day. Did not appear too satisfactory; the 2nd Brigade shoot tomorrow, the 3rd Brigade on Friday.
Received letter from Nell dated December 22nd also card from Chris. Nell appears to think I am having an excellent time in Egypt. Good living and plenty of social life, both of which ideas are quite untrue. She will perhaps believe the truth when she hears it from outsiders.

[Page 60]
Thursday 21st January
Stayed in camp today. Gave all units of Brigade an opportunity to make all adjustments, clean harness, guns, etc, prior to shooting on Friday. Shooting of 1st Brigade on Wednesday appeared to be very unsatisfactory. Shooting of 2nd Brigade today proved to be good. It is up to us to do well tomorrow.
General Birdwood today sent me an invitation to dine with him at Shepheards Hotel on Saturday night at 7.30. Hope I shall be able to get some information concerning our future movements. Put in strong report today regarding condition of horses. They are perceptibly getting poorer and weaker. Major Matson thinks they get too much work – Absurd – The ration is the trouble.

Friday 22nd January
Left for training area at 8.30 with 7th Battery. This battery shot first. Reconnaissance exceedingly well carried out. First round off very quickly. Fire discipline good. Second series by Capt Leslie not too good. Observation very faulty. If shooting had not been checked ammunition would have been wasted. Retirement from action good. Major Brownes battery shot second. Good reconnaissance and occupation of position. Ranging first series rather muddled. Second series better. Fire discipline good, retirement from action good. Major Burgess’ battery last to shoot. Rather long advance to position, Battery staff not kept well in hand. Occupation of position good. First round off very smartly. Ranging good, retirement good. Work of batteries uniformly good and very satisfactory.
General Bridges and Colonel Hobbs tendered their congratulations.

Saturday 23rd January
Rest for horses. Men cleaning lines and horses. Inspection by Colonel at 12 noon. All satisfactory excepting a few points in 7th battery. Went to town late in the afternoon, did some shopping, getting Kiwi, and ribbon velvet for my crowns. With Col Johnstone went to dinner with genera Birdwood at Shepheards Hotel. We had a very interesting time. Met Colonel Knox, Chief Supply Officer for our Army Corps. He has just returned from France and gave us a great deal of valuable information. Returned to camp about 1 AM. I saw an interesting sight in Cairo during the afternoon. A man bearing a cow, and carrying a calf. He stopped in front of a man, put down his calf, and

[Page 61]
milked a small jug full of milk, which the man paid for, and drank. I then discovered the calf was stuffed. General Birdwood told me that when a calf dies the cow will not give down its milk, and in consequence they have to deceive her with a stuffed calf. Brought home sketching blocks.

Sunday 24th January
Church parade at 9.30. Class with officers for sketching using new blocks, director and estimated ranges.
Had a good sleep this afternoon. Interview with Colonel Hobbs at night, discussing personal matters concerning whole Artillery.

Monday 25th January
At work on manoeuvre area. Good work done. Col Christian "jumped" my portion of ground. Horses now getting new ration and will soon improve. Lecture at night in our mess tent by Colonel Hobbs. Criticism of practice of last week. Many points noted.

Tuesday 26th January
At work on manoeuvre area on tactical Schemes. Engaging targets from map. Very instructive work to all batteries. Lecture to O.C.s batteries in my tent in afternoon. Received Confidential instructions today to have 3rd Section of B.A.C. ready to move off at a moment’s notice. Instructions issued accordingly. Major Hughes, Capt Waite and myself invited to dinner at Mr Pengelley’s house tonight. Had a very pleasant evening. Returned to camp at 11PM.

Wednesday 27th January.

Stayed in camp today to rest horses. Very lucky we did. Terribly dusty day. With Col Hobbs inspected gun emplacements made during the previous night. Mapped out scheme for tomorrows work. Rumoured that a night turn out was to be expected, it did not eventuate however. FEast of the Prophet in Cairo.

Thursday 28th January
Good work on training area, engaging different targets from behind cover by Compass bearing and in the open.
Approval received to discharge several men for misconduct. Lecture to O.C.s re day’s work. Worked out scheme for Friday. Fighting on the Canal. Expect to be sent there soon. Received letter from Nell dated Dec 30th 1914.

[Page 62]
Friday 29th January
Again good day’s work on training area, in taking up positions and engaging all nature of targets including Cavalry. Pow wow with Officers in the evening.

Saturday 30th January
Remained in camp. Horses resting. Colonel inspected lines at 10.30. All very satisfactory. Went into Cairo late in afternoon re printing. Fitted coat at Davies Bryan. Called at Turf Club and obtained particulars re "Zealandia" and Charley’s appointment from Navy list. Started Prior on Bivouac sketches, and prepared syllabus of work for ensuing week. Received Divisional Order calling for Route March on Monday morning at 9 AM, the 3rd F.A. Brigade leading. On Brigade parade I discharged men to return to Australia for misconduct.

Sunday 31st January
I dodged Church Parade this morning. Had to make sketches of Bivouacs and letters to write. Wrote Nell and the three boys. Had a sleep this afternoon. Tent very hot. Train Wagons left in our lines in preparation for tomorrow’s March.

Monday 1st February
Route March very successful. Left at 9AM, reached camp about 3.30PM. The 3rd F.A. Bde eulogised by Gen Birdwood and Bridges also Colonel White. Turn out very good. Lecture to O.C. Batteries in the evening and officers generally by Col Hobbs in the 1st Brigade lines.

Tuesday 2nd February
Moved out of camp early. Selected Bivouac at bottom of desert near Pengelley’s plantation. Constructed gunpits by all Batteries and "dugout" for myself prepared by my own Headquarters during daylight. Then again at night men did the same work over again finishing about midnight. At about 5PM a terrific sand storm arose, continuing till about 7PM, and a beautiful mess it made of us and our bivouac. Our cloth spread for the evening meal was about hidden from view under the drift sand. Our meal was not enjoyed at all.

[Page 63]
Wednesday 3rd February
Returned to camp about 10.30. men spent day cleaning harness and guns. Colonel Hobbs came out at 8AM to inspect our gun pits. Preparing Sundry sketches and schemes during day. Bitterly cold night.

Thursday 4th February
At work on manoeuvre area. Colonel Hobbs brought out R.F.A. Colonel, named Cunliffe Owen. He has been at the front for some months and has now been appointed C.R.A. for our Army Corps Artillery. He gave us many interesting bits of information regarding Artillery work in France. Benson of Head Quarters has been today getting some local studies for water colour sketches.
General instructions to sketchers of each Battery. No letters from Australia this week – shortage of boats evidently.

Friday 5th February
On manoeuvre area. The 2nd Brigade was to have commenced shooting, but as Colonel Owen (now Brig Gen Owen) could not come out and was particularly anxious to see the shooting, it was postponed till Monday. We bivouaced near Pengelley’s date plantation and had a much better night than Tuesday last. Dug in the whole battery with forward observing posts and my own shelter, all connected by Telephone. Very cold night.

Saturday 6th February
Returned from bivouac to camp at 9AM. Then the whole Artillery Division was formed up under "self ridge" close to camp and a photograph taken. The Artillery covered many acres and made a most imposing picture. Afterwards all Artillery officers rode to the Pyramids and, grouped upon the lower courses of stone of "Cheops" were again photographed. We hope to get some good pictures as a result.

Sunday 7th February
Visited Cairo, Maadi Camp and Heliopolis. Maadi camp which is a few miles from Cairo along the Banks of the Nile is certainly a miserable spot, not nearly as nice as Mena, but alongside are numerous fine residences and the owners have been

[Page 64]
very good to our Light Horse officers, practically giving them entrée to their homes at any time for use of hot baths. At Heliopolis I saw some magnificent residences, including one of the Sultan’s palaces.
Incidentally, on the way to Heliopolis (where reinforcements are camped) I saw the Turkish prisoners from the Canal. When I got to camp at 5.30 PM I found Harry waiting to se me. He has come out with the Second Contingent. He told me of the trouble at Gordon. I gave him dinner. He left about 8PM.

Monday 8th February
The 2nd Brigade shooting today. The 3rd Brigade remained in camp overhauling guns and equipment generally. General Cunliffe Owen gave us a lecture at night, which was full of interest and concerned the Retreat from Mons. He himself was present at the front for some months and spoke from actual experience. He is an entertaining lecturer, but gave us some particulars of actions which made me think seriously. We are looking forward to his future lectures.

Tuesday 9th February
All officers of 3rd Bde and many drivers as well as Headquarters watched shooting of 1st Brigade. Rabett and King’s batteries did exceedingly well – just what might have been expected from Howitzer officers – B.C? fired both series. Did not see 1st battery shoot. Went into Cairo at 5PM to get electrical fittings for signalling buyzers, returned to camp by 9 PM tram. Received big mail from Australia, parents dated 6th Jan, Chris Jun 12th, Alvord 4th and 10th Jan, and Nell Jan 10th. Made up for shortage of last week. Delighted to hear Alvord passed Educational and Medical exams for Australian Naval College. I feel sure he will pass the Interviewing Committee. Smallpox in camp.

[Page 65]
All officers and men to be again inoculated and vaccinated. We start operations tomorrow, and will be staying in camp in consequence.

Friday 11th February
Units at work on Training Area. I stayed in camp arranging re vaccination and interviewing reinforcements for vacancies in our Brigade. Major Parker and Major Hughes also in Camp as Presidents of Boards.
Capt Jopp visited Carriage works re repairs to saddles, and banked Canteen money. New canteen opened today. Seems very well stocked. I hope it will be a boon to our men. Arranging for ranging table in mess to ensure our officers become prompt and efficient when acting as Battery Commanders. Making changes in Head quarters staff re Corporal and Telephone mechanic which should be satisfactory.

Friday 12th February
This date seems familiar. Today I reach 40 years. I wonder where I shall be next 12th February and what my experiences will have been during the year. Very pleased to receive cable from Nell conveying birthday greetings and also informing me that Alvord had been accepted for the R.A.Navy. Brigade stayed in camp and doctor vaccinated everybody again, small pox having made its appearance among the troops. Selected by Colonel Hobbs with Major Browne and Major King to go tomorrow to Suez to study fortifications there and view the country over which the Turks attacked. Went into Cairo at 7.30, visited the "Kurral", then turned in at Continental Hotel. Fresh draft of horses taken over by Brigade.

Saturday 13th February
Caught train at Cairo Central Station at 7AM. About 20 officers comprised the party. Passed through Tel el Kebir on way to Ismailia, and also saw on our right the Ancient Land of Goschen. Went through Ismailia to Kantara, about 20 miles nearer Port Said at which place some fighting had taken place. We saw a great deal of earthworks, gun emplacements etc on the Western Bank of Canal, but had no chance to inspect them. At Kantara we found the station buildings protected with sand bags, and an armoured train drawn up alongside

[Page 66]
the station. A major Brigham of the 69th Punjabis conducted us over the defensive works on the Eastern side of the Canal at Kantara. They were very extensive and complete. From the roof of the Observation House we obtained a fine view of the Surrounding Country.
He also showed us where the Turks attacked but we had not time to go out to the position. General Knox is in Command of this Section, and greatly strengthened his position by inundating the surrounding country from the canal, thus making a very effective barrier. This position had been strongly fortified as it is the Commencement of one of the main caravan routes through the Sinai Peninsula; the other routes coming in at Tussum below Ismailia, and at Suez. We left Kantara at 1.5, journeyed by train to Ismailia, then took ferry down the Canal to Tussum. Ismailia is an exceedingly pretty spot, and has some magnificent avenues of trees and glorious purple and orange Bouganvillae [ea] in abundance. On the wharf we saw 18 large zinc boats about 20’ x 5’ which the Turks had somehow hauled across the desert and used in their attempted crossing of the Canal. On arrival at Tussum we were shown the fortification at the post and then proceeded along the banks of the canal to Serapeum, some 3 miles, and it was along this front the main fighting took place. I should have mentioned that just before reaching Tussum we saw some Sikhs dragging two dead Turks from the canal. They had evidently been shot while attempting to cross. About 350 prisoners were taken at this point and about 100 killed and wounded. The Turks force was estimated at 13,000 with 14000 camels. Special orders were given that our troops should act on the defensive only and take no offensive action, otherwise the whole show with its guns could have been captured.
Political or Mahommedan considerations governed the case. We saw the graves of many Turks, some with arms and legs protruding. They had taken up positions behind little sand mounds, and in each case here were to be seen numbers of empty cartridge cases. We saw some hundreds of boots tied in pairs which had evidently been discarded by the Turks in the expectation of having to swim the canal. We saw the grave of a German Officer, Major Von Hagen, marked with a cross. He deserved his fate for he showed a White Flag, and when our men ceased firing his rear lines still continued. His white flag appears to have been a regular part of his kit, for he had a little khaki case for it. This has been

[Page 67]
sent to Lord Kitchener by General Birdwood.
All the dead were very poorly clad and all indications point to the troops having had a bad time crossing the desert.
We returned to Ismailia about 7.30, caught train at 8.5, and reached Cairo at 11.15PM. Major King and myself then came out to camp. I met Colonel Semmens of Victoria with this party and incidentally informed him he had got me into trouble by writing letters home from Albany and Colombo. He told me he had personally dodged the Censors. Travelling in the Egyptian railway is very comfortable. Dining saloon very good and meals well served. Transfer of men to Brigade to fill vacancies given effect to.

Sunday 14th February
Feel very tired this morning and not much inclined for Church parade. However I attended. Afterwards I gave a little lecturette to the Brigade giving an account of my trip to the Canal. Working on schemes for Tuesday’s shooting. Wrote letters to Nell, Chris, Alvord, Admiralty and Stacy Waddy. Coloured plates for aeroplane signalling. Pow wow with B.C? at night.

Monday 15th February
Brigade working in Camp, preparing for shooting.

Tuesday 16th February
Stayed in camp today preparing for night March, bivouac and tactical shooting. Moved out with B.C? at 2 PM to reconnoitre positions. Selected same also Bivouac. Brigade moved out of camp at 7.30PM reaching bivouac about 9. Major Burgess placed two of his guns for night firing. The D.A.C. failed to supply ammunition, consequently night series was not fixed till midnight. Aiming point was a lamp on top of "Cheops". Zones of front allotted to each battery. (all units spent the night preparing gunpits and observing stations.) Guns in position at 10 AM. Delay in supply of ammunition from DAC caused further delay. Shooting commenced about 11 AM. Excellent results. All batteries did good work. A distinguished Party watched the proceedings. General Sir A. Maxwell, General Birdwood, Generals Walker and Bridges and the Marquis of Anglesey. They all congratulated Colonel Hobbs on the work of the 3rd Brigade, and after the shoot

[Page 68]
had a look at the Battery positions and emplacements. Returned to camp feeling very tired. Had good bath and sleep, Col Hobbs had a pow wow in the evening in our mess tent. All officers of all Brigades present. The Col was very congratulatory.

Wednesday 17th February
Batteries in camp. D.A.C. gunners receiving instruction. Lieut McAdam posted to vacancy in B.A.C.
Conference at Mena House, Divisional Headquarters re scheme for 20th inst. Working in conjunction with signal units. Chiefly to test Communications. Major Burgess selected to go to Suez Canal to inspect defensive works. Col Johnstone and Christian also went.

Thursday 18th February
At work in camp all day. Col Christian’s Brigade did its reconnaissance during the afternoon prior to moving out at night at 7.30PM. My staff, and all Battery Commanders accompanied me today in a reconnaissance of the Country over which the Head Quarters scheme is to be worked on 20th inst. Made sketches of the position and prepared reconnaissance report. Forwarded same to Divisional Head Quarters.

Friday 19th February
Col Christian’s Brigade carried out shooting and did very well. Very pleased Rabett and King did well. Several of my officers witnessed shooting from the range, remainder from firing point where I gave particulars and explanation of work done to a number of Infantry officers who were "sight seers". The 1st Brigade had no night firing. Pow wow at night in 1st Brigade lines.

Saturday 20th February
Out all day on Tactical Scheme. Commenced at 7.30AM and finished up at 6 PM, which meant it was 7.30 before we washed and ready for dinner. Very good days work. Our Brigade Communications worked admirably. No hitches. Hughes, Waite and myself went to dinner at Pengellys, returned home 11.30PM. Very crisp and sharp riding home in the night air. Old Jack was out for a gallop and I had a great job to hold him in.

[Page 69]
Sunday 21st February
Did not attend Church Parade. Slept in for a change and wrote letters and posted up Diary. Had a good sleep in the afternoon, quite an unusual occurrence for me.

Monday 22nd February
Emma’s Birthday today. Batteries all at work in camp. Col Johnstone’s Brigade carried out its reconnaissance preparatory to tomorrow’s shoot. I was with Colonel MacLagan all day during the fighting of a delaying action. General Birdwood was present. The Infantry did very good work.

Tuesday 23rd February.

Col Johnstone’s Brigade carried out its final shoot. I was ordered to explain scheme and operations to a number of Infantry Colonels who had come out to witness shooting. Shooting of Brigade at commencement very poor. Battery Commanders did not understand ranging from use of map only. later in the morning work was better. Lecture at night and criticisms. Colonel Hobbs practically gave us a "good bye" address. He anticipated our Division will be soon broken up and moved off. Instructions received to prepare 8th Battery for departure 27th inst.
Necessary orders given. Commenced French class.

Wednesday 24th February
Obtained leave to visit New Zealand Field Artillery at Zeitoun. Saw 4".5 Howitzers and went through their mechanism. Had an interesting time with Col Johnstone who drove me into Cairo in the afternoon in one of the N.Z. staff cars. Very hot day, camp very dusty and trying. Purchased pumps for use of Brigade, 5 per battery and 1 for Brigade Head Quarters, for use in pumping out trenches and assisting in watering horses.
Returned to camp at 5PM. Received letter from Nell dated Jan 24th, Emma, Alvord and Chris ditto.

Thursday 25th February
Battery Commanders in charge of their Batteries in camp. Officers of 1st Brigade who have not previously had series did some shooting. Adjutant and myself reconnoitred country for purposes of signalling scheme laid down for 26th inst. Instruction on European maps with O.C? Received two letters from Charley and one from A.T.Sharp.

[Page 70]
Friday 26th February
Had photograph taken of Brigade Officers in the morning. Could not get guns out for photo of whole Brigade owing to painting operations. At 1 o’clock Brigade and Battery staffs also OC, BAC and details moved out to take part in signal exercise, which continued until 12 midnight.
We arrived back in camp about 1 AM, and our mess secretary had been good enough to arrange for Hot Supper for us all, and it was duly appreciated. Charley writes me that the "Australia" and "Sydney" are now with the Home fleets.
Received instructions to prepare No 3 Section B.A.C. for immediate departure to – no one knows where - The 3rd Infantry Brigade together with engineers, ASC, AMC etc and our battery and portion of Column are under orders to leave tomorrow. We do not know if they are simply going forward to a base, or whether they have a definite job on hand. Their ships are under sealed orders till they are 20 miles out at sea from Alexandria. I wish my whole Brigade had received orders to March.
New extension shields are now fitted to 8th Battery guns, and will in due course be fitted to all guns of our Division.

Saturday 27th February
Units stayed in all day after labour of previous evening. The 3rd Infantry Brigade are very busy getting ready to move, also our No 3 Section of B.A.Column. All left camp about 6 PM. Capt Waite went in with his section and saw them safely entrained. Mr McAdam had previously gone to Alexandria with an Advanced Party for him.

Sunday 28th February
Church Parade at 9.30. Presbyterian padre. Band of 12th Infantry played for us. I was wrong in stating above that Units moved out on Saturday. They left this evening at 6PM. At 5.30 I inspected our men and gave them a few words of advice and farewell. Wrote to Nell, Alvord, Charley, Chris, Emma and Father.

Monday 1st March
Batteries of 2nd Brigade did shooting. Passable in parts, good in others. Our officers and men attended and watched the shooting. Conference during afternoon re Friday’s signal scheme. Major Parker, Capt Mclennan and myself attended Pathe Freres Picture show in camp. Quite a night of dissipation.

[Page 71]
Tuesday 2nd March
The 2nd Brigade finished shooting, 3rd Brigade followed on. I succeeded in getting Colonel to allow all my remaining subalterns to shoot, so now all my officers have conducted shell practise. General Bridges was present. Moving targets generally used. One series against new B.C? protecting shield provided by Colonel. Though fire seemed very effective only one bullet hit the shield. Pow wow at conclusion of shoot. General Owen gave lecture at night on ‘The Battle of the Aisne". Very interesting.

Wednesday 3rd March
Went into Cairo in the morning re repairs to gum boots and switch fittings. Pumps completed for batteries and B.A.C. Units cleaning guns and harness. Discussed Divisional Scheme for Friday with Battery Commanders.

Thursday 4th March
Went out with Colonel and Staff to make Artillery reconnaissance of Country west of camp for Divisional exercise. I provided an officers patrol in addition. Rode my new horse, he is quite good. In the afternoon I made a reconnaissance with battery Commanders. Decided on positions for guns etc.

Friday 5th March
Units getting remainder of equipment from Ordnance. All gun shields now supplied and being fitted. At 1.30 Brigade moved out for signal exercise. Stayed out till 7.30 PM. Fired some silly blank ammunition. Returned to camp at 9 o’clock.

Saturday 6th March
Units still on remnants of equipment. Col White informed me we would all be away in six days. Hope it is true.
Inspected units this morning. So did doctor. Clean bill of health.
Our men are either improving in morals or becoming more careful.
This afternoon I climbed "Cheops". About 460 feet to top and a very solid climb. Also inspected interior. It is very uncanny. This is my first visit. Hope to get to Sakkara [Saqqara] sights tomorrow also Memphis. It means about a 20 mile ride, but unless I go tomorrow I shall probably not have another opportunity. No mails from Australia this week.

[Page 72]
Sunday 7th March
Capt Waite and Lieut Ellis left camp with me at 7.15AM to visit Sakkara and Memphis, about 3 ½ hours from Camp.
At Sakkara we inspected four tombs. Tomb of Ti, Serapeum or Tomb of the Sacred Bulls, Ptahkotep, and Mera (Mena?). We found them intensely interesting, the carvings on the walls and the effective colouring being particularly good. The book "The Tombs of Sakkara" by A.A. Quibell gives all details so I will not enter them here. After inspecting these tombs we rode on to the ruins of the Ancient City of Memphis. Very little remains to be seen here, but we saw the two Statues of the Rameses (the great and the 2nd) also a good specimen of Sphinx, and the granite ruins of an Ancient Temple, which must have been very fine in its day. We returned to Camp at 6.PM. An officer of Infantry this evening informed me my old 5" Howitzers were on the way from Australia. Just as I write a man passing my tent said something about a sycamore tree, reminding me that today we saw several fine specimens, doubtless the same species as was climbed by our old friend Zaccheus of Bible history.
Two of our officers were today detailed for Landing and Embarkation duties at Alexandria. Expect we shall soon get a move on now.

Monday 8th March
Filthy dusty day, with high wind. One of the worst we have experienced. Such days as this make us wish heartily that we could get away. Posted letters to Nell. Painting of vehicles of Brigade hung up because of dust and sand.
Wrote Gieve Matthews and Seagrave asking them to forward me regular copies of Monthly Naval List, also Army and Navy pattern Webley Scott pistol with case, lanyard etc.

Tuesday 9th March
Received letter from Nell dated Jan 26th, Chris dated Jan 28th and Arthur King dated February 8th
Went into Cairo at 10 AM this morning and returned for lunch. Busy completing Brigade equipment from Ordnance.
Col Hobbs informed me our Artillery Division would probably route March to Alexandria. I strongly supported the scheme.
We are now to wear coloured badges on each arm to distinguish our units. Our Brigade has Artillery Colours, dark blue and scarlet, with a bar of yellow in the centre. Terribly hot and

[Page 73]
trying day. Practically impossible to do any outside work.
My batman has had a big day washing my soiled linen etc, and I now have a fine prospect ahead of me to darn all my socks prior to leaving Egypt. Still no definite date laid down for departure. Major Burgess slightly improving. Criticised work of officers Patrols. The 3rd Brigade L.Horse has come into the Camp.

Thursday 11th March
Again an exceedingly hot day and filthy in the extreme. This is the 4th day continuously that we have had this weather.
Tents, food etc covered with dust and dirt. Very little work done.

Friday 12th March
Again filthy dirty and dusty day. Received invitation to dinner with the High Commissioner Sir H. McMahon.
Completed to day all equipment excepting cutting and shotting of tyres to some of BAC. G.S. Wagons. Had a long interview with Major Nicholson re Brigade Work in general. Standing orders of Army Corps (Australia & New Zealand) issued to O.C- units. Interview with major Brown re dismissal of charge "neglect of duty" laid against one of his sergeants by Mr Forrest, pointed out the seriousness of his action.

Saturday 13th March
Obtained leave for the day. Left camp at 9. With Ali Bey and his son I visited the Arab Museum also the Egyptian British Museum. Both are exceedingly interesting especially the former. Would like to spend a couple of days in the latter. Had lunch at Continental Hotel. After lunch we went to the Tombs of the Mamelukes. There is certainly some wonderful work to be seen. I also wanted to see the interior of some of the Mosques, but we were pressed for time.
Went to dinner at the British Residency at 8.15. All Australian Brigade Commanders present excepting Col Christian who for some reason was not invited. Very interesting evening. Returned to Continental Hotel at 10.30 for my coat etc. saw some naval officers and Midshipmen in the hall. I spoke to them and ascertained they had been with Charley at Dartmouth. They are serving on the "Doris". She is at present at Port Said and they had 48 hours leave. They have been shelling bridges etc in the vicinity of Alexandretta, and indications point to our going in that direction.
Major King and Hughes, Lieut Olding and Garling came home

[Page 74]
with me in a car. Lieut Asher seriously ill with Pnuemonia and Measles. No hope held out for his recovery.
Officers patrols out at work

Sunday 14th March
At last a beautiful day. Spent the morning with Officers Patrols, criticising their work of yesterday. After lunch I walked to Mena Hospital to see Lt Asher. Met Colonel (Dr) Springthorpe of Melbourne. He is attending him. Very seriously ill. He however recognised me and spoke a few words but it was apparent he had great difficulty and was in evident pain.

Monday 15th March
Brigade drill during day. First chance we have had. Major Parker took ill this morning, also Lieut Vowles. Both in same tent.

Tuesday 16th March
Brigade climbing hills, manhandling guns up and down hills. In afternoon swimming horses. Major Parker and Lieut Vowles admitted to Hospital at 2PM. At 4 PM Major Parker sank into unconsciousness, and at 10PM we were sent for as he was seriously ill. Col Springthorpe of Melbourne is attending him, but so far he has not been able to diagnose the case. Received letter from Nell dated Feby 15th also Chris and Alvord.

Wednesday 17th March

Poor old Parker remained unconscious all day and died at 10PM. Doctors diagnosed the case as Cerebro Spinal Meningitis. A very sad ending. He had not opportunity to send a word of farewell to his wife or to his brothers who are here. Vowles improving. Asher is also improving. If he recovers it will be a wonderful case. He has been unconscious for some days.

Thursday 18th March
This morning the Brigade (less 8th Battery) crossed over Pontoon bridge, Major Browne and myself completed arrangements for Major Parker’s funeral. The Adjutant selected firing party of 200 rank and file and during the morning instructed them.
Funeral moved off from Mena House Hospital at 2.30PM; the 8th Battery providing gun carriage and team. Major Brown, Burgess, Hughes,

[Page 75]
Nicholson, Mills and myself acted as Pall Bearers. The grave is in the Old Cairo Military Cemetery among soldiers, many from our Division.
Major Parker’s death has cast quite a gloom over our Brigade. His is the first loss we have so far suffered out of over 700 officers and men.
Lecture tonight by Col Hobbs regarding Tactical schemes. He paid a tribute to the late Major Parker.

Friday 19th March
Out all day on Tactical scheme. Returned to camp late in the afternoon. Very beautiful day. Most of our large tents withdrawn and only service bell tents now issued. We have again been warned to be ready to move at a moments notice.

Saturday 20th March
Readjusting our camp in consequence of alterations of pattern and number of tents. Otherwise an easy day. I had a good afternoon sleep.

Sunday 21st March
Church parade at 8.30 AM in Light Horse lines. Most officers out for the day. At 6 o’clock I went to the Pengelleys home and stayed to tea.

Monday 22nd March
During morning swam horses of 8th and 9th Batteries over canal on endless ropes. In afternoon built barrel pontoon and floated over guns and lumber. Colonel Hobbs present both morning and afternoon. At night all 3rd Brigade officers attended at Mess tent, and I read them extracts from the latest official notes from the front.

Tuesday 23rd March
Horses of 7th Battery and B.A.C. practised in Swimming Canal. All horses of the Brigade have now had the experience. Battery gun drill in 8th and 9th Batteries. Two new reinforcement officers posted to this Brigade today. (Capt Webb and Lt Thompson) also a number of men. New telephone equipment arrived, phones, switchboard, cells and other Telephone stores. Telephone Brigade cart still to come. Practised Jack and Dick on jumps today. Jack of course excellent and Dick shapes nearly as well. He is turning out an excellent charger. Received letter from Nell dated Feby 22nd and one from Alvord from Jervis Bay enclosed.

[Page 76]
Wednesday 24th March
Holiday for Brigade. Went into Cairo and arranged to get photos of General Birdwood and Staff (our Army Corps) also small groups of Artillery Divisions and 3rd Brigade officers. Had my razor blades adjusted.

Thursday 25th March
Brigade scheme all day. Practising Communications.
Major Lynch sent a car for me from Maadi so that I could assist them at their concert at night. Mrs and two Miss Pengelleys from Mena (whose uncle resides at Maadi and who has done a great deal for officers and men there) also went. I had dinner with officers of 2nd L. Horse Brigade. Col Chauvel was also present. Returned home at 10.30 PM. Ali Bey made me a present of a lady’s evening wrap in net and silver for Nell.

Friday 26th March
Divisional scheme for all Brigades. Lecture at 4.30PM. Spent the evening in getting my heavy baggage packed and ready for storage. Telephone cart arrived from England and handed over to Brigade. It is an improved pattern.

Saturday 27th March
Lecture by Gen Cunliffe Owen at 9.30AM. Very interesting accounts of early part of war. Cooperation between Artillery and Infantry forcibly illustrated. Worked on Telephone detachment and instructed them.

Sunday 28th March
Church Parade at 9AM. General Birdwood present also Staffs and Colonel Hobbs. Marched past after Service.
The worst day we have had in Egypt. Dust and sand in abundance. Stayed in the mess tent which was the only reasonably clean place.

Monday 29th March
Our troops at Mena reviewed in morning by General Sir Ian Hamilton. General Godley also present. He invited us over to Zeitoun in the afternoon to see a review of the New Zealand & Austn Division. Major Burgess, Browne and Hughes accompanied Jopp and myself.
We had lunch at the Continental and then motored out to the review. It was a great sight though the dust rather spoiled the effect.

[Page 77]
Tuesday 30th March
Brigade Scheme. Practising Communications using new Telephone cart. Very hot and trying day.

Wednesday 31st March
Parades in hands of Battery Commanders. I went into Cairo during the morning re horses and spent the afternoon with Col Hobbs. Benson prepared a most excellent panoramic sketch of country for tomorrow’s operations

Thursday 1st April
Divisional scheme. Plenty of Generals about.
Benson’s sketch much appreciated. Returned to camp at 3.15
One of my Head Quarters Signallers had a fall from his horse and fractured his collar bone.
Col Hobbs and a big party off to Luxor tonight. I wish I could go, but had better save my cash.

Friday 2nd April

At 11 last night I was sent for by Colonel Hobbs, and found we were at last under orders to embark for – somewhere.
All Brigade Commanders (or Staff) discussed details. This morning details were published of number of transports, O.Cs and troops. I have No 11 Transport (the "Cardiganshire") Lieut Clowes posted to 8th Battery. Lieut Richards from D.A.C. appointed as my Orderly Officer. I am quite satisfied with his appointment. He is a capable Officer. Arranging details re embarkation.

Saturday 3rd April

Busy all day making arrangements for embarkation.

Sunday 4th April
Again busy with embarkation returns etc. Plenty to arrange.

Monday 5th April
All arrangements complete for departure. I am due to leave Cairo station late tonight. I take over the "Cardiganshire" tomorrow as O.C. Troops. Major King’s coming with me. Tents all struck and returned by noon. Posted last letters to Nell, the three boys, Mother, John Halford, Emma and A.T. Sharp re electric torches.

[Page 78]
A most dreadful day at Mena, quite the worst we have had. Last night was particularly bad, and I was awakened about 2 AM by my tent collapsing on top of me. The guys had broken.
Egypt must surely be sending us of "full of grit".
Left Cairo at midnight. Said goodbye to Mrs Rabett, King and Sweetland.
Received letters from Nell dated Feby 28th and March 5th.

Tuesday 6th April
Arrived at Alexandria at 5.30AM, with first train. Major Hughes came next with his Battery about 2 hours later, then Capt Waite with his column. Boat was late drawing alongside so work of embarkation was not finished by nightfall. We are to continue again at 6AM tomorrow. Went into the town during the afternoon and forwarded £60 to John Halford to cover Charley’s a/c to June 30th. Alexandria full of French and British troops. The former look to us very strange in their red breeches and blue coats, and also in the new grey uniform. Their rifles are much longer than ours, also the bayonets. Alexandria is full also of transports. About 70 in all. We are beginning to feel a warlike atmosphere surrounding us and getting into our bones. Very interesting buildings in Alexandria. One has to drive largely through native quarter before reaching the town proper. Street buildings are very quaint, mostly wooden framing with brick and stone filling, upper storeys generally cantilevered over lower ones. There are some fine buildings in the town proper.

Wednesday 7th April
Loading resumed and completed. Went into Alexandria and posted keys of boxes to Nell, also letter to her.
Got a pair of warm slippers at Davies Bryan also some socks.
Capt Waite lost a horse from Colic. Major King also lost one in Cairo before entraining, through a similar cause. I shall try to replace them from remounts here. No leave allowed officers or men.

Thursday 8th April
Got balance of 18pr Ammunition aboard (24242 rounds for BAC.) The 3rd Battery completed fuzing of shells for complete battery, and the 7th Battery commenced theirs.
Obtained two horses to replace the dead. Ordered off suddenly leaving Capt Marks and Lt Urquhart on shore. Actually moved off

[Page 79]
from Quay at 3.45 PM. As soon as we were outside I opened confidential packet which proved to be Handbook of the Turkish Army. Maps proved to be of Gallipoli. We had previously imagined we were to disembark on this peninsula and it now looks as if our ideas were correct. Several ships moved out before us, and the orders for all ships are to rendezvous at Mudros Bay on South Side of Lemnos Island. A second horse belonging to BAC, died this morning.

Friday 9th April
A beautiful morning – very smooths ea and everybody in general very happy. Quite a delightful change from sandy and dirty Mena. The 7th Battery completed fuzing of Shell. B.A.C. now busy on their Shell. Two guns of 7th Battery taken down during the day and thoroughly cleaned. Plenty of Mena sand removed. Others will be done tomorrow. S.A.A distributed to Units. Pistol Ammunition to Officers. Inspection with Capt at 10.30 AM. Boat generally very comfortable. Passages between horse stalls very narrow thus rather hindering work of men. About sundown we passed between Rhodes and Karpathos Islands. Captain has instructions to keep clear of Asia Minor Coast. We expect to reach Mudros Bay about 4PM tomorrow and sincerely hope we shall not have long to remain their before moving off to our destination. The horses will be our first consideration.
Ships Surgeon is attending to all sick, fortunately very few and minor cases.

Saturday 10th April
Another very beautiful day. Temperature quite mild. We were told to expect cold weather. When I got up this morning we were abrEast the island of Skyros. At 1 o’clock boat stations were sounded and checking of rolls proved everybody in their place
Inspected ship at 10.30 AM with Captain. Very satisfactory. Arrived off Mudros Bay at 4.30PM, entered at 5 PM with troops dressing ship.
Torpedo boats were guarding entrance to Bay. A boom is stretched right across the entrance, excepting a narrow way in for ships in the middle of boom. Many man o wars and Transports inside. As we anchored for the night just inside the boom we were unable to distinguish ships, excepting perhaps the 5 funnelled Russian Man O War "Askold".
We expect to move in early tomorrow morning, and I presume other Transports will also be coming from Alexandria. We are all sincerely hoping we shall not stay long here, but get off to our field of operations wherever it May be. B.A.C. completed storing of 18pr shells in wagons and Gd. Wagons. Small arm ammunition also issued to all ranks.

[Page 80]
Sunday 11th April
I hardly realise it is Sunday. One loses count of the days. Two Transports came in past us early this morning and we then moved in. We passed several Man O’ War, the leading one being the "Queen Elizabeth", and anchored inside the bay among a large number of Transports, more coming in during the day. Country around looks very pretty. Fairly high hills, nicely grassed but very few trees, and these only about the size of fruit terees. The town of Mudros itself is hidden from our view as we lie at anchor.
Among the warships in the Harbour are the "Queen Elizabeth", "Cornwallis", Lord Nelson", ‘Queen", beside other British ships the names of which we could not discern. One cruiser undergoing repairs seemed to have had a gruelling. A number of French ships, whose names I could not ascertain, were also at anchor, together with the Russian cruiser "Askold" which we first saw in Colombo and again at Port said. Besides these there are torpedo boats, Destroyers (I think the "River class) submarines and Repair ships as well as parent Hydroplane Ship, the "Royal Ark". This afternoon a big Hydroplane has been circling around and above us. The sight here is very similar to what we saw at Albany, with the added interest of the Men O Fight and Hydroplanes etc. We sent off a big mail today, probably our last for some time. It is no joke censoring a ships mail of 500 odd men, and I shall want to curtail correspondence somewhat. Balance of our Eastern mail was delivered to us this afternoon. Nothing for me. At 4 O’clock a staff officer came off from Gen Hamilton’s flagship the "Arcadian" and invited me to go for a trip tomorrow on the "Queen Elizabeth" to the proposed place of landing at Gallipoli peninsula. All Brigade Commanders and higher are invited. A launch is to pick us up early in the morning and the "Queen Elizabeth" goes out at 8.30, returning about the same hour at night. As the journey is about 50 miles we anticipate we shall have about four hours there. The opportunity to examine this latest engine of war I much appreciate.

Monday 12th April
Today is probably the commencement of most unique and interesting experience for me. About 7AM a pinnace from the "Queen Elizabeth" took us off with other officers, and about 8.30 she moved away from her mooring. Gen Sir Ian Hamilton was aboard together with three other Generals of his Staff whom as yet I do not know, our three Infantry Brigadiers with their staffs and sundry other O.C.s. I was the only Artillery

[Page 81]
officer present, Col Hobbs, Christian and Johnstone not having yet arrived in Port. The first impression my mind and vision received of this monster Battleship was one of awe. A description of her as far as I am able I will note later.
Just after leaving "prayers" were said in which we all joined, and it appears a nice feature of naval life that the sailor who does not know whether today shall be his last or not, has at all events opportunity given him to place himself under the care of the Almighty. After service all the men ran round and round the deck at a smart double to the accompaniment of bright lively tunes from the Ships band. This continued for 5 minutes, and on a blast from a bugle the whole crowd halted and instantly commenced doubling in the opposite direction as if to unwind their previous movement. At the end of the second 5 minutes the same procedure took place again, giving in all 15 minutes smart doubling, the middies accompanying the men. There followed a few minutes physical exercise prior to dismissal to their various duties.
They look a fine hefty lot of men.
We had not proceeded very far before speed was increased and soon we were dashing through the water at 25 knots. The ship was like a rock, no movement, but the wash astern was tremendous. One sea came on the after deck and gave some of our officers as well as naval officers a wetting.
We have passed two French submarines the "Le Voisier" and "Coulumb", both very queer looking craft. In passing I May mention I was today told that our A.E.2 is due here from Malta in a day or two and is to do duty here. As we neared the Dardanelles we saw three rather fine looking battleships, and when passing about 500 yd from them I enquired their names. I was informed they were merchant service ships, rigged as dummies; funnels, guns, wireless gear, fighting tops etc. They are evidently serving a very useful purpose in "bluffing" the Turks.
When we came off the entrance to the Dardanelles course was set up the West Coast of the Gallipoli peninsula at a distance of probably six or seven thousand yards from the shore. Just about this time a Destroyer of the "Beagle" class (a later class from Australian "River" type) joined us and convoyed us round till the time for leaving in the afternoon.
As we were coming up to the entrance we could see on our left at some distance the fleet of Men O’ War standing by, and actually at the entrance three Men O’ War and a Destroyer. Two of the Men O’ War were "proping off" in the direction of Troy, searching for Field Howitzers and incidentally practising communication by wireless from Aircraft working in conjunction with them and "spotting" their shooting for them. We could see the flashes of discharge at the ships side, and bursts of shell on main land.

[Page 82]
The third Man O’ War was the "Swiftsure" and the Admiral of the "Queen Elizabeth" (Vice Admiral de Roebeck) told me she would be shooting later in the day. We followed up the Coast as far as "Suvla Bay" and "Cape Suvla", then turned and came back, but this time much nearer the coast, being I estimated between three and four thousand yards off shore. We were asked not to show ourselves but to remain under cover, which we did. On the run back along this coast the engines were reversed (to test some work recently completed) and for a little time we travelled stern first. At this juncture 4 shots were fired at us presumably from 6" guns ashore. The shells hit the water with a big splash some hundreds of yards in front of us. I made rough sketches of the Country in outline as seen from the ship, and there appeared to me to be quite a number of suitable landing places, but "Suvla Bay" appears to be the best spot, and from my observations of today I hope the Artillery will be directed to this Bay. The Country looks very well. Green sward intermingled with scrub, and altogether it looks quite good country to work in. The High land in vicinity of Trig Station 706 at narrowest part of Peninsula is apparently strongly held, any number of trenches being visible. They May be dummies, but at all events they are sited on a very commanding height.
We crossed the entrance to Dardanelles from North to South, then steamed for some distance along the coast on the Asia Minor side. Here again I made some more outline sketches. The large village of "Yeni Shehr" had been heavily bombarded and certainly showed the result in the ruined condition of its buildings.
Passing further south we saw a big group of Man o’ War. (I should say about 50 of all classes and nationalities) at anchor under the lee of Tenedos island. Then we headed for home and reached the moorings in Mudros Bay at 6PM.
The officers on the ship were particularly kind to us, and went to no end of trouble to explain everything possible. We all had an opportunity of examining the mechanism of the wonderful 15" guns and saw them loaded. The whole process only takes about a minute. We saw the record of rounds fired by one forward 15". The Gun Layer had marked in pencil on the inside of the Turrett "Angry Rounds"
March 3rd ???????? 11 Kilidbakr
March 18th ???????? 32 Chanak
I do not know how many rounds the others fired. Shrapnel for 15" is carried on board. One can hardly imagine the scatter of bullets from one round if nicely burst in air. The eight 15" guns constitute

[Page 83]
the main armament, and in addition there are a number of 6" and Anti Submarine and Aircraft guns. Eight torpedoes are carried aft with two tubes, and I understand the same forward.
Ship is driven by turbines, with oil fuel. Engine and boiler rooms spotlessly clean. The "Queen Elizabeth" has in all been hit 15 times, chiefly with Field Howitzers, doing practically no damage except to wooden decking. One shell about 2/3 the size of our 18pr entered the side of Ward room, then burst, the bullets scoring the top of the heavy Cedar tables and spattered in inside partition, the case going through. In making its entry the shell cut a piece out of the ship’s side, about 10" long and about 6" wide. These trophies have been mounted. The shell on a board, the fragments of ships side as a gong, and the gunmetal fuze from the shell fitted to an ebony handle and used as a striker for the gong. Luckily no one was present in the Ward room when the visitor called. Altogether the day was most interesting and instructive.
When I finished dinner I reported to Col Hobbs (who had arrived in Port during the day) and was informed I am to go up again tomorrow in the "Queen", also a fine Man o’ War, and I am given to understand that I shall in all probability have the honour of directing the first Field Artillery to commence Land operations.
On Colonel Hobbs ship I met a brother of Major Macksworth. He also is a major and belongs to the Flying Corps. He is to assist the navy by "Spotting".

Tuesday 13th April
Landing parties working all day practising. At 2.30 PM I reported to the "Minnewarka", thence proceeded by launch to H.M.S. "Queen". Here were assembled the senior officers of the previous day’s excursion, with some others and Generals Birdwood and Bridges. The idea is to get in close to Gallipoli Peninsula and thoroughly examine the Coast line with a view to possible landing places.
The Admiral (Admiral Thursby) gave us during the afternoon an account of the navy operations up to date and outlined the proposed Combined action of Navy and Army. General Birdwood also spoke to us and informed us that the 29th Division, a French Division and the Royal naval Division were to cooperate with us. Details are confidential, but I think my memory will not fail me when the time comes to recount our movements. The undertaking is a colossal one, and is unique in the World’s History. We had all brought our blankets etc and made beds for ourselves in various odd places.

[Page 84]
At daylight we were w ell into the Gulf of Saros, and steamed slowly down close to the shore, past Cape Suvla and down to Cape Helles. My previous opinion of the Coast and Country is confirmed, and I think the job we are called upon to tackle can be carried out successfully by our Australian troops.
After crossing the Entrance to the Dardanelles we steamed over to Tenedos. Here Major Villiers Stewart was landed. We saw the combined fleet at anchor, the little village with its tile roofs and the Venetian castle in the foreground. We steamed round the island, testing a special trailer shell for use against aircraft as we went along.
Returned to anchorage at Mudros at 4 PM. Altogether an exceedingly interesting trip.
Detailed Mr Vowles from the Brigade to report to Head quarters at 9 AM today for duty as forward observing officer for Navy shooting.
Landing from Transports being practised all day.
I hope to secure charts of all this part of the world, so that on my return, I shall be in a better position to describe to others my movements.

Thursday 15th April
Boat crews operating all day. I went out with a party at 9.30 for Mudros Village. Passed a "tow" consisting of horses and guns from 8th Battery who were landing. They are I understand to be first ashore when business begins. Mudros Village is a very quaint place, and apparently very old. I walked through the village, thence along a road for 3 miles round the shore where our Artillery and Infantry were practising landings, from which spot my boat picked me up.
The country is fairly extensively cultivated, wheat and oat crops about 12" high and look extremely pretty, for millions of scarlet Shirley poppies and a small variety of blue pea are scattered all over the fields.
On the hillsides numerous mills are to be seen. Built of rubble masonry about 20’ in diameter and about 25 feet high, they are fitted with a huge frame, carrying sails, which are set whenever the wind blows or there is grain to grind. These frames activate a crank shaft which in turn operates mill stones. They look very quaint indeed.
I passed several small flocks of sheep, each with its shepherdess and the proverbial crooked stick. Sheep appear almost like small Angora goats with their long silly coats, and every second sheep carries a bell, so that in approaching a flock of sheep one hears a strange musical effect.

[Page 85]
There are several villages around the shores of the bay. I should like to get inland and look at the Capital. The Harbour is very lively today. More Transports have come in, and naval pinnaces are all over the place, towing boat loads of soldiers. I should dearly love for Charley to be transferred to this station. I could then hope to see something of him. I think I shall try the Admiral.

Friday 16th April

Today has been spent in practising landing, etc. First the 7th Battery disembarked 12 horses by means of ships into a punt, then gun and lumber and 2 wagons and limbers into another punt. These were towed ashore by naval pinnace, horses and vehicles put ashore and afterwards reloaded on to Punts, returned to ships and reslung into hatches. After lunch the 3rd Battery did similar work, and the 3rd BAC also, so that now with the exception of Major Burgess’ battery each unit of my Brigade has had experience of landing work. Colonel Hobbs informed me today that I am to temporarily command the Batteries on this Ship, and that my batteries and Col Johnstone’s batteries are to be landed simultaneously. If we cannot beat him and ensure that the 7th Battery fires first shot I shall be disappointed. All work today most efficiently carried out and without accident, except for one man who fell off a punt and thoroughly enjoyed his swim to the gangway.
I have much admired the Middys’ today handling their picket boats like old salts.

Saturday 17th April
Went ashore this morning with boats crew to Mudros Village. Major King and Capt Rigall accompanied me. We roamed through the village, had a good look at French troops and the quaint streets, houses and people of the Village. Major King took some photographs. We then walked round through the fields to where landing was taking place. We all picked some poppies and daisies to enclose in our last home letters. We had a look through one of the many mills in this island. They do their work exceedingly well. We saw the Mountain Batteries of the 29th Division coming ashore and after seeing their work I am convinced our Field batteries can "run rings" round them and could come into action in many minutes less than these folk appear to do. The Contrast was very marked today. Our ship has today handed over six life boats to the "Suffolk". She was evidently short and we had more than we required. Quite a sensation

[Page 86]
was caused here by news received today. A Turkish Torpedo boat which evidently came out from Smirna intercepted the Transport "Manitou" from Alexandria, ordered her troops and crew to take to boats prior to being sunk. About 60 troops and crew crowded into a lifeboat, but the davits collapsed and precipitated the occupants of the boat into the water. In the meantime the Torpedo boat had sighted Transport "Osiris" also from Alexandria, and steamed off to treat her in like manner. Her captain however managed to escape, and in the excitement the first steamer also escaped. Both arrived here today. I understand the 60 men were drowned, but whether as a result of the accident or because in steaming away to save the rest they had to be sacrificed I do not know.
We hear that in all probability we shall be moving to our goal on Monday. I have been carefully marking on my maps position of enemy’s guns and trenches as discovered by Aeroplane Reconnaissance, and after afternoon tea I lectured to the Officers in the Saloon, showing them what they were up against. Received letter from Charley.

Sunday 18th April
An easy day. Some boat loads of men went ashore, several officers with them. Corporal Hare conducted Service in the evening. A very good muster including ships officers and an excellent address. Saw Colonel Hobbs and General Birdwood on the "Minnewarka" during the afternoon. Received letter from Alvord.

Monday 19th April
Very useful work done today. Several punt loads of Horses went ashore (72 Horses in all including Jack & Dick). They had a good swim and roll, also a feed of splendid clover. All transhipping done without hitch or accident. Major Hughes moved a Section to forward hold so as to admit of both holds working vehicles and horses simultaneously. Attended conference on "Minnewarka" at 4.30 PM. Operation Order No 1 issued and carefully considered. Further conference of Brigade Commanders arranged for Wednesday morning. Combined naval and Military Signal book issued with Amendments and Additions. The following British ships (exclusive of submarines, Torpedo boats and Destroyers) are to cooperate in attack: - "Queen Elizabeth", "Agamemnon", "Lord Nelson", "Vengeance", "Triumph", "Prince of Wales", "Albion", "Goliath", "Blenheim", "Hussar", "Ark Royal", "Swiftsure", "Cornwallis", "Canopus", "Implacable", "London", "Queen",

[Page 87]
"Prince George", "Majestic", "Inflexible", "Dartmouth", "Dublin", "Talbot", "Doris", "Minerva", "Sapphire", "Amethyst", "Euryalus", "Bacchante", "Adamant". Quite a substantial list, and one capable of giving the Turk something to remember. Dined on the "Minnewarka", and afterwards had conference with Colonel Hobbs.

Tuesday 20th April
Conference of my Battery Commanders at 10AM. Carefully went through all Orders and instructions with them. Very blowy day, no work possible outside ship. Wrote letters, probably the last for some time, to Charley, Alvord, Chris, Father & Mother and Nell.

Wednesday 21st April
Very rough this morning. Conference on "Minnewarka" at 9 AM. C.O.s did not reach there till 10. I had an exciting row across in one of our ship boats. The Admiral as well as General Birdwood and Bridges addressed us, and went carefully into the details of our landing. The 3rd Infantry Brigade which is to be the covering force is to land about 4 AM. And carry the position at the point of the bayonet. The main body expects to be disembarked by 8.30, and then my ship is the first to discharge Artillery. If we have anything like luck my Brigade will fire the first Australian Angry Field Artillery round. The 7th Battery is up against it, and I am looking to them to do well. We have received our sailing instructions today, which show that we are to be in our Berth for discharge on the Gallipoli Peninsula Coast near Gaba Tepe at 8.30 AM on Friday 23rd inst.
Later instructions came this afternoon, notifying a postponement of operations till Saturday 24th inst. This is on account of the rough weather, but as sea and wind have now gone down the Admiral May tomorrow revert to his original intention. We are all impatient to be at it. Everybody getting packing done for shore work, and rations for men and horses issued.

Thursday 22nd April
Still lying at anchor. One of our Transports stuck on the mud in the Bay, and so far they have been unable to pull her off. Chief Engineer and Third Officer today took photographs of officers grouped on Bridge deck. They have turned out very well. Received letter from Chris. Replied at once to him and enclosed photo of self and two officers in Goat Skin Coats, also picture of "Queen Elizabeth". Capt Jopp and orderly reported to "Minnewarka" at 12 noon for duty with Colonel Hobbs as

[Page 88]
Forward Observing Officers. Party of A.B. Seaman, Petty Officer and Chief Gunner reported to me today from H.M.S. Bacchante for working of Horse boats. Detailed information from Lord Kitchener to Gen Sir Ian Hamilton re victory in Mesopotamia. Turks fought bravely and had to be turned out of their positions at the point of the Bayonet.
Quite a large Australian mail arrived today, everybody delighted. Captain has just given permission for 1st and 2nd Officers of this ship with crews to work launches when towing horse and gun boats ashore. We want to "bag" them to work our ship if possible, for we want to work against time and land on Batteries first. We want, or rather, I want to ensure one of my batteries firing the first shot from Field Artillery. Troop ship just entered the Harbour and passed us, carrying troops wearing a red Tarbouch. They look very much like Egyptian troops.

Friday 23rd April
Chief Officer secured a Tug yesterday and was appointed her Skipper to assist in towing troops ashore at Gallipoli Peninsula. The Second Officer is with him also to act as relief Skipper, and a crew of firemen etc also went from this ship. The chief went off this morning at &AM. Standing on his bridge giving orders he was as proud as a peacock and as "happy as Larry". We left our anchorage a few minutes after 4, and steamed to an anchorage in the outer harbour outside the boom.
We lined troops on deck and saluted Men O’ War as we passed down between them and the Transports. The sight this evening was really beautiful, a glassy sea, several Transports anchored and others moving into anchorages in the outer Harbour, some Transports moving out to sea towing horse boats etc, escorted by three Men O’ War, British, French and Russian, Torpedo destroyers and Submarines and no end of Transports, and then just to make the picture complete a fine large waterplane manoeuvred over us in the setting sun. As darkness fell, a large Hospital ship lying outside turned on her lights. All her ports are screwed with [indecipherable] glass, and a large Red Cross device in red lamps is emblazoned on her side. The reflection in the water is very pretty. Then to finish off the whole scene the search lights on shore lit up the entrance to the Bay where booms are stretched across. Ahead of us out to sea are Destroyers and Torpedo boats also a couple of Men O’ War acting as sentries over us. I don’t know when I have seen a finer sight. I should say

[Page 89]
there were about 150 craft of all kinds, Men O’ War and Transports.
We saw an amusing incident this afternoon. As the three above mentioned Men O’ War headed by the Flagship were proceeding line ahead, the second ship crossed over very close in front of the bows of a moving Transport.
As the ship passed us we noticed Signals flashing from the Flag Ship Search lights and I read the following message. "You should not have crossed the bows of the Transport in the narrows. It was unnecessary and unseamanlike". So someone got a wigging for the manoeuvre.
The Attack on Gallipoli Peninsula is timed for Sunday morning, and we are to remain at Anchor here tomorrow and leave about 1 AM on Saturday night arriving off the Gallipoli coast in time to commence our disembarkation about 8.30 AM. We shall spend tomorrow in overhauling all our equipment seeing that everything is secure and ready for transhipment to Horse and gunboats. Posted my last letter to Nell and Chris and a card to Alvord.

Saturday 24th April
At Anchor in Outer Harbour. Early in the morning Transports and Men O’ war commenced to move out from Mudros Bay. The most impressive sight was between two and three o’clock. At 2PM the "Queen Elizabeth" steamed out flying the Flag of Vice Admiral De Roebeck. Then followed the "Queen" flying the flag of Rear Admiral Thursby, who is in charge of the Fleet actually assisting our Army Corps, then five other ships including the "Triumph", "Majestic" and "Bacchante", who are all covering our landing. Then following came seven Destroyers, 3 of the Beagle Class, and 4 of older pattern. They made a very fine show. Two Hospital Ships came in today making 5 in all of a total capacity of 2500 beds. Evidently serious casualties are expected.
At 4.30 this afternoon I addressed all troops on board and wished them well in the ensuing operations. After dinner tonight a church service was conducted by a leading Seaman of the Navy (who is on board with some details for handling Horse and Gun boats) and Corporal Hare.
Corporal Hare in particular gave a very fine address. It did one good to hear the men singing "Nearer my God to Thee", "Stand up, Stand up for Jesus", "God be with you till we meet again", "God Save the King" and "Auld Lang Syne". The air tonight seems electrical. Everybody is in splendid spirit and ready for tomorrow’s momentous happenings.
We leave here during the night and by daylight should be off the Gallipoli coast, and, we hope, watching the landing of our Second Brigade Infantry, the First (3rd) Brigade being landed by daylight.

[Page 90]
We shall all endeavour to get a good night’s rest. Goodness knows when we will get our next, perhaps it May be a very long night for some of us. We can only do our best, and I am sure everybody will do that. I wonder whether there will be any further entries in this Diary.

May 1st 1915

After some days’ fighting I now have an opportunity to post up my Diary, but events have crowded upon us so fast that I am sure I shall not be able to record half of what I know would be intensely interesting could I remember.

Sunday 25th April
Went up on Captain’s Bridge at 1.15AM, left Mudros at 1.25 AM. I turned out at 5.15AM and heard the heavy booming of guns. The much looked for attack on Gallipoli Peninsula had at last commenced and our turn to fight has come. We watched the Bombardment at Cape Helles till 8.30, and what an Inferno it seemed. Ships belching out flame and loud report, and shell bursting on land with a terrific detonation. Then we steamed into our allotted position beside HMS "Queen" for anchorage opposite Gaba Tepe point. We could see our fellows scaling the hill sides, and at intervals saw groups doubling through a Wheat Field on the extreme right flank, and getting up on to the sky line of the ridges. Shrapnel was bursting over them, but these particular men seemed to have a charmed life and all seemed to escape bullets. The stretch of water between the ships and the shore, through which all boats carrying troops had to pass, and also boats bringing wounded back to the Hospital ships was literally bespattered with Shrapnel, apparently from guns located at Gaba Tepe, from which position they could enfilade the beaches.
At 9.30, 6" guns opened fire on the Transports which were anchored. The first four shells, apparently ranging rounds, fell about 500 yards from our ship. Our fellows let out a derisive cheer, but soon became subdued and a little more concerned. Three single rounds were next fired, falling much nearer to us, then two salvos of three each. On shell fell under our bow, 20 yards away, while two groups of three fell about 10 yards on either side of the ship, and one shell fell 5 yards from a Torpedo boat. Our men now began to realise that being shelled while the ship was stationery, and being unable to answer back, was no joke. Luckily no damage was done but we "upanchored" and steamed out at 10.15 keeping under weigh till 12 noon. All the time we were impatiently waiting a signal from the

[Page 91]
"Queen" to take up our Anchorage again. Mean while HMS "Triumph" and "Bacchante" carried on a rigorous bombardment of Gaba Tepe in an endeavour to stop the guns that were shelling the beach and landing parties. A little before 1 Pm we received the Signal to move into our allotted Anchorage. I did not wait for the naval boats to come alongside, but after issuing the necessary instructions to the battery Commander concerning the landing of their guns, I disembarked in a ship’s boat manned by a volunteer crew from our 3rd Brigade Ammunition Column, who were for the present to remain on the Ship. I took 18 men of my Head Quarters staff, my medical Officer (Capt Marks) and my orderly officer (Lieut Richards). The Adjutant had gone ashore earlier with Col Hobbs. Shrapnel fell round us on the journey to the shore, but no one was hit. One of the boat party however on returning to the ship was caught by a shrapnel bullet, hitting him in the mouth and passing down his chest. The wound is not considered very serious.
Immediately on landing I instructed my party to secure a sheltered position under the cliffs, while I reported to Col Hobbs, and was informed the General had decided no Artillery was to land during the day. I was very much upset over this decision for I was hoping to get our guns into position today. Col White then commandeered me, gave me an officer as Adjutant, and instructed me to collect all Infantry stragglers, (many of whom were coming back to the beach from the firing line assisting wounded comrades) form them up and get them to the Right Flank. I met Colonel Lee of the 9th Battalion, who was in a terrible state of mind and assured me his Battalion had been practically wiped out. I gathered together all the Infantry I could find who were unwounded, and used them to unload ammunition for use of firing line and to carry same up. The Indian mountain guns just above me on the hills were pounding away in great style, but I hear have suffered many casualties.
In view of the Generals’ decision that no guns should come ashore today instructions were sent to Col Johnstone of 2nd Bde, and Major Hughes of my Brigade to defer disembarkation. Col Johnstone was however under weigh with one gun, so he was allowed to land, and got his gun into action close to the beach, against guns at Gaba Tepe, and he undoubtedly temporarily silenced them.
At 5 PM I informed Col White I had carried out the task allotted to me in gathering up Infantry, and then proceeded to thoroughly reconnoitre the Right Flank position which seemed a naturally strong position, and one which I had carefully studied from the Ship while waiting to disembark. At this time there was plenty of shrapnel and rifle bullets flying round

[Page 92]
and also, many dead men. It was generally a very hot time. I shall never forget the sight of hundreds of wounded, in all sorts of conditions, lying on stretchers on the beach, awaiting to be taken off to the Hospital Ships. The actual details of the landing of the 3rd Brigade Covering Force I know little about, but the information concerning that will doubtless be made public in detail.
The first reconnaissance was a weird and fascinating experience. My trusty Bligh accompanied me all round. We traversed deep ravines, and climbed steep cliffs, carrying nothing but a Sam Browne belt, and a stick, yet I had a hard job to negotiate the hills. How our fellows ever fought their way over these ravines and cliffs will ever remain a mystery to me. Their tracks were marked by discarded packs, picks, shovels and equipment generally. They found it necessary to travel "light", with their rifle and bayonet only. Their tracks too were sadly marked by dead and wounded casualties. The Stretcher bearers did marvellous and glorious work. The Beaches at the time were a mass of Staff officers, stores, wounded, fresh troops etc. I wish I had a photograph of this scene as I saw it.
I returned to Head Quarters just before dark, and told Col Hobbs what I had done, and that I could find suitable places for batteries. Both the Col and Major Anderson questioned the possibility of doing what I said I could do, they having according to their own statement previously been over the ground. In discussing the matter fully I ascertained they had not been within a mile of the line I had reconnoitred. I again carefully tramped over the ground, Bligh accompanying me, and later reported to Col Hobbs and General Bridges that I could use Artillery effectively on extreme Right Flank. The General agreed to let me have two Batteries but afterwards altered to 2 guns, and then cancelled altogether. I had in my reconnaissance conferred with Col Onslow Thompson, Colonel Garside and Col Bolton as to enemy’s position, and they were delighted when I informed them I was to bring up Artillery. We had waited on the beach all night for the two guns to be landed and did not know till 5.30AM that arrangements had been cancelled. No sleep the first night. If I had had a chance I am sure I could not have slept under the conditions.
My Head Quarters men worked like Trojans making a roadway up to the Green [wheat] Field I have previously referred to, and very excellent work they did. Towards morning drizzling rain began to fall, and in addition the air was very cold, so our first night at Gallipoli was not too pleasant.

[Page 93]
Monday 26th April
Early in the morning 1 gun of 1st Battery under Major Sweetland and 1 gun of 4th Battery under Lieut Siddall came into action on the extreme right of ridge (Low Scrub Hill) overlooking Gaba Tepe. The 4th Battery did excellent work all day against Infantry targets ranging from very close ranges to about 1000 yards. Lt Irwin did good work with 1st Battery gun, but the Major in charge proved a great disappointment, but I do not want to say more here. Later in the morning 4 guns and wagons of 7th Battery came ashore and I at once ordered two of that Battery’s guns into position, making a complete Composite Battery. There also came ashore 2 guns of 3rd Battery and 4 guns of 8th Battery. These latter had evidently come ashore in error and were ordered back to their Ships by Col Hobbs. I also, later in the afternoon, ordered back 1st Battery and 4th Battery guns, replacing them with the remaining two guns of 7th Battery, thus having this Battery complete on the position. The Infantry was very happy to see Artillery. Our position was absolutely in the Infantry trenches and on the sky line and of course there was no Infantry in front of our guns. It would have been quite useless to come into action behind the Infantry as then in order to clear the crest we should have had to fire at nothing less than 3000 yards, and our chief targets were from 500 to 1000 yards. The day was very exciting, and our shooting was a marked contrast to Practice camp work where every round is husbanded most carefully. Each gun fired during the day about 400 rounds. All our officers and men stood up to the ordeal splendidly. Got our Telephone communications established with Head Quarters. I was with my orderly Bligh lying down on the crest in a small hole which is later to become my Head Quarters when an Infantryman came rushing over to me bringing a message from Brigadier McKay. Just as he reached within a few yards of me he fell mortally wounded with a rifle bullet. The next instant my two linesman who were completing the laying of telephone cable came to the spot with their heavy reel, and hearing bullets singing past, they made one leap into my hiding place, and with their reel fell in a heap on top of me – and they weren’t very light either.
We spent the night entrenching. Beautiful sight, Search lights and big fleet of Transports and Men O’ War making an ensemble that will never be effaced from the memory of those who were privileged to see it. On the one side Peace – on the other rifle, machine gun and artillery fire.
The fleet bombarded the enemy’s position during the evening. Quiet night. I am in a strong position, though a tactically unsound one, my guns being actually in the Infantry firing line. Colonel Hobbs this evening seemed much affected, and expressed his sincere thanks for my assistance.

[Page 94]
Tuesday 27th April
I have assisted Major Hughes throughout the night with his different guns as well as yesterday and nobody has had any sleep. At 3.30 AM while I was controlling one of the guns we received word that the enemy were massing in a piece of scrub land about 5 acres in extent. I immediately opened fire and thoroughly searched this area using in all 36 rounds of shrapnel. We heard yells and cries of "Allah" and we know we got into a nest of Turks preparing for a morning attack. These rounds drew fire from the Dardanelles, in the vicinity of Fort 32, but whether from forts or ships we could not ascertain. Twelve rounds were fired, apparently 6" or 8". Six rounds fell among the Transports but no damage was done. We have had a fairly quiet day, both sides digging hard. We engaged Infantry several times successfully. Fairly quiet night. Both Infantry in the trenches and gunners ready for any attack. Turks attacked twice but were repulsed. We used shrapnel effectively, sometimes at Zero. Plenty of dead Turks lying in the Field immediately to our left front, some being no more than 25 yards from our Infantry line. I am informed that among our killed are Colonel MacLaurin and his Brigade major, Major Irvine, also Col Clarke and Col Onslow Thompson. The fleet again bombarded. Our Brigade Ammunition Column has been and is doing excellent work in supplying ammunition by hand to the guns. They have about half a mile to carry it, and in that half mile rise 400 feet, and at the same time have to cross a bullet swept area.

Wednesday 28th April
Searched gullies again just at dawn and got a good few Turks. Steady shelling all day. Repeating previous days’ work. Twice during the night shelled massing Infantry. We have fired about 1800 rounds to date. In view of our peculiar position, having 187° of open country to watch, I have an officer fighting each gun singly, so that fire can be directed on any point at a second’s notice.
This is giving splendid experience to No 1 and section Commanders.

Thursday 29th April
Fairly steady day. "Bacchante" shelled trenches on contour 400 and did excellent shooting. Enemy preparing trenches against Left flank. Heavy cannonade of enemy’s artillery about 5.30 PM. The navy at once responded. Enemy’s battery of six field guns (about 14 ½ pr) seems to be getting plenty of shrapnel. As yet we have been unable to

[Page 95]
locate it. Adjutant taken to assist General Cunliffe Owen.
Col Hobbs and Col Christian came up this afternoon to our position. As the Turks came along Contour 400 in good number, we were able to give them an afternoon’s experience of unique character. Col Christian had a few shots with a rifle and affirms he laid out a couple of Turks. All our people very exhausted. I have had no sleep since landing. Have arranged for portion of 8th and 9th Battery personnel to take a few days on 7th Battery guns, partly to relieve the 7th personnel and partly to give them experience.

Friday 30th April
Comparatively quiet morning. Col MacLagan with 3rd Infantry Brigade relieved troops on this flank. Generals Birdwood, bridges and Walker with me inspecting position and discussing situation. This afternoon enemy again came along Contour 400 in fairly large numbers. We opened fire using about 80 rounds, getting good effect. A 6" gun opened fire on us about 5 o’clock from our Right Flank. Capt Leslie engaged it with time shrapnel, also HMS "London" but latter would not correct line. Enemy fired 4 rounds and then ceased. We had a fairly quiet night.
The casualties to date in our Brigade areas follows:-
April 25th - Fitter Legeant - 3rd B.A.C. - Shrapnel bullet through mouth.
April 26th - Gunner Eagle - 7th Battery - Bullet through leg.
April 27th -Sergt Braithwaite - 7th Battery - Bullet through left shoulder.
April 27th - Corporal Bliss - 7th Battery - Bullet over shoulder blade.
April 28th - Gunner Coleman - 3rd B.A.C. - Bullet through left thigh
April 30th -Sergt Day - 8th Battery - Bullet through right thigh.
April 30th -Gr Steglitz - 7th Battery - Bullet through thigh.
April 30th - Fitter Price - 7th Battery - Bullet graze at eye.

Saturday 1st May
A quiet night. One attack only, and only once did we Loose off guns. During the day the enemy were observed removing equipment from their dead. In cases where we could locate a number the guns spoke. Major Bergen’s gun located and destroyed two machine gun sand bagged emplacements. Capt Rogers gun located transport and shelled it. The 6" gun on our Right Flank again began talking, also another gun from a position further north. Their observer audaciously came up on the sky line and in consequence got a shell from Rogers. They appear to shift their guns at night. Major Browne brought a section ashore ready for a forward movement tomorrow. It has been bad luck that the balance of guns of my Brigade have up till now not been allowed to land.

[Page 96]
Sunday 2nd May
Just a week ashore. Time does fly along. An advance intended for tomorrow. This will give us a first class position for Artillery observation. The 6" gun again opened on us this morning but from a new position. We have not yet located it. Major Burgess this morning took on Artillery coming into action, and Lieut Crisp machine guns in action. As I write bullets are "pinging" over our "dugout". We are really very comfortable at our Head Quarters. We have one "dugout" as our office, which contains all our Telephone Service. Connected close to it we have a general living room about 9’ x 9’ and about 6 feet deep, covered with sandbags and earth. In one wall we have three wooden ammunition boxes, built in to hold our rations, glasses, revolvers and any other small articles of Kit.
On this ridge a number of small pine trees are growing, and Bligh has covered the floor with a thick layer of young branches, so we quite imagine from the smell we might be in the heart of a pine Forest. We are safe here from shrapnel fire, but of course not from heavy shell or high explosive shell. I had my first shave this morning since leaving the ship, also my first really good wash and a change of underlinen. They sent off my dressing case from the ship, for when we landed last Sunday we brought nothing except a bed and what we stood up in.
Today has been generally quiet. We dug alternative emplacements for our guns so that we can withdraw them if necessary. They will be properly sandbagged tomorrow. Position selected on Hill to my left for Major Browne to bring one gun into action. Engineers and Infantry prepared roadway and assisted our gunners to drag up the first gun and limber. Then I made arrangements for a second gun of 8th Battery. The getting of the second gun into position was much delayed because one of the enemy’s 4 gun batteries opened rapid shrapnel fire on the beach and kept everybody under cover for some time. As far as I know no casualties were reported. I expect this gun will get into action tonight and I have supplied the section with 600 rounds shrapnel just "to go on with". Our 3rd Brigade is doing admirably and I am exceedingly proud of my Command. I only hope I May be spared to lead it till the end of the war.
While I was busy on the phone tonight growling at the Staff Captain because he had not secured us 500 sandbags for entrenching as promised, I was told a mail was in. One cannot imagine how delighted we all were. I received a letter from Alvord dated 21st March, 3 from Nell dated Feby 9th, March 21st and March 22nd, also one from Arthur King

[Page 97]
Melbourne, Robson & Cowlishaw acknowledging medical Certificate, and one from A.T. Sharp London, saying he was sending my long wanted "Orilux lamp. Also a letter from Father and Mother and one from Mrs Parker, widow of Major Parker in answer to a letter of condolence I had written her.
I have been quite happy in my service with the guns for the past eek, though nights without sleep naturally leave one weary, particularly too when the position has been such an anxious one, but the reading of all my letters tonight made me feel somewhat unmanned. All contained prayers for my Safe Keeping. My letter from the dear old dad was perhaps the best I have ever received from him. The circumstances are unique. I read them all in my little "dugout" with an ammunition box for a seat and a candle on another box at about 9.30PM. The Navy’s guns were booming out in terrific fashion at the Southern end of Gallipoli peninsula, my four guns were talking within a few yards of me, and as every round was fired dust and dirt fell from the roof of my "cabin". The enemy’s and our rifles at the same time keeping up an incessant crackle. Of course just as I got settled to read my letters, staff officers, telephonists etc must come bothering me about something or other, while I wanted to be alone. I would give up a great deal if I could see all my family tonight. My heart is very full. The sights and experiences of the past week are indelibly stamped in my memory and can never be effaced.
Our attack scheme on Contour 400 set down for today has been postponed.

Monday 3rd May
Heavy cannonade this morning by navy. Our guns also at work early. I hear the enemy inflicted losses on our 4th Brigade about 5 A.M. this morning. The old 6" guns on our right flank again opened and fired a few rounds, but No 1 gun 7th battery stopped here. Heavy guns from direction of Fort 32 on the Dardanelles also fired many rounds at Transports and Men O’ War. One transport appeared to be hit, but not seriously damaged. General Bridges with naval officers and Col MacLagan also myself discussed sending demolition party to Gaba Tepe at 4.30 AM tomorrow. Navy to land men, who will be covered by our Artillery fire and that from destroyers. Fresh gun emplacements being made for alternative use. Major Browne now connected up by Phone. His two guns are in action. The 6" gun again opened fire this evening, but we located and stopped him. So far he has done no damage. The shells are lead coated and have no copper driving bands.
A very quiet night and little shooting.

[Page 98]
Tuesday 4th May
At 3.30 AM this morning I engaged enemy’s Infantry on Shrapnel ridge. At 4.30 AM party from 3rd Infantry Brigade landed on beach at Kaba Tepe, but were met by heavy machine gun fire.
Destroyers and my guns peppered the point thoroughly, but it appeared unwise to carry the attempt any further, so troops were returned in boats to the Destroyers. Bullets flew all around them, and from our gun positions we could see the whole drama. Altogether I Understand eight were killed including one officer and 18 wounded. I expect Kaba Tepe will eventually be taken from the land side. A battery came into action yesterday about 1700* distant, and let us have our first taste of shrapnel. Fortunately no harm was done. Mr Crisp located him again this morning. His men were busy making emplacements and their picks were visible. They did not remain there long. A pinnace went out about noon from the navy to bury dead from morning’s operations, under cover of Red Cross flag. They were not fired upon. At 2.30 Turks carrying Red Crescent searched for the dead and wounded. They were also not fired upon by us. Major Hughes personnel resumed duty on their guns at 4PM. Major Burgess’ personnel relieved for a few days. I heard unofficially today that Lieut Clowes and three gunners of 8th Battery had been wounded in action, but I have no definite details. There is also an unconfirmed rumour that Lieut Morgan is a casualty. A very quiet night. Both Lt Richards and myself had a good sleep.

Wednesday 5th May
Very quiet during last night and this morning. We know the Turks are busy entrenching. This morning I visited Section of our line where Major Browne has two guns. Saw Col Hobbs there also Colonel Johnstone. I think his position will turn out to be a good one and work in well with ours. On my return I met General Birdwood and Admiral Thursby. They wanted to see Kaba Tepe from landward. There has been a certain amount of activity on this point all day and No1 gun has been giving them attention. Deepening all our trenches for further security and improving approaches and exits for guns should they require to be moved. Today collected all 18pr shell cases for return to Ordnance. Operation order no 5 issued today. It provides for the transfer of two Brigades Infantry and details to Cape Helles tonight to assist 29th Division, our line in consequence being

[Page 99]
divided into two Sections instead of three. We are in No 1 Section, Commanded by Col MacLagan DSO Further casualties to date in the Brigade are as follows: -
Gunner Morgan - 8th Battery - Bullet wound right forearm - April 26th
Gunner Bowles - " - Bullet wound - May 3rd
Lieut M.Clowes - " - Bullet wound right chest - May 3rd
Gunner N. Piesse - " - Bullet wound, right upper arm -May 3rd
Gunner W.C. Fincher - " - Bullet wound right leg - May 4th
Hutchinson & Murdoch reported for duty from "Cardiganshire" 4 PM.

Friday 7th May
Will now continue Diary where I left off at 4.30 PM 5th inst.

Wednesday 5th May (continued)

A momentous afternoon for Major Burgess and myself. During the morning I had instructed Major Burgess to make a reconnaissance of our trenches on the Left with the object of finding a good observation post in the vicinity of Contour 400, from which to direct fire of 7th Battery. He returned to my Head Quarters about 4.45 PM and commenced to tell me all about his reconnaissance. About 5PM a few percussion and time shrapnel shell fell around us and as Major Burgess was sitting on the floor in the centre of my dugout I suggested he had better sit close against the wall with me. At about 5.15 PM a shell struck the roof of the "dugout" in the corner and burst on entry. Both Burgess and myself were momentarily stunned by the shock of the explosion. I heard Burgess say "Are you alright Colonel", I replied "Yes, are you hurt". I got no reply but found Burgess had swooned. He had a nasty gash in his neck, another on the side of his face and his face covered with gravel and blood. I stanched the bleeding with a clean towel I had handy and sent for our medical officer. He came with his Assistants and attended to Burgess. In the meantime I discovered my own head was bleeding profusely and I also had a fragment in my right knee. I managed to get down to the Dressing station of the 3rd Infantry Brigade which was close to us. Their medical officer dressed my wounds and sent me to the Clearing Hospital on the beach. Two men (one my batman Bligh) assisted me along. In passing I want to record how proud I was of Capt Leslie and Lieut Ross with their detachment. Even while shell were falling all around them, they served their guns quite coolly, located the enemy, and wiped out two of his guns. I had to wait till 7.30 PM for

[Page 100]
a launch to take me off to the Hospital Ship "Gloucester Castle". About 20 wounded went off with me. A strong wind and heavy sea had sprung up, and we all got a good wetting and tossing about before reaching the ship. Then there was great difficulty in getting aboard. I managed to scramble up the Companionway but all the others were lying down cases and had to be lifted into the ship in slings with steam tackle. When the doctor came to overhaul me, he found my injuries to consist of severe contusions on head, neck, shoulders and back, (due to the blast of explosion having forced gravel from roof through my coat, woollen vest, shirt and singlet, these garments being a wreck!) a bullet wound under right shoulder in the back, a bullet in upper left arm and another in right knee. He located all three bullets or perhaps pieces of gravel, and luckily my knee joint is not affected. All wounds were very painful during the night. Especially back, which was just as if I had received a severe thrashing. One of Major Hughes men (a telephonist) was hit in the arm with shrapnel about the same time as I was hit. Both Major Burgess and myself cannot understand how we escaped death. The explosions occurred in a "dugout" about 9’ X 9’ or less. A kerosene bucket in the middle off the room was riddled as also was my Sam Browne belt and other equipment, while the wall opposite where we were sitting is badly damaged and punctured. We have both come to the conclusion that we surely are not destined to be killed by shrapnel. I do not forget the letter I received the other day, in all of which I was told prayers were daily offered for my safety. Is my escape due to them? My head is still in a whirl, due I suppose to the shock of explosion in a confined space. Some of our troops (2800) with 2 batteries transferred tonight to 29th Division, Cape Helles.

Thursday 6th May
About 8 o’clock this morning my servant (Bligh) came off from the shore with my effects, and later went off to the "Cardiganshire" and got the remainder of my kit. The Senior Medical Officer, Col Ryan, has ordered me to return to Alexandria or Cairo as May be convenient, to have X rays applied to my wounds to locate bullets. When extracted perhaps a week will see me fit enough to return. I am very anxious not to lose any of the show. Major Burgess came on board at 10AM with a launch of wounded, included in which was Capt Leslie. Early this morning

[Page 101]
a shrapnel shell caught him, smashed his thigh terribly, and badly damaged his head and chest. He died at 2 PM mainly from shock, tho’ the medical officer stated he could not possibly have survived his injuries. I feel awfully sorry. He has done most excellent work during the 11 days we have been fighting. I hear we are to leave tomorrow for Alexandria.

Friday 7th May
Left Anchorage at Kaba Tepe about 8 AM, bound for Alexandria. Beautiful weather. Dr dressed my wounds, probing bullet wounds and extracting gravel gave me fits, as also the subsequent painting with iodine. I feel fairly comfortable, but back and knee very stiff and sore.

Saturday 8th May
About 700 wounded officers and men on Board with the exception of 166 British and 7 Indians all are Australian. Many very sad cases of terrible wounds. Another man died today. Doctor applied hot fomentation to my wounds, much to my relief.
Beautiful day and smooth sea.

Sunday 9th May
Another beautiful day. Back and wounds generally feeling much easier. Arrived at Alexandria about 3 PM. Hospital train waiting alongside Quay. About 250 stowed into first train which left Alexandria at 7.15 PM and arrived in Cairo at 11 PM. Three nurses, doctor and Indian attendants on board looked after men. Provided Bovril, coffee, fruit and cigarettes. Bligh accompanied me. Major Burgess stayed on ship, but I heard later went into Hospital at Alexandria. Motor ambulance took us to Heliopolis Hospital. Had wounds dressed and turned into bed at 12 midnight. Slept splendidly.

Monday 10th May
Cabled Nell telling of wounds. Wrote Charley. Mrs Christian and Harris called to see me during afternoon and in the evening Col Ryrie, Col Cox, Major Lynch and Lieut Hogue spent a half hour with me.

Tuesday 11th May
Wrote Nell, father & mother and Alvord. Capt Doody, half

[Page 102]
brother to our Dr Marks had along yarn with me. Mrs Sweetland, King and Rabett called on me. Wounds not feeling too well. Have to get a Skiagraph taken tomorrow. High Commissioner and Lady McMahon visited the Hospital.

Wednesday 12th May
Mr Pengelly called to see me also Mrs Mackworth. Wrote Arthur King, Melbourne. Had an X ray taken of wounds. Discovered lumps of gravel. Put me on the operating table and removed them. Nurse in attendance on the Surgeon Col Downes, proved to be Mrs Rogers, wife of Capt Rogers 8th battery.

Thursday 13th May
The Sultan visited the Hospital this morning, accompanied by Sir John Maxwell, Commanding troops in Egypt. Wounds progressing well.

Friday 14th May
Ali Bey called to see me today, bringing with him a beautiful bunch of flowers. He was greatly concerned to hear of my being wounded.

Saturday 15th May
Mr & Mrs Pengelly called to see me, and invited me to come and spend a week at their home. Mrs Pengelly who was trained as a nurse promised to dress my wounds generally.

Sunday 16th May
After lunch took train to Mena. Mr Pengelly’s man met me with his trap and drove me home.

Monday 17th May
Lounged about all day reading. Sang a few songs in the afternoon.

Tuesday 18th May
Received cable from Nell in answer to mine. Again reading all day. Wound in back feeling very sore. I think there is still some foreign substance in the wound.

[Page 103]
Wednesday 19th May
Went in to Heliopolis Hospital. Doctor again examined wound in back and found it unsatisfactory. He probed it, and extracted two lumps of gravel that had not previously been noticed.

Thursday 20th May
Reading all day. Had dinner with Col Springthorpe at Mena Hospital, and gave the patients (about 300) an account of Gaba Tepe action from an artillery point of view. All seemed very interested. Got Col Springthorpe to call and see Mr Pengelly - he is not at all well, and is terribly afraid he has lung trouble.
I heard today that General Bridges had died as result of wounds.

Friday 21st May
Went into Cairo to have a few articles of kit repaired and get some signal message forms for my Brigade. Went to Hospital had wounds dressed and was discharged. Wounds will not be healed for perhaps 2 weeks, but do not now require much attention, and I am anxious to get back. Had dinner at Continental Hotel. Met Mrs Doctor Stokes and Mrs Major Sutton who commenced plying me with questions, so I had to tell them all I knew of Gallipoli. I have no end of letters and packages from wives for their husbands. Drew field allowance to date. Heard from Base office that to date 89 Australian officers have been killed. Stayed at Continental Hotel for the night.

Saturday 22nd May
Left Cairo at 9.30 AM, reached Alexandria at 12.35 PM. Went to Majestic Hotel for lunch and there met several officers I knew. Could not get much information about the front. Went aboard the "Derflinger" (A.10) at 4PM. Found she was carrying over 2000 troops, and unfortunately I am the Senior Officer on board so have to take up duty as O.C. Troops. Capt McLaughlin 1st Battery is on board, so I have made him Adjutant. Ship is a captured German prize N.D. Lloyd, and very comfortable. We shall be glad however to get back to Gallipoli.

Sunday 23rd May
Owing to delay in repair of a broken steam pipe, ship did not leave Quay till 2.30 PM. We are trying to evolve order out of chaos. Nearly every arm of the service represented by small squads.

[Page 104]
though Infantry alone total about 1800. Some of the latter are very much a rabble, and have had too much liquor before coming aboard. At 5 PM when well out to sea we heard cries of "man overboard". One of the Infantry who was worse for liquor had fallen overboard. Buoys were thrown to him, ship turned about and a boat lowered. He managed to swim to one of the buoys and secure it, but he was in a bad way when lifted into the boat. Evidently he had swallowed a large amount of salt water.
Assembled all officers in the saloon during afternoon and arranged details re allotting of troops to decks etc. Also read out instructions from Vice Admiral Pieise, re treatment of hostile torpedo or submarine craft. Called by the Captain at 9.30 PM A ship showing only navigation lights was manoeuvring around us in a suspicious manner, but eventually went on her course. I think she was scared of our ship (being in darkness) and kept her bow on to us till we had passed.
Good night rest.

Monday 24th May
A beautiful day with smooth sea. Adjutant getting all units adjusted. Not an easy job with so many units represented. Careful lookout all day for submarines or Torpedo boats. Armed guard of 250 standing by with 750 men available at a minute’s notice. Expect to arrive at Mudros about 6 PM tomorrow. What a strange ‘Empire Day". No celebrations required this year to prove the solidity of the Empire. The world’s battle fields are sufficient indication.

Tuesday 25th May
Again a smooth sea and a very fine day. Passed Syros early in the day and reached Mudros Bay in Lemnos Island at 4.30 PM. Anchored well up the bay. A destroyer crowded with sailors entered the boom just ahead of us. Reported to "Hussan" at 5PM, thence to Headquarters on "Atlantean". Was there informed that submarines were in the vicinity of the Dardanelles and therefore it was dangerous for transports and other large vessels to proceed there. In consequence we have to wait here till trawlers carrying about 500 men apiece can deliver us to our destination. As there are 6000 troops here we May not get away for a week. I am however trying to get upon a destroyer.

[Page 105]
We were informed that H.M.S. Triumph was this morning torpedoed by a Submarine off Gaba Tepe, and that the sailors we saw on the Destroyer were survivors. We do not know how many casualties there were. We were also told that two nights ago the Turks, strongly reinforced, attacked our positions at Kaba Tepe at 1 AM. Our men counter attacked about an hour later and accounted for 9000 Turkish casualties, while our losses were 500. An Armistice was declared next day, the Turks burying 3000 dead. Such a heavy list of Turkish casualties makes me think our guns must have been doing good work during the night. I shall be desperately anxious to get away from this Port. I want to be with my guns.
As we are now in Port there is no trouble about darkening ship. In consequence all lights are going again. It was officially notified to us tonight that Italy has at last joined in with us and declared war against Austria. I wonder what will be the result in the Adriatic Sea. Men on board are a terribly undisciplined crowd. I have representatives of no less than 44 different units on board; some without officers, so it can be imagined how difficult it is to ensure decent troop ship discipline.

Wednesday 26th May
Much to my surprise 4 Torpedo Destroyers came alongside about 9 AM this morning to tranship us to Gallipoli. We bustled around and got our men aboard about noon leaving Mudros at 12.30PM. Each destroyer had about 500 men on board, my boat having 540 including 20 officers. She was named "Harpy". Some of these men and officers had been wounded earlier in the proceedings and were returning from Hospital. We had a beautiful trip to Gaba Tepe, quite a yachting cruise, about 50 miles at 20 knots. When we reached Gaba Tepe we were preparing to transfer into punts to be towed ashore by launches. The Turkish artillery opened on us with shrapnel firing 8 rounds. Four were effective and in a few moments we had 42 casualties on my boat, 5 being killed and 7 so badly wounded that the doctors held out no hope for them. It was a dreadful experience, and the wardroom was temporarily turned into a Hospital.
Luckily we had three doctors on board.
When I ultimately got ashore I reported immediately to General Birdwood and Col Hobbs. It was good to hear their hearty welcome, I think the more hearty because they had been watching the effect of Turkish shells on the Destroyers.

[Page 106]
My own officers and men particularly gave me a most hearty welcome, in fact we owe it to the work of 9th Battery guns that the Turkish Artillery was silenced early. I found letters from Nell, Chis & father awaiting me.

Thursday 27th May
Spent the day in examining our gun positions. I now have my twelve guns in action tho’ 8th Battery is temporarily attached to Col Johnstone in No 2 Section of Defence. I find my guns have done excellent work, Major Hughes acting as Brigade Commander. He will now get a few days well earned rest.
I went all over No1 Section today with Col Hobbs, and tomorrow I am to inspect No 2 Section prior to taking up duty again.
I will also inspect the New Zealand Section. Quite pleased to be back in the trenches again. Lieut Crisp promoted Captain and transferred to 7th Battery vice Capt Leslie killed in action.

Friday 28th May
Met Colonel Hobbs at Brown’s Battery at 9.30. Spent the morning with him and the two Colonel Johnstones inspecting positions. Had lunch with Col Hobbs and during the afternoon thoroughly examined the N.Z. Section. Our line appears exceptionally strong and it will require a huge army to shift us out. I am informed officially today that our casualties in the attack of a few nights ago were 283 killed and wounded. Today eighty three 6" Howitzer common shell were landed in the vicinity of Hughes Battery, but I think only accounting for about 4 men. Extraordinary how they miss us.
Received letter from Nell dated April 21st, Home dated 17th April and Charley dated May 5th.

Saturday 29th May
The enemy at 3.30 AM opened a heavy Artillery cannonade from all directions and must have fired over 1000 shell up to 5 AM, when we had managed to locate their batteries and silence them. Very little damage generally was done and very few casualties, but unfortunately two were Artillery officers, Lt Siddall of 4th Battery, and Major Bruce of Mountain Battery, both killed.
Last night a destroyer shelled the approaches from our Right Flank to Gaba Tepe. One Infantry patrol went out and got some useful information, besides

[Page 107]
bayonetting six Turks and capturing one. Party returned safely.
This afternoon another Battery opened fire, but Major Burgess silenced it. Today I selected new position for Head Quarters and new Brigade observing stations in vicinity of 10th and 11the Battalion observation posts. B.A.C. detachment commenced work on "dug outs".
Visited Head quarters at night, discussed question of N.S.W. Howitzers. Col Hobbs agreed to proposals and forwarded same officially. Very quiet night.

Sunday 30th May
Today we celebrate the termination of our fifth week in Gallipoli. We had a quiet morning, but after lunch the enemy again bombarded us with all sorts of Artillery, large and small, but I think without doing much damage. I was fascinated watching two guns of Phillips’ Battery. For half an hour the enemy placed heavy common shell all around him, but still his guns answered back defiance, and finally silenced the larger guns. The detachments must have nerves of iron to stand up and serve their guns during such a bombardment.
Went round position at junction of 1st and 2nd Sections this morning with Col Hobbs. Capt Waite took up duty as understudy to Major Hughes. Very quiet night.

Monday 31st May
Another very quiet day. Information has come in to the effect that the night before last Phillips guns got into the enemy’s reserves, the casualties totalling 2000. Accompanied Colonel Hobbs around the position during morning. Instructed Burgess to select and prepare new emplacement for casemate gun. Had lunch with Major Browne. Was informed Major Mills had died of wounds received at Cape Helles. Made inspection of rear of 1st Section and made sketch of road to run round & facilitate movements of guns and bodies of troops. General approved same. Quiet day and quiet night.

Tuesday 1st June
Enemy’s artillery fairly active, but little effect obtained. Our fellows are splendidly dug in. Conferred with Col Hobbs at Brown’s Battery re co-ordination of fire of 3rd F.A. Bde with Artillery of Second Section. Arranged to carry out an experimental shoot at 4 PM but had to postpone it because of necessary alterations to bring effective fire to bear over the area required. Gun emplacement altered during the night. Heavy rifle and bomb fusillade all the evening

[Page 108]
till about midnight. New Head Quarters so far completed as to admit of our occupying them, and slept there for the first time.

Wednesday 2nd June
All Brigade telephone lines transferred to new Head Quarters station. Met Colonel Hobbs at 7th Battery. Inspected altered emplacement. Told me of a good deal of his difficulties in dealing with Headquarters. Sent in report concerning work of Capt Leslie and Lieut Ross with their detachments on May 5th and 6th recommending them to notice.
At 3.30 PM with Major Hughes met Colonel Johnstone and registered areas in front of 2nd and A&NZ Sections, notably "Johnstones Folly" which could not be engaged by other Batteries. By actual experiment obtained necessary data to permit of engaging these localities by day or night. Major Burgess’ battery busy on "Olive Grove" guns about 6 PM. Saw Major Martin re road behind our position. Arranged to meet one of his officers tomorrow and point out what is required. Very quiet night.

Thursday 3rd June
Interview with general Carruthers explaining result of yesterday’s shoot. He was very pleased. Interviewed Engineer officers and pointed out what is required for Artillery Road. With Major Hughes tabulated result of yesterday’s shoot and recorded same on D.A. map, forwarding same to major Anderson at 10.30 AM. Heathorn and Brand returned to duty from D.A. H.Qrs. Visited Burgess’ guns this afternoon and had interview with Capt Trenchard re position of 6" Howrs. B.A.C. detachment preparing improved Roadway from our Head Qrs to beach and to Head Qrs of 3rd Infantry Brigade. Orders today record Honours and rewards conferred by the King on some of our officers and men. All richly deserved. This afternoon H.M.S. Doris put about 100 rounds of 6" stuff into Hill 971 and vicinity, her broadsides of 6 guns speaking at once.
A very unfortunate accident happened this afternoon. Major Burgess was shooting over our own Troops, when a premature occurred, due to a faulty fuze. As a result 2 men were killed and 11 wounded, among the latter being 5 officers. Enemy attacked about 9.30 PM but were driven off with loss. We also hear the Turks attacked our Southern troops yesterday but were also beaten off with heavy loss.
B.A.C. detachment at work on new track. With Major Brown selecting positions for gun emplacements, so that guns May be moved into them

[Page 109]
at any time, day or night.
Col Hobbs informed me more Howitzers were being landed for us.

Friday 4th June.

I was awakened this morning by heavy gun fire. Evidently our people down south are storming the heights for a terribly heavy cannonade from land batteries and naval guns has been in progress all day. There are about 115 land batteries, and I anticipate at lEast 30,000 shell have been fired there today from 12" downwards. We have been watching the cannonade and it is difficult to imagine how anything could live in the inferno there in evidence. Major Hughes has been granted a weeks rest and leaves for Lemnos this afternoon there to recuperate on the "Mumewaska". He has had a very strenuous time.
Our men make much use of a disgusting adjective and I am always checking them. I passed a group today in an Infantry trench freely using the same word. I told them I was surprised to hear Infantry using such language. "If you had been gunners, I could perhaps understand it," I said. The ringleaders reply was "Gor Blime, we are _ _ Gunners." Then I found out they were a machine gun detachment. This note is to serve me as a reminder, for a Diary is hardly a fit place for such language.
Tonight our troops carried out certain operations. It was intended to secure and permanently occupy trench in front of "Quinns." I have no knowledge of what occurred on the Left Flank, but on the Right Col MacLagan sent out patrols, who returned in due course reporting that trenches immediately to our front were unoccupied excepting for a few men. I stayed with 7th battery till 12.30 PM. I had a narrow escape from rifle bullet wound.
I was talking to a Sergeant in No 2 gun emplacement when I felt a tap on my left shoulder. On examination I found a bullet had penetrated the collar of my jacket, entered the cloth again just under the shoulder strap and came out again about 2" further on. Went round 9th Battery position with Col MacLagan, he having resumed duty to day after a short leave. Heavy Field Artillery cannonade during the night, but the result I do not yet know.

Saturday 5th June
Enemy’s Artillery opened early this morning. There appears to be a good deal of activity on Left Flank. Lieut Parker reported to me for posting to a Battery for instruction. Have sent him to 7th Battery. Had overhead cover provided to part of my "dug out". Last night secured fuze in a damaged condition from old "dug out", belonging to shell

[Page 110]
that "laid out" Major Burgess and myself. I shall keep it as a memento, tho’ I shall require a ship to carry away all I would like to take.
Capt Harris, Adjutant D.A.C. reported to me yesterday re duplicating Telephone and Signal Services between our Brigades and batteries. I had already done so in case of my Brigade. Track completed past Brighton Battery to Brigade Headquarters. Interview with Capt Trenchard, 6" How, regarding giving of information etc.

Sunday 6th June
A most beautiful day. The colouring of the sea has to day been a most extraordinary blue. Respirators being issued to all ranks, thus wisely guarding against the use by the Turks of asphyxiating gases as practised by the Germans. Information published in our orders today indicate that the enemy is weakening and is anxious to sue for peace. Saw Gen’s Birdwood Walker and Carruthers together with Col Hobbs and Col Johnstone at 8th Battery position.
During the afternoon enemy put in a good deal of high explosive and shrapnel shell. We located batteries in "Olive Grove" and on "Gun Ridge" and silenced them. Capt Jopp finished duty as H.Q Officer.
Rather heavy rifle fusillade during night.

Monday 7th June
Was aroused about 5.30 AM by enemy’s guns firing on Major Brown’s gun emplacements. Mountain Battery engaged them, but 9th and 7th B.Cs could not locate target. Shortly after mountain Battery opened fire enemy’s gun ceased firing. Established today Brigade Forward Observing station with Capt Jopp in charge. He will remain in his present "dug out" on the position and will be relieved by Lieut Richards and W.S. Forrest at intervals, and will also have Telephonists and observers with him as well as obtain information from Infantry observation posts. This Brigade station can communicate with all Batteries and if necessary direct their fire. Naval observing officer will also observe from our Brigade station.
With Colonel Hobbs, Major Brown and Major Burgess at the latter’s observation post. Fairly warm artillery fire while we were there, directed at Phillips Battery. Major Burgess decided to move his observing station to a spot close to my station in the lines of the 11th Battalion. He has also prepared an emplacement close to his No 3 gun for Brighton Battery gun. Track from 3rd F.A. Bde HQrs being taken along to Head Quarters 3rd Inf Brigade, and steps from our HeadQrs to firing line arranged for. Artillery road around whole

[Page 111]
position commenced today. Major Brown preparing an alternative emplacement for no 4 gun. Our aeroplane gain flew overhead this afternoon and dropped a bomb on the Enemy. "Ah, there she lays another egg" is the comment one hears among the Infantry when a bomb is dropped.
Sortie in front of "Quinns post" tonight. Fun commenced at 10.30 with a heavy rifle fire and plenty of trench mortar bombs. Fighting was continued fairly vigorously all through the night. Have not heard result. Heard today a big mail of 350 bags had arrived and would be unloaded this morning.

Tuesday 8th June
An exceedingly hot day. We shall find the summer fairly trying and the flies an awful nuisance. Enemy has been very quiet today and this evening. No artillery fire at all and practically no rifle fire.
Is he changing his dispositions and massing for a fresh attack or is he feeling he has had enough to go on with and wants a rest? Major Burgess completed his new observing station and my new station is under weigh. Artillery road behind position further advanced today. Artillery promotions out. Capt Lloyd will be very dissatisfied, but everybody else will agree the fair thing has been done. A monitor joined the Destroyers here yesterday, but steamed away again in the evening. I understand we are to have three stationed here.
Our big mail has not yet been delivered. The Authorities are very slow.

Wednesday 9th June

Lt Evans yesterday posted to 9th battery, vice Crisp, promoted and transferred to 7th Battery. Lt Pybus attached to 3rd B.A.C. Approval given for Lt Urquhart and Morgan to proceed to Alexandria, to relieve Capt Gee and Lt Hodgens who will report here for experience.
Lts Morgan and Urquhart leave tonight. Several men reported here this morning from Alexandria for the Brigade. Work continued on new observing station. Should be completed tomorrow. Col Hobbs called at my Headquarters this morning re Benson’s substantive promotion. I think satisfactory arrangements can be made.
Artillery road for No1 Section now about half completed. Still no sign of our big mail. Monitor fired a number of heavy rounds today. Received news of one of our submarines in Sea of Marmora, sinking a Turkish gunboat, Transports and 3 boats carrying ammunition – in all 11 ships. A fairly smart Artillery duel this afternoon. Our 4.5" Hows and some 18 prs Loosed off at targets we could not see, and for a time the enemy

[Page 112]
replied fairly fiercely. He gave in at last.
The following is a complete list of 3rd FA Brigade Casualties to June 10th 1915.
Lt Col C. Rosenthal wounded 5.5.15
No 2087 Corporal A.c. Croud Killed 10.5.15
Total 1 wounded, 1 Killed 2
7th Battery
No 1616 Gr H.P. Eagle wounded 26.4.15
1615 Sergt T.F. Braithwaite " 27.4.15
1617 Copl L.R. Bliss " 27.4.15
1643 Gr A.F. Steiglitz " 30.4.15
1659 Gr R. Anderson " 5.5.15
1636 Br L.R. Bumpus " 6.5.15
1652 Gr l.R. Hughes " 6.5.15
Capt W.A. Leslie Killed 6.5.15
1630 Gr C. Shields wounded 6.5.15
1635 Gr S. Mitchell " 8.5.15
1620 Sergt W. Pinder " 10.5.15
1654 Br W.P. Sparkes " 12.5.15
1613 Cpl E.L. Coleman " 12.5.15
2256 Gr J.A. Hale " 15.5.15
1647 Gr H. Toll " 19.5.15
1658 Gr N. Unwin " 19.5.15
Total 1 Killed; 15 wounded. 16
9th Battery
Major W.H.L. burgess wounded 5.5.15
No 1959 a/Br F.H. Brown " 4.5.15
No 2631 B.S.M. C. Light " 8.5.15
2027 Gr A.W. Parry Killed 11.5.15
1975 Br C.G. Davies wounded 14.5.15
1961 Br A.R. Brown " 17.5.15
Total 1 Killed, 5 wounded 6
3Rd Brigade Ammunition Column
No 2262 Fitter W. Sergent. wounded 25.4.15 (Died at Malta 8.5.15)
3716 Gr H. Coleman " 26.4.15
3753 Dr W.D. Hawthorn missing 3.5.15
3371 Gr C.J. Waller wounded 20.5.15
2141 Dr W. Broadwith " 27.5.15
2708 Gr J.E. Le Masurier Killed 29.5.15
3718 Gr M. McDonnell " 29.5.15
2190 Dr C. Kithen wounded 10.6.15
Total 3 Killed, 5 wounded 8
8th Battery
No1854 Gr W.C. Morgan wounded 26.4.15
1787 Sergt G.Day " 30.4.15
Lieut N.Clowes " 4.5.15
1868 Gr M.H. Piesse " 4.5.15
1809 Gr W.C. Fincher " 4.5.15
1766 Gr F.W.C. Bowler " 4.5.15
Gr A.C. Goddard " 6.5.15
1863 Gr D.L. Lovell " 6.5.15
1862 Gr F.A.W. Smith " 6.5.15
1773 Sergt T.R. Braidwood " 6.5.15
3046 Gr A.E. Benson Killed 7.5.15
1794 Bdr S.J. Cameron wounded 7.5.15
1890 Gr C.J. Paterson " 7.5.15
1870 Gr A.G. Paterson " 7.5.15
1832 Lpl J.P. Hammer " 7.5.15
1774Gr V.G. Benson " 8.5.15
1828 Gr H.S. Hope " 8.5.15
1853 Gr E.L. Menagh " 8.5.15
1841 Gr J.A. Kierath " 8.5.15
1864 Cpl W. Pusey " 9.5.15
1896 Gr F.A. Watson " 9.5.15
1822 Gr W.N. Hamilton " 18.5.15
1893 Whaler R. Williamson " 19.5.15
1797 Gr E.J. Day " 31.5.15
1765 Gr R.A. Beesley " 1.6.15
Total 1 Killed, 24 wounded 25
Total Brigade Casualties out of 350 men ashore – 7 killed, 50 wounded – Total 57

[Page 113]
Thursday 10th June
While at work on my Head Quarters observing station this morning one of the B.A.C. Drivers was hit with a bullet. His wound is in the abdomen and is serious. This casualty caused me to look up our Brigade list, which I have entered on the previous page. It shows 7 killed and 50 wounded. A fairly heavy percentage out of 350 men, which is all I have ashore. The remainder are at Alexandria attending to Brigade Horses.
The enemy’s artillery this morning and again this afternoon opened up a smart cannonade, but our guns soon silenced them. Once our shrapnel gets near them they seem disinclined to serve their guns. Otherwise a quiet day.
General Fuller R.A, the senior Artillery officer with the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force was round the lines today with General Cunliffe Owen. The latter did not do either Colonel Hobbs or Brigade Commanders the common courtesy of informing them they were coming around. As a consequence General Owen, who really knows very little of our work from personal observation (as he never comes near our emplacements) has doubtless received what Commendation General Fuller had to bestow. Very quiet evening. I am now writing in my "dugout" at 8.10PM in the twilight and hardly a sound of battle can be heard. The enemy has been very quiet indeed the last three days. A shell today pierced Richards’ observation shield.

Friday 11th June
Two very heavy rifle fusillades during the night, possibly enemy attacking. Completed Brigade Forward officers observing station and Telephone recess, and put up necessary notice Boards. Fairly heavy cannonade late this afternoon. Our guns replied and silenced the enemy. Major Burgess did some damage to a group of horsemen and a train of camels Southward. One of the Headquarters staff brought me in an unexploded high explosive Turkish shell. I have the fuse which is rather an interesting one, but the shell I am afraid we shall be unable to empty. It is a similar type of shell to the one that entered my old "dugout". We find mails will not reach here till tomorrow evening. The reported big bundles of mails coming ashore proved to be bags of meat. The Artillery roadway is nearing completion, and will be a great boon for all arms of the service, particularly Infantry moving in formed bodies. Capt Jopp returned to duty with me two days ago, and I am now using him exclusively as Forward Observing officer for this Brigade, while my orderly Officer, Lt Richards is temporarily loaned to 7th battery. Mr Forrest is for the present acting as Adjutant.

[Page 114]
Saturday 12th June
The day opened with a lively cannonade from the enemy’s guns, replied to by our own Artillery. The enemy is using percussion shell, and is trying to break down our earthworks and trenches.
Shooting commenced before 5AM and continued till 6 AM. We have now taken over our new Brigade and Naval Observing Station, and just as well we moved. At 11 o’clock today a shell burst over the old position and killed two men. Enemy’s Artillery got on to 7th Battery during the evening and our old friend the 6" Howitzer also spoke, firing 5 rounds. As indicating the enemy’s difficulty in concealing their guns and still being able to bring effective fire to bear, two of his rounds today from "Gun Ridge" hit his own crest. Colonel Johnstone left for a week’s rest, Major Bessil Browne taking over from him. A very quiet night. Got letters ready for tomorrow’s mail, to each member of the family and one to the old folks and Emma.

Sunday 13th June
This morning at 5AM the "Bacchante" and "Dartmouth" came off our position and shelled various positions of the enemy till 7AM, when they both went South. Lt Richards on No4 gun of 7th Battery, located the gun behind the forward slope of Contour 400, which has given trouble lately. It was behind the false crest I had previously indicated to him. As soon as the ships saw Richards’ bursts they swept the place right and left with their shell, and I think they must most certainly have knocked out the gun, though from our position we cannot see. Generally it was like the early days of the war here, to hear Men O’ War Loosing off their broadsides. Major Hughes returned to duty this morning also a Sergt Bow of this Battery in addition to the Q.M.S. of 3rd BAC. Generally a quiet day.
In the evening as usual the Olive Grove Battery opened on us, with our usual reply. Destroyer firing on what we think is a Head Quarters for a Section of Coast Defence. I wish I could be allowed leave to make a night sortie in that direction. I believe it could be successfully carried out. Capt Harris at my Headquarters re visual signalling. Line to D.A. duplicated and laced. Our mail has for some unaccountable reason been sent back to Alexandria – for sorting I understand. Only a few papers came across, and every body is incensed at the delay.

Monday 14th June
A lively cannonade heralded daylight. Just before

[Page 115]
5am the enemy’s guns Loosed off and we expended about 80 rounds before he was quietened. New guns opened up from the centre depression of Gaba Tepe. One of Browne’s 8th Battery men wounded today by shrapnel. Visited D.A. Headquarters this afternoon. Had a long interview with Col Hobbs.
Obtained authority to select party of from 20 to 25 men for night sorties in connection with proposed demolition of enemy’s guns. So far he will not consent for me to go, though I think I could be successful. General Owen came in while I was there and we discussed Artillery details generally. Obtained authority for 10 rounds of 6" How. Ammunition to be expended on Gaba Tepe target if they should open fire tomorrow morning. Navy did a fair amount of shelling, enemy very quiet all the evening and night.

Tuesday 15th June
A few shell over us this morning. No damage done. Col Hobbs went round the whole Artillery position with Capt Bean and gave him "first-hand" Artillery information. Cameron returned to duty with HeadQrs from Capt Trenchard’s Howitzer Battery. Heard today that Col Legge had been made a General and appointed to the Command of our Division. Personally I am very gratified that an Australian Officer is to be our Commander. I believe he will be here in a few days. Generally a very quiet day.

Wednesday 16th June
A few enemy’s shell came in early this morning. Later in the day Major Browne opened fire on a target and in a few minutes the bulk of the Artillery on both sides was engaged. Three shell landed close to my Headquarters coming from a new direction, one bursting within 20 yards. We are accordingly putting up a few more sandbags today for extra protection. During the cannonade Major Hughes had his No 2 gun temporarily disabled. The shield was pierced by a shell, range drum smashed, and sundry other damage done. Luckily the detachment had been withdrawn a few minutes earlier. Another gun was promptly exchanged for the damaged one. Major Hughes has now had 3 guns knocked out since the action commenced. The 3rd Inf Bde sent out a party last night to fill in some enemy trenches and if possible get the infantry digging them.
I have not heard the result. Heavy cannonade down South all day. A very quiet night.

[Page 116]
Again very quiet morning and day generally. Benson has been busy on sketch of No1 Section Anzac Position, showing panorama of Enemy’s country. The General says he will have them printed and distributed officially for use. As I write at 7PM the Olive Grove Battery is vigorously shelling the beach. Major Burgess is just getting on to him, so I expect he will soon ease off.
All our destroyers bolted off Southward about noon today, rather indicating that a Man O’ War or Transport had possible been torpedoed. We have however had no particulars. Flies, flies, everywhere – a dreadful nuisance. Very quiet night. Glorious sunset. Benson proposes making a water colour from my "Residence".

Friday 18th June
Enemy fairly quiet. Sketch of No1 Section also sketch of coast handed to Col MacLagan for reproduction. Benson will now probably commence on a similar sketch for No 2 Section and possibly later the New Zealand Section. Got Brigade party together for possible night operations.
Discussed with R.M.L.I. Officer position for new 6" How landed yesterday. Road around No 1 Section completed, that from No 2 Section decided yesterday and work will be commenced at once. Lunched with Major Martyn and Engineer Officers. Olive Grove guns opened fire along beach at 10PM tonight, rather unusual. Major Burgess got on to a party of 250 Infantry this morning, with result a heavy casualty list.
Celebrating waterloo Centenary.

Saturday 19th June
Major Browne went with a party for a "Joy Ride" down the coast in a Destroyer while Major Hughes, Richards and myself walked around the New Zealand position. The Country around Suvla Bay and Anafarta looks very fine. Would make ideal Golf links. Plenty of nice shady olive trees, and fields scarlet with poppies. The left flank position is a very difficult one. On the way back a few of the enemy’s shell followed us up, all at a safe distance excepting one, which burst over our head and spattered the beach with bullets about 50x in front of us. During the afternoon a 6" How from the vicinity of Hill 911 lodged 100 lb shells down the valley close to my position. Many were "blind" and I think those which did explode did no damage. For about half an hour at 5 o’clock quite a number of enemy’s shell

[Page 117]
of all sizes arrived from all directions. Very quiet night. Heard today that although 150 bags of mails had arrived no artillery mails were included.
What has happened to Postal Staff.

Sunday 20th June
A very heavy trying day – the worst we have had since landing in Gallipoli. Spent the morning writing Nell and the three boys. Bligh went to Imbros yesterday to get me a few things from the "Cardiganshire" including some interesting photographs and should return today.
An artist, Murray Jones, who is attached to general Birdwood’s staff called this afternoon to see Benson’s sketches. I introduced Benson and sent them off together. General Birdwood and Staff called here about 3.30PM, had a talk about the situation generally and then went on to see Col Ryrie, who is taking over the extreme right flank.
The General expressed appreciation of sketches which happened to be on my table. From all accounts I gather my Brigade Headquarters are the most up to date in our Army Corps. Every body who calls here congratulates me on the design, but then, I am an architect, and even if our Headquarters are "dug out" in the side of a hill, there can still be some semblance of order about their construction. I heard today that we are at last to have some high explosive ammunition for our 18 prs. This will give friend Turk something of a shock. General Sir Ian Hamilton is to inspect this position at an early date. Up till now his personal attentions have been directed to Cape Helles end. Col Hobbs, Major Hughes, Capt Rogers and myself out of sorts today. Possibly something wrong with our water Supply.

Monday 21st June
During last night a terrific fusillade lasted for some time rather as a prearranged scheme to draw enemy’s fire. We hear that last night the French at Helles after expending about 10,000 rounds of Field Artillery Ammunition advanced a mile and despite a Counter attack, this morning held the position gained. General Owen and General Knox came round our position this morning. General Sir Ian Hamilton was to have inspected today but did not arrive. We have had very little Artillery fire today.
Mail in at last. I received from Nell dated April 5th and May 2nd, also one from Arthur King dated April 25th. All our letters have apparently not come to hand. The news of our doings has evidently just filtered through to Australia, and casualty returns are beginning to make the Australian people think. Capt Jopp gave me two London Weekly Times, which gave very good details

[Page 118]
of our work here and lists of wounded and killed officers. I am sending them on to Nell. Again a glorious sunset. I wish I could paint the colours as we see them.

Tuesday 22nd June
"Fourteenth for tea." This is a call I have just heard. 7 AM. I have slept soundly and no enemy’s guns or rifle fire to awaken me this morning.
Inspected pit for new Howitzer. It is now complete. Squaring up gun emplacements generally. Major Hughes very unwell. Was out with the Col Hobbs this morning setting out. Artillery road for the Engineers. He looks dreadfully ill and will I am sure collapse altogether unless he takes a change at once. He has been suffering from dysentery for some days. Making arrangements to fit all our Brigade phones and lines underground, to be safe from big shell fire. Aeroplane over a good deal yesterday. Enemy’s plane rose up from Maidos this morning but did not come over our lines. Monitor demolishing enemy’s trenches around Gaba Tepe. Burgess had a premature at no 1 gun. No damage done. Enemy got a shell into a water barge this morning. We thus lose 4 days supplies. Well are however giving plentiful supply. We hear the troops in the South have made a substantial advance and taken many Turkish trenches. Also that it is intended by the enemy to use Gas against us as the Germans have done. All ranks however have neutralising respirators, so brother Turk will get a surprise. Benson away making sketch of No 2 Section Anzac position.
We have just received for neighbours in our locality the 9th Battery 3rd Inf Bde, about 1000 men. They May be good soldiers, but they are a terribly rough crowd, and their language is lurid and obscene. The latter alone should scare the Turks. Bligh returned from "Cardiganshire" at Imbros, bringing with him a nice lot of photos from the Chief Engineer and a box of groceries as a present from the Captain. Both very acceptable. He sent condensed milk, cocoa, coffee, peas, tinned apricots, sauce and some butter, the latter being a luxury. We have had none since April 25th. A piece of cake was thrown in.

Wednesday 23rd June
Major Browne came to see me during the morning and stayed to lunch. He says my Headquarters are a wonderful contrast to those of Col Johnstone. He has made no attempt to do things properly. Brown says Col Johnstone has some grievance and he hears while he is at

[Page 119]
Alexandria resting he is endeavouring to get a Light Horse Regiment. I cannot understand a man wanting to leave gunners, but I gather some of his friends are getting promotion over his head and this is not to his liking.
Lt Edwards had to go to Hospital ship today – indications of fever. Capt Rogers is far from well and Col Hobbs appears really ill. He was wise enough to stay under cover today and rest, otherwise he will most certainly collapse. Headquarters Telephone staff well dug into face of hill today. Should ensure immunity from shell fire. Enemy’s Artillery opened vigorously during afternoon, our guns responding. Mackworth and Anderson spent some time with me at my Brigade Observation Station. Good news from Cape Helles. Our troops made a substantial advance.

Thursday 24th June
At 7AM the enemy gave us a brisk artillery reception. Burgess and Hughes responded, also the Mountain Battery but took some time to locate and silence guns. Again about 8.30 the enemy opened. One shell caused 9 casualties in 9th Battalion lines, adjoining my Head Quarters, one man being killed. This morning with Col Arnott I examined L. Horse trenches on "A" ridge. They are getting gradually nearer Gaba Tepe. Howitzers opened again from Gaba Tepe on shipping. Col Arnott wants to "Scotch" Olive Grove guns. I told him I was after that job, so now he wants to take on "Wine Glass Hill" guns and us "Olive Grove". We shall try to work out a joint scheme for Headquarters approval. Getting telephone exchange into new "Dugout". General Legge arrived today to take over our Division. Colonel Johnstone reserved duty with 2nd Brigade after atrip to Alexandria and Major Brown resumed Command of 8th Battery. Lieut Garling temporarily attached to 8th Battery. A Scottish Territorial Howitzer Battery arrived today and is attached to my group. Strange it should have the same number as my old Howitzers; the 5th.

Friday 25th June
Interview with Col Hobbs and Major Stewart (5th How battery) regarding positions for 5" Howr. Accepted the spot I had been reserving for the Australian Howitzers. Showed Major Stewart round the position. He and his officers had lunch with me. During then afternoon he commenced terracing for his men. Damaged gun of 7th battery having been repaired was put back in position.
Br Macfarlane of 7th Battery badly wounded by machine gun fire. No 4 gun got onto a group of staff and did good work. Showed Colonel Arnott

[Page 120]
round our observing stations. General Legge arranging for Australian Howitzers and ammunition to be cabled for immediately. High explosive 18pr Ammunition used here by us for first time.

Saturday 26th June
Assisted Major Stewart during the day. Had road widened, magazines for ammunition and vehicles prepared, and our men hauled his guns into position for him. His men very soft and the hot weather playing up with them. Lively cannonade this evening. Sir Ian Hamilton inspected our Section. I met him at 7th Battery.
Worked till 10PM assisting Howitzer Battery.

Sunday 27th June
Around with Major Stewart all day. Enemy attempted an attack this morning, so decided to register targets with Howitzers, before digging in is commenced. Registered Johnstone's Jolly, Lone Pine, Long Valley, Target C, Wine Glass Hill Guns etc very effectively. Col Hobbs saw one series from 7th Battery.
Gen Legge, Col White and Col Hobbs came to my Headquarters at 10AM and I accompanied them through our section. Gen Legge very affable, spoke of old associations. Came back to my Headquarters about 3 hours later and talked for some time. At last I have persuaded the "powers that be" to get our old Howitzers from Australia. I told Gen Legge the shooting with Howitzers today had given me a new lease of life. Capt Jopp temporarily transferred to Mountain Battery vice Toms and Rawson wounded yesterday.
I am just off for a swim – 8.15PM and still daylight.
In consequence of being so busy today I have not written letters, but will have to be up at 5 or 4.30 to write them tomorrow. Arthur King wrote me re my being wounded. Paper of May 12th from Nell.
Great excitement this afternoon. A rabbit started out of a bush and in a few minutes over 100 men were chasing it, and hundreds looking on cheering wildly. The Turks must have thought a charge was pending. Bunny dodged them all and got away so there was no stewed rabbit for tea.

Monday 28th June
Generally a very busy day. A big attack took place in the south and we here made a demonstration in order to pin the troops here to their ground. We fired about 700 rounds of

[Page 121]
Artillery Ammunition in my Section. Some of our troops moved out to feint attack. There were a number of casualties, but how many I do not yet know. The Southern troops made a fine advance and took a new position. General Cunliffe Owen lunched with me. Howitzer Battery registered more targets.

Tuesday 29th June
Assisting Howitzer Battery with emplacements and registration of further targets. Generally a quiet day, though at night the Turks attacked on our Left and were badly beaten off. Down South good work has been done, and advanced positions taken.

Wednesday 30th June
Early this morning I went out with Major Stewart to register further targets. Aeroplane Series from Major Burgess’ Battery against Olive Grove at 7.30 AM, afterwards series with Major Browne and Caddy. Major Miles accompanied the Pilot as observer. He had one shot fired at him. Located 2 new batteries behind Achi Baba ridge firing South and reported them. Received message from 8th Division thanking for the information which they stated was very valuable. Unpleasant remarks with Mountain Battery concerning operations on June 28th. Major Burgess had another premature, making twelve in all out of 2600 rounds. Two 5" Howrs set in emplacements. Lines of fire for night work laid out on "Johnstone's Jolly" and "Lone Pine". Heavy thunderstorm tonight and heavy rifle fire. As large columns of dust were seen during the day north of Achi Baba I thought enemy might be preparing a special attack against us and therefore ordered the Artillery of my section to be in readiness. Lt Glendinning reported from Alexandria.

Thursday 1st July
After all a very quiet night. A 4" gun opened on us today but luckily did no damage. Have been unable to locate it up to the present time. As soon as we do the 5" How shall have a "go" at him. No further Howitzer registration today, Major Stewart being ill.
Major Ferguson, Mountain Brigade, apologised for his remarks re 28th work.
Gen Owen and myself accepted apology. Col Hobbs confidentially informed me that more Howitzers would soon be here, and asked me to look out suitable positions for two Batteries. This I have done. How battery still on their work for digging in. Men are very slow. Wrote to Robert re taking over Australian 5" Hows and to chief Inspector Woolwich Arsenal, recommending alteration in No 3 Director to admit of vertical angles of 45o being read. War Diary forwarded to Base.

[Page 122]
Friday 2nd July
Howitzer Battery registered "chess Board" target in morning, and in evening got into new work on Pine Ridge, followed up by two surprise rounds at 10PM, and two rounds from Hughes Battery.
Long interview with Col Hobbs, Col MacLagan, Col Ryrie and Major Burgess, concerning prematures. Decided that when warning is given men must take cover. Col Hobbs inspected sites I had selected for Howr Batteries and approved same. Enemy’s shell got into Hughes No 1 gun pit this afternoon, killing one man and wounding another. Major Burgess had a man wounded with rifle bullet. Major Hughes very sick. He must get away for a month.

Saturday 3rd July
A fair amount of Artillery fire today. The enemy’s 4" gun from Olive Grove fired several rounds, one of which burst close to Hughes Battery, killing one man and wounding another. Heard from Col Hobbs that we were to get 4.7" guns on this flank. I have been urging this for some time and am pleased to see approval at last given. We shall be able to take on long range guns of enemy. Selected site for them. Howitzers again shooting on "Chessboard". Heavy Artillery fire down South. Activity on the part of enemy manifest on Hill 600 – getting ready for their retreat I expect. Received letter from Nell dated May 16th, with photos of Chris and Shirley, one Daily Telegraph of 8th May, 5 British Australasians from A.T. Sharp, and letter from Edith Halford.

Sunday 4th July
Very quiet day. Col Hobbs inspected site selected by me for 4.7" gun and approved same. I am to commence work on emplacement on Tuesday morning. The 5" Howr fired a series on No 2 section of Enemy’s front. Had a good rest doing afternoon and read papers sent by A.T.Sharp. Interview with Major Brown and Burgess re appointment of officers. Major Hughes left for Hospital ship, very thankful I am that I have good health.

Monday 5th July
A terrific artillery cannonade opened this morning at 4AM. I was awakened by shrapnel bullets and fragments of shell falling at the entrance to my dugout. Very little damage was done generally, but one shell burst over 8th Battery, killing a Corporal and wounding three other men. We located two of the enemy’s guns near Gaba Tepe and firing 8 rounds with the 5" Howitzer registered them. Cannonade ceased about 7 AM.

[Page 123]
a little later 8 rounds of 11" shell came over from the direction of Maidos and landed near the Beach and Army Corps Headquarters. As Fort 24 on the other side of the Dardanelles (the Narrows) has three 11" guns mounted we conclude it came from that Fort. A strange incident happened today which May later be explained. All our trawlers and mine sweepers had made a circle round our shipping and had possible laid mines. At about 4.30 PM a huge column of water was lifted up, resembling the effect of a mine explosion, then something moved rapidly close under the surface of the water, getting gradually slower and then stopped, apparently sinking. For some time smoke and what appeared to be air bubbles kept rising to the surface. I am of opinion a Submarine has struck a mine and foundered. A huge column of smoke was seen south at 6.18AM in the enemy’s country. Looked like an Ammunition dump being blown up.

Tuesday 6th July
An exceedingly quiet day. Emplacement for 4.7" gun commenced and 6" Howitzer moved to a new position on Right Flank. Conference with Col Hobbs and Col Johnstone re use of artillery in case of attack by enemy if using asphixiating gas bombs. Decided to leave matter in hands of Brigade Commanders to act as they think best. A little shelling of shipping late this afternoon. Arranged with Engineers re construction of 4.7" roadway. Received late this evening note from Mr Pengelly, enclosing a letter from father and another from John Halford which had gone to Heliopolis Hospital. Also received letter from Nell dated May 11th, enclosing Alvords and Chris’ letters.

Wednesday 7th July
Around No1 Section with General Birdwood inspecting gun emplacements. He informed me 5" Howrs from Australia were approved. Col Christian’s Brigade is to be attached to the three new Infantry Brigades arrived in Egypt from Australia and with a Howr battery this will be their total artillery for the present. He told me scheme for us was to advance, establish ourselves across the neck from Gaba Tepe to Maidos, and then force the Turks on the Southern end to either attack us or surrender. Our submarines are effectively preventing the enemy using the town of Gallipoli, and stores and men have to be ferried over at Chanak.
Generally a quiet day as far as the enemy was concerned.

[Page 124]
Thursday 8th July
Around all stations with Col Hobbs. Gen Legge met us at 4"7 emplacement. Matter of drugs brought before the General. The 5 How. Battery bombarded "Johnstone's Jolly" during the evening, many shell failing to detonate. N.Z. Howr shelled ‘Lone Pine", and my batteries were active over the whole front. A good deal of fire drawn from enemy’s guns. About 50 reinforcements of sorts arrived today and were posted to the B.A.C. temporarily. Some wounded and sick men also returned to duty.

Friday 9th July
A big crowd working on 4".7 emplacement and roadway. Timber and bags obtained from Engineer stores. Round the guns during the day. Several shell fell close to our Headquarters, one shrapnel shell putting bullets through the waterproof sheet awning to my dugout. Batteries of Brigade putting in casual rounds all day to harass enemy.

Saturday 10th July
General Birdwood with Col Hobbs made a complete inspection of all Artillery in the Section. I was with them at 4".7 emplacement but left them to indicate to some naval officers the position son Hill 600 and 706 which require shelling. At 2.30 PM HMS Lord Nelson commenced a vigorous bombardment and did good shooting. All the time the enemy’s field guns bursting shrapnel over her. Later in the evening a cruiser came along with the balloon ship. The balloon was sent up and the cruiser carried out a shoot, but we could not ascertain target. At 6PM an aeroplane series with 5’ Howr was carried out.
Work continues with 4".7 emplacement. Gun arrived during night.

Sunday 11th July
A quiet day. I wrote about 12 letters for mail leaving this evening. Terribly hot day. Roadway to 4".7 continued. Very slow progress with Infantry. 4"7 placed on beach during morning from barge, and at night moved along to gully below Burgess’ Battery. Received letter from Nell dated May 26th, also one from Charley.

Monday 12th July
At 4.30 AM we commenced Howitzer bombardment of enemy’s position preparatory to a demonstration here, in order to hold enemy

[Page 125]
to his ground and prevent him reinforcing South where our troops were to make an attack today on part of the line. At 8.15 all our Artillery opened fire, and our Infantry tried all sorts of dodges to induce the enemy to man his trenches. Immediately he did our fellows attacked with bombs. Two men of the Brigade wounded. Lt MacAdam transferred to 8th Battery, Lt Garling transferred to 3rd B.A.C. 4".7 moved a little further over very steep gradient. A demonstration tonight in front of N.Z. &A division. Very heavy bombardment of Achi Baba by navy during the day. It was a magnificent sight. Our forces in the South made a substantial advance. General Birdwood visited my Headquarters.

Tuesday 13th July
Enemy opened early with his Artillery. Worked on 4".7 emplacement during the day. Met Col Hobbs at gun during morning. Arranged for 3rd Bde party to move gun at 6.45 PM. Had it in roadway where required at 8.30 PM. Colonel delighted. Thanked the men and got them a rum issue. Letter from Charley, Alvord, Callaghan and A.I. sharp.

Wednesday 14th July
Enemy’s 4".2 opened early from Olive Grove. Got into some ammunition charges (Howr) on beach. Major Miles placed in command of two 6" Howr and 4".7. Mr Richards going on 4".7 Spent part of morning in Observation Station. Visited 7th Battery 6" Howr and 4".7, also Tasmania Post (searching for new gun positions). Enemy shelling a good deal tonight. Approval secured for party of gunners to have a few days rest at Imbros.

Thursday 15th July
Met Colonel Hobbs at 4".7 emplacement. Discussed works with Major Miles. Col informed me Capt Jopp was required for Observation week with R.F.C. Leaves tomorrow morning. Lt Toomey temporarily placed at 4".7 in lieu of Richards who is not well and is to have a few days rest at Imbros. Lt Garling posted to 7th Battery.
Visited 6" How and 4".7 with Colonel. Met General Cunliffe Owen and Colonel and Adjutant of new 5" How Brigade at my Headquarters. Discussed with them and Col Hobbs best positions for Howitzers. Provided 50 men and two teams of horses to assist them to get guns from Beach to a position under cover pending definite siting of emplacements. Received pay from Filed Cashier and disbursed to Head Quarters. New map of our area issued. Copied from Turkish map with our names entered. One copy received for H.Qs and each

[Page 126]
Battery. Burgess’ Battery engaged "Wine Glass" guns during afternoon. 7th Battery fired 15 rounds at entanglements on Contour 400, and 5" Howrs Battery fixed on Target "1" and "turkey Hump".
The following are additional casualties since 10.6.15
No 2372 Dr Gay S.E. Wounded 28.6.15
7th Battery
No 1714 Gr King T.L. Wounded 27.6.15
1668 Gr Driver E.E. Killed 2.7.15
1739 Br Dark A.E. Wounded 2.7.15
3365 Dr Manning C.H. Killed 3.7.15
1660 Br Taylor C.L. Wounded 3.7.15
1613 Cpl Coleman E.L. Wounded 12.7.15
1728 Gr Egerton O. Wounded 15.7.15
8th Battery
No 1889 Gr Scott M. Wounded 14.6.15
1769 CPL Buchanan F.C. Killed 5.7.15
1771 Gr Baldwin F.H. Wounded 5.7.15
1820 Gr Costello T. Wounded 5.7.15
1826 Gr Hayes W. Wounded 5.7.15
2161 Dr Fry A.N. Wounded 8.7.15
1859 Gr [indecipherable] Renowden? J.R. Wounded 8.7.15
1834 Br Hocking Wounded 12.7.15
9th Battery
No 2011 Gr Lovett L. Wounded 2.7.15
1949 Gr Bennett L. Wounded 14.7.15
1982 Gr Eltham W.K. Wounded 14.7.15
3rd B.A.C. No 3781 Gr Hayward F. Wounded 5.7.15
2083 Sergt Waite A.R. Wounded 9.7.15
2155 Dr Pennington R. Wounded 10.7.15
Total to July 15th 1915 – Killed 10, Wounded 69. Total 79

Friday 16th July
Enemy’s Artillery from "Olive Grove" opened fire early along the beach. Later the Monitor shelled the position. Roof of 4".7 emplacement being erected. Colonel Hope Johnstone and one of his majors (of 5" How Bde) went through maps of position at my Headquarters. Offered them and Major Miles use of our erected telephone poles. Col Hobbs took Col Johnstone to 8th battery observing station. Most of our Artillery fire today directed against "Wine Glass" and "Olive Grove" batteries. 5" How turned on to "Turk’s Hump" and "Johnstone's Jolly". Balance of 1st How Bty of Col Hope Johnstone’s Brigade brought to valley beside 3rd B.A.C. 2nd Battery also arrived and moved to right flank. Capt Jopp left for Aerodrome at Tenedos. Mr Forrest ill.

Saturday 17th July
About 6AM an Enemy’s aeroplane passed over our position and dropped two bombs, one large one landing near the beach and doing no damage, the other smaller one landed on "Shell green" about 300x from my Headquarters. This bomb partially buried itself in the ground and did not detonate. I secured it, and forwarded it to

[Page 127]
Divisional Headquarters, after removing the fuse which is most interesting. Party of 26 from 3rd FAB left at daylight for Imbros for a few days rest. The 5" Howr put some shell into Valley of Despair during the afternoon.
We evidently made things uncomfortable for all their guns opened on us, doing however no damage. Late in the evening a chance shell fell into No 1 Pit 8th Battery, killing two men and wounding another. Another shell fell into 7th Battery no 4 gun pit, damaging a wheel but causing no casualties. Lent horses to assist in placing newly arrived 5" How battery, and lent men to assist in moving 4".7 on to platform in actual emplacement. Should be ready for work tomorrow. Man wounded in BAC also 9th Battery. Col Hobbs discussed rewards for our Artillery with me. Adjutant Mountain Artillery Brigade brought me a confidential letter from his O.C. re operations on 28th June. Switchboard made for Major Stewart also Major Miles.

Sunday 18th July
Mr Forrest much better and resumed duty. Jopp overhead this morning conducting Aeroplane series with 5th How Battery. Terribly hot day. Burgess had an Artillery duel with the enemy early in the evening. One enemy shell landed in the corner of one of 9th Battery pits slightly wounding one man. Burgess promptly ordered a few rounds of gun fire which soon "shut up" the enemy.
General Birdwood around with General Cox. Inspected 4".7 emplacement. Another 5" How Battery arrived tonight, thus completing Col Hope Johnstone’s Brigade. Two guns of City of Glasgow Battery moved tonight into new position. Two men from BAC and 1 from 9th Battery wounded during day. Small mail arrived. Nothing for me. Big mail for 8th Battery, much to their delight.

Monday 19th July
Decent mail arrived today. Letter from Nell dated June 7th, Australasian May 29th and Daily Telegraph of 15th and 16th May. Arranged with Major Gregson RFA to let him have use of my Telephone poles. Received advance issue of new maps of Gallipoli Peninsula.
Some N.C.O" and gunners belonging to the Brigade arrived from Alexandria this morning, also about 120 gunners from D.A.C. of which number 62 are detailed to us. H.M.S. "Humber" took on guns at Olive Grove but did little good. 5" Howr fired an aeroplane series during afternoon. Handed cigars to Col Arnott. Smart Artillery duel during evening. A few Infantry casualties just above my Headquarters. Glad to learn Col Coxen is to command Heavy Brigade from Australia.

[Page 128]
Tuesday 20th July
At 5AM made a thorough reconnaissance of country in vicinity of Tasmania Post with a view to finding possible good gun position. At 11.30 AM took Colonel Hobbs round same position and told him I wished to make a tunnel through Bolton Hill to give access to Poppy Valley for future Artillery advance. He thought the scheme good and obtained the G.O.C.’s sanction to having it carried out. Discussed names of men worthy of notice in Orders with Col Hobbs and specially recommended 3 from 7th Battery and 3 from 8th Battery. Left my Headquarters about 8.30 PM to visit Colonel Hobbs at Headquarters. Called at 1st Field Ambulance and just when leaving there was hit by a rifle bullet. It entered my left leg beside the knee and came out behind the knee. Strangely enough, bone, tendon and Artery were all missed. They carried me in a stretcher to my Headquarters and now I shall have to take things quietly for a time.

Wednesday 21st July
Have had to spend a quiet day in bed. Col Hope Johnston called to see me during the morning and this afternoon Col Hobbs brought Col Shepherd of City of Glasgow Lowland How Brigade.
We shall have plenty of Howitzers in action very soon. Arranged to commence tunnelling through Bolton Hill. Sent cable to Nell which will probably not leave Alexandria for a week. Aeroplane series again this afternoon. Head Quarters beds have commandeered a black donkey to carry their water each day. One of the two that have been roaming about since we landed was killed by shrapnel yesterday.
The Olive Grove 6" Howr opened fire again this afternoon, but Burgess silenced him. New Howitzers registering targets, and getting ready generally for action. Remaining 2 Hows of City of Glasgow battery moved to Shell Green.

Thursday 22nd July
Plenty of Howitzer shell falling today. Our new Batteries registering. Enemy’s 5" How again fired a few rounds also some of his field guns but nothing serious. Aeroplane series during afternoon. Aeroplane had about 50 shells and plenty of machine gun fire directed at it, but without doing any damage. New 5" Howr late in evening registered Bastion and works on Pine Ridge. It was expected that attack might develop tonight or tomorrow being Turkish Constitution day, and in consequence all necessary preparations

[Page 129]
have been made by us, including extra supply of ammunition and Respirators and gas helmets. Rest party returned. Lieut Richards sent to Hospital.

Friday 23rd July
No attack developed during the night. Our Howitzers have kept up a slow rate of fire during the night, dropping shells into various valleys where the enemy is known to Bivouac. The detonation of these 50lb Lyddite shell at irregular points and intervals must have a very demoralising effect of Turkish troops. It is rumoured they are being, or have been reinforced by 100,000 men of sorts and a supply of shell. I think our fellows are quite equal to the task of wiping them out. Howitzers doing further registration. Col Hobbs called at my Headquarters. Told me many changes would be made during coming week. Interviewed Major Clougston re roadway through or over Bolton Hill. He is to report best scheme to me. Attack expected tonight. Received two letters from Alvord, one from Chris, one from A.T. Sharp, one from Charley and one from R.I.B.A. Two more casualties in B.A.C. today.

Saturday 24th July
Very quiet night. Anticipated Turkish attack did not eventuate. List completed last night of new N.C.O.s and men for Heavy battery, and same posted. Olive Grove field guns and 4".2 opened very early this morning along beach, but Burgess silenced them with 4 rounds. Received one letter from Alvord, one from father dated June 7th, Nell June 14th, and Charley June 30th. Still anchored to hut. Very galling.

Sunday 25th July
Detailed Fitter Sergt Ellis for duty at heavy battery. Made Price acting Sergt Fitter of 7th Battery. Wrote Nell, father, Charley, Alvord, Chris, A.T. Sharp and J. Halford. Got some seeds today of broom, very beautiful yellow flowers, and very fragrant. I also got some Juniper seeds, and other kinds, the names of which I do not know. Enemy’s Artillery trying to get Burgess’ upper guns this afternoon. They got very close, but did no damage. Another aeroplane series this evening. Jopp will be getting quite an expert on Aeroplane spotting. No further indications of expected attack.

Monday 26th July
Today the 4".7 made its debut amid much cheering from the Infantry. It registered three targets. Burgess got into a heap of

[Page 130]
of transport, animals, vehicles and personnel at 7150x. Quite unexpected as far as the enemy was concerned. Commencement of further changes. General Legge with a number of officers, NCOs and men, yesterday left for Egypt to take up duty with the new Division. Major Anderson also left for Egypt on Special duty. Harris acting as BM, and Vowles as Staff Captain. Nicholson leaves us for General Staff, 2nd Division. Fairly warm fire opened from Olive Grove during the evening. Our old friend the 6" Howr also fired about 4 rounds, but Burgess silenced him. Col Hobbs told me of his recommendations concerning Honours and rewards. His own promotion to Brigadier General is under weigh and will soon be an accomplished fact. Another man killed today, belonging to 8th Battery also two men wounded. They were on the beach. Had a short roam around today with the aid of a stick. Capt Marks very unwell and sent to Hospital. Capt Dangerfield A.M.C. taking his place. Wrote in to OCDA. concerning work done by Marks, for the information of the A.D.M.S.

Tuesday 27th July
According to the Greek Consul at Constantinople the Turks were expected to attack us on or before this date. The day has however passed and excepting for the usual shelling there has been nothing special to note. The Anafarta gun made things rather warmer at A.C.H Qrs and in consequence our Aus Div HQrs had to move to a more sheltered spot.
Had a long letter from Jopp giving particulars of his Aerial reconnaissance. Col Hobbs phoned me his recommendations concerning officers for meritorious Services. I find my own name is included. Mountain battery during night shelled works in front of Tasmania Post.

Wednesday 28th July
The 4th Battery of the Lowland Brigade arrived during last night. I supplied 8 horse team and 20 men to assist in disembarkation and bringing guns to position. Lieut Onslow ADC to General Birdwood killed by shell during night. General Cunliffe Owen, Col Hobbs and Col Shepherd (O.C. Lowland Brigade) present at my Headquarters. Duties of Lowland Brigade defined and allotted. Olive Grove 6" Howr. Dropped a number of shell in our direction. No damage done. Another Heavy Howitzer opened fire from direction of hill 971, and dropped shell in vicinity of No 2 6" How. Three men were injured by one shell.
Wine Glass battery did a fair amount of shelling during the day against trenches in vicinity of No 2 6" How and my observing station. Practically no

[Page 131]
damage done. Visited Chatham Post, with Col Harris and Mountain Battery officers regarding shelling of new Echelon Trenches. Decided Howitzers could do best work. Arranged for Howrs to shoot during afternoon.

Thursday 29th July
Provided 8 horse team last night for use of Lowland 4th Battery. Lt Edwards ordered to Cape Helles as Capt 6th Battery. Lt Garling attached to 8th Battery. Howrs did not shoot last night against Echelon Trenches but werr to have a series at 8AM today. I waited some time, but no sign of shooting. About an hour later I was advised shoot was postponed. Clerk from 7th Battery repated for duty at D.A. HQrs. Handed over working parties to Major Clougstone for Artillery road, from Shell green to valley between Bolton Hill and Tasmania Post. Electric bulbs for torch received from England, also boots from Callaghan & Son. Sydney. Colonel Hobbs promoted Brigadier General. I extended him my Brigade’s hearty congratulations. Watched Howr shoot at 5 P.M. on Echelon Trenches. Only five rounds fired which did not register target. Waste of ammunition unless a good series authorised.
Discussed situation with Gen MacLagan. Hostile aeroplane overhead about 7 o’clock. Appeared to volplane down to earth East of Gun Ridge. Our aeroplane up at same time, but as she is not armed she discreetly kept out of the way. Miles gave enemy first taste of his long range gun today against Infantry drilling on Kilid Bahr plateau. More reinforcements arrived for Brigade.

Friday July 30th

An Aeroplane over at 6AM. Thought at first it was hostile, but later discovered it was one of our own. Two batteries of Lowland Brigade now in action. My section now contains my Brigade of 18 prs, Major Miles Heavy Battery, two mountain guns, two 5’ How batteries, Lowland Brigade and one 5" Battery 69th Brigade, a total of 24 guns. Hostile aeroplane flew over during afternoon, dropping two bombs on the edge of water at Brighton Beach. Howr Battery shooting at Echelon Trenches at 5PM. At same time three cheers ran along the line because of victory before Baghdad. Provided working party of 75 for 58th Division guns, Miller on H.Q. switch and phones all day. Arranged for new lines to new D.A. Station in case of an advance. Interview with general MacLagan re bombarding Snipers Ridge works – Lt Teare transferred to 2nd Brigade. Capt Crisp sent off last night to Hospital.

[Page 132]
Saturday 31st July
Hostile aeroplane over at 7.10 AM. Dropped many darts in gully just below our H.Qrs Camp, and also 3 bombs, one close to Burgess’ Headquarters, one in valley to Westward and one on razorback ridge. Apparently they were trying for Burgess’ battery. Late last night received part II orders from Base, showing our casualties.
During afternoon "D " battery 69th Brigade Howr shelled Snipers Ridge preparatory to venture at night by 3rd Infantry Brigade. Gen MacLagan, self and Major Brown with also Major [indecipherable] of How battery thoroughly examined country. The General explained project for the evening, which was to capture Turkish "Despair" trenches. At 10.15 PM operation commenced. Howrs put in a few rapid rounds, mines were exploded under enemy’s trenches and all guns of 7th Battery as well as one gun of 8th Battery engaged various objectives with the object of keeping down enemy’s fire. We were very successful. Olive Grove and Wine Glass Batteries put up a heavy fire but it was generally badly aimed and 9th Battery, helped by Lowland 5" Howrs kept them under. I watched the operations from my observing station. Very pretty sight and an awful din. Infantry took trench and commenced to reconstruct it. I went to bed at 1 AM.

Sunday 1st August
Enemy’s artillery opened a brisk fire at 4.15AM. particularly on trench taken by our Infantry. The 9th and 5" Batteries soon got on to them and eventually silenced them. New work being strengthened. Total casualties in Infantry 75 wounded and 20 killed, while Light Horse lost Col Harris killed. Many dead Turks could be seen in front of trenches, and generally we feel they had a very bad time. Lyddite shook them up. This afternoon How battery registered Southern end of this trench which is still in the hands of the enemy. Another operation will shortly give us the remainder of the trench. Our artillery fire proved most effective and Gen MacLagan tendered us today his best thanks and congratulations as also did General Hobbs. All guns being manned tonight in case of Counter attack.
War Diary for month of July sent to AAG Third Echelon.
Pitiable to see dead men today laid out for burial tonight. Wrote Nell. Twelve months today since Charley appointed to H.M.S. Charybdis.

Monday 2nd August
Enemy did not counter attack during night as expected. Very quiet. Visited Divisional Headquarters during morning, discussing mails and men’s rations. Had Gen Walker’s periscope repaired

[Page 133]
by W.O. Stamps. Heard from Major Griffiths that possibly Col Christian would get Artillery of New Division. Artillery will not be pleased if such is the case. Shell burst on 5" How. Battery today, killing one man and wounding another. Their first casualties. Hostile Aeroplane overhead during afternoon. Major Burgess fired 6 rounds two getting very close. I think we shall be able to keep the enemy off this position. Wish we had a couple of anti aircraft guns. Our first actual issue of H.E. Shell made today. 150 rounds per battery being supplied. Plentiful supply of ammunition generally coming forward now. All guns being again manned tonight in case enemy should counter attack on trenches captured by us. Enemy dropping some big high explosive shell in Victoria Gully, evidently searching for Howitzers. So far they have done no damage, and from our point of view we shall be pleased to se them put plenty of shell in the same place. Capt Bean obtained Artillery information from me concerning Saturday night’s operation.

Tuesday August 3rd

Again fairly quiet day. Olive Grove 6" Hows put in a few rounds. Also 6".2 from direction of Scrubby Knoll. One fell in 8th Battery, accounting for 6 casualties, fortunately none serious.
Getting phone lines laid out to new D.A. Station. Olive Grove and Headquarters guns shelling beach during afternoon and evening. Burgess and Stewart took them on and kept them reasonably quiet. New troops landed during night hence necessity for no shelling.
Interview with General Hobbs in evening. Information given that on 4th, 5th & 6th inst up to 3PM a general bombardment of enemy’s position on Johnstone's Jolly and Lone Pine would take place. On afternoon of 6th inst attack on Lone Pine will eventuate. Burgess and Stewart shelling Olive Grove till 1 AM. Secured splendid specimen of shell and fuze from gun at Headquarters. It fell into the sea at Anzac and was secured and brought to me by an Infantry Admirer.

Wednesday 4th August
No attempt at Counter attack by enemy during night of 3rd-4th- August. General bombardment of enemy’s position on Johnstones Jolly and Lone Pine carried out at intervals during day. During arrival of troops last night Olive Grove commenced a brisk shelling of Anzac Cove, but 9th Battery and 5th How Battery kept on to them all night and effectually kept their fire under.

[Page 134]
Underwent secondary inoculation against Cholera. General Hobbs at my Headquarters during afternoon. Very dissatisfied with condition of gun emplacement 5th How Battery. Divisional Orders (Secret) issued giving details of attack on August 6th. Hostile aeroplane again overhead. Engaged by 9th Battery. General Hobbs offered appointment as Orderly Officer to Gen Cunliffe Owen to Lt Garling, Lieut Glendinning and Lieut Pybus. All expressed their desire to remain with guns. Gen Hobbs had to detail Lt Pybus temporarily to the position. Enemy’s artillery quiet.

Thursday 5th August
Enemy’s artillery very quiet until 4 o’clock this afternoon when Olive Grove opened briskly. Interview with Gen Hobbs and Brigade Commanders at 8th Battery at 12 noon. General Bombardment again carried out, more ammunition being used than was allotted. More men arrived last night (Kitchener Army) also more men for 3rd F.A. Brigade. Sent a message to Divisional Head Quarters that "North Lancashires" had selected a bad spot for Bivouac on the Southern slopes of MaCay’s Ridge just under Burgess 3 & 4 guns. They will surely get Olive Grove, H.E, and shrapnel shell directed at these guns. Major Burgess warned them personally. At 9 AM this morning had O.C.s to my Head Quarters and went through Operation Orders with them. Received orders from 3rd Infantry Brigade at 5.15PM, and issued my own orders for tomorrows work at 7 PM. Had a little extra cover put over my "Dugout" in the shape of sandbags. Telephone Communication with new DA position established. Orderlies arranged for tomorrow for DA, Bde Hqs and Batteries in case of break down of Telephone lines. Gunner killed at 7th Battery.

Friday August 6th

Enemy did not wait for us to attack him today but commenced on us at daylight. I was awakened by heavy rifle fire and found the enemy was attacking Tasmania Post and Leanes Trench.
By dint of a very free use of powerful bombs the enemy got possession of a part of Leanes Trench, but was promptly turned out with the bayonet. I think we had a good many casualties but we also know the Turks suffered heavily. Fire was kept up all the morning. At 10 o’clock I interviewed General Hobbs at 8th battery. Arrangements completed for cooperation with Gen. Ryrie’s Operations for tonight. Visited 7th Battery and carefully went through all orders with battery Commander. At 4.30 PM intense bombardment of Lone Pine was commenced. Ground fairly trembled with Lyddite

[Page 135]
detonations from Howitzer shell. Navy also cooperated. Our old friend , H.M.S Bacchante again assisting. 1st Brigade attacked at 5.30 and succeeded in securing Lone Pine, the enemy retreating. Plenty of Shrapnel shell on Tasmania Post and 7th Battery. Three Casualties in BAC at 7th Battery, and Sergt Major Handford killed. Enemy reinforcing right flank to extent of about 1000 to 1500 men. Fully expect they will heavily counter attack tonight. Several Casualties in 5th Lowland Battery in front of my Head Quarters, including one of their officers. Many casualties among new English (Kitchener Army) arrivals in Victoria Gully. I understand these troops have at last been moved. Received letters from Olding and Selwen re transfer to 3rd F.A. bde.

Saturday 7th August
Heavy shelling by Navy and our guns during night. I have not yet heard if our operations were successful against German Officers Trench, but on Lone Pine our position is good. At daybreak Suvla Bay and vicinity presented a fine sight, innumerable craft of all kinds moving about, Men o War, Transports, trawlers etc carrying out landing of troops. The Turks must have received a terrible surprise when day dawned. It reminded me of our first day at Gallipoli. The casualties in this show must of necessity be very great. Heard that Turks had reinforced the Right Flank by about 1500 men towards dusk last night. We shall have to keep a sharp look out against Counter attack. A pretty incident at 6AM.
A German Aeroplane flew overhead, and presently one of our biplanes gave chase, manoeuvring for position. The Taube had the better speed and was able to get away. He certainly wasted no time about his departure. The Captive balloon is up watching and reporting effect of Navy shooting. At 6.30AM seven hospital ships were lying off Anzac and Suvla.
A shell landed 2 yards in front of my dugout doorway during the night but luckily did no damage. Lent Sergt and 20 men to Col Shepherd Lowland Brigade at 6.30 AM for transport of Ammunition.
Our troops now entrenched in Lone Pine. 7th and 9th Batteries did excellent work, the former against Infantry targets and the latter doing Counter Battery work. Very interesting to watch landing and movement of Troops at Suvla. An absolute picnic as compared to our first landing. They are pushing well forward, also New Zealand and Australian Division; and we hope soon to have Hill 971. An enemy battery got on to No 4 gun 7th Battery about 7.30 PM and put in 15 H.E. shell. Parapets were smashed to pieces, but neither personnel nor gun suffered damage. This gun kept up fire all night against Snipers Ridge, Weir Ridge and

[Page 136]
Wanliss Valley. Made a reconnaissance during the evening with the object of selecting new position near Chatham Post for No1 gun 7th Battery. No Success. Will try again during the morning. General MacLagan and General Ryrie expressed admiration of the work done by 7th and 9th batteries. Lieut Evans slightly wounded. I understand two Divisions landed at Suvla.

Sunday 8th August
Very heavy bombardment by our guns this morning of position in front of Hill 971. Howitzer Shells were passing my HeadQrs like Express Trains, and the noise generally was terrific. At 4.15 AM our NZ & A division together with new troops attacked along line 161-971. The rifle and machine gun fire together with our guns and guns of the navy made the place an inferno. Our flank is the pivot so matters are comparatively quiet here. 7th Battery again doing good work against Turks in the open. 9th Battery engaged silencing Wine Glass and Olive Grove. Selected new site for No1 Gun 7th Battery and got party to work on it. Informed Gen Hobbs accordingly. Major Anderson returned to duty today, just in time to join in the chorus. Enemy’s Artillery fire on this flank much reduced. Heard that 200 bags of Australian mails had gone down with a trawler. Also heard that we had captured 1500 Turks. Sad burial parties at work. Very many killed on both sides.
Got the No1 Gun 7th Battery into new position and reported to general Hobbs at 8AM that it was ready for action. Mr Forrest very ill. Had to be sent to Hospital Ship. 7th Battery put in a lot of shrapnel during the night. Our forces making good progress.

Monday 9th August
Worked up till 2 AM this morning with detachment for No1 gun, 7th Battery. We got the new emplacement bagged up on the exposed side; the balance of the work being carried out today by gun detachment. B.A.C. party making the approaches and communication trenches. Hope to do good work with this gun. Extra men reported from Alexandria for this Brigade. Very glad to see a/Br Mitchell, our Brigade Clerk. In Mr Forrest’s absence he will be a very great help. Could not write a decent letter home this week. Work here much too strenuous to admit of any time for oneself.
I have had 3 hours sleep in the last 3 nights. Terrific volume of shell over us since early morning. Before lunch the 7th Battery had over 600 shell landed into its position smashing down gun emplacements. Strange to say our only casualties were 1 man killed, 1 man wounded and Lt Ross wounded. His work has been most meritorious throughout and I am putting in a special report and recommending him for the Military Cross.

[Page 137]
The work done by the 7th Battery during the last 36 hours has been absolutely splendid. Enemy’s attack on Lone Pine this morning very vigorous. We estimate the 7th Battery accounted for over 500 Turks.
My forward officer in new trenches (Mr Turner) is doing good work. Quiet afternoon. Work on new gun emplacement continued and roadway being improved. Inspected 7th Battery during evening. Found parapet and gun emplacements demolished, 5 enemy’s guns having concentrated on them during the day. They were all rebuilt during the night. Worked at new gun emplacement till midnight. Received two letters from Nell dated 28th and 29th June: also one from Father and two from A.King.

Tuesday 10th August
A very quiet night. Very heavy fire early this morning. Our Left Flank heavily engaged. 2nd Artillery Brigade did great execution among massed enemy. Gen Hobbs informed me we captured 1000 rounds of 75M Ammunition. Capt Waite carried out two series in conjunction with Lieut Turner, just in front of new position Lone Pine and in gullies Northward. General Hobbs at 9th and 7th Batteries. Conveyed General Birdwood’s thanks and his own to all ranks and to myself personally. Generally very quiet on Right Flank during day. Enemy has evidently all he can do on the left. Assisting N.Z. Artillery with horses. Had four wounded yesterday moving their guns on left Flank. Aeroplane series for Miles this afternoon against Boghali. While this series was in progress a hostile Taube came over but was promptly chased and forced to the ground by our machine. I think my Adjutant was up spotting. I shall be pleased to hear his version. Laid down platform for No1 Gun 7th Battery. Emplacement now practically completed. Sent in full report of previous 3 days operation. Recommended Capt Waite for the Military Cross.

Wednesday 11th August
A very quiet night. Got a very acceptable sleep. Had a look at our newly captured trenches on Lone Pine. Notwithstanding the fact that our men have been cleaning up and rebuilding since 6th August the place is still in ruins and still gives an excellent conception of the damage caused by the bombardment on 6th August. The place is full of dead Turks. We have had large parties on day and night extricating bodies from damaged trenches and burying them, but there are still hundreds to get out. The smell is pestilential. My Head Qrs are distant about 750x and life is hardly bearable at that distance. It will take

[Page 138]
some days yet before these trenches can be placed in a Sanitary Condition. Visited Col Austin at Ordnance re extra Telephone switch boards. Badly needed. Our relieving medical officer was yesterday so ill that he was ordered off to Hospital and Capt Tozer AMC took his place. During the afternoon a high explosive shell burst in No 2 gun pit 7th Battery, wounding four men, two severely. Our casualties still go on mounting up. I have just heard that one of our gunners on loan to the Indian Mountain Battery was also wounded yesterday. Battle on the left still being vigorously pressed on.
From this extreme flank we can see nothing of the movement and get very little information. In any case we have our work cut out in our own zone. Received cable from Nell from Sydney dated 31.7.15

Thursday 12th August
A beautiful morning, heralded in by a Turkish gun trying to "wing" our captive Balloon used for observation purposes. Unfortunately for him the balloon is well out of range and he has already wasted about 30 rounds. Weather is gradually improving. The extreme heat of the day is gradually being reduced and the nights too are getting much cooler. No one will complain at the improvement. Enemy very quiet on this flank during the night, but cannot speak for the left. 7th Battery doing useful work on Contour 400 dropping shell within 3 yards of our own trenches in enfilade, destroying overhead cover and giving our bomb throwers a chance. S.M. Scarrot reported to me for duty as R.S.M. he is to take up work and Residence here at 9AM tomorrow. General Hobbs at my Head quarters. Informed me matters were ina satisfactory condition on Left Flank. Secured Turkish bayonet – hope rifle will follow tomorrow.
Major Su Vincent Welch 1st Field Ambulance presented me with the bullet which pierced my leg. He found it the morning after I was hit. Wrote Col Buckley London re switch boards. Stench from Lone Pine abominable. No1 6" Howr to be moved to new position so as to get more range.
Appended is casualty list from July 15th to August 11th 1915.
Lt Col Charles Rosenthal O.C. Wounded 20-7-15
7th Battery
No 1665 Gr McDowell A.R. Wounded 2-8-15
1614 Gr W. Hirst Killed 5-8-15
1601 B.S.M. Handford D.F. " 6.8.15
1662 Corporal Hanks G.K. Wounded 7.8.15
Lieut Ross P.J. " 9.8.15
No 2286 Bom Baynes E. Killed 9.8.15
1655 Bom McKinnon J.G. Wounded 11.8.15
1678 Br Dingwall A.F. " 11.8.15
1740 Gr Moore E.L. " 11.8.15
3822 Gr Thurwell S.O. " 11.8.15

[Page 139]
8th Battery
No 1793 Gr Carter S. Killed 17.7.15
1879 Dr Leonard D.B. " 17.7.15
1891 Sergt Taylor S.A. Wounded 17.7.15
1825 Gr Lovelock G.H. Killed 26.7.15
1777 Br Benporath F.H. Wounded 29.7.15
1895 Br Thackeral A.H. " 3.8.15
1806 Gr Elliott W.H. " 3.8.15
1802 Gr Dickson A. " 3.8.15
No 3052 Dr Church G. Wounded 3.8.15
1902 Gr Mcleod A.J. " 3.8.15
1827 Sergt Henry G.D. " 4.8.15
1805 Dr Eastwood H.A. " 6.8.15
1804 Gr Smith W.J. " 7.8.15
1804 Gr Ewing P.C. " 8.8.15
1580 Dr Belcher H.C. " 8.8.15
3045 Gr Barber C.W. Killed 8.8.15

9th Battery
No 1994 Gr Harris E.G. Wounded 17.7.15
2037 Gr Reid W.M. " 18.7.15
Capt R.S. Gee " 31.7.15
4161 Br Higgins R.R. " 1.8.15
Lieut A.A. Evans " 7.8.15

3rd B.A.C.
No 2922 Gr Withers L.R. Wounded 17.7.15
3768 Gr Mc Arthur J.A. " 18.7.15
2226 Br R.M. Craig " 18.7.15
2701 Gr Coombe F.A.E. " 22.7.15
2994 Dr Callaghan J.J. " 22.7.15
4161 Gr Smith G.E. " 31.7.15
No 3022 Gr Lipscombe J.H. Wounded 6.8.15
2286 Gr Lennane V.S. " 6.8.15
4058 Dr Kelleher H.J. " 6.8.15
2162 Dr Taylor E.J. Killed 5.8.15
2711 Gr Carphey C.D. wounded 11.8.15

Total Casualties to Aug 11th 1915 – 19 Killed 105 wounded.

Friday 13th August

Spent the morning thoroughly reconnoitring our new position on Lone Pine. Gained much valuable information concerning country north and south. Instructed Major Burgess and Capt Waite to make a similar inspection during the day. General Hobbs himself has not been through the position. Stench from dead bodies still dreadful though conditions are much improved. Enemy shelled the position very freely during the afternoon. S.M. Scarrot commenced duties as R.S.M. Gen Hobbs visited 7th Battery with me. During the afternoon a message came through that enemy was massing for attack on Lone Pine. Capt Waite located a number in trenches with fixed bayonets, put in a few H.E. shell and then followed them up with shrapnel. The 7th battery guns are splendidly

[Page 140]
placed for dealing with Lone Pine hill. The General of the 1st Aus Div sent to Capt Waite through General Hobbs a special message of thanks. This afternoon a flotilla of 5 planes came overhead making a very pretty sight.
During evening No 1 6" How was moved to a new position off Artillery Road near BROWN’S DIP. General Walker very anxious about Lone Pine. He anticipates an attack during the night. All our guns ready. About 8.30 a heavy rifle fire opened, but only lasted a few minutes. I think the Turks imagined we were about to attack them.

Saturday 14th August
Quiet night. 7th Battery fired a few rounds in front of Lone Pine position. General Birdwood with his ADC lord Anglesey spent some time at my Headquarters. He specially thanked my Brigade and myself for the work they have done. Expect a big move in the next three days. Established two forward Observation Posts in Lone Pine works with Lt Turner in charge, and 6 trained observers with specially long Periscopes. Enemy shelled this position heavily during afternoon but did no damage and caused no casualties. Heard today that casualties of our Army Corps and the 13th Division working with us is over 12000. I do not yet know actual number of killed and wounded Australians. These casualties are for the last 8 days. Re establishing all my telephone lines on permanent poles, so that spare wires and field poles May be ready for forward observing lines at any moment. Wrote to Nell, Charley, Alvord, Chris, Arthur King and the old folks. Received Argus and Australasian from Nell, also cigarettes from Lady Robinson London, for Queensland troops. Secured a Turkish rifle and bayonet which I hope to take home as a curio. Hospital ships a beautiful sight tonight. There are 5 of them and they have a distinguishing band of green electric lamps in the centre on Port and Starboard sides. Pybus doing well as A.D.C. to general Cunliffe Owen. Today we terminate our 16th week at Gallipoli. I wonder how much longer.

Sunday 15th August
Today we commence our 17th week in Gallipoli. Gen Hobbs consulted me today regarding employment of 3Pr naval guns which are expected shortly. He agreed with my suggestion that they should be grouped with 18pr Batteries in pairs under Battery Commanders. If we can succeed in getting the required number they will be of great value. Getting our new telephone lines and permanent poles established. Good progress made. Big mail in. No letters from home, only two papers

[Page 141]
from Nell. Miss Cowlishaw wrote me on May 21st. letter has been chasing me round and only reached here yesterday. Generally had a quiet day though the enemy shelled our Lone Pine position consistently for an hour, one man only being killed. We discovered a nice new gun emplacement yesterday, so Burgess let off a few rounds of H.E. shell and completely demolished it. Our H.E. is coming forward gradually and is a great adjunct to our usual ammunition. Col White called in to congratulate me on the Artillery work of this flank.

Monday 16th August
Spent the morning in reconnoitring Lone Pine position. Great possibilities for bringing 18pr guns into suitable positions for an advance. Mentioned the matter to general Hobbs on the phone. We will inspect tomorrow again. He called at my Headquarters while I was absent. Wrote to major Warren NSW asking him to send my two Ericsson telephones and two helmet cases. Our horses moved more 18pr guns to Left flank for New Zealanders during evening. Major Browne building new gun emplacements near Major Burgess’ Headquarters. Olive Grove and Wine Glass very active yesterday. The latter shelled our Lone Pine position and we could not locate guns. Consequently we opened with 7th Battery on their trenches. This very soon had the effect of forcing the enemy to switch on to our guns. He fired 52 rounds in 30 minutes but did no damage. Brigade telephone lines nearly finished, all on permanent poles and all air live. A most efficient service.
Last night very quiet. All along the line preparing for another big move. Brother Turk is not getting much rest or peace. Sunset tonight absolutely marvellous. The shipping at Suvla Bay has now assumed big proportions and the Bay is boomed against submarines. Then there are numbers of destroyers, 3 Monitors, trawlers, 5 Hospital ships and plenty of small launches.

Tuesday 17th August
With General Hobbs at Lone Pine looking at depression N.W. of Snipers Ridge and considering possibility of getting guns out that way when we have to advance. I am to get a report from Engineers as to how long it would take to make necessary approach – Gen Hobbs inspected 7th Battery – recommended that SSM Scarrot be appointed R.S.M., and made Warrant Officer to date 12th inst, also asked re acting Adjutant.
Olive Grove very persistent this afternoon. Major Burgess fired about 100 rounds before it was silenced. Am adopting the scheme of shelling enemy’s trenches when their Artillery opens on us and it generally has the effect of

[Page 142]
silencing them, their troops evidently not relishing being shelled in trenches and doubtless they ask for their own Artillery to cease fire. I shall try the experiment concerning Olive Grove at first opportunity. Major Roberts, 11th Inf Battn brought me in the remains of a bomb sent over his position last night. It furnishes me with another neat little percussion fuze for my collection and a drawn brass cylinder which will make a splendid gong. Lt Turner also brought me an unexploded specimen of 75M shell. I drew the charge and burnt it off. I now only want a 14pr HE, a 14pr Fuze and the Small Hotchkiss shell to complete a very nice selection. Doubtless before this show is finished if I am lucky enough to get through safely I May be able to secure all I want. Understand progress on Left Flank is satisfactory.

Wednesday 18th August
With Major Martyn, Engineers, selecting positions from which to make outward gun roadway to Lone Pine for possible advance on South Eastern front for 8th and 9th Batteries. On my return to Headquarters I found a 5" shrapnel had burst on percussion at the entrance to my "dugout", and had smashed things up generally, though fortunately the burst had been outward from the entrance and not inward.
Arranged with Col Robertson for certain bays of support trench in front of No 1 gun 7th Battery to have parapet and parados lowered. Trench being filled in at 7th battery to give better protection to no 4 gun. Enemy’s artillery very quiet. 7th battery fired a few rounds at Lone Pine works, and 9th Battery against Olive Grove. Received interesting letter from Capt Jopp, telling me of four encounters he has had with the enemy’s Taubes.
Headquarters of our Aerodrome now at Imbros. 6th Battery second Brigade arriving tonight, and New Zealand battery from Cape Helles arrived during the day. Our troops on left flank doing well but cannot get much information about the British troops cooperating.
Gen DeLisle in Command of Army corps operating from Suvla Bay.

Thursday 19th August
Mr Forrest returned from sick leave. Gave me a good deal of information concerning Imbros and Hospitals at Mudros. Told me of the torpedoing of the "Royal Edward" carrying about 1000 details troops, only 300 of whom were saved. Another ship full of ammunition had passed the same point about 3 hours before (about 200 miles from LEMNOS. The Austrian Submarine was evidently waiting for the ammunition ship. Col Fischer’s Hospital at Mudros has been erected, but the ship with all his

[Page 143]
stores has gone astray and he has had to carry on with equipment kindly lent by the Navy. A large condensing plant has now been erected at Mudros. From Chaplains reports to hand I see Capt Johnstone has been invalided to Australia permanently incapacitated. He came ashore at the Dardenelles (not on duty) and was hit while on the beach. Lt Sandy also very low from blood poisoning. Capt Marks was at Malta and returned here today. He had great difficulty in securing his return. Gens Walker and Hobbs at No 1 gun 7th battery. Very gratified with work of 7th battery on Lone Pine and expressed the wish that N. Zealand 18pr Battery should do equally good work on their side. Watched 7th Battery shooting, enemy also dropping shells into Lone Pine position and 7th Battery. One man killed by fragments of HE at Battery. Have just heard that a trawler with some thousands of rounds Artillery ammunition sank off Suvla last night. From enemy’s captured 75m Gun position we learn that their emplacements are under growing trees with heavy timber overhead cover and 6 feet of earth. I understand medical services have been instructed to provide for a campaign here lasting until November. Sent in note for pay required by Brigade in the first week of September. Hear definitely that 200 mail bags went down about 10 days ago in a barge, 160 being Artillery mails. Our luck is out.

Friday 20th August
Very quiet day. Spent the morning at 7th Battery. Watched Waite engaging works on Lone Pine. HE shell very effective. Lowland Howitzer Brigade moving from our section to Left Flank. Lt Turner brought me a 4".2 shell from Lone Pine; the head of which has been adapted to take ordinary field gun ammunition fuze. Evidently the Turks are short of the correct fuses for theses shell. Several that have come over lately have failed to explode.
Wrote A.T. Sharp asking if he could get me two Livingstone medical chests. A/Sergt Miller sent off to Hospital yesterday. We shall miss him very much in connection with our telephones and lines.

Saturday 21st August
Another casualty list at 7th Battery this morning. A H.E. shell struck side of gun itself and bursting wounded 4 men out of the detachment of 5, two dangerously. Gun itself has been badly dented and is permanently out of action. Arranged about overhead cover for 7th battery guns, and gave instructions for old casemate to be dismantled and timber to be secured. Hope to make cover that will be proof against H.E. shell. A big movement commenced on the left this

[Page 144]
afternoon, the objective being W. Hills near Chocolate Hills. A heavy Artillery bombardment commenced at 2.30PM and continued till 3.30PM, then for the rest of the afternoon and evening the heavy roll of musketry could be heard. We saw troops here withdrawing from Pine Ridge, evidently to reinforce the Left. This zone very quiet all day. Completing new Dugout at Headquarters for Adjutant and Orderly officer. Lowland batteries have now left us. Their camp was left in a filthy condition and ammunition lying in all directions. However they are very short handed through sickness, and have had no reinforcements. Lt Hogue LH, asked me if when a suitable time offered I would give him particulars of the work of Artillery here for a book he is to publish. I agreed. We complete tonight our 18th week here. I inspected Leane's Trench and Tasmania Post. Excellent trenches have been made in each position.

Sunday 22nd August
When I looked out at 5.45 this morning, I saw 7 Hospital ships at anchor. Evidently the casualties in connection with yesterday’s operations have been very heavy. We received an official message re position on Left Flank, but it is not very clear, and certainly does not indicate a substantial advance. Evidently part of the Infantry of our 2nd Australian Division is now employed in these operations. Arranged with Col Robertson to close and fill up part of a communicating trench adjoining No1 gun 7th Battery, to enable the detachment to erect a solid protecting wall against Wine Glass and Olive Grove. Also inspected 9th Battalion lines in "Wheat Field". A great deal of work has been done and trenches are scrupulously clean. Their new firing line will be ready in a few days. The 75M Guns from Gun Ridge fairly active. No damage done to us, but three men killed in Lone Pine. 7th Battery carried out an interesting demolition of enemy’s bomb proof positions and protected trenches at S.E. corner of our position on Lone Pine. New gun placed in action at 7th Battery to replace one damaged yesterday. In order to test enemy’s strength on this flank a ruse was carried into effect this afternoon and evening. Howitzers fired a number of rounds, one at lEast of which fell among our own trenches, and at night rifle fire etc was "let Loose" to draw the enemy. He holds the flank lightly now, his chief aim being doubtless to stop our advance on the left. Wrote Nell only this week.

Monday 23rd August
Received letters from Nell and Alvord dated July 12th,

[Page 145]
from North Sydney. At Lone Pine with general Hobbs and Col Johnstone. Instructed to "go slow" with ammunition, supply being temporarily short. Sergt Wallis and Corporal hare promoted to Commissioned rank. General asked for further names. Purpose commencing a class for their benefit at Brigade Headquarters. Mr Stamps completed repairs of gun for 7th battery. Two 6pr (Japanese) landed. General Hobbs ordered one to be placed in Gun lane near Lone Pine and the Second one at 7th Battery. One is being set up temporarily for trial. A 75 M shell landed into Lone Pine Telephone Station during afternoon, slightly wounding one Telephonist and the shock knocking the other one out temporarily. Very quiet day and night. Strong land breeze blowing, making plenty of dust fly and generally causing much discomfort. Temperature appreciably lowering. My cold rather bad, got the Medical officer to give me some tabloids.
Case of cigarettes received from Lady Robinson, London, 800 packets, which will be much appreciated. Inspected 7th Battery with General.

Tuesday 24th August
Went to White Valley to see 3pr Hotchkiss mounted. Two hours in the sun made me feel quite ill, and when I returned to my HQrs about noon I collapsed on my bed. General Birdwood and Hobbs called to see me. Good news received re Italy and Russia.

Wednesday 25th August
Lieut Hare left for Helles. In bed all day, very ill. General Birdwood and Hobbs called to see me during day and insisted on my going to Hospital Ship. Removed to clearing Hospital at 5 PM. Had to wait till 9PM to get on to Barge, reached ship about 9.30. Put to bed and fell into a semi conscious condition. Hospital Ship was the "Formosa" and Gen Hobbs also travelled by her to Alexandria, he having been taken ill the day after me, and reached the ship before she cleared Gallipoli. I remember him speaking once to me otherwise my mind is a blank. On reaching Alexandria I was removed to a Military Hospital practically in the town, the name or number of which I cannot remember, and after 24 hours there I was taken by Motor Ambulance to No17 General Hospital at Victoria, a suburb some miles out of Alexandria. Again relapsed into unconsciousness and remember nothing for some days. The doctors informed me that for some four days they Despaired of pulling me through, but eventually I "turned the corner", due they think primarily to my having been inoculated previously.

[Page 146]
general Hobbs came to see me during this period just prior to his return to Gallipoli. I can barely remember his visit.
Sent cable to Nell on 2nd and 9th September telling of my condition. On 12th September I received a cable from Nell, also letters from Charley, Nell and Alvord; also on 2nd received letter from Nell.
On 13th wrote Alvord re exam results, and John Halford re Charley’s fees. On 14th wrote Mr Forrest to send boots, breeches, etc from Gallipoli. On 17th Major Lynch came to see me. On 18th received handbooks of guns from Col Buckley London, and acknowledged same on 20th. On 20th wrote Nell, Charley on 21st and Gen Hobbs on 22nd telling of my condition. On 23rd received letters from Nell, Chris, Alvord and parents. On 24th replied to them all. Received letter from Miss Cowlishaw on 25th and replied on 26th. On 28th received letter from Alvord and A.T.Sharp, replying next day. Mrs Christian called but I did not see her. She left me some flowers and papers. Was able to get up and later get to Bath room and Lavatory. Received letter from charley on 30th inst and replied. On 1st October went to pay office in Major Lynch’s car. Feeling very tired but improving. Capt McLennan and McIndoe, Lt Urquhart and Major Lynch called to see me also my man Bligh who has been ill in Cairo Hospital but is now convalescent. Ward suddenly informed by Doctor that we had to embark on "Andania" for England on Monday October 4th. Reached boat at 10.30 AM on that day for motor ambulance and left Alexandria at 5.45PM. Thus closes my enteric Chapter. I don’t want another.

Tuesday 5th October
Very beautiful day. Found Major Vernon on Board he being the only officer I knew, excepting patients who had been in Hospital with me. There are 18 sisters on board under the charge of a matron, to attend the cot cases. There are 125 officers on board, five of whom are Australian, and about 1000 men. Ships course a zigzag one to avoid submarines. This ship was attacked on her last run from Mudros to Alexandria. Variation 10’. Each run being about 2 miles. Ship a very fine one of about 14000 tons, usually sailing between Canada and England. Ship in darkness at night, all Ports screened and all deck lights extinguished. Strict regulations regarding Sisters. They have their own reserved table for meals and are not allowed on deck after dinner. They also had a part of the deck allotted to them during daytime. Preliminary allotment of all passengers to boats.

[Page 147]
Wednesday 6th October
Again a very nice day. I slept, read and ate all day. The meals we are much enjoying after our limited diet in Hospital. We hardly miss a course. All the patients who were with me in Hospital are here, and we have a table to ourselves. Boat drill again today – everybody taking post at their boats, wearing Life belts - In fact Life belts are worn continuously by everybody during the day, even when at meals.

Thursday 7th October
Passed Malta very early this morning but not close enough to get a good view. Very nice day. Again boat drill. Left feeling still very shaky otherwise I am getting stronger.

Friday 8th October
Fine weather but somewhat of a swell. As however I now appear to be a seasoned sailor I have felt no ill effects. Amused myself at piano in smoke room in afternoon. Sang a couple of songs. Nothing much that I know in Ships Collection of music. To bed about 8.30 each night and sleep splendidly.

Saturday 9th October
Again fair weather but heavy swell. Boat pitching a good deal. She is empty and consequently well out of the water. Attended concert given in No 3 deck by the men. Very good indeed, especially their amateur band.

Sunday 10th October
Arrived off Gilbraltar at 5.30 AM. Instructions received by wireless to enter port and coal. Forts search lights, examination boat etc made a pretty sight. Went into harbour at 9AM and berthed by 11 AM. Gilbraltar a most imposing sight. Passengers allowed ashore till 1 PM. which was time set down for sailing. Chief officer had gone ashore, and as no attempt was made to hoist a gangway I decided to go down a rope ladder. I did not realise till about half way down how weak I was, and my arms nearly gave way. After pausing a while suspended in mid air I sufficiently recovered to admit of my safely reaching the wharf.

[Page 148]
I walked alone into the town and roamed around till 12.30, when I returned to the boat. Being Sunday shops were closed between 10AM and 1 PM, so could purchase nothing. I got hold of a stationer who had his shop door ajar and tried to get postcards, but he was afraid to sell. He gave me three cards which I sent to Nell and the boys. I also sent cable to Nell. Weighed myself and found weight at 13.5. Still plenty of room to fill out uniform. Very fine substantial stone buildings in Gilbraltar, very English in type.
I should have liked to inspect fortifications but time did not permit. Some of the officers who had driven into town in a jarry returned to the ship laden with cigars and cigarettes. They had obtained special permission from Chief of Police to get shops open. Ship was held up till 4PM, so some again went ashore after lunch and made some more purchases. I was much too tired to go. H.M.S. London our old Gallipoli friend is in harbour undergoing overhaul, also 2 other British Men o’War. Left Gib at 4.35. Took several photos with camera I had purchased just prior to leaving Alexandria. African coast very clear. Squalls coming up in West. At 6PM a huge pall of cloud like a mushroom hung over Gib making the most quaint picture imaginable. Stood straight out to Atlantic for 200 miles to avoid usual course. Under these Conditions it will be late on Thursday or early on Friday when we arrive at Devonport.

Monday 11th October
Very heavy swell. Quite a number could not leave their cabins. Officers want to have a concert tomorrow night. Very stiff and tired after yesterday’s jaunt through Gilbraltar. Went to bed at 8.30PM. Roused at 10.25 by Orderly medical officer regarding closing of Ports. Had a heated altercation with him, but eventually had my way.

Tuesday 12th October
Ship rolled very heavily during last night. Many did not turn up to breakfast. I have not missed a meal so far. Swell moderated during day. Had concert at night to which Matron and sisters were invited, and was held in Smokeroom. All ale performers – I sang two songs – "Goodnight beloved", and "In sheltered vale". Finished at 10 PM.

[Page 149]
Wednesday 13th October
Very heavy swell again – drizzling rain. Very miserable day. Saw a number of whales during morning. Lay down most of the day.

Thursday 14th October
At daybreak a French Man O War was just astern of us, and a British destroyer on either side. Man o’war left almost immediately, but Destroyers convoyed us into Plymouth Sound. We reached the entrance about 4PM, but as it was drizzling rain we could see very little. At 5PM we dropped anchor.

Friday 15th October
Got up at 4AM to look at Forts search lights. Effect very beautiful. On deck at 7 AM. Fairly clear morning. A very beautiful spot. Verdant green hills and autumn tints on the fine trees. A Submarine passed us about 7.30. At 8.30 we up anchored and moved up 4 miles to a berth. A very interesting trip up. We passed many types of naval craft including the Tipperary, one of the newest types of destroyers. We also passed one of England’s old wooden walls, with rigging and decks manned by about 400 boys who are in training. They gave us most inspiring cheers as we passed. We berthed about 11 AM, a Hospital train was in waiting and those who were for London entrained and moved off at 12.45PM. The journey through Devonshire was very interesting. The trees and fields are magnificent and the autumn tints charming. We were served with Soups and Sweets as well as afternoon tea on the journey to London. We reached Paddington station about 7 PM, and were sorted out to different Hospitals.
I was sent to No 3 London General, Wandworth Common S.W., also some of my fellow patients from Alexandria. We came in Sir Robert Balfour’s car, a very fine Rolls Royce. The doctor who was in our ward at Alexandria is with me in our Ward here, also Major Vernon.
Hospital staff supplied us with a very fine supper, and we retired at 11PM, thoroughly tired out.

Saturday 16th October
Went with Capt Sloper and Capt Walker RFA to town. Called on Colonel Buckley at Commonwealth offices and officially

[Page 150]
reported myself. Saw Col Flashman and Dr Waugh from Parramatta. Very poor offices. Col Buckley very kind indeed. Went to Army & navy stores to get Sam Browne belt, but could not get attention. Dr Sloper treated us to a motor run around the city and lunch at the "Trocadero". Returned to Hospital at 3PM feeling very tired. Men had a concert in patients recreation Hall at 4.30 PM. Programme contributed by outside people and was particularly good, especially the items of two Comedians. Wrote Charley and John, also cabled Nell.

Sunday 17th October
Stayed in all day. In afternoon walked around Hospital grounds. In the morning wrote Nell, Alvord and Chris. This Hospital was originally a school, but since the wear broke out has been converted into a Hospital and many temporary wards erected, in all capable of accommodating 1500 patients. Lt Olding came in last night, suffering from excema. He tells me Callaghan has won his D.S.O. More power to him.

Monday 18th October
Examined by Medical officer. I am to go before a Board tomorrow to determine how long I am to remain in England. The Colonel told me he expected they would give me a month with instructions to report and be re examined at end of that period. Had a letter from John Halford this morning – Smart reply to mine sent on Saturday afternoon. John called to see me at 4PM. Stayed to dinner. Had a long yarn about things in general. Arranged to see him tomorrow.

Tuesday 19th October
Went before Medical Board. The old Colonel wanted to give me 6 months in England, but I persuaded him to allow me 1 month in which to recuperate and to report at end of that period. Major Vernon sentenced to six weeks.
Saw Lt Hodgson. 2nd Brigade. Leg still very bad. While with him Mrs Hobbs and daughter with Lt new March called. NewMarch much improved. Apparently very happy in Miss Hobbs company. Met John in town at 11.30. went round for Sam Browne belt. Had great difficulty in getting it. Lunched with John at Regent Palace Hotel. He left for Bradford at 4 PM and I returned to Hospital.

[Page 151]
Wednesday 20th October
Went into town with Major Vernon in morning. Called at High Commissioners Office. Received bundles of letters and railway pass for Edinburgh. Called at Admiralty and War Office. Lunched at Regent Palace Hotel with Vernon and two of his wounded junior officers. Read letters after lunch. Called on A.T. Sharp – had a long yarn with him. He wants me to spend some evenings with him. Asked if he had any family – "Drawn a blank" said he. I find two medical chests have been donated by ladies here to my Brigade through my letter to Mr Sharp. Had dinner at above Hotel. Took 11.30 PM train via NorthEastern from King's Cross Station to Edinburgh.

Thursday 21st October
Arrived Edinburgh about 8 AM. At once found my way to Leith Docks. Got aboard H.M.S. Vulcan and sent a message off to Charley on Zealandia.. Went back to North British Hotel at Waverley Station, had breakfast at 11 AM. Just after lunch while in my room Charley bounded in. Our meeting was certainly emotional. We had of course quite a lot to talk about. After afternoon tea went down to Dalmey where Charley’s pinnace hauls in alongside the Forth Bridge. I went off with him to his ship. Had a long talk with Capt Harbord. Found Charley’s progress was quite satisfactory. I endeavoured to arrange 10 days’ Charley coming to London. The reply is to come through tomorrow. Hope it will be granted. Magnificent view of Forth Bridge and river from bank. River full of naval craft of all kinds. The 3rd Battle Squadron has its H.Qrs here. Entrance under bridge netted. Two new fast cruisers passed out just as we were boarding the launch. Beautiful sunny day. Retired at 9PM, dead tired.

Friday 22nd October
Charley turned up just before lunch but only had leave for the week end. We caught the 2.20 PM train for Bradford and arrived there about 8.30. All very glad to see Charley. Edith appears to be a fine little woman and I don’t wonder Charley likes to spend his holidays there. She seems to have mothered him splendidly and I feel very grateful.
Went to bed very tired.

[Page 152]
Saturday 23rd October
Went down into the town during the morning. Met most of Halford family at their place of business. Bought leather dressing case for Charley. Went to Halfords (Senior) for tea. Met George there. He has just become engaged to a Birmingham girl. Mrs Halford arranged for all the family to be at tea to meet me, and we had quite an enjoyable evening, a game of bridge included. Got to bed very late.

Sunday 24th October
Wrote letters in the morning. Went to Halfords (Sen) for dinner and tea. Had a little music. Returned too Merton Road at 8 PM. Had supper and then packed Charley off back to Edinburgh.
We all yarned till nearly 11 o’clock.

Monday 25th October
Said goodbye to every body. Thoroughly enjoyed my stay in Bradford, dirty as it is. Shirley a darling little child and very great pals with me. I should have liked to bring her away.
Left Bradford at 10.15AM, reached London at 2.30. Went to Commonwealth Offices for letters. Turned in at 8PM.

Tuesday 26th October
At Commonwealth offices, Tailors, Army 7 navy Stores, War Office, Admiralty etc and generally had a busy day.
Gradually learning my way about in busses tubes and taxis. The latter too expensive. Met Alice Paul. Found her very lonely. Arranged to take her to two matinees.

Wednesday 27th October
At Colonel Buckley’s office with Col Arnott re journey to France. Went out to Hospital to get kit bag and washing. Saw some of our Australian officers there. In afternoon went with Alice to matinee "The birth of a Nation". Very good, but very sad. Wrote letters at night.

Thursday 28th October
At Tailors, Army & Navy Stores re pistol, and to Commonwealth Offices for mail. Have had no letters from Nell for some time. Wrote to Miss Cowlishaw in Scotland. Took Alice to

[Page 153]
afternoon matinee. "The man who stayed at home." Exceedingly clever and interesting.

Friday 29th October
Went to Edith Cavill memorial Service in St Paul’s Cathedral in the morning. Densely packed and a very solemn service. Life guard’s band played in the Cathedral.
After lunch I went to Commonwealth offices and then to Horse Guards parade to inspect a number of German field guns captured by our troops at Loos. There were also on exhibition German aeroplanes, torpedoes and mines. I am hoping to get photos of them. Received letter from Charley’s admiral refusing week’s leave. Wrote to Charley and informed him.

Saturday 30th October
At Commonwealth Offices and War Office also at Tailors. Capt Paul returned home on leave from France. Went to dinner with him and Alice, afterwards went to Empire Theatre.

Sunday 31st October
I intended to go to Service at St Pauls Cathedral but it rained heavily all day so I did not go out, but did a day’s reading and study of London map.

Monday 1st November
Called on Commonwealth office for letters. Received a few. Called on A.T. Sharp and Buckleys. Had lunch with Dr Paul and Alice at the "Rendezvous". Dense fog today. At noon all lights had to be turned on, and it was quite black in the streets. At 12.30 it lifted and the afternoon turned out fine. Very tired. Stayed at home in the afternoon and evening.

Tuesday 2nd November
Had a look round at Search lights and gun positions for protection against Zeppelins. Called at Regent Palace Hotel for any stray letters. Found two had been sent to dead letter office.
With Colonel Buckley re journey to France. He says it cannot be arranged. We shall see. Lt Olding called and spent the afternoon with me.

[Page 154]
Wednesday 3rd November
George Halford coming to London for week end. With him I shall see some of the City’s Architectural beauties. Went into Westminster Abbey but as a Service was in progress could not examine the building in detail. Will go again with George. Saw St Margarets, Westminster, also the fine large Hall at Westminster, (the roof of which is now undergoing repair) and the House of Commons, where for a short time I listened to a debate. Went to Lady Robinson’s residence in the afternoon re gifts to my troops at Gallipoli. At night went with Mr & Mrs A.T. sharp to ANA debate at Palace Hotel, Bloomsbury St. Sang a song for the Company – all Australians. Met Miss Nayler there who seems to be a friend of Mrs Frayers. She said she had been staying at Oriental Hotel, Springwood, when Nell and myself were there some 3 years since.

Thursday 4th November
At Commonwealth Offices. George arrived from Birmingham and came to dinner with me. In afternoon called on Mr Forbes at Muswell Hill. Met his wife and two daughters. He has two sons at the front. My introduction to them given by Sister Kelaher, the nurse in charge of our ward at Alexandria.

Friday 5th November
Went to office of officers Training Corps at Lincoln's Inn with George. (I should have said Inns of Court).
I introduced him to O.C., and got him through all his examinations except Medical, which is set down for tomorrow. Saw effect of recent air raid in this locality, walls being damaged and all windows smashed. Visited S.Pauls with George. Not allowed to inspect thoroughly. Towers etc not now open to public. George lunched with me. Dinner and theatre with Dr and Mrs Paul.

Saturday 6th November
George and self at O.T.C. offices. He was medically examined. Lunched with me. Attended performance of "Elijah" at Albert Hall in afternoon. Saw Colonial Institute, Kensington Museum and other interesting Architectural work in this locality. Alice ill, very heavy cold, also bad cold myself. Mentioned with a number of other Australian Officers in Sir Ian Hamilton’s despatches.

[Page 155]
Sunday 7th November
George returned to Birmingham. Stayed in all day. Alice Paul in bed.

Monday 8th November
List of Kings Honours published in London gazette. Our Artillery Officers predominate. The 44th Battery well represented. Myself C-B, Majors King and Rabett CMGs, and Callaghan D.S.O. All for distinguished services at Dardanelles. Capt Paul returned to France. Alice had to call in a Doctor who found her suffering from Bronchitis. Ordered to remain in bed.

Tuesday 9th November
Very wet miserable day. Saw Lord Mayor’s show which was rather spoilt by the rain. Went to dinner at night with Mr & Mrs Sharp who are living at Willesden. They showed me about 1000 photos illustrating their holiday tours since they have been in England. Many letters and wires of Congratulations re C.B. decoration.

Wednesday 10th November
Looking at shops for presents for home. A difficult task to select suitable things that will be useful.
At Commonwealth Offices – still no letters from home. There must be a good batch somewhere. Wrote letters at night to all members of the family.

Thursday 11th November
Took Photos of guns etc at Horse Guards and also a detachment of Guards. Light not too good – doubtful if results will be satisfactory. Called on Miss Cowlishaw and had along yarn with her concerning war experiences. Charley wrote me to say he has been transferred to H.M.S. Hindustan, much to his disgust for the Zealandia is off on some job of interest and danger, hence the reason for midshipmen to be transferred to a Home Ship.
Sent letters of congratulations to all our Artillery officers who have received decorations and enclosed a piece of ribbon for each. Alice still in bed but much better.

[Page 156]
Friday 12th November
Miserable wet day. Went out in morning to Commonwealth Offices. Stayed in all afternoon and evening.

Saturday 13th November.

Called for developed films and prints of guns etc at Horse Guards. Results very good, no failures. After lunch went by train to Bexley in Kent to spend the week end with Major & Mrs Reid. Had an exceedingly enjoyable afternoon and evening. Very nice home full of curios from all lands.

Sunday 14th November
Went with Mrs Reid to see her husband’s Command at Dartford. Attended military Church Parade in Village Church, which dates back 650 years. A memorial address vis one of Major Reid’s officers who died from the effects of a stroke the day before. Pleasant afternoon in the garden at Bexley. Another officer invited for the evening. Had some music. I played all the accompaniments and sang several songs.

Monday 15th November
Spent morning at Bexley. Came to London during afternoon with Mrs Reid and Capt Reid, her stepson. He was in Hospital with me at Alexandria. Met Corporal Benson of 3rd FAB HQrs at Whitehall. He had afternoon tea with me and gave me a good deal of news Concerning Gallipoli happenings after my departure last August. He has been invalided with dysentery.

Tuesday 16th November
Had photo taken at Elliott & Fry. With Alice selected Kimono at Harrod’s for Nell and sent it off together with books for Chris and Alvord and also a signalling lamp for the latter. Very miserable foggy day.

Wednesday 17th November
Visited Somerset House and some of the Thames bridges. Took photo of torpedoes, mines and aeroplanes at Horse Guards Parade. At War Office and Commonwealth offices re France.
Received letter from Nell dated September 21st

[Page 157]
Thursday 18th November
Visited Westminster Cathedral (Roman Catholic). At Commonwealth and Colonel Buckley’s offices. Stayed at home in afternoon.

Friday 19th November
Interviewed War Office re France. Application for attendance sent by War office to G.H.Q. France. War office approves. Interviewed Admiralty re Charley’s transfer to R.A.N. Agreed to transfer him to HMAS Australia and later permanently to RAN. He si to finish his training and examination in the R.N.
Dinner with Miss Cowlishaw and Mrs Dr Phipps, afterwards to the Colosseum Theatre.

Sunday 20th November
Attended at "Anzac Buffet" at ceremony in honour of Anzac V.Cs. Sang for them. With Mr & Mrs Sharp went to dinner with Mr Chowley, the editor of the British Australasian. Had very enjoyable evening.

Sunday 21st November
Stayed at home in the morning. In afternoon accepted Lady Robinson’s invitation to afternoon tea. Met there Lady Birdwood and daughter, also Lady Newton Moore. Colonel Cannam also there. Quite a long talk with Lady Birdwood and Sir Thomas Robinson re Gallipoli.

Monday 22nd November
At Commonwealth Offices at Colonel Buckley’s Office. Went with Miss Cowlishaw to Hampton Court. Rather a dull day. Did not see all the available interiors. Got cuttings from the famous vine (Black Hamburgh) and am sending them to Australia.
Gardener promised to save me a few.

Tuesday 23rd November
Spent the day in looking at Churches, particularly Westminster Cathedral (Roman Catholic). Had photo taken again. Got photos of a number of Cathedrals. War Office informed me re going to France.

[Page 158]
At War Office and Admiralty – the latter re Charley’s proposed transfer to H.M.A.S. Australia. At dinner with Miss Cowlishaw and her friends at Inverness Terrace. Went to theatre with them afterwards.

Thursday 25TH November
A thorough inspection of Westminster Abbey, particularly Henry VII chapel. At Admiralty and Commonwealth Offices.

Friday 26th November
Spent the day with Lt Olding at Hampton Court. Secured cutting of famous Black Hamburgh Vine. Bitterly cold day. Called on General Walker at Park Lane Hospital. Took Miss Cowlishaw and Alice to theatre.

Saturday 27th November
At Admiralty. Informed Charley’s transfer to "Australia" has been approved. Received orders to report at Southampton on Monday for journey to France, but later received cable from Gallipoli, through Col Buckley ordering me to return to Gallipoli if fit. French trip is in consequence cancelled, much to my regret.

Sunday 28th November
Packing during morning. Letter writing in evening. In afternoon took Miss Cowlishaw to Wandsworth Hospital and introduced all 3rd Brigade men to her. She has promised to look after them. Alice away for week end with her banker and his wife (Mr & Mrs Scott). She returned tonight. Charley gazetted to HMAS Australia.

Monday 29th November
Busy morning buying a few articles I acquired. Said "Goodbye" to Col Buckley – Arranged for a dozen photos to be sent to various addresses. Gave Alice and Miss Cowlishaw one each. Left London (waterloo) at 2.10, arrived Weymouth 6.30 PM. Car waiting for me. Lt Olding with me. In view of crowded state of camp, Commandant asked me to stay at Royal Hotel. Annoyed to find Transport not yet available. Shall try tomorrow to get over to France if only for one week.
Wrote to Army & Navy also United Service Clubs. Bitterly cold wet night. Weymouth pitch dark.

[Page 159]
Tuesday 30th November
After breakfast reported to Adjutant, Wyke Regis Camp. Telephoned Brig Gen Peake War Office re trip to France. In view of delay in getting transport away to the Dardanelles he is arranging for me to leave tomorrow for Southampton and France. Olding and I intended to walk around Weymouth before breakfast, but rain was falling heavily so we desisted. Weymouth a very pretty spot. Two Destroyers and several Trawlers in the Bay. Secured official Municipal handbook of town. War office rang up during evening. Leaving for Southampton in the morning.

Wednesday 1st December
Left for Southampton at 9.5. arriving there at 11.50 AM. At once took Taxi to embarkation office. Instructions are to board Havre Packet after 10 tonight. Boat will leave at 7AM tomorrow. Had lunch at Southampton West Hotel. Then took ferry to Cowes (Isle of Wight) thence small launch to East Cowes, then motored to R.N. college Osborne. Made myself known to the Staff, had afternoon tea with them, and afterwards paymaster showed me all over the grounds and buildings. They have now about 480 boys in College. Saw Charley’s photo in group of 1913 First Rugger 15, also photo of our first fleet entering Sydney harbour. This I had sent to Capt Bentwick, who has had it framed and hung in one of the reading rooms. I consider the boy who has the opportunity of training and education at Osborne is distinctly lucky.
Returned to Southampton at 7 PM, had dinner, read the papers, and embarked on the Turbine packet "Hautaua" at 10 PM. I discovered I was the senior officer on board, so had to act as O.C. Troops, not very arduous, as the run only lasts 6 hours, and the only troops on board were about 26 officers and about 60 men.
Was called up at 2 AM to sign certain papers.

Thursday 2nd December
Left Southampton at 7 AM. As soon as we cleared Southampton water the boat began to pitch and toss most unmercifully and as a consequence I lost my breakfast, but enjoyed my lunch just as we were entering Havre. A very wet miserable day. Could do no sight seeing. After reporting myself to the Base Commandant, I went to the British officers club which extended to me the privilege of Honorary membership. I read a number of papers, dined there and returned to Base Commandant’s office at 8.30 PM.

[Page 160]
Took motor bus to rail station, drew 2 days ration (bully beef and biscuits) and entrained for Bethune via Rouen. Left Havre about 11.30 PM. Had a fitful night’s sleep.

Friday 3rd December
Arrived at Rouen in early morning. Detrained about 7.30 AM. Reported to R.T.O. at 9.30. Instructed to report to train at 4.30 PM today for Bethune. Have spent the day in Rouen visiting the noted examples of Gothic Architecture, seeing the town generally, visiting the markets, purchasing views for Nell also a couple of simple ornaments and a small copper bowl with Rouen Coat of Arms thereon – this latter as a Souvenir of my visit here.
Had lunch at Hotel L’Angleterre, Quai de la Bourse.
Took train from No 11 line at 5.25PM for Bethune via Abbeville. Had about 500 officers and men on board and I was O.C. train. In consequence I had a first class compartment reserved for me and had a very comfortable journey.

Saturday 4th December
Arrived at Abbeville in early morning. Detrained some Cavalry there. Arrived Bethune about 12.30 PM. Passed numbers of troops and transport of all kinds during this latter part of the journey, both French and British.
At one Station troops on the train bartered their tinned meat and biscuits with the local inhabitants for bread. Very interesting Country. For the most part arable land, some cultivated, well timbered and watered. Most buildings are of brick roofed with tiles, but in a very bad state of repair and apparently very old and neglected. The A.D.C. to General Cartwright Commanding 1st Divisional Artillery met me at the train with the General’s car and drove me out to the Headquarters in the village of Mazingarbe. The whole district is given over to mining, these coal mines behind our lines being at work, while those in the immediate vicinity of Artillery fire are closed down. General Cartwright had arranged for me to have my meals with his mess, and a very cosy billet for me with an old French lady named Madame Hennequet, who with her daughter has remained here in the old farm throughout all the shelling, so far without hurt. There is a fine pear orchard attached to the house. Electric light is supplied from the mines (but temporarily

[Page 161]
cut off) and a Sewerage System is installed. A Capt Heslop, 21st London Regt (Territorial) is also billeted in this house and fills the appointment of "Town Major", a multitude of duties being allotted him. The 1st DA is commanded by Brig Gen Cartwright D.S.O., and has with him as his staff the following officers: - Brigade Major, Capt Rory Dougall, Staff Captain, Capt Pile and A.D.C. Lt Umreville. The 1st Division is commanded by Major General Holland C.B. M.V.O, and forms part of 4th Army Corps under Lt General Rawlinson. This Corps forms part of 1st Army commanded by General Sir Douglas Haig.
The 1st Divisional Artillery comprises the 25th Brigade, O.C. Col Scott, 26th Brigade O.C. Col Hinton CMG, 39th Brigade O.C. Col McNaughton DSO, and 43rd (How) Brigade OC Col Sharp C.M.G. Attached are two 6" Howrs. Heavy Artillery controlled by Corps consists of 9".2 guns and Howrs, 8" Howrs, 6" guns, 4.7 guns and 6" Howrs.
This Division has extreme right of line (excepting another Division at Arras, the French holding a portion of front in between) and British troops hold from the position through YPRES almost to the coast, the Belgians holding but a small sector.
Officers and men are generally billeted in brick buildings until recently occupied by miners, a few still remain, together with women and children notwithstanding constant shelling by the Boche. Head Quarters Divisional Artillery are housed in a very nice two story residence recently occupied by a doctor, while Divisional Headquarters are located in a magnificent Chateau owned by a wealthy mine proprietor whose income I am informed reaches £300,000 per annum._
Brigade Major during afternoon explained on the map the disposition of the enemy’s and our own trenches, specially with relation to the recent advance and capture of Loos.
On my return to my Billet after dinner I was held up by three sentries in succession and had some difficulty in establishing my bona fides until I communicated by phone with the Div Arty Bde Major. Had an excellent night’s rest, sleeping in a very oldfashioned bedstead.

Sunday 5th December
After breakfast General Cartwright left to inspect D.A.C. while Brigade Major conducted me round some of the Batteries. Visited two 18pr batteries of 25th Brigade, and inspected gun emplacements and dugouts generally. Men billeted.

[Page 162]
Plenty of women and children still remaining in what perhaps is to them their only home. Saw 8" Howrs (converted from 6") in action against Country left of Loos, known as Wingles Towers, also 4".7 and 9".2, the latter on railway mountings. Enemy shelling our Front line very heavily. Saw French 6" guns adjoining our 8" also section of 13prs on special carriage as Anti Aircraft guns. Just beside DAHQ and on the right front also close to DAHQ are batteries of French 75s. Enemy had 4 captive observation balloons up while we had one. After lunch enemy’s Artillery fire was very brisk for about an hour, and during this time I counted 18 Aircraft overhead, about 12 being British.
The "Archies" were busy on them from both sides but did no damage. Lavish use of steel rails and joists, also timber beams from buildings in dugouts. Plenty of bricks available. Generally "dugouts" very deep and comfortable. Gunpits sunk about 2’.6" and embrasure about 2.6" high from original ground surface. Overhead cover of steel joists, brick and earth, generally about 5 feet thick. Batteries generally worked as a whole, the Major being forward. Country very flat. Dumps from mines serve as vantage points and observation stations. Chalk underlying soil. Fuzes now numbered to 100. New delay action percussion fuse for H.E. Shell. The 9".2 guns are on Railway mountings on mine lines. Met Capt Hanbury Davies (from Sydney) with 8" Howrs. He enquired after Major Watts with whom he attended a course. Another Subaltern (whose name I have forgotten) from Sydney University is with the 25th Brigade. Quite nice day. Roads very muddy and fields very soft.
Arranged with General Cartwright to visitLoostomorrow, where I shall be able to see the village, which has suffered bombardment from both sides and is a veritable shambles.
Last night the whole country was brilliantly illuminated with the enemy’s and our own flares. Very little Artillery fire during night and nearly all came from our guns. Wrote today to GHQ and to Base Commandant re wire concerning place and date of departure.
I have asked permission to return via Boulogne and Folkestone instead of via Havre which would mean a much longer journey.

[Page 163]
Monday 6th December
After breakfast went out with General A.D.C. to Fosse 7 where a number of guns of this Division are emplaced. Enemy was shelling this position very vigorously with 4".2 High Explosive, so we decided it was wiser to keep on a flank in a field rather than go to the actual gun positions until such times as enemy’s fire ceased. After about an hour fire died down and eventually ceased. We then moved forward and inspected two French Batteries of 75s, three 18 pr batteries, 6" Howitzers, 4".5 Howitzers 4".7 and 8" How batteries. We saw all these in action for a 6 minutes bombardment of the enemy’s lines, and it was a very inspiring sight to see all theses guns Loosing off at once, about 50 guns in all in an area of perhaps not more than 20 acres.
Our guns are all very well dug in, excepting Seige Artillery, and have good overhead cover, but the French batteries had only splinter proof roof, one having no cover at all. Sun shining brightly and atmosphere clear so I had a good view of distant trenches and all artillery fire. General Cartwright was called away this morning so I did not get to Loos. This trip is deferred till tomorrow. Met today Major General Holland CB, commanding the Division and General Budworth commanding the Corps Artillery. Colonel Scott, commanding one of the Artillery Brigades here is ordered back to England to take up munitions and Ordnance work, and is naturally very sore at having to leave a fighting unit. Our Artillery now appears to have plenty of shell here, as this morning’s bombardment clearly demonstrated.
Attended lecture at night given by an Engineer captain regarding construction and maintenance of trenches. I gave them details of our trench work at Gallipoli. Lecture held in large Residence set apart for instructional purposes. Any officers who in the immediate future are to have command of companies etc are withdrawn from units and put through a thorough course, inspecting the fronts during the day and receiving instructions from lectures at night.
All horses, both British and French are stabled in the villages, tethered to brick walls which surround the houses of better type. Many are accommodated in side streets and in specially constructed shelters of timber and iron or ruberoid.

[Page 164]
Tuesday 7th December
With Brigade Major motored out to vicinity of Fosse 7 on Lens Road then walked past the old British line to crest of ridge (Hill 65) just overlooking Loos, and from the trenches here observed a bombardment carried out by our Artillery at 10 AM. Shooting appeared very good. The 9".2 Howr battery engaged a small building near the edge of enemy’s lines, which has been harbouring machine guns. It fired 26 rounds, 2 of which were blind, several fell within a few yards of building, but the last two shots absolutely demolished the building. Our aeroplanes were overhead and one had 47 shrapnel fired at it in the space of 1 minute. When returning to DAHQ we called at and watched the 4’.5 Howr battery at work at Fosse 7, and immediately on our leaving this latter spot the enemy commenced shelling with 4".2 shell. We had just left in time. After lunch I watched 9".2 Howr shooting. It is a wonderful gun, firing a 290lb shell of which 4 a minute were actually fired.
The service of the gun was very smart. Range about 10,000x. I also watched 6" guns adjoining firing a series. These have a range of 20,000x and have frequently fired at 17,500x. These 6" guns and 9".2 Howrs are placed in the garden surrounding Divisional Headquarters, and on my way to them I passed a very beautiful pond, with very tame white swans swimming about quite at home there notwithstanding continual artillery fire.
Col Scott commanding 25th Brigade has today received his orders to report to England at once for munition work. He has an Advanced Ordnance Certificate. He is very much annoyed at having to leave. While out in the advanced positions this morning one could see any quantity of equipment of all kinds lying about, and between our new lines and the Enemy’s, many dead bodies, which no one dare bury. There are also several demolished field guns (German) and dummies.
The buildings inLoosand adjoining villages are sadly damaged and especially the magnificent machinery buildings of the various mines, which must have cost millions to put in position. The4 destruction of property is colossal. Nearly all French troops here wearing new steel helmets. British are still generally wearing the Field Service cap, though a few steel helmets are issued for use in the trenches.

[Page 165]
Wednesday 8th December
While General Cartwright was out on inspection duty I went round to watch the 6" and 9".2 Howrs shooting. I met Colonel Vincent commanding the Heavy Artillery and had a long interesting chat with him. The 9".2 especially did good shooting. Quite a number of aeroplanes, both ours and the enemy’s were overhead. During the afternoon one plane had no less than 137 rounds fired at it in four minutes, but no damage done. Divisional Head Quarters have kindly given me every facility for observing the frontage here and have supplied me with maps etc, so that all future movements of troops in this area I shall be able to follow with ease when I have returned to Gallipoli. I find that Generals Budworth and Cartwright were subalterns in the same battery in India with S.S.M. Hobson (from Queensland).
Met Gen Holland at DAHQ tonight. He asked me to dinner tomorrow night after I have given a lecture to the Officers school on "Operations in Gallipoli". Enemy shelled Mazingarbe last night, killed a few men and wounded some horses, besides doing damage to buildings. Several shell fell near DAHQ and made the women domestics in the House seek the cellar. Col Scott left for London. Plenty of London motor busses in this locality.

Thursday 9th December
With generals A.D.C. left D.A.H.Q. in car at 6.15 AM. Went for some distance along Lens Road, then dismissed the car and walked into Loos. Made a thorough inspection of this town. It has been terribly shelled and is absolutely a heap of ruins. There is hardly a house that has not been hit by shell. While we were there a number of shell were sent over, but did no damage. Quite a number of French and British troops are billeted among the ruins and debris. Saw an old German Battery position with quite a lot of Ammunition lying around also wicker ammunition carriers. I brought one away with me, also a shell, as a reminder of my visit to Loos. Hope later on to go beyond Loos into the forward Infantry trenches. Prepared two maps of Gallipoli about 4ft square to illustrate lecture. Lectured to about 60 officers including Maj Gen Holland C.B. D.S.O., and Brig Gen Cartwright D.S.O. I think the lecture proved to be interesting and instructive. After lecture General Cartwright and myself proceeded to Divisional HQrs and dined with the

[Page 166]
Divisional Commander and his Staff. Dinner would have done credit to any of the best London Hotels. Divisional Band performed during the evening. Very fine Dining room in the Chateau.

Friday 10th December
Had breakfast at 5.30 at 1st Div HQrs. General Holland had arranged to send a staff officer to conduct me round half of the firing line trenches. This officer (Capt Dobbie) took me in the cra as far as Quality Street, Fosse 7. We then walked through the rear ofLoosand inspected front line trenches including the Chalk Pit, where a 4".% How is being emplaced. Trenches were in a terrible condition – sandbags have in many cases fallen in taking the walls of trenches with them. water and slush ankle to knee deep.
Very few men supplied with gum boots though. Altogether conditions exceedingly bad. Returned to Vermelles via Popsen Alley which was awful with mud. Picked up car at Vermelles, reached home at 10.30 AM. Had lunch with General Holland. After lunch he drove me out 16 miles to Fenay, where his Division is billeted when in rest. Here he has a bomb school in progress. Selected and proved officers and N.C.Os are appointed as Instructors and a proportion of men from each battalion is put through a fortnightly course of instruction.
I saw all varieties of hand grenades and bombs successfully thrown in actual trenches specially prepared. The following are to be seen:- Machine guns – Lewis and Maxims, rifle grenades, catapault grenades of two varieties, 11’2" and 4" French Mortars. General Staff gave me book on bombs etc. Passed through a very beautiful agricultural country also mining. School is housed in romantic old Chateau. Had dinner at Div Arty HQrs and after dinner had along talk with Gen Cartwright and his Staff Capt, Capt Pile, re life and customs in India, they both having served some years there.

Saturday 11th December
By arrangement with Gen Holland I breakfasted at DHQ at 5.15AM and left with him and Col Longridge at 5.45. to see the remainder of the trenches held by 1st Division. We motored out almost to Hulluch, then took the trenches and moved through the balance of the first line trenches and the first support trench.
Exceedingly heavy rain had fallen during the early morning and the men were miserable looking beings, while the trenches were past

[Page 167]
description. A number of land slides had taken place during the night and in consequence it was really unsafe to move along the trenches, one’s head being often well exposed. Luckily no one was hit, though a good many rifle bullets passed by us. We returned tom Vermelles and had a good look at this town, the scene of much sanguinary fighting. The buildings are all shattered as the result of shell fire. Boarded the car here and reached home at 11.30, miserably wet and dirty. For at lEast 2 miles out of the 5 miles we walked, the water and slush in the trenches were well over the knees, and I was very thankful I had brought my trench waders with me. After lunch I went in General Cartwright’s car to Bethune and had a good look at this very interesting town. The Central Square with its quaint tower, and the old church are places of interest. There are many very excellent shops and the inhabitants are doing a splendid trade with the Soldiers. On my return to Mazingarbe I received a wire from London ordering my immediate return to Weymouth.

Sunday 12th December
Had an early breakfast and then made preparations for my return to England. Said goodbye to all the officers and left in General Cartwright’s car (kindly placed at my disposal) for Boulogne. On the way across, about 80 miles, I called at the HQrs of the Corps to which Gen Holland’s Division belongs. The General Staff there under Brig Gen Montgomery were very kind to me and sent me off with a number of aerial photos of trenches inLoosarea, also maps etc.
We reached Boulogne at 4.30PM. I immediately reported to Embarkation Office and was informed a steamer was just about to leave with about 300 officers and men on leave to England. I accordingly got aboard. The run across country in their car was very interesting, the villages particularly being very picturesque. Women are now largely cultivating the fields and it was a Common sight to see women ploughing the fields nearLooswhile the enemy’s shells were falling in the same field. The French are cultivating their land everywhere right up to the firing line. We left Boulogne at 5.15, convoyed across the Channel by a Destroyer. The night was very stormy and cold and I was very glad when we arrived at Folkestone. We left for London by train at 8.45 and arrived at Victoria Street Station at 10.45 PM. I then took a taxi to "Whitehall".

[Page 168]
Monday 13th December
People at Whitehall very surprised to see me again. They thought I would be almost out at the Dardanelles. Called on Colonel Buckley, and got him to telephone Weymouth asking if Transport was ready. Informed not yet arranged for. I therefore got permission to remain in London till boat was ready when Staff would wire me. I found General Hobbs was in town, so Col Buckley invited me to meet him and General Walker at lunch tomorrow. This I agreed to. I purchased a few small articles of kit, called on Miss Cowlishaw, met Major Vernon who has also to report at Weymouth and then returned to Hotel to lunch. About 3 o’clock I received a telephone call from Col Buckley telling me that a wire had just been received from Weymouth ordering all officers to report at once. I accordingly caught the 4.50 train and reached Weymouth about 9PM. Reported by phone to Base Camp. Still no word of boat.

Tuesday 14th December
Reported out to Commandant A&N.Z. Base. Found there was still no word of boat. Very annoyed because I could have met General Hobbs in London, and I wanted to know a good many points about Dardanelles Commands. Instructed to stay at Royal Hotel till officers and NCOs (about 100 of each) are ordered off. The Staff rather think we shall return on a mail boat, but nothing definite is known. Wet miserable day. Stayed in all afternoon writing letters to all at home, Charley, Gen Hobbs & Edith Halford. After dinner I repacked my bags again, disorganised because of my trip to France.

Wednesday 15th December


Ascertained that boat would not leave for a couple of days at lEast. Wired Colonel Buckley telling him that I had tomorrow available and asked if arrangements could be made at Buckingham Palace for Investiture of C.B. Gen Hobbs, Col Cannam and several others were to be decorated today. Received wire from Col Buckley stating that special Audiences have been granted by His Majesty for tomorrow. Left Weymouth by 7.20 PM train and reached waterloo about 1 hour late.
No taxis available. Walked to Whitehall Hotel, Russell Square. Very glad to get to bed.

[Page 169]
Thursday 16th December
Called on Colonel Buckley at 10.15. Attended at Buckingham Palace at 12.20. met by Capt Wallington, well known in Australia. Ushered into the King’s presence at 12.30 punctually.
He welcomed me with a hearty hand shake. He remained standing though still lame as the result of his recent accident, and still requiring the use of a stick. He discussed the work of the Australians in Gallipoli, and I was able to tell him some details of our Artillery work hitherto unknown to him. He told me not to be surprised if Military requirements demanded our withdrawal from the Dardanelles for more useful work elsewhere. He was very much interested in the progress of the R.A.N., and incidentally expressed great admiration for what Australia had done in the war. "I only regret" he said "that the Australians did not have an opportunity to fight in France beside our Home troops and the Canadians." He continued talking to me till 1 PM. Then he presented me with the Insignia of a Commander of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, at the same time thanking me for what I had done for the Empire, and wishing me success and God Speed upon my return to duty. On my leaving he again shook hands with me. During the afternoon I called on General Walker at No 17 Park Lane, then went on to Miss Cowlishaw’s to dinner. Afterwards she took Mrs Dr Phipps and myself to the Haymarket theatre.

Friday 17th December
Called on Colonel Buckley. Got a number of Gen handbooks, and map of Gallipoli and Balkan States.
Said Goodbye to Miss Cowlishaw. In afternoon saw General Hobbs and learned full details of Gallipoli up to time of his leaving at end of October. I also saw Col Coxen. Went to bed very early. I was very tired.

Saturday 18th December
Called on Mr Chomley at British Australasian Office. Got books re Anzac Operations. Lent them to Alice Paul to read and asked her to send them on to Nell when she had finished with them. Caught 12.30 train for Weymouth. Major Vernon came with me. Reached Weymouth 4.30 PM and reported to Base Commandant.
Stayed to dinner at request of Col Sir Newton Moore. Amusing incident at Hotel re my German Shell. GOC District wanted to Confiscate it, but that was not in accord with my ideas and did not "come off".

[Page 170]
Sunday 19th December
Left Weymouth at 10.15 AM for Devonport. Reached there at 3.30PM. At once went aboard the "Ionic" a White Star Liner. She is carrying and English Battalion, (East Lancashires) 2 Corps of Engineers, a Field Ambulance, and our party consisting of about 60 N.Zealand and Australian officers and about 120 NZ and A. N.C.Os. Left wharf at 4.15. Tug caught us up later with our baggage, the ship being unable to wait at wharf because of falling tide. In the gathering dusk I noticed a destroyer convoying up, and we took our last look at England for perhaps a very long time.
Exceedingly glad to be once more on the move, notwithstanding the fact that my stay in England and France has been exceedingly enjoyable and interesting. Saw H.M.S. WARSPRITE in dock at Devonport. She has evidently been in Collision, for her bow is being repaired. She is a sister ship to the "Queen Elizabeth".

Monday 20th December
When I awoke this morning I found our Destroyer Escort had left us. A very beautiful day. Sea very calm. Have been sorting over my boxes today. I hear we shall probably call at "Malta. I hope so, for so far I have only seen this important naval station from the sea. A beautiful moonlight night. The famous Bay of Biscay is treating us handsomely. Ship exceedingly comfortable. Though my bed seems a trifle narrow after the beds in England. I have a nice comfortable cabin to myself. Commencing to read up my books and thus refresh my memory again for my Artillery duties. Lt Col Rickman of the East Lancs is O.C. troops. This Regiments band played for us very nicely yesterday afternoon as we dropped down Devonport harbour to Plymouth Sound, and also again this afternoon. Had a good look over the 4".7 gun placed aft. I think we could give a good account of ourselves if a submarine came around.

Tuesday 21st December
Another beautiful day. Spent bulk of the day in darning socks.

Wednesday 22nd December
All boat stations allotted in case of Submarine Attack. I am in command of boat No 15 with

[Page 171]
three other officers, including a N. Zealand Army medical Lieut Colonel, and 48 A.S.C. men. Received by wireless the news that our troops had evacuated Suvla and Anzac. Everybody very sorry to hear it. We all hoped to see the Dardanelles propositions through. I understand we are to hold Helles and to temporarily control the entrance to the Dardanelles. Wireless states our loss in withdrawal was three men wounded. Sounds rather too good to be true, but we are informed withdrawal was made in a thick fog. I wonder is my baggage lost or otherwise.
I think I can trust my orderly officer to bring it off if at all possible. Wrote to Nell, all the boys, Mother and Edith Halford ready for posing tomorrow at Gilbraltar.

Thursday 23rd December
Wireless news states that Asquith announced in the House of Commons withdrawal from Gallipoli cost only three men wounded. Six guns were abandoned the type not being specified, but they were absolutely destroyed before being left.
Band’s efforts today especially good. Several numbers encored. We are now nearing Gilbraltar and will arrive about 10PM, by which time I shall doubtless be in bed.

Friday 24th December
Arrived off Gilbraltar at 11.PM. last night. Ordered to go in to "Gib" for orders. Upanchored again at 11.30 PM and continued on voyage. We are now being escorted by two T.B. Destroyers, H.M.S. Alcorn and Shelldrake. So we feel reasonably safe. Band again played during morning and afternoon. Muster parade for Ships boats and fire drill at 4PM. A Committee has arranged sports for Officers and men to be carried out during the period between Xmas and New Year. Had a very enjoyable concert in Dining Saloon during evening, the band contributing several items. I sang "Nazareth". Some of our "young bloods" very merry and continued their exuberance of spirits till 1.AM.

Saturday 25th December
Christmas day here again. The last one I spent in Egypt and a great deal has happened since then. Awakened at 6 AM by the Band playing in various parts of the Ship. "Christians Awake," "Hark the Herald Angels Sing" and "O Come all ye faithful".

[Page 172]
During the day we passed along close to the Coast of Africa. The rugged background of mountains in colour reminded me of the Blue Mountains in New South Wales, and they were heavily capped with snow. Passed a dozen mine sweepers at work. Sports held during the day. The men thoroughly enjoyed themselves. Officers competitions commence tomorrow. Specially nice dinner arranged this evening. We Anzacs usually dine at 6 and the British Officers at 7, the dining saloon not being large enough to accommodate all at one sitting, but tonight we divided the officers into groups with an equal number of British and Anzac officers, thus ensuring a better knowledge of each other. One of our officers again forgot himself and for a time made things a little unpleasant. A very nice Church Service at 10.30 this morning. It was quite a treat to hear the troops lustily singing the old Christmas hymns.

Sunday 26th December
A comparatively quiet day although Boxing day. Church parade at 10AM. Quite a full attendance. Band performed during morning and afternoon. In the afternoon a corporal of the East Lancs sang solos (with band accompaniment) very effectively. Heard by wireless that a Japanese passenger boat had been sunk near us in the Mediterranean with considerable loss of life. Wrote letters to all the family – and to Alice Lindsay for posting tomorrow at Malta.

Monday 27th November
Arrived off Malta (Valetta) about 8.30 AM. Some delay in passing through entrance because of a collision inside between two boats. Saw a French Cruiser outside and one of our own submarines passed us going in. Took several photos as we entered Harbour. Finished our morning at Buoy 12. Hope they turn out well.
Bumboats pestered us round the ship – Boys diving for silver, copper would not tempt them. Went ashore immediately after lunch.
Obtained permission from the Superintendent of Police to take photos in Malta. Wandered round a good deal. Saw S.John’s Church, the Museum opposite, Library, palace, Armoury etc and altogether had a most interesting afternoon. Bought some Maltese lace for Nell. Streets very narrow and well crowded, even goats being given street room, and the owners halting at various houses with their goats and drawing off milk as required. Milk must be fairly cheap as one owner was wishing to sell rather a good

[Page 173]
specimen of a goat for 18 pence. Met Lts Pybus and Hare, both invalided to Malta on account of dysentery. I hear all our mounted units have returned to Egypt while the Infantry are remaining for the present at Mudros. Should very much like to put in a week here. Could spend the time very profitably and enjoyably.
Understand we are to leave here at daylight tomorrow. Returned to the ship at 5.30 PM.

Tuesday 28th December
Instructions given last night to unload a quantity of frozen mutton, so we shall not leave Malta till tomorrow morning. Major Heane D.S.O. and myself went ashore at 11 AM to spend the day. Went to Borgs shop, Strada Reale no 269 and we each purchased a silver tray in Filigree work. Had a wretched lunch at Westmister Hotel, took some photos, and then took train from Valetta station to Notabile or Cetta Vecchia, the old capitol before Valetta was built and declared. Here we visited the ancient Catacombs which are exceedingly interesting, saw girls making lace and visited the Cathedral. A Service was in progress and enhanced the beauty of this wonderful building. It is wonderfully decorated with marble and paintings, the floor is of marble covering the tombs of ancient notables. The old fortifications are very interesting and from one wall a magnificent panorama of the greater part of the island is obtained, including Church of Musta with its famous dome, and St Paul’s bay in the distance.
Took several photos of French Battleships lying in Grand harbour. The "Ernest Renan" Armoured Cruiser 6 funnels launched March 1906 of 13644 tons and complement of 750. Her Armament four 7".6, twelve 6".4, sixteen 9pr, eight 3pr, two 1prs and two submerged 18" torpedo tubes. The battleship "Republique" 3 funnels, launched December 1903 of 14865 tons, complement 793. Flag Ship. Armament four 12", eighteen 6".4, twenty-five 3pr, two 1pr, two submerged 18" torpedo tubes and 3 above water. The "Combet" (launched September 1911), "Jean Bart" (launched September 1911) and "Paris" (launched September 1912) 3 funnel Dreadnoughts of 23,467 tons . Complement 904. Armament twelve 12", twenty two 5".5, four 3prs, four submerged 18" Torpedo tubes. The "Chateaurenault" of 4 funnels was also there but I could not obtain particulars of her. Our old Sydney friend ‘H.M.S. Euryalis" the cruiser (once the Flag Ship in Sydney Harbour) was also in Port. She has 4 funnels, of 12,000 tons, complement 700, Armament two 9".2, twelve 6", thirteen 12prs, three 3prs, and two submerged

[Page 174]
18" Torpedo tubes. We returned to the ship to dinner, and afterwards Major Heane and myself went ashore again, roamed round Valetta, & bought views, etc. Walked through the suburb of Floriana, over the granaries, and returned to ship at 9.30 PM.
Our stay here has been exceedingly enjoyable. Heard tonight that our evacuation at Gallipoli was exceedingly well planned, and though 19 Hospital ships were sent there in case of serious casualties, they all returned empty. I shall obtain full particulars from my officers when I get to Alexandria.

Wednesday 29th December
Left Port at 8.30AM. As we passed between the French Battleships our band struck up the "Marseilles", "God Save the King" and a number of patriotic airs, while the band on the French Flagship played "Tipperary". Very hearty cheers were given by both French sailors and our troops. We are now moving without an escort. Passed several ships shortly after we left port, including a Hospital Ship and a French mailboat. Competitions, boxing, wrestling, deck billiards, deck quoits etc continued. Boat stations practised. Guard mounted against possible submarine attack. Course set Northwards. Mt Etna visible covered with snow. Played draughts at night with majors Vernon and McIntosh.

Thursday 30th December
A private of E. Lancashire Regt (an Officers Servant) died last night from heat apoplexy. Very hot during night and yesterday afternoon. He was buried at daylight this morning. Competitions continued during day. Col Field and myself signalling. East Lancs’ officers entertained Anzac officers at dinner tonight. Oppressively hot.

Friday 31st December
At 10.30 AM this morning a submarine periscope suddenly appeared about 200 yards from the ship on the Port Beam, as we were about 100 miles S.E. of Crete. Before our stern gun could swing round on it, it had disappeared, and we could distinctly see the trail of a Torpedo from the Submarine coming towards the Ship. The Captain’s bridge is high up and has affine command. He saw the Torpedo coming and immediately swung his helm

[Page 175]
hard over, throwing the ship to Starboard. The torpedo in consequence missed the ship and passed us about 50 yards astern. "Thank God" ejaculated the Captain. The alteration of course had also the effect of throwing the Submarine itself astern of us. The Captain put on full speed and we travelled all day and tonight at about 151/2 knots. We saw nothing further of the Submarine.
A fully armed guard was maintained around the ship all day and in consequence our Sports programme had to be abandoned. A wireless message was sent out immediately and picked up by a Man O’ War about 100 miles distant. This ship then warned by wireless all ships in the vicinity.
We had a very close call and everybody was quite relieved when darkness came on and gave us a chance to run a straight course with comparative safety.

[Page 1]
[The transcription page numbering begins again from 1916]
Saturday 1st January 1916

Very close watch kept all day for further submarines but nothing seen. Arrived at Alexandria at 12.30 PM. Anchored in outer anchorage. While at anchor a Mine Layer passed us, bringing in what appeared to be a number of survivors from a wreck. Took several photos. Appended is a copy of Log entry by Capt. Davies R.M.S. Ionic concerning the attempted torpedoeing of his ship:-

"S.S.Ionic Transport – 2186.
At Sea. 31st December 1915.
Submarine Report"

At 9.40 am Lat 34° 11’ N Long 25°11’ E sighted the Periscope of a Submarine abeam on Port Side about 500 feet away. We immediately put the helm hard a port and brought the submarine right astern. As the ship was swinging the submarine fired a Torpedo, but passed astern missing the ship by about 100 feet, the same being visible for a considerable distance after missing the ship. Lost sight of the Submarine periscope after bringing her astern. Signal given for all hands Boat Stations, everybody being at their Stations in 3 minutes. Signalled engines to utmost speed and kept submarine astern. At 10.40 AM dismissed boat Stations. Extra men in stokeholds up till noon.

Extra armed guards posted fore and aft until sunset.
(Signed) J. Davies

Sunday 2nd January.

Moved into berth in inner harbour early in the morning. No information as to our movements till after lunch. The "Tsinan" moored alongside us with Australian troops from Gallipoli on board. One of my Headquarters Sergeants happened to be aboard her and saw me on my ship. He sent round to me to say he had all my Gallipoli baggage and samples of shells and fuzes for which information I was very grateful. Received word to catch 4 pm train for Cairo. Arrived Cairo at 7.30 PM Went to Continental Hotel. Reported to General White Army Corps H Qrs at Shepheard's Hotel. Stayed night at Continental Hotel. Had dinner with Major & Mrs. King. Saw a number of Australian Officers.

[Page 2]
Monday, 3rd January
With Major King left Cairo at 11 AM, arrived at Tel el Kebir Camp at 1PM. Reported to General Chauvel at Divisional Head Quarters. Took over my Brigade as from 2nd inst. All officers and men very glad to see me. Spent the day in looking through old Orders since my leaving Gallipoli. Found a number of letters for me from Nell, the boys, father, AJ Derrick, A King, Halfords, also a Christmas parcel from Halfords and Balaclava Cap from Nell.

Tuesday 4th January
Looking round my Brigade and getting my baggage etc fixed up in my tent.

Wednesday 5th January
Called at Divisional Head Quarters re position of Artillery Command. Informed each Brigade Commander was to act independently and in direct Communication with DHQ. Major Anderson to be temporarily attached to DHQ until further arrangements are made. Saw Colonel Christian. Stated he was in Command of Div. Artillery. Above ruling upsets this suggestion. Had a ride on Jack. Both my horses looking very well. Very cold weather. Quite wintry. Mess being run very well. An excellent cook was made available from 8th Battery. Overstrength both in men and horses at present time.

Thursday, 6th January
Answered a great deal of correspondence. Letters which I found awaiting me here. Brigade drawing tents getting telephone lines laid etc.

Friday 7th January
Discovered today an extraordinary state of affairs in Regimental Post Office. A man was caught throwing opened and unopened 3rd Brigade outward mail into the incinerator. Someone has evidently been pilfering. Instructed Major Burgess to investigate the case. Corporal in charge of Post Office placed under arrest. Commenced erection of Brigade Canteen. Expect we shall have some difficulty in effecting a Suitable Contract.

[Page 3]
Saturday 8th January
Inquired re Postal matter proceedings. Capt Douglas (C of E. Padre) attached to this Brigade today. Batteries taking stock of equipment generally.

Sunday 9th January.

An exceedingly good Church Parade this morning. During afternoon went for a ride over Manoeuvre Area. Mr Budden came to lunch and supplied us with sundry gift goods for men.

Monday 10th January
Gen Hobbs who was supposed to arrive yesterday by "Medina" from London has not made his appearance. Batteries doing Battery drill morning and afternoon and gun laying from Gun Layers. Mr Scarrot returned to duty with Brigade. Gen Godley was to have inspected camp but he did not turn up. Commenced Officers Mess Hut. Y.M.C.A. Representative reported to us. Major Rabett and Captain Callaghan came round to my tent and stayed till 11pm. I showed them maps etc from France

Tuesday 11th January

Interviewed General Chauvel re position of Divisional Artillery Command. He has cabled to General Hobbs to clear up the situation. Out with Batteries during morning and afternoon. Instructed Lt Clowes to report to D.A. for duty as Staff Captain. Rearranged subaltern officers temporarily in Brigade. Received letter from Mr Forrest, A.T. Sharp and Charley which had been travelling after me from England. I suppose in a week or two now my correspondence will be resuming normal Conditions. Still a number from Nell not to hand.

Wednesday 12th January
Out with Brigade all day. Battery drill very good. Major Hughes and Lt Urquhart in Cairo on a Court Martial. Very surprised to received wire from A.P.M Cairo that Lt Richardson was under arrest at Shepheard's Hotel. Discussed with Anderson promotion of our officers. Could not recommend Lt Urquhart for Captaincy owing to unsatisfactory work at Gallipoli, and his O.C. having relieved him of the Command of his Section.

[Page 4]
Thursday 13th January
Out with Batteries in the morning. Riding School arranged each afternoon for officers of 3rd Infantry Brigade, 3rd Field Ambulance and 3rd Field Co Engineers. Wrote to all members of the family. Review ordered for Saturday for Sir Archibald Murray, with rehearsal tomorrow afternoon. Orders to demobolise Heavy Battery and all A.I.F. Personnel to be attached to 3rd BAC I shall commence the formation of a 4th Battery in the Brigade in the hope that the new establishments for Brigades will be adopted. Gen Chauvel and Major Anderson to Ismailia on duty. Heard details of Lt Richardson’s arrest. Stated that he was drunk, but do not believe it. Papers have I understand been sent to Gen Godley.

Friday 14th January
Stayed in camp all the morning preparing training Syllabus for my Brigade. During the afternoon a rehearsal was held of all Divisional troops for review tomorrow for Sir Archibald Murray. Brigade made excellent showing. Capt. Jopp taking officers of 3rd Inf. Bde, 3rd Engineers and 3rd Field Ambulance in equitation. Called on 2nd Divisional Artillery.

Saturday 15th January
Batteries on Manoeuvre area during morning. During afternoon review held. First Division marched past. Second Division whose horses are not yet fit did not march past. Generally a very good show. The General hinted to me that France would probably be our destination after a couple of months’ stay. Gen Hobbs cabled that he would leave Marseilles to day by R.M.S. MONGOLIA.

Sunday 16th January
Church parade in morning. Very good turn out. Saw Major Lucas re Command of 4th Battery. He came down to see General Chauvel about it today but got very little satisfaction. He is to come down again on Tuesday next. Went up to Cairo. Major Lucas and Lt Col Cox Taylor in the train. The latter is commanding the D.A.C. 2nd Division. Stayed at Continental Hotel. Saw General Spence re Lt Richardson’s case. Arranged to see him at H Qrs. tomorrow. Talked with Rabett till 12.30 PM.

[Page 5]
Monday 17th January
Saw DAAG and General Spence at H Qrs. re Lieut Richardson. No charge laid because no evidence available. A badly bungled affair on the part of the Provost Staff. I at once wired for Lt Richardson to be released. Had photo films developed and prints taken at Kodak Shop. The majority taken on my trip out turned out very well.

Tuesday 18th January
Returned to camp by 11 o’clock train. Major Lucas travelled down with me. At battery manoeuvre during afternoon. Major Lucas saw General Chauvel again re command of 4th Battery, but still no satisfaction. He dined with us and stayed the night.

Wednesday 19th January
General Chauvel came round the lines. Congratulatory message delivered from Gen Murray re Review Parade, and the Divisional General also thanked Fitter Price for bades [badges] of rank made for him from Turkish driving bands [shells]. Discussed Lt Urquhart’s case with the General who promised to do what he could for him. Out with batteries during day. Mess hut finished and officers entered into occupation. Visited native fair during afternoon.

Thursday 20th January
Out with Batteries during morning. Moved into old Mess tent as my quarters. Major Marks visited model Sanitary methods at Ismailia. Am informed Rosie’s husband is with the 2nd Division but have not seen him yet. Discussed trip to France with Major Lorenzo, D.S.O, and gave him a piece of ribbon. He invited me to dinner on Monday evening next. Wrote Nell and family. Big bundle of letters from England.

Friday 21st January
Out with Batteries during day. Called on Colonel Johnstone 2nd Div Artillery, also Gen MacLagan and Gen Holmes. The latter was not in. Second and Third Brigade leaving camp on Sunday and Monday respectively. Capt Jopp ascertained that

[Page 6]
his valise – supposed to be lost – had in reality been returned to our Head Quarters when at Zarieh Camp, and then been rifled by the men. Inquiries now being made. Promotions in batteries completed.

Saturday 22nd January
At manoeuvre area with batteries morning and afternoon. Prepared Syllabus for next week’s work. The move of 2nd and 3rd Brigade to Canal deferred to 24th and 25th inst. Decided in view of possible early departure to do nothing regarding building of mess huts. Padre informed me he is now detailed to 3rd Infantry Brigade so we are again left to our own resources.

Sunday 23rd January
Very beautiful day. Chaplain held service in the morning. Very good muster. Took two photo, also one of 6" Howrs and Burgess’ damaged limber. Rode along to 2nd DAHQrs. Saw Colonel Johnstone and Major Lloyd.

Monday 24th January
All batteries out for the day. At battery manoeuvre. In afternoon rode along to see General Holmes. Part of 2nd and 1st Divisions off to Canal. Had dinner with officers of 10th Battalion. Gen Hobbs due to arrive today from England but did not turn up.

Tuesday 25th January
All batteries out for the day. Brigade and battery manoeuvre before lunch. Watered and fed horses at Canal on boundary of training area. Brigade drill again in afternoon. Gen Hobbs returned to duty. Secret order issued re Canal defences.

Wednesday 26th January
Morning devoted to cleaning harness and checking shortages. Called on General Hobbs. Afternoon holiday. Football matches for men. Bitterly cold wind. Capt. Jopp visited G.H.Q at Ismailia re position of APM. He reported at night that he had been accepted. Officers of Brigade decided to present Capt Jopp with some momento in celebration of his recent marriage.

[Page 7]
Heard from General Hobbs that Major Burgess had been awarded the D.S.O. and Capt. Waite some decoration which he thought was the C.M.G. Official papers will be here in a few days. Congratulated them both at dinner. General Hobbs passed through lines in the afternoon to say "Good day" to everybody.

Thursday 27th January.

On Manoeuvre area all day. Very good Brigade drill. Major Miles temporarily appointed to Command 8th Battery and Captain Waite appointed Adjutant to this Brigade.
Capt. Jopp in Cairo re A.P.M duties. Again bitterly cold on the Manoeuvre Area, and smart rain squalls. Shall be very glad to get between the blankets tonight.

Friday 28th January.

On Manoeuvre Area all day. Brigade getting very flexible in Brigade drill. General Hobbs and Major Andersen dined with us. We had quite a jolly time, and he made us a rattling good speech.

Saturday 29th January.

Again on Manoeuvre Area all day. General Hobbs inspected us at Brigade drill, afterwards had us formed up in Mass and addressed. He said he was delighted with the work done, and would tell the Divisional Commanders that the Brigade is ready to take the field at a moments notice. Men had a first class concert tonight in Y.M.C.A. tent. Major Burgess received a wire of Congratulations from General Birdwood on his D.S.O. We have not yet been informed of the exact nature of Capt. Waites decoration.

Sunday 30th January.

No Church Parade this morning, Padre having been transferred to Infantry. Capt. Waites decoration proves to be the Military Cross. Both recipients have now "put up" their ribbons. Capt Rogers called to see me re his early return to the Brigade. I promised to do all that I could to facilitate matters. Went up by afternoon train to Cairo to adjust Brigade Trust accounts. Could not get a room at the Continental, but secured one at Shepheards.

[Page 8]
Saw General Irving and Major Lynch. Had a long talk with them. The latter seems very far from well, and appears to be breaking up. Also saw Capt. Robb of A.G.A. from NewCastle.

Monday 31st January.

Attended at Paymaster’s Office. Adjusted Brigade Trust account and opened account with the Anglo-Egyptian bank. Our officers subscribed 1275 Pt for a present for Capt. Jopp and his wife. After lunch I went with Mrs Jopp to the Bazaar and purchased a very nice Turkish Coffee set in inlaid brass and silver, also a similar type of tray. While there met Admiral Weymess and had a chat with him re Charley, who was with him in H.M.S. Charybdis. Caught 6.15 PM train back to Camp. Saw Commander Bracegirdle in the train.

Tuesday 1st February.

Found several Confidential documents awaiting me on my return here concerning the Canal Operations, also a confidential letter from General Hobbs asking for my opinion concerning Major Sweetland. I had to put in an adverse report.

Wednesday 2nd February.

Out with the Brigade all day. Very good work with Head Quarters staff. Corporal Miller sent to Cairo to obtain spare parts for telephone repairs etc.

Thursday 3rd February.

Units harness cleaning all the morning. Holiday in afternoon.

Friday 4th February.

Brigade Commanders journeyed to Serapeum. Met General Hobbs and Major Anderson at Divisional Head Quarters on East Bank of Canal. Bitterly cold night.
Rode out with Major Anderson to left flank of advanced position 11,000 yards out from Serapeum. Spent the day in reconnaissance. Went out well in front of our Infantry line. Very suitable position for three Batteries of Brigade.
Very busy scene at Serapeum. Plenty of troops and native labour.

[Page 9]
Road making Transport of stone, firewood, timber etc. in dhabeen. Water being laid on and tramway being constructed. Took a few interesting pictures.

Saturday 5th February
Went out again to Left Flank with General Hobbs, returning at 4.30 PM. Party came to Ismailia by launch. Rained heavily during journey. Dined at French Club, took train to TEL-EL-KEBIR, reaching the Station at 9.30 AM. Whole place under water. Men flooded out of tents. Mine is fortunately dry. Pile of papers received.

Sunday 6th February
Men drying bedding, clothes and tents. Letter writing all day and reading papers. Major Burgess detailed with Capt. Forbes to report to B.G.R.A. Ismailia for reconnaissance of Turkish Artillery positions, using Camel Transport.

Monday 7th February
On training area all day. All batteries doing good work and specialists well forward. Had dinner with General Hobbs at night, Major Marks accompanying me.

Tuesday 8th February
Made a reconnaissance during the morning of extreme southern portion of 3rd Brigade Training Area. Orderly brought me word that we were to proceed by afternoon train to Serapeum. (Brigade and Battery Commanders, Adjutants, range takers orderlies horses etc. By dint of a great deal of bustling we left Tel el Kebir at 5 PM, reached Camp Station Ismailia about 6.30, and there discovered no connection had been arranged for between Camp Station and Serapeum. On consulting the D.A.D.R.T. at Ismailia we found we could get no further till 10 AM tomorrow. We therefore all walked down to the French Club at Ismailia (of which all British Officers are made honorary members), and had dinner there. While at dinner Major Burgess and Capt. Forbes came in and told us of their experiences on Camels in front of our Canal line. We returned to the Camp Station after dinner and each man made up a bed for himself among bundles

[Page 10]
of hay lying on the platform. Everybody in rather bad temper and very dissatisfied with faulty staff arrangements.

Wednesday 9th February
Slept very comfortably during the night. Had early breakfast. Saw Aerodrome at this Station and watched two planes ascend. Quite a large number of troops camped here. Arranged with R.T.O. that we should again entrain and move off for Serapeum at 10 AM. We entrained, but for some inexplicable reason we did not leave Camp Station till 2.30 PM, and did not reach Serapeum till nearly dark. Both today and yesterday all the officers as well as men have had to ride in trucks without seats, and naturally the journey was exceedingly uncomfortable. On arrival at Serapeum I reported to D.H.Qrs, was told where our camp was to be pitched, got our tents erected, horse lines arranged for, and our evening meal prepared. Turned in early, but ground was uncomfortably hard.

Thursday 10th February
Went out early with my officers to the Left Flank of position held by 1st Australian Division and made a general reconnaissance. Saw three deer on the journey out. We are again to work with the 3rd Infantry Brigade, and the Battalion Officers made us very welcome, giving us lunch and watering our horses. Returned to camp about 5 PM.

Friday 11th February
Out on the front line again to day. Battery Commanders finally settled and marked the position for their batteries. I made a thorough reconnaissance of country in front of position. Returned to camp at 5.30 PM.

Saturday 12th February
Again out to day. All ranges and prominent points recorded, and work completed. Lunched with General Maclagan. Also met General Birdwood at 3rd Bde. H Qrs. He expressed his pleasure at seeing me back again well and strong, and then gave me details of the proposed changes in 1st Aus Div. consequent on new Divisions being raised.

[Page 11]
He told me I should have to command a Division of Artillery and that my Brigade would form the neucleus of the 4th Artillery Division. The new 4th Division will be commanded by General Cox, an Indian officer. Fuller details I presume we shall soon receive. We left Serapeum by train at 7.38 PM reaching Tel el Kebir about 10 PM. Our men and horses are following by a later train. A set of 6 maps of country just East of the Canal was issued to me.
Today I pass my 41st milestone. How the years do fly. General Birdwood’s information quite a nice birthday gift.

Sunday 13th February
Church parade this morning, but I was too tired to attend. Mail received from home. Letters from Alvord and Chris, also papers from Nell but no letter. Wrote letters all day. Capt. Rogers rejoined 8th Battery after being detached for some time with a mobiLe Section.

Monday 14th February
Gen. Cox who is to command 4th Division inspected camp. I did not see him. Batteries on manoeuvre area all day. Col. Heane 1st Battalion called to see me. Said Infantry Battalion had already been divided for new Divisions.

Tuesday 15th February
Batteries on manoeuvre area all day. Generals, Birdwood, Cox, Carruthers and Hobbs inspected lines. Gen. Birdwood and Cox gave me details of new 4th Division. It appears definite that my Brigade is to form the neucleus of the new 4th Divisional Artillery, so very shortly I shall have a heavy task before me, but as long as I am allowed to keep my old officers I think I shall be able to manage fairly well. Received letter from Chris (telling me he was not returning to HAYFIELD College) also papers from Nell, but still no letter. Received birthday greetings cable from Nell. Discussed new formations with General Hobbs. He desires to retain 8th Battery (W.A.) in his command, and proposes giving me the 2nd Battery (the old 44th) in exchange if Corps H Qrs. will agree. I personally do not mind, though I should very much prefer to keep my old Brigade intact. Several officers & men of 3rd Bde. mentioned in despatches.

[Page 12]
Wednesday 16th February
General Hobbs left for Ismailia re formation of new Divisional Artilleries. Brigade on manoeuvre area. Handed in maps of Artillery dispositions at Serapeum to General Hobbs.

Thursday 17th February
Brigade and unit Commanders paraded to General Hobbs. He gave us details of new Divisional Artillery. I am to Command 4th Division, Col. Christian the 5th. The 3rd Brigade is not now to form a definite part of the new Division but is to be lent temporarily to assist in the Organization. Brigade Commanders have now to submit recommendations to General Hobbs for appointment of officers and promotion of N.C.Os. and presumably the new allotment of Officers, NCOs. and men will be made almost at once. I have written to George Halford offering him the appointment of A.D.C. and have also recommended Capt. Waites for Brigade Major and Lieut Forrest as Staff Captain.
Was informed this evening that recommendations for my Brigade Commanders are Major King, Major Hughes and Lt. Col. Tunbridge with the following Battery Commanders for Colonel Tunbridge:- Capt. McLaughlin, Capt. Riggall and Capt. Jopp. I expect there will be some heartburnings over the new selections and appointments. I have written to Colonel Buckley for a complete supply of military books etc.

Friday 18th February
All Brigades busy on details of new Formations. All Brigades of 1st Division are providing their quota. These were paraded (together with the officers who are to be transferred) before General Hobbs at 4.30 PM General made a short farewell speech.

Saturday 19th February
All selected officers, N.C.Os. and men for new Brigade of 4th Division paraded before General Hobbs at 9.30 AM. He explained the expansion of Artillery now going on and wished them well in their new positions. General inspected lines at 11 AM. Very satisfactory. Ordered last night by General Hobbs to place Capt. Parry Okeden under arrest and to

[Page 13]
investigate charges made against him of using obscene language and of being drunk. With Major Burgess took summary of evidence, examining many witnesses. Papers forwarded on to General Hobbs.

Sunday 20th February
With General Hobbs attended at office of Major General H.V. Cox, who is to Command the new 4th Division. We discussed details re new Artillery formation, training etc. I assured General Cox that he would receive my best and most loyal service, and also that of Officers and men. Arranged with General Hobbs for leave of all old 3rd F.A. Bde. Officers for next Saturday night to attend a Regimental dinner at the Continental Hotel, Cairo.

Monday 21st February
All new personnel for 4th Div. Artillery came into camp above 3rd Brigade lines, tents having been pitched yesterday. I am treating the whole Division as one camp. Extra officers and N.C.Os. called for from 3rd Brigade for new Division. Colonel Tunbridge reported for duty with 12th Brigade.

Tuesday 22nd February
Unable to yet arrange with 1st D.A. to get extra personnel. Arranged for General Cox to inspect unit tomorrow at 10.30 AM. I shall then formally take over Command. Medical officers reported for new Division. Arranged for materials for mess for officers and Sergeants. Indian Cavalry will soon be moving to new position, so we shall take over their site which is much better than the one we now occupy.

Wednesday 23rd February
Promoted Colonel. Appointed as President of Committee re sale of Anzac Book, with Major Hughes 32rd Battalion and Lieut. Selwes A.F.A.
New Divisional Artillery settling down. Syllabus of Training for Officers and N.C.Os. issued to Brigade Commanders.
I am not quite happy re Col. Tunbridge’s appointment to a Brigade. He has never even Commanded a Battery.

[Page 14]
Thursday 24th February
Balance of men from 1st Divisional Artillery reported to new Division. Called parade of 3rd F.A. Brigade at 2 o’clock, and said "good bye" to them all.
Several officers very much upset over letters received from Gen. Hobbs re their qualifications. Major Rabett lodged his complaint with the General re his being superseded. Handed over 3rd F.A. Brigade to Major Burgess and vacated my seat the head of the Mess. By courtesy of 3rd Brigade officers myself and staff are having the privilege of still messing with them till our Mess Hut arrives from England and we can get fairly established.
Brigade Major and myself allotted all men to Brigades and Batteries.

Friday 25th February
Had interview with Col. Duncan re several matters concerning the new Division. Ordnance informs me it will probably be two months before we can get any equipment. We must take our turn.
Received letter from Nell dated Jan. 23rd, the first letter for some weeks. Inspected site for Head Qrs. in new 4th Division lines, but we shall not be taking up our abode there for some time.

Saturday 26th February
All our old 3rd Brigade Officers obtained leave and journeyed up to Cairo to have a Regimental dinner. We all assembled at 7 o’clock and had a most enjoyable evening. Excuse was found in some way or other to make every officer give a speech. We broke up at 9.30. Quite a nice little dance was in progress at the Hotel but I took no part. Had a long talk with General Howse and Colonel and Mrs. Christian.

Sunday 27th February
Left Cairo at 11 AM on the return journey to Tel el Kebir reaching there at 1 PM. Col. Tunbridge wrote asking permission to go to Serapeum with General Hobbs and party to see proposed Artillery position. I told him I considered he was trying to run before he had learned to walk and his place was with his unit. However I let him go.

[Page 15]
Saw General Hobbs at night concerning the new Brigade from 1st Division. Incidentally confidentially discussed matters re supervision of Officers. Supplied Capt. Parry Okeden with charge sheet and summary of evidence re his Court Martial on Tuesday next. Wired for Major King to regain his unit.

Monday 28th February
Rabett called to see me re his protest against being superseded. Officers of 1st Division left for Canal Col. Tunbridge accompanying them. Waited all day for General Birdwood to inspect new Divisional Artillery. He however was kept busy with the Infantry Units and did not have time to come to our lines. He returned to Ismailia by midday train.

Tuesday 29th February
Interviewed Gen. Cox re formation of new Division and obtained his consent to proceed to Ismailia to see General White and get a clear understanding regarding the whole scheme. Saw General White who approved my method of putting a trained neucleus to each Battery and Brigade. He however told me it was now decided to have 4 Battery Brigades, and in addition a 3 Battery Howitzer Brigade to each Division. The 1st Anzac is to leave very shortly, and Gen. Hobbs and Col. Johnstone are being asked if they can raise the Divisions to the new establishments without recalling the personnel just transferred to 4th and 5th Divisions. Both Gen. White and Gen. Birdwood are decidedly against the return of the personnel to the parent units, but still if time will not permit of the new establishment being raised, this personnel will possibly be asked for.
On my return to my Head Quarters I informed the Brigade Commanders confidentially of what I had heard. Our Battery numbers will now be altered, but possibly the Brigade numbers will be retained.
Gen. White informed me I may have some difficulty in securing George Halford’s appointment as A.D.C., because of his not being an Australian, but as the appointment is a personal one I think Gen. Birdwood will allow it, particularly in view of

[Page 16]
the number of officers required under the new organization. Court Martial on Capt. Parry Okeden commenced. Col. Grimwade (President) was not present at appointed time, and orderlies had to search everywhere for him. He had received no intimation of his appointment to the Court.

Wednesday 1st March
Parry Okeden’s Court Martial continued. Saw General Cox and gave him particulars re yesterday’s interview with Gen. White. Capt. Dixon reported to me for duty with 4th Division, but asked permission to remain with 4th Brigade till end of week. Received permission from Gen. Cox to communicate direct with Infantry Brigade and other Units regarding gunners and artificers of all kinds for transfer to 4th Divisional Artillery. Received yesterday a big bale of newspapers and magazines etc. for use of 3rd F.A. Brigade but as I have now left that unit I sent them to 4th Divisional artillery. Had pay book amended for new rates of pay. Col. Christian spent an hour with me discussing new expansion of Field Artillery.

Thursday 2nd March
As I half expected I to day received a wire from Gen. White informing me that he regretted it was found necessary to take back 12th Brigade to enable Gen. Hobbs to get his Division, as per new establishments, ready for departure in 28 days. It is rather a "set back" but cannot be helped. I have accordingly made arrangements to hand back the whole of the personnel tomorrow, or as soon as asked for. I shall see General Cox in the morning and get his permission to go to Ismailia to see General White so that I may be able to get – once and for all – a clear understanding as to what tables I am to work under and when I am to commence work. His wire said that Gen. Birdwood would consider Halfords application for a commission if he first enlists in the A.I.F.
All the 1st Division are at cross purposes over the new organization and expansion. There must be a huge shuffle all round before anything like order can be obtained out of the present chaos.

[Page 17]
Friday 3rd March
Called on General Cox this morning. I found he was going to Ismailia by the midday train to see General White, and he asked me to go with him and jointly try to get details regarding the 4th Divisional Artillery finally settled.
Gen. Cunliffe Owen and Colonel Elliott RE accompanied us in the train. Had ¾ hour with Gens. Cox and White. Was definitely informed that 12th Brigade was to be handed back to 1st Division, but that balance of Officers, NCOs. and men were to remain with me unchanged. I pointed out that 1st Division was keeping six Majors while Col. Christian and myself were getting none. Gen. White said he would give instructions that some allotment of Majors should be made to the new Divisions.
Copied out particulars re Artillery Division from Gen. White’s Part VII. Had a very pleasant walk through the avenues in the Gardens and went to the Jetty and listened to band playing on H.M.S. Sir Thomas Picton". Met Colonel Holland of Sydney and his son. Had dinner on the train on the journey back. Met Colonel Grimwade on board. On reaching my tent I received a signal message from Gen. Hobbs asking that Lieut. Garling should be sent back to 1st Division. As he had been officially posted to 4th Div. Artillery I would not consent to handing him back without authority from Head Quarters. Col. Christian spoke to me on the phone. He is going to see General White tomorrow morning.

Saturday 4th March
Rabett called to see me during morning and stated Gen. Hobbs had sent for him, showed him a wire from General White asking for Rabett and Olding to be transferred to 4th Division. Gen. Hobbs gave Rabett a chance to come and see me to ascertain what appointment he would have if posted to 4th Div. I told him he would have a Brigade, so he has told the General he has decided to accept.
With Capt. Waite looked out fresh permanent site for 4th Divisional Artillery.
Prepared plans of Camp Site for whole Division. Major Rabett posted in orders to 4th Division and he will therefore not now be passed over by other Officers of 1st Division.

[Page 18]
Sunday 5th March
Received message this morning asking me to call at Gen. Hobb’s Head Qrs. tomorrow at 11.30 to meet General White. I hope therefore that all Artillery appointments will be settled finally. Called on General Monash, Col. Glasfurd and Col. Glasgow re drivers, gunners, fitters, smiths etc. for transfer to 4th Divisional Artillery. Discussion with Gen. Monash re Officers Club. I informed him the Artillery had so much to do in reorganising that we should have no time to participate.

Monday 6th March
Had a long conference this morning with Gen. White, Gen. Hobbs and Col. Christian re appointments to new Divisional Artillery. Gen. Hobbs was very loth to part with any officer, but eventually Major Rabett was definitely posted to me and also Lt. Richards as adjutant, while Major Caddy goes to Col. Christian. Lt. Vowles also goes to Christian but unless I am given another Brigade Commander from 1st Division I shall ask for Vowles. I hope now to get our machinery into working order and make a definite start with training.
I am told I am to have some men from 2nd Remount Squadron so I shall go into Zeitoun tomorrow to inspect and select. New Camp Site fixed for 4th Div. Artillery.
I am informed 1st and 2nd Divisions will leave almost at once while 4th Division will for the present take over FERRY POST Station at Ismailia, and 5th Division ditto at Serapeum. I presume when all danger of a Turkish attack is over we too shall move to France.

Tuesday 7th March
Spent day with Brigade commanders in getting organization of New Divisional Artillery under weigh. Called on Head Quarters 4th, 12th and 13th Brigade re recruits. Camp being pitched on new site. Watched officers at tent pegging. Received two letters from Charley and one from Alice Paul. Charley seems to be doing well on his new ship and appears to like the company as well as the ship.

[Page 19]
Wednesday 8th March
Went up by 7 AM train to Cairo re recruits for New Div. Artillery. Spent the day with Col. Christian in Cairo, came down with him in evening train. Gen. Murray Commander in Chief M.E.F. also on train. Arranged for Rabett to go up to Cairo tomorrow to represent 4th Div. Arty, Col. Cox Taylor representing 5th D.A.

Thursday 9th March
Parry Okeden posted to 4th D.A. today. Called on Gen. Cox and protested. He is trying to get him to 1st Division. Discussed with him proposals re FERRY POST. He hopes 4th DA may remain here to organise and train. New Camp almost ready. Officers mess established, only Div. Staff now remaining with 3rd F.A. Bde. Capt. Frazer posted to Signal Co. 4th Division. Very pleased. He is a good fellow.

Friday 10th March
Wrote to Gen. Hobbs re getting from 1st DA certain N.C.Os. and men to be given commission in 4th D.A. He refused to let either N.C.Os. or men receive promotion. Received report from Major Rabett re recruits in Cairo from Light Horse etc. Prospects good, but great difficulty in overcoming Departmental red tape regarding the transfer of men, and movement to Tel el Kebir.
Received congratulatory cable from Edith Halford also one from George. He has not received my first letter offering him Commission. Have written him again, also his CO to allow him to accept and get out quickly.
Letter from Gen. Cox saying he will spend next Monday morning with our men of 4th Div Arty Wrote to Brigadier of Infantry Brigade 4th Div., re transfer of suitable men to 4th DA.

Saturday 11th March
Received long report from Rabett re Light Horse at Cairo. Sent same on to General White for his information and necessary action.
Large number of Artillery promotions published, but list not

[Page 20]
complete. Men at present on strength of 4th D.A. busy pitching tents, getting ready for Light Hose and Infantry drafts. Gen. Chauval had parade of 1st Div. Artillery and said "Good bye" to them. I understand he is vacating the Command of 1st Division but know no details. Instructed by Gen. Godley to get into touch with C.R.A. 1st Division re gun positions at Serapeum, it being understood 4th Div. is to take over this line later. Fortunately I know the ground and will not need to make a fresh visit. Received letters from Alvord, Chris, Nell, Emma and Father & Mother.

Sunday 12th March
Prepared Circular memo to send to C.Os. of all units at Tel el Kebir re Anzac BOOK. I happen to be President of the Committee. I interviewed a number of men of 4th and 13th Infantry Brigades who desire to transfer to Artillery. Arranged with the Brigadier that they should be transferred over tomorrow. The 1st Divisional Artillery had an exercise to day with personnel and guns in the field. Gen. Cox to inspect 4th DA tomorrow morning at 10 AM.

Monday 13th March
Gen. Cox round Camp. He promised to secure for me 400 men per Infantry Brigade for transfer to Field Artillery. Instructed me to see him at 2.30 tomorrow with Capt. Parry Okeden. Col. Tunbridge appointed A.A.G, Cairo, and left camp to day. Rather strange that 2 weeks since he should have been quite suitable as a Brigade Commander for my new 12th Brigade, but when it is transferred back to 1st Division he appears to be unsuitable. Inconsistency somewhere.
Saw Smith of Light Horse candidate for Commission, also Battye and Thomson, 2nd Lieuts of 50th Battalion who desire transfer to Artillery. Received letter from Gen. White stating no more assistance can be expected from 1st Division. I shall therefore post Waite to the Command of 24th Howitzer Brigade. With this latter appointment my Brigade Commanders are complete, and a good lot they are. I will try to secure Vernon for Command of D.A.C. Then we should have a good team of C.Os. L.H. Squadron attached to 4th and 5th Divs. arrived in camp tonight.

[Page 21]
Tuesday 14th March
Interviewed Lc. Sergt. Keene of 1st L. Horse re Commission. Approved his application. Took over plans and reconnaissance reports of Artillery positions 1st D.A. Serapeum from Major Miles, Brigade Major 1st DA.
Took over nearly 400 men from Col. Glasgow’s Infantry Brigade. Paraded before Gen. Cox with Capt. Parry Okeden regarding the latters recent questionable conduct in Cairo. General gave him another chance. Capt. Forrest in Cairo, settled up Imprest a/c 3rd FA Bde. Head Quarters. New Brigade at work sorting out suitable men for N.C.Os. and commencing training generally. Major Charley called re Command of D.A.C.

Wednesday 15th March
Interviewed Lt. Wilson of 3rd Infantry Bde. (Training) re transfer to 4th D.A. I approved of same. Approved transfer of Lt. Beatty of Col. Glasgow’s Brigade to this Division.
Interviewed General Monash, Col. Glasfurd and Colonel Glasgow re men for 4th DA.

Thursday 16th March
Forwarded list re "Anzac Book" to Capt. Bean from all units at Tel el Kebir Camp. Inspected some 200 men of Gen. Monash’s Brigade. Major Waite given leave for week and Major Rabett came down from Cairo with Lt. Sutton re Light Horse transfers etc. Discussed details fully with him. Expect to get about 1200 men from Light Horse during next few days.
Gen. Hobbs to day had a nasty fall from his horse.
Instructed Capt. Parry Okeden that HQrs. had ordered his return to Australia. He asked to be allowed to resign here, and I recommended that course to the General.

Friday 17th March
Received letter from Charley. Inspected 400 men of 12th Infantry Brigade and had them transferred this afternoon. A few men reported from 1st D.A.C. Rabett returned to Cairo. Sent Col. King to Serapeum to show New Zealand and Argyleshire Artillery our forward positions selected for our Artillery. Evidently it has been decided for us to remain here to fit out & train.

[Page 22]
We shall be well satisfied. Interviewed some very likely N.C.Os. from Light Horse who are desirous of obtaining commissions, also Lt. Copley 5th L.H. and two Infantry Subalterns.
Had copy of letter from Gen. Birdwood sent to me, showing that he has asked M.E.F. for 8 Majors or Captains for 4th & 5th Divisional Artillery. Capt. Parry Okeden ordered to return by "Demosthenes" to Australia leaving Suez on Sunday.
About 1300 men now in 4th D.A. Camp.

Saturday 18th March
I hear that 1st Divisional Artillery is to move early next week, leaving all equipment behind and that we are to take over equipment, camp site etc. The 4th Div Arty are now working in groups for each Brigade and doing good work.

Sunday 19th March
Went to Cairo by 11.30 train. Saw a number of Light Horse officers at Continental Hotel, met Christian and Rabett, and discussed arrangements re Light Horse personnel. Had a conference with about 25 L.H. officers at night. They seem a likely lot. Major Waites batman killed.

Monday 20th March
Col. Christian and myself called on Gen. Sellheim re transfer of L.H. to two new Artillery Divisions. Handed him complete nominal rolls and all papers. There should now be no further hitch. Gen. Howse told me he had 50 AMC. drivers at Tel el Kebir who desired to transfer to Artillery and asked me to take them. On return to camp at midday I found 1st Brigade getting ready to move off, and they actually left about midnight. Shooting during the day, my young officers being present. Dined with Gen. Cox. Discussed a good many details of training etc. He approved my sending in Hobson’s name for a Commission.
The Prince of Wales is to inspect the camp on Wednesday. Gen. McKay who is to command the 5th Division arrives tomorrow. Saw General Bates in Cairo regarding horses for 4th Div Arty. Not much chance at present of getting suitable type.

[Page 23]
Tuesday 21st March
The 2nd Brigade struck camp and left Tel el Kebir to day for Alexandria. Future destination not definitely known. Gen. Hobbs and staff also departed. Said "Good bye" to him. Howitzer Brigade took over site of 1st Brigade, 10th Brigade having yesterday taken over guns, equipment, etc. of 1st Brigade. 11th Bde. to day took over equipment of 2nd Bde and 10th Bde will occupy their vacated site. By the end of this week we should be well established in new quarters, both Brigades and also my HQrs. We have taken over General Hobbs’ site.
Gen. McKay took over command of 5th Division.

Wednesday 22nd March
The Prince of Wales inspected camp. He was accompanied by Gens. Birdwood, White, Cox and McKay, together with plenty of staff. He is a very shy boyish individual. Gen. Birdwood presented me to him, and I in turn presented my Brigade Commanders. Gen. Birdwood in a few nicely chosen words told of the doings of myself and Brigade Commanders at Gallipoli. Our men made a very good showing, the Prince wanting to know why they were in helmets instead of hats. The innovation is only for the summer while drill jackets are being worn.
Paid over all Brigade funds of 3rd FA Bde to Col. Burgess and received his receipt. The 3rd Brigade struck camp and departed. Col. Rabett’s Brigade (the 12th) took over all equipment etc., and as soon as the site is thoroughly "sunned", the 11th Bde will take over. Engineers are erecting meat safes for all Batteries.

Thursday 23rd March
Called at 4th Div. H Qrs. re disposal of reinforcement personnel now in Tel el Kebir camp. Had 141 transferred to 4th Div Arty, but officers not yet transferred. With Col. Armstrong inspected Camp Sites for 12th Bde and D.A.C. Decided to put 12th Bde opposite the "Hyderabad Lancers" and the D.A.C. on ground at present held by 4th Div Arty. Paraded applicants for commissions before General Cox including Hobson. General gave all applicants a very sensible address concerning their future. Canteen contract completed with Mangerites. To open on Monday next.

[Page 24]
Friday 24th March
Again at HQrs. 4th division re reinforcement Officers. No authority through from Anzac as to their future. Moved over on to ground latterly occupied by General Hobbs and established office. Convened Field General Court Martial re one of Col. King’s men. Heard at HQrs. that I have to take over two 18 pound How Battery at Moascar, Ismailia. At Col. Duncan’s request I put in a strong minute showing why it would be inadvisable to do so and how much better for the training of 4th Div to send guns to Tel el Kebir, allowing us to continue training here, unless tactical consideration absolutely compel us to go to the Canal. The whole of 4th and 5th Divisions are ordered to Canal, but I think the Artillery will remain here for the present.
Took photos of a huge crowd of camels here today. They are to be used in Transporting 4th & 5th Divisions to Canal.

Saturday 25th March
Received note from Gen. White this morning re Major Waites promotion. I immediately went to Ismailia, saw General White, and got the whole matter settled. Major Waite is to receive his promotion in orders tomorrow to be appointed to the Command of a Brigade. Gen. Hobbs has been trying to get Major Spurge appointed, but I managed to give such information as left Gen. White no alternative but to appoint Waite. I tried hard to arrange that 4th Div Arty should remain at Tel el Kebir. Will hear definitely in a few days.
Lt. Holdgate handed over to me from 1st Div. under arrest, pending settlement of enquiry re his conduct. Received instructions to send to Zeitoun 200 odd reinforcements for Artillery depot there. Lieut. Hobson and others gazetted.

Sunday 26th March
Divisional Church parade this morning, but as I had a good deal of writing to do I did not attend. Major Griffiths spoke to me over the phone from Anzac telling me Major Waites promotion was through orders. Had all Battaln Commanders of 13th Brigade to dinner with us. All old Anzac friends and in our new Division we shall again be associated. Sent 200 Artillery details to Zeitoun under Capt. Thomson. Very glad to get rid of them.

[Page 25]
Monday 27th March
About 1000 men and 15 officers from L.H. at Maadi arrived here last night. The quota for 4th Div. amounted to about 230 men and 7 officers, Christian getting the balance. Introduced two applicants for Commission to Gen. Cox. Discussed with him future moves of 4th Div Arty. Appointed to command at Tel el Kebir after General Cox’s departure tomorrow morning.
About 14 applications for Commission with our division (from 12th L.H.) approved by General and sent on yesterday. Col. Waite took over Command of 24th How Brigade. Received cable from Richards stating he left London on 25th via France, and asking if he could join the Division. I am very pleased to know he is returning to us. It looks as if he will be the next Bde. Major. Engineers agreed to erect Kitchen for us.

Tuesday 28th March
Gen. Cox and staff moved to Serapeum where Head Qrs. are now established. For the present our Artillery remains here, and I hope "the present" will continue till we leave for France. Trooper Green interviewed me to day re commission. I agreed to recommend him. A party from 1st B.A.C. who had been left behind sick reported to us for duty to day. Units doing good work. Exceedingly hot day.
Received 125 draught and 25 riding horses from Maadi. Quite a good lot.

Wednesday 29th March
Visited Moascar during morning. Arranged with Gen. Johnstone re taking over New Zealand guns, and also re Col Waite and his officers being given an opportunity to see 4.5" stripped by Armament Artificers. Half his officers are to go down tomorrow and remainder on Friday. Saw Major Freeman of R.F.C. Squadron attached to Anzac, also Col. Salmond, his C.O. who Commands the wing with HQrs. at Ismailia. Arranged for co-operation between Aircraft and Artillery during our forthcoming training. Called at HQrs. Anzac. Informed we are to move to Serapeum as soon as rail Transport could be made available. Stayed to lunch with Gen. Godley.
A.I.F. troops in Cairo are to take over Tel el Kebir camp, and

[Page 26]
a good thing it will be to take them away from Cairo and its environments. By far the hottest day we have experienced in Egypt.

Thursday 30th March
Lt. Col. Waite with a party of officers and Corporal Miller proceeded to Moascar this morning for instruction on 4.5" Hows. I journeyed to Serapeum by midday train arriving there about 4 PM. Met Gen. Godley and Gen. Cox. Decided on position for Artillery Camp at Fin Goshein near Serapeum.
Gen. Cox persuaded me to stay the night at his Head Qrs. so as to be able to carefully inspect camp site tomorrow.

Friday 31st March
At 7 AM inspected Camp site. Returned to Serapeum at 9 AM, had breakfast, then with Cols. Barber and Armstrong went up to Ismailia by launch, calling at two "Posts" en route. Called at G.H.Q. E.E.F. re water difficulties at Serapeum. Returned to Tel el Kebir at 3 PM Found piles of official correspondence awaiting me, also letters from George Halford and Alice Lindsay.
Expect another 150 Horses tomorrow and also a crowd of Light Horse personnel.

Saturday 1st April
General Delaraye, Gen. Sellheim, Col. Spencer Browne and other officers visited Tel el Kebir to inspect site for troops from Cairo to take up. Arranged to hand over command of Camp tonight to Major Aarons who arrived to day with 1st Training Battalion. Arranged with Engineers regarding trough pump, latrine seats and Dining tables and forms to go to Serapeum. About 800 L.H. reinforcements (or rather volunteers) arrived today also a 150 draught and 25 Riding Horses. All units preparing for move to Serapeum.

Sunday 2nd April
Camp Adjutant (Lt. Moore) called on me early to say that Major Aarons was upsetting the camp generally, nothing being right. As I had handed over officially I could

[Page 27]
do nothing. Moved off to Serapeum with Capt. Forrest and part of D.A.HQrs. Balance of H Qrs. and horses to leave tonight. Arrived at Serapeum a little after three o’clock. Stayed at D.H.Q. to dinner and shared Col. Duncan’s room. Arranged for marking out of camp by engineers tomorrow after Light Horse Brigade is clear of ground.

Monday 3rd April
Balance of Head Quarters and Horses did not arrive as expected. Failed to get the Engineers on to camp site. Light Horse not leaving till tomorrow morning. Arranged about water and supplies.

Tuesday 4th April
Over at Camp Site with Capt. Forrest at 6.30 AM. Got hold of Engineer Corporal and a few men of Artillery advance parties. Laid out all Brigade boundaries. First train bringing Div Arty came in about 9 o’clock, two others later. Balance of H Qrs. and Horses arrived at Serapeum late last night and were sent over to Canal siding this morning. Our H Qrs. established this morning close to Gen. Cox’s H Qrs. Light Horse Brigade left Serapeum West about noon.

Wednesday 5th April
Attended Conference with Brigadiers and General at 8.30 AM. He informed us we were to be ready to move to France at end of May. Balance of personnel and vehicles came into camp to day. Hope by the end of week to have everything in good working order. All leave after next Sunday stopped. Lt. Richards arrived from England. He brought me some books I had ordered. He looks very well and I am exceedingly glad to get him back. Quite a number of men from Bridging train transferred to us to day. Promoted full Colonel, and Temp. Brig. General. Published in A.I.F. list No. 50 dated Feby 21st 1916.

Thursday 6th April
New Zealand mounted troops left Serapeum West. I am now enabled to get all areas thoroughly cleaned up that are required for 4th Div Arty. Arranged for "A" Section

[Page 28]
12th Field Ambulance to go into camp with our Artillery on Monday next. Gen. Godley and staff visited camp late this afternoon. All units settling down.

Friday 7th April
Visited Camp during morning. Brigade telephone lines being laid. A number of sick evacuated to Ismailia. Went to Cairo by evening train.

Saturday 8th April
Called at A.I.F. H Qrs. re Lt. Manning and also re Capt. Parry Okeden. Saw Col. McAnderson re printing 1000 Standing orders. Approved. Also arranged for printing of 4.5" How. pamphlets. Received 250 18 pr. drill pamphlets. Obtained sundry articles for our mess. Returned to camp by 6.15 PM train arriving Serapeum about 10.15.

Sunday 9th April
Very tired after yesterday train journeys. Wrote letters during the morning. Enjoyed a swim during the afternoon. Section of Field Ambulance moved to Artillery camp and pitched tents there. Specially for benefit of Artillery.
Capt. Forrest went to Cairo re How. drill pamphlets.
Appointed by Gen. Cox as president of Committee for sports for "Anzac Day".

Monday 10th April
Capt. Forrest in Cairo. Met Engineer officers at Artillery camp and pointed out position for mess huts, Kitchen etc. Contractors commencing work. Medical Officer (Capt. Cole) reported to 24th Bde. Major Vernon’s transfer to 4th Div Arty approved. Official papers to hand. Met "Anzac Day" Committee and got programme of events roughly drafted out. Meet Committee again tomorrow afternoon to settle details. Ought to have a good day’s sport. Col. Todd, 10th L.H. called to see me re his men transferring to Artillery.

Tuesday 11th April
Met General Cox with Candidates for Commission at 11 AM. Discussed "Anzac Day" sports. Met Committee in afternoon, and finally arranged programme. Submitted same to General Cox.

[Page 29]
Major Cockraft, Staff Officer R.A. 2nd Anzac called and stayed to lunch. Discussed sundry Artillery matters. Persuaded Gen. Cox to ask for our 20 % reinforcements to be supplied at once. Two ships with Russians soldiers from VLADIVOSTOCK passed through canal, each with about 2000 men. Their destination unknown.

Wednesday 12th April
Spent the morning at Artillery Camp. New mess huts well under weigh and area generally being made clean and tidy.
Received letter from Nell from Springwood, the first for many weeks, also one from Alvord and some papers from Nell. Several new Commissions gazetted.

Thursday 13th April
A terrific wind blowing all night. Sand flying in all directions, and to day conditions have been dreadful. Wind has gale velocity and when riding along the sand cuts ones face like glass. Received instructions re formation of Mobile column for possible advanced work, and made my arrangements accordingly.

Friday 14th April
Another terrific night. Very little sleep for anybody. Tents blown down in all directions. Capt. Forrest went to Cairo to correct proofs of 4.5" Hows. drill pamphlet and Standing orders. Cols. King and Hughes came to breakfast, and we decided certain details re gun positions etc. A sharp shower laid the dust for about an hour to day. Busy in office all day.

Saturday 15th April
Inspected camp during morning. Made reconnaissance for gun position West of Canal at Serapeum. Wrote Capt. of "Sir Thomas Picton" re communications between him and myself. Allotted our 200 Horses at Serapeum West to various units. Maj. Vernon, Lt. Landsell and Padre Stevenson reported for duty. The latter appears a fine sensible fellow and I think should be of great assistance to us.

[Page 30]
Sunday 16th April
Church Service at Artillery Camp. I dealt with a great deal of correspondence etc. Lt. Rowbotham reported. Capt. Forrest returned from Cairo & Port Said. Received about 230 reinforcements for Divisional Artillery, mostly from Infantry.

Monday 17th April
At Camp all the morning. Gen. Cox donated £ 72 for "Anzac Day" which sum will pay for trophies and 20,000 programmes. Engineers supplied part of timber for shelters at D.A.HQrs. Very hot day. Received wire from Capt. Hallard stating that two cases of Apples had been sent to Serapeum Station for me. Issued special orders re sundry matters, canteen etc. at Artillery Camp.

Tuesday 18th April
Prepared fair copy of plan showing location of Batteries for defence of Bridge Head, and sent same to D.HQrs. Apples arrived from Hallard. Have wired for him to come and see me if possible. I should like to get him into 4th Div Arty. Rabett called re Sundry Brigade matters. Huts commenced for Head Quarters. Advice that Commander in Chief is to inspect on Wednesday afternoon and Thursday.

Wednesday 19th April
With General Cox during the day. Commander in Chief attended by his staff, and General Godley with his staff, visited Serapeum. I was with General Cox and accompanied him round the various positions. The Prince of Wales was also present. The C in C seemed very pleased with his inspection generally. He is to inspect the Artillery tomorrow morning, but as we are camped some distance from the Infantry and he specially wants to see them, I think he will cut us out of his programme.

Thursday 20th April
Waited till 9 AM at Artillery camp for C in C but he did not arrive. I left by 9.15 train for Alexandria to arrange sundry ordnance matters. Hung up at Benha for

[Page 31]

four hours owing to trains not making connection. Reached Alexandria about 8 PM. Stayed at Majestic Hotel.

Friday 21st April
Good Friday – Alexandria very quiet. Called at Ordinance Depot & Base records office. Clerks & records both very satisfactory. In afternoon visited Aboukir Bay famous because of its association with Napoleon & Nelson.
Capt. Hallard & Col. Nicholson who are staying in Alexandria dined with me. Hallard is applying for transfer to 4th Div Arty & I expect will soon receive word approving.

Saturday 22nd April
Left Alexandria by 9 AM train & arrived at Serapeum at 3.30 PM. Matters in connection with "Anzac Sports" well advanced, & trophies are ready. Committee has done good work.

Sunday 23rd April
Church Parade at 9 AM. Units not punctual & not a very good muster. Attended to official Correspondence accumulated during my absence, also wrote private letters.
Sent horses out to road Head for reconnaissance tomorrow of Artillery positions.

Monday 24th April
Capt. Forrest & myself left Serapeum at 5.30 AM by car, picked up our horses at Road Head, some 8 miles out towards front line, & reconnoitred all Front line Artillery positions. All existing Infantry works have been absolutely filled in by the sand storms of last week. In fact some works are quite lost to view.
Lunched with Col. Arnott, 9th L.H. Regt. Saw Major Scott, D.S.O., & congratulated him on his recent capture of a Turkish outpost. Came back to camp in car. Called on General Cox at 3.30 re details "Anzac Sports". He informs me the Prince of Wales is to be present & will probably present the trophies. We shall have a busy day.

[Page 32]
Tuesday 25th April
"Anzac Day". A year ago to day we were engaging in an unique encounter. To day here is actual peace. Church parades & memorial services with all units. A full day’s sports afterwards. Inter Brigade Competitions in the morning, & championship events in the afternoon. General Godley & staff came down from Ismailia & the Prince of Wales from Suez. Generally a very good day. Many quaint water craft were designed & men seemed to thoroughly enjoy themselves. I took a few very good pictures. Infantry Band performed for us at night in the Artillery camp. I dined with Col. Waite & his officers.

Wednesday 26th April
A truly dreadful day. Many of our men collapsed as a result of the terrific heat. Gen. Godley inspected Divisional Artillery at 5 PM. His staff accompanied him. He saw all our requirements in equipment etc.
I dined with Col. King & his officers.

Thursday 27th April
Maj. Gen. Smith RFA (EEF HQrs.) made an inspection of equipment of 10th & 11th Brigades. Rather rough on Capt. Paterson, a R.F.A. Territorial officer recently attached. He is to be posted to Christian. Met umpires for tomorrow’s manoeuvres & discussed work generally. Brigade Artillery Commanders are to be present.

Friday 28th April
Attended Divisional Manoeuvres this morning in the capacity of Chief Umpire with Gen. Cox’s force. Brigade commanders were employed as Assistant Umpires & did good work. Generally a very instructive morning. Commenced at 5.30 AM & finished at 10 AM.
Huts being completed for DA HQrs. Weather again very hot. Gen. Godley & staff attended operations this morning.
Gen. Cox very unwell.

[Page 33]
Saturday 29th April
Conferred with Gen. Cox on posting of 4.5" Hows. for use in protecting main Infantry camp against aircraft.
Arranged to commence elementary practise next Wednesday, the How. Brigade being first.
Capt. Tweedie RN, HMS. Sir Thomas Picton, called on me re his ships support to this section. Lecture this afternoon by Gen. Cox to all officers.

Sunday 30th April
Up at 4 AM. Capt. Tweedie came down from Ismailia with his gunnery officer, Lt. Commander Finnis, & together we rode out to the front line positions & decided on site of Naval Observing Station & route for telephone lines.
Heard to day that Gen. Townsend had capitulated at Kut with 2950 British & 6000 Indian troops. Very sad. H.M.S. Russell mined off Malta. 160 drowned.

Monday 1st May
At Artillery Camp during morning. Saw unsuitable men of 12th Brigade. Arranged for Col. Waite to commence shooting on Wednesday if ammunition available. Sent in report to Cairo re sports on Anzac Day. Board fixed re selection of Artillery horses from Transport units to be replaced by mules. Gen. Glasgow President. Armament Sergt. reported to 12th Bde from FERRY POST.

Tuesday 2nd May
Medical officer of Sanitary Section complained to me about condition of part of our Head Quarters Camp. Arranged to have matters rectified. Arrangements for shoot of 24th Brigade upset, because ammunition will not be to hand in time.

Wednesday 3rd May
Conference of Brigade Commanders, Cra. & CRE at General Cox’s office re proposed move against possible enemy advance. Certain course adopted & orders issued accordingly.

Thursday 4th May
Ammunition for 4.5" Hows. arrived. Conference of Brigade Commanders re preparation for front line.

[Page 34]
The 11th Brigade to provide two Batteries & ammunition column. Inspected 12th & 24th Brigades, also 11th Brigade Anti Aircraft emplacement, with Maj. General Smith & Major Cockraft. Ordnance supplies coming forward a little more rapidly.

Friday 5th May
Howitzer Brigade commenced instructional shoot at 6 AM. Generally everybody did good work. Officers supplied personnel for gun detachments. Officers of other Brigades also attended. Addressed a few words to all officers at conclusion of shoot. Arranged for all Brigade and Battery Commanders to join me in reconnoitring the Front line tomorrow. Battery Commanders and Orderlies go out to rail head tonight and join us tomorrow morning.

Saturday 6th May
With Brigade Commanders left Canal by car at 5 AM. Picked up Battery Commanders at rail Head, and thence rode round the front commencing at Right Flank. Came back to 9th L.H. Camp at Road Head, where Col. Arnott provided us all (25 officers) with tea. We all of course had brought our lunches. During the afternoon we completed the Left Flank. Positions were selected for all guns of all Brigades of this Division. Returned to camp at 7 PM, exceedingly tired. It has been an unbearably hot day.

Sunday 7th May
Attended Church Parade at 7 AM. Not one of the Brigade or Battery Commanders out with me yesterday turned up to this Parade. Evidently the trip was too much for them. Received advice that a 60 Pd. Battery is to be sent at once to this Division and will come under my orders.
Had a delightful swim this afternoon, and afterwards wrote letters.

Monday 8th May
The 10th Brigade commenced its shoot to day at 6.30 instead of 6 AM as instructed. Targets were too far off and too indistinct for an instructional shoot, consequently full value was not received for the amount of ammunition expended. Col. Bernard (G.S.O.I ) came out to see the shoot, the General not being well. Came over Canal to witness an exhibition shoot from STOKES

[Page 35]
Trench Mortars. Detachments had not arrived from Ismailia, consequently shoot had to be postponed to 5 PM when a number of officers attended. The demonstration was most interesting and the mortar should prove most effective up in the line with Infantry.

Tuesday 9th May
Called on General Cox with an officer from 60 pr. Battery, discussed and decided on position. Inspected Anti Air Craft Howitzer and detachment. B.A. column busy on getting ammunition to Front Line , & DAC has now taken over all ammunition from Ordnance. Both units will get a chance to learn something of ammunition supply in the field. Officers from INVERNESSHIRE R.H.A. Battery called. This Battery is doing duty at the Front Line and comes under my orders.

Wednesday 10th May
The 11th Brigade carried out its instructional shoot, commencing at 6 AM promptly. All officers did exceedingly well. Ranges medium and short, and afforded full opportunity for observation of shots. Col. Bernard attended, also Capt. McRae the new G.S.O. II to Division.
Bustled Ordnance re fitting of sand tyres for mobile batteries of 11th Brigade. Gen. Cox very unwell.
Programme of shooting for next week issued.

Thursday 11th May
Left Serapeum East in car at 6.45 AM with Commander in Chief General Murray, Gen. Godley, and Gen. Cox’s staff, he himself being too unwell to attend. Went to North Road Head by car, took horses from there and rode out to GAZELLE HEIGHTS. Here General McCay and staff met the C in C. An exceedingly hot and trying day. I shall be glad to leave this Country.
Received advice from Capt. Collins, High Commissioners Office, of despatch of Medicine chests and military books. F.A.Ts. specially we urgently need. Brig. Gen. Nicholl arrived from Anzac and stayed with me.

Friday 12th May
Excessive heat. HQrs. Coy of Divisional Train arrived. At 6 AM. Gen. Nicholl accompanied me to witness

[Page 36]
shooting of 12th Brigade. Gen. Cox inspected at 8.30 AM. Batteries of 11th Brigade detailed for Front line mobile work. He expressed his satisfaction. In the afternoon Gen. Nicholl visited Batteries at work. Heavy battery (60 pr.) arrived.
Gen. Nicholl gave me a good deal of information re 1st Anzac he having recently visited them in France when returning to Egypt from leave in England.

Saturday 13th May
With General Nicholl at camp during the morning. In the afternoon motored out with him and Capt. Matherson (commanding 60 pr. Battery) to front line to select position for his guns. Major Dangar accompanied us from Rail Head.
Gen. Nicholl returned to Ismailia during evening.
Gen. Cox left on a few days sick leave. Weather terrifically hot.

Sunday 14th May
Another awful day. Did not attend Church Parade, but spoke to all officers and N.C.Os. in the afternoon re our early move to France, discipline etc. Tried to write letters but gave it up in disgust the heat being terrific. Capt. de Low took up duty temporarily as Brigade Major.

Monday 15th May
Commenced a week’s shooting at 5.30 AM. One battery of each Brigade on each day. Finished up at 1 o’clock. Heat again terrific. received letters from Nell and Alvord.

Tuesday 16th May
Another day’s shoot, finishing up a little earlier than yesterday – at 12.30. Heat dreadfully trying. I felt quite sick, and cut out one series.

Wednesday 17th May
Commenced shooting at 5.15 AM and went on till 11.30. The heat affected me so much that I left at 8.30 and returned to Camp.
Two monitors under Commander Noble arrived during the early morning to fix observing Stations etc. for front line.

[Page 37]
Commander Noble and his officers called to see me at 12 o’clock and I went off to lunch with them at 1 PM. The monitors were the "SCARAB" and "APHIS". Being again a terribly hot day I stayed on board and went with him down to his Station in the BITTER LAKE returning to my HQrs. at 7.30 PM. It seemed no cooler on the water than on the land, the wind was scorching, but on the boat they had plenty of ice, so we filled up with iced lime juice and soda, and really delicious it was. They keep a couple of cHameleons on board as fly catchers.
Feel very seedy. I think I got a touch of the sun this morning. Received two letters from Nell and one from Chris.

Thursday 18th May
Shooting again this morning but I did not feel up to attending. The heat is again as bad as ever, it is real Hell. My hut yesterday at 1 o’clock was 112° and last night at 11 PM it was 98°. Am taking a quiet day.

Friday 19th May
Attended shooting at 5 AM. Caught train for Cairo at 9 AM, having arranged for leave till Sunday night. I want to arrange some records at the base and also get some uniforms. Arrived at Cairo at 2 PM Reported to Head Quarters SAVOY Hotel. Found all banks now close (since May 1st) at 12.30 daily. Went to Davies Bazaar and was measured for tunic and cord breeches. Went to bed early.

Saturday 20th May
Did some shopping in the morning. Called to see Major Vernon at ABASSIA Hospital. Car lent me for the day by Capt. Gowing, H Qrs. A.I.F. After lunch I took Mr. and Mrs. Pengalley also the children for a run out to the "BARRAGE", and took a number of photos. It is a very beautiful spot. Had afternoon tea there, returning home at 7 PM Dinner at Continental Hotel. Talked with Mrs. Christian and Mrs. King.

Sunday 21st May
Did not turn out to breakfast till 9.30. A most enjoyable "lie in". Hotel very cool, the hot spell appears

[Page 38]
to have passed. Wrote letters during the morning. Left Cairo by 6.15 PM train, arriving at Serapeum about 11 PM. Found a number of back letters on my table. They had been to the 3rd Brigade in France and returned here. Cable received stating Halford’s appointment not approved. Am writing about him.

Monday 22nd May
Left at 5.30 AM for Road Head by car with the B.G.R.A (Brig. Gen. Short) of 53rd Division, which is to take over our line of defence. Our horses met us at Road Head and we rode along the front line. I indicated to him our gun positions. Met General Cox in afternoon on East bank of Canal re night operations for Wednesday. I am appointed Chief Umpire. Informed we are to leave about 1st or 2nd June.
We shall all be delighted to move out of this Country.

Tuesday 23rd May
Attended shooting of Brigade at 5.30 AM. General Cox arrived at 7, and waited till 10 watching shooting. He is coming out again tomorrow with the Corps Commander. Shooting generally very good indeed.

Wednesday 24th May
Brigade Shooting again to day. Gen. Godley attended with Generals Gywnne and Nicholl. Gen. Cox also present. All shooting was very creditable and Gen. Godley was so interested that he remained with us 1½ hours. Very unusual for him to pay so much attention to Artillery. He expressed his appreciation of the standard reached under such trying conditions,.
Attack scheme on land defences at Serapeum eventuated during the night. Two officers from Artillery assisted me as Chief Umpire. Scheme broken off at 3.30 AM and to resume at some time on Friday morning.

Thursday 25th May
Again Brigade shooting. Howitzer batteries did very well indeed. Resumed attack on Serapeum defences. Conference of all officers with General Cox and we inspected all trenches.

[Page 39]
Friday 26th May
Finished up scheme at about 6 AM Pow wow afterwards. Gen. Cox pleased with role played by Artillery. Visited training Depot at Tel el Kebir and so missed Brigade shoot. Work at Depot progressing satisfactorily. Addressed 4th Div Artillery men.

Saturday 27th May
Attended Brigade shoots at 5.30 finishing at 10.30 AM. Planning alteration re Brigade Major. Arranged for Capt. Richards to take over. Wrote final Egyptian letters during afternoon and evening. Inspection of Division ordered for Monday afternoon. Much cooler weather.

Sunday 28th May
Slept in for a change. No shooting. Also evaded Church Parade. Getting packing done prior to departure. Officers of the 4th East Anglian R.F.A. Brigade called on me. This Brigade is to take over our work in this Sector. Lord Exeter commands. All stayed to lunch, inspected camp site and returned to their position. Received orders for 1st Flight. The 11th Brigade first to move. Capt. Forrest left with Advance Party.

Monday 29th May
Final shooting of 10th Brigade. Capt. de Low did very well in his series. Officers from 4th East Anglian Bde. called to make arrangements for Batteries coming in tonight. Arranged for messing of officers with our Brigades.
Two British Battalions moved in this morning to take over from our Infantry. Review in afternoon by Commander in Chief. Very hot day. I turned out nine mounted batteries, and 6 dismounted batteries also D.A.C., about 2000 strong. All made a good showing better than I expected.

Tuesday 30th May
General straightening up of Camp during day. Had map finished showing our Artillery disposition which I will hand on to Lord Exeter of 237th R.F.A. Bde. With him and Capt. Malleson of 60 pr. Battery interviewed Generals Cox and Ward

[Page 40]
re permanent position of 60 pr. Battery. No decision arrived at. Left for Cairo by evening train arriving there at 2 AM, two hours late.

Wednesday 31st May
Made sundry purchases during the morning, obtained continuation pay book from Pay office. During afternoon went out to see the Zoological Gardens. Took Mrs. and Miss Christian also Mrs. King. They showed me round. Returned to Serapeum by 6.15 PM train. The 11th Brigade took its departure. All arrangements worked smoothly.

Thursday 1st June
Completed packing up. Handed over maps, camp etc. to Lord Exeter. Capt. Richards now to be Brigade Major. He accompanied me by midday train. Reached Alexandria in the evening the stayed the night at the Majestic Hotel.

Friday 2nd June
Arrived at the Ship "Kinfauns Castle" about 9.30 AM having first of all arranged with Thos. Cook and Sons re baggage. The 12th Brigade arrived in due course at the wharves. Some bungle over loading of guns, the M.L.O. stating they were not to go, but matters were later straightened out. Also trouble about 1 officer and some 5 men with 12th Bde. That also overcome.
Moved out from berth at 5.15 PM, the "Caledonian" carrying 12th Brigade having previously left her berth at 4.30 PM.
We moved out into the stream and anchored. Very comfortable ship. Gen. Cox, Gen. Glasfurd and Divisional Staff also on board. We three Generals have roomy single cabins. Expect to make the run to Marseilles in 5 days if a call is not made at Malta.

Saturday 3rd June
"Caledonian" moved out about 9 AM. We moved out at eleven, and very glad we are to be in motion and get the breeze for it is an infernally hot day. Our course lay to the north of Crete. Ship very comfortable and sea very smooth. Owing to risk of submarines all ports closed at night to obscure lights and everyone wearing life belts.

[Page 41]
Sunday 4th June
Lay in till 7.30. Breakfast at 8.30. Church Parade at 11. No band allowed. Our route is well patrolled, quite a number of destroyers and other Naval craft, also trawlers being met with along the route. Passed to the north of Crete and expect to clear the Western end of the island about 11 o’clock tonight. We then are to head south of Malta. Informed by wireless that one submarine had been heard of on our route. "Caledonian" now running with us under Destroyer escort.

Monday 5th June
Very pleasant day. Received wireless re Battle in North Sea. Our losses, Queen Mary, Invincible, Indefatigable, Defence, Warrior and Black Prince also 8 Destroyers, while Germans appear to have lost 7 ships, 9 Destroyers, 1 submarine and two Zeppelins. Expect we shall not get full details till we arrive at Marseilles. Being convoyed all day by a Mine Layer. Plenty of merchant ships in all directions.
[Battle of Jutland]
Tuesday 6th June
Passed to the southward of Malta about breakfast time. Now making towards the coast of Africa beyond the Island of Pantellaria, thence northwards to Marseilles.
No further news of Naval Battle. Allies have taken over Customs, Telegraph Offices and Police duties at Salonika. Martial law has been proclaimed. African coast (Cape Bon) showed up at sunset. Glorious evening.

Wednesday 7th June
Early this morning we came abrEast the South West corner of Sardinia, our course now lying to the westward of Sardinia and Corsica to Toulon, thence Marseilles.
French Patrol boats (3) seen this morning. Sardinia very rugged. Received wireless stating that H.M.S. Hampshire with Lord Kitchener and staff on board, had been sunk near the Orkney Islands, and apparently all on board lost. Lord Kitchener was on his way to Russia at the invitation of the Czar, to discuss military and financial problems. RUSSIA reported to have captured 13,000 Austrians.

[Page 42]
Troops on board have now discarded their Khaki drill and have taken on their woollen clothing.
We expect to reach Marseilles tomorrow morning early.

Thursday 8th June
Arrived at Marseilles at 8.30 AM. Moved into anchorage. Went alongside docks at 4 PM. Arranged to go ahead to Havre. All Brigades coming there first to equip, then up north to Billets in the vicinity of Hazebrouck. Col. Elliott, Cre, Capt. Richards and myself, motored around Marseilles for an hour. Especially pretty was the run round the water front. Saw plenty of German prisoners. Took train for Parisat 7 PM. Very crowded. Gen. Cox and his staff on board. Had very little sleep during the night. No sleeping car accommodation available.

Friday 9th June
Arrived at Parisat 8.30 AM at once transferred baggage to Gare Ouest. Had breakfast at the Grand Hotel. During morning walked round the City looking at shops. In afternoon took motor and saw as much as possible of Parisin the limited time at our disposal. Saw the Louvre, Notre Dame, Church Of S. Madelene, Church of My Lady of the Sacred Heart (where the Archbishop of Pariswas conducting services and from which place a magnificent view of Parisis obtained) the Pantheon, the Champs Elysees, Arch of Triumph and the beautiful park land beyond (Bois de Boulogne) leading to the famous racecourse Longchamps. I have never seen a prettier sight. We saw the Astoria Hotel where the Kaiser ordered luncheon to be ready on the triumphant entry into Paris. Returned to railway Station and caught train at 5 PM for Havre, reaching this town (via Rouen) at 8.30 PM. Reported to DAQMG at Base Head Quarters and arranged rooms at Hotel Moderne. The scenery all through the journey is magnificent. First the Rhone Valley, then the Valley of the Seine running from south of Paristhrough Rouen to Havre.

Saturday 10th June
Motored out to No. 2 Camp. Saw Camp Commandant. Arranged for allotment of Areas to Brigades etc. Called on O.C. Remounts

[Page 43]
re supply of Horses. Called on Chief Ordnance Officer regarding equipment. Requisitioned for Motor Car.

Sunday 11th June
Called on DAQMG and visited Camp. Took over Daimler car and ASC driver. Called on Remount Depot at Camp 8. Called on C.O.O.

Monday 12th June
Called on DAQMG re route to Hazebrouck and maps. Col. Rabett with party of officers and men arrived and marched out to No. 2 Camp, arriving there about 11 AM. Col. Rabett and Capt. Hallard came to the Hotel to lunch, afterwards calling on C.O.O. re 12th Brigade equipment. Met train at 4 PM and another at 6 PM carrying Colonel Hughes and 11th Brigade. Took the Colonel to C.O.O. and arranged for his equipment to be drawn tomorrow. Sent Col. Hughes and Rabett also Capt. Hallard back to camp in car. Arranged for guns to be taken to I.O.M. shops (Ordnance) by Motor Lorries.

Tuesday 13th June
Arranged with Ordnance for 11th Brigade to draw equipment. Inspected Ordnance Workshops. Here are employed 1100 men in 27 different trade departments. Balance of 11th and 12th Brigades arrived.

Wednesday 14th June
Party from 24th Brigade arrived. Equipping of 11th and 12th Brigades with stores and horses proceeding. Arranged for 11th Brigade to leave Havre tomorrow night.

Thursday 15th June
Balance of 24th Brigade arrived also portion of D.A.C. and part of 10th Brigade with Col. King. The 11th Brigade left for Hazebrouck in 3 trains.

Friday, 16th June
Balance of 10th Brigade and part of D.A.C. arrived, also Col. Vernon. Completed arrangements re drawing of

[Page 44]
all Stores and Horses. The 12th Brigade left for Hazebrouck. Ordnance here has done splendid work and Officers have given my units every assistance.

Saturday 17th June
Left Havre at 11.30 AM by car for Hazebrouck with Capt. Richards. We travelled via Fecamp to Dieppe where we had a late lunch and looked round the town. Then on to Abbeville which town we reached at 7 PM. Reported to Advanced Base Commandant. Met Capt. Asher who has an anti aircraft Battery. Stayed at Hotel de la Tete de Boeuf. The roads and scenery are magnificent. For many miles beautiful trees skirt the road sides, making fine shady avenues. The country is closely cultivated and looks its best. Flowers of all kinds, scarlet poppies especially skirt the road sides.

Sunday 18th June
Had a look at Asher’s Battery. Motored on via Aire to Hazebrouck thence to Caestre where our Divisional Artillery Head Quarters are situated. Beautiful roads again and splendid scenery. Found Capt. Forrest had made good arrangements for Head Quarters and myself. Informed by Divisional Head Quarters that I am to Command the Division during the absence on leave of General Cox. Lieut. Gen. Plumer who commands the 2nd Army of which we form part wants to see us tomorrow so the two Brigades who have arrived here will "March Past" on some suitable road.

Monday 19th June
Arranged for inspection of 11th and 12th Brigades by Gen. Plumer. They made a very good showing and he appeared pleased. During afternoon I motored to Ballieul, located 2nd Anzac then motored on to Armentieres. Called at HQrs. of N.Z. Division also D.A.H.Q. Arranged for some of my Battery Commanders to be attached for instruction (also men). Motored on to Croix de Bac, the HQrs. of 2nd Aust. Division. Saw General Legge and arranged with him for attachment of officers and men for instruction.
Called at DAHQ. but Gen. Johnstone was not in. Motored on to Sailly sur la Lys to HQrs. of 1st Aus Div There saw General Walker, who had with him at the time Col. Bessel Browne, who is acting

[Page 45]
as C.R.A. in Gen. Hobb’s absence. Here also I arranged for attachment of Officers and men. Returned to Caestre via Estaires.

Tuesday 20th June
Motored out to 1st Anzac. Saw Gen. Birdwood, Gen. White and Col. Griffiths. Gen. Birdwood gave me details of our future. Firstly we are to go into 2nd Aus Div area for attachment and at the end of two weeks we expect to take over their portion of the line. After about 2 weeks there we shall move to a new sphere of action, where again we will have a fortnight’s attachment prior to taking on our permanent job.
Sent in again special recommendation regarding Col. Hughes and Major Marks work at Gallipoli. Stopped officers leave in view of taking over line. Will arrange this later. Arranged for General Birdwood to inspect 24th Brigade tomorrow.
Appointed 8 Lieutenants to Divisional Artillery.

Wednesday 21st June
Called at Corps Head Quarters. Dealt with Commissions and Court Martials at Div Head Quarters.
During afternoon attended on General Birdwood during his inspection of 24th Brigade. He expressed his pleasure at the "turn out" generally.
Battery Commanders, 15 other officers and 25 men per Battery attached to 2nd Aus. Division.

Thursday 22nd June
During the morning General Sir Douglas Haig and General Birdwood officially visited this Division. As acting G.O.C. Division I accompanied them during their inspection of 24th FA Bde And 12th Infantry Brigade. The Commander in Chief appeared very pleased, spoke very nicely to Officers and men and welcomed them as fighting troops. He spoke to me a good deal while riding along about the proposed Australian Army but said our forces were too small to admit of the change.
Balance of DAC arrived. Hughes and Rabett on leave to London for 7 days, but I am afraid we will go into the line at very short notice, and they will probably be recalled.

[Page 46]
Friday 23rd June
Proceeded with the formation of one Heavy and three Medium Trench Mortar Batteries. D.A.C. Commander ordered to find personnel. Newly appointed Subalterns will be posted to these Batteries. Went to Corps Head Quarters. Took Corporal Benson [his batman] with me and he made a water colour sketch of the HQrs. buildings. We then went on through Hazebrouck to Cassell, and here also Benson made a sketch of the town, prominently situated as it is on a hill with the Church of Notre Dame and 2nd Army Head Quarters building showing up prominently in the picture.

Saturday 24th June
Spent the morning with Col Vernon re formation of Trench Mortar Batteries. Got everything satisfactorily arranged. Visited Divisional HQrs and dealt with Court Martials etc. Obtained Road Passes for Staff and Brigade Commanders from A.P.M. and also arranged re "Gas" lectures for all Brigades. Applied for 7 days’ leave from 27th inst., being the day General Cox returns.
Very heavy Cannonade through the night and early morning from the direction of Armentieres. I expect we shall have enough of it soon. Sent new officers to Calais for personal equipment etc. Two men of 12th Bde. sent forward on 21st inst. were wounded today.

Sunday 25th June
At 7 AM closely inspected the personnel of all Trench Mortar batteries. Published their composition in orders. Detailed officers and personnel. List of appointments to Commissions in Division approved by me published in Div. Orders.
Saw Gen. Birdwood at La Motte. Arranged with Colonel Griffiths re transfer of Capt. Asher. With two Brigade Commanders attended at Trench Mortar School, Berthen under Major Gen. J. Keane D.S.O.. He very kindly showed us around. Mortars are very effective and should prove a great boon in co-operation with our Artillery. Came through Hazebrouck on the way back from La Motte.
Arranged to go round gun positions of 2nd Aus Div Artillery tomorrow with General Birdwood.
Have just received word that of the two men of 12th Brigade wounded yesterday, one has died.

[Page 47]
Monday 26th June
Met General Birdwood at Armentieres Station. Brought out Col Waite and his Adjutant to look over the gun positions they will eventually work from. With Col Grimwade inspected Left Group. Watched an interesting German 5.9" series against a Supposed Battery emplacement which had not been used as such for six months. The real battery position was about 350 yards N.E. from the spot shelled. The Germans ranged very carefully with the assistance of aeroplane and then put in about 200 rounds, all excepting 10 detonating beautifully. Splinters flew all around where we were standing, some 400 yards away, a couple of which I picked up. Not a man was hit and no damage done except to the unoffending field. A costly mornings work to no purpose. Partly walking, partly riding bicycles, we inspected the Centre Group under Lt Col Lloyd and the Right Group under Lt Col Cohen. We found the emplacements generally very good – plenty of suitable material is of course available – very different to Gallipoli. Orchards, hedges and buildings, give plenty of opportunity for screening of guns. Officers generally in this Division have never been to Gallipoli, and I think are unduly puffed up with their achievements here. I am perfectly satisfied our officers and men will do well. Those already allotted to Batteries are proving their worth. Returned via Merris to Caestre. Called at D.HQrs. re trench mortar School and satisfactorily arranged for personnel of next two classes. Gen. Birdwood refused my leave, saying I could not be spared at the present juncture. I am not particularly keen on getting it, but I want to get George Halford fixed asA.D.C. It seems rather a difficult matter to get one man from England.
As far as I can learn, future movements of troops generally will mean my leave will be blocked for some considerable time. All personnel of M.T.M Batteries sent to School at Berthen.

Tuesday 27th June
General Cox at my Head Quarters. He told myself and my C.Os. of an interview he had with Gen. Birdwood last night. Gen. Plumer is doubtful lest 4th Aus Div Artillery may not be sufficiently advanced to take its legitimate job in connection with forward move, and if not the 4th Aus Div Infantry will

[Page 48]
not be used, but N.Z. Division will be transferred temporarily to 1st Anzac. Therefore it beHoves us all to do our very best to be ready, which I feel confident we will be. Gen. Cox inspected part of 10th Brigade and D.A.C. Very wet and farms very muddy.
I called at Army HQrs Cassell and arranged for our Div Artillery supply of maps of Armentieres-Laventhe Sector, also called at Mortar School Berthen re attendance of personnel.

Wednesday 28th June
Went out with Capt. Forrest to look at Billetting areas suggested for us near Ballieul. A miserable day, very wet. Not much progress made. Sent more personnel (telephonists) to Batteries of 2nd Aus Div in Firing line.

Thursday 29th June
With Capt. Forrest called on Gen. Johnstone 2nd Div Artillery. Took down Col Rabett and his Orderly Officer and they had a look around Col Lloyd’s positions. With Gen. Johnstone I went round O.Ps. of 2nd and 3rd groups. Not a good view from any one of them. Observation appears very difficult.
Arranged for all Brigade Commanders to take up their residence with 2nd Aus Div Group Commanders.
Raids have been very successful. Eighteen German Sausage balloons brought down along the line yesterday through being bombed with phosphorous bombs by our Airmen. Quite a good bag. Had lunch with Col Lloyd. Arranged to send half the Heavy T.M Battery personnel to 2nd Aus Div for experience.
Col King and Hughes on court Martials also Capt Richards. Heard full details of German raid on 20th Battn of 5th Brigade when two Stokes T.Ms were lost, also Court Martials on officers concerned, one of whom was acquitted and two sentenced to loss of seniority. Also details of new type of British plane flown by recently Gazetted pilot, who landed it unharmed in the German aerodrome at Lille, mistaking it for ST. Omer. He lost his way – had not previously been in France. Arranged to move tomorrow to temporary billets in Erquingham pending General Johnstone’s departure for his Head Qrs. Raid arranged by Colonel Brand for tonight.

[Page 49]
Friday 30th June
Took Colonel Vernon to 1st Anzac Ammunition Park to meet Col Tunbridge re ammunition supply to Division. Drew full supply. Met Gen Johnstone and discussed with him necessity for getting more B.Cs. He has promised to let me have Major Williams and Capt. Aiken. Gen. Cunliffe Owen called and explained proposed operations up north.
Arranged to put into 2nd Div Area 8 Batteries on July 4th. Took Gen Johnstone to La Motte. With Col. Griffiths discussed re getting two officers from 1st D.A. Wrote official letter to DHQ, got General Cox to minute it, and had it sent by special messenger to Corps. I think this will all be satisfactorily arranged. Officers reported having left Southampton for 4th D.A. Col. King and Col. Hughes completed Court Martial.
All Brigade Commanders going to our Battle Zone tomorrow. Pitiable to see little children going to School, all carrying gas helmets. Raid last night very successful. Killed 100, captured 7 and a number of trophies such as rifles, grenades, revolvers, helmets, etc. Our losses 8 killed 17 wounded.

Saturday 1st July
All Brigade Commanders took up quarters with 2nd Division and commenced to learn their groups. Capt. Richards and myself moved into Erquingham pending taking over from General Johnstone. Called on Col Grimwade re his gun positions and O.Ps. D.A.C. took over all ammunition complete from Park and will issue tomorrow to Brigades.
Capt Asher from Abbeville called to see me. His transfer not yet through. Lt Fox from Gen Holmes Brigade – a Trench Mortar Officer – called to see me re transfer to 4th Div Arty. I interviewed General Holmes and agreed to take him. Intense bombardment commenced at about 9.30 PM and continued till 1 AM I do not know whether our guns or the enemy’s were causing the disturbance, but detonations were one continuous roll like thunder with occasional heavy bursts, the latter rattling the windows and doors.
I returned to Caestre during afternoon and remained there the night. A peculiar type of aeroplane was towed past our billet about 10.30 PM, nationality I could not discover.

[Page 50]
Received wire from Corps stating that Lts Evans and Sheppard were transferred from 1st Aus Div Artillery. Major Williams and Temp. Capt. Aiken from 2nd Div Artillery, and Lt Coe cabled for from England. My difficulties re Battery Commanders are therefore now ended. Lt Evans reported to me this morning, those from 2nd Division tomorrow, Lt. Sheppard on 5th on return from leave, and Lt Coe as soon as he arrives.

Sunday 2nd July
Moved to Erquingham. Spent the morning with Gen Johnstone. At 10 AM met Gen Nicholls at Gen Johnstone’s HQrs., then went on to HQrs. of 1st Aus Div Certain Artillery promotions were decided on by C.R.As. Then followed a conference re operations South and North and changes in taking over the line.
There were 17 Generals present, including the two Corps. Commanders, all Divisional Commanders and all C.R.As.
It is now probable that 1st and 2nd Div. Artillery may be moved South to assist in operations there. It has also been decided that 4th Aus Div shall take over from 1st Aus Div also half area now held by 2nd Aus Div, the remainder of 2nd Aus Div Area being added to N.Z. Division Area. This means our guns have a more extended front to watch, and in addition the 1st Aus Div Area is new to my officers, it being understood we were to take over from 2nd Aus Div Called my Brigade Commanders together and explained altered conditions. Col Waite put his Brigade in Col. Cohen’s group during the night, and balance of Div Arty ordered to be ready to move instantly when called upon. Very interesting watching shelling of aeroplane and sausage balloons.

Monday 3rd July
At 8.30 at Gen. Johnstones HQrs. Saw a German plane bring down one of ours, but luckily the Pilot righted it before it reached the ground. At Gen. Hobbs HQrs. at 9 AM with Richards. Two Brigade Majors going into maps etc. Arranged to relieve tonight one Battery in Cohen’s Group, two Batteries in Burgess’s Group and one Battery in Brown’s Group. All balance of artillery marched here from Caestre excepting D.A.C. Half Heavy Mortar Battery personnel left for School at Berthen. Personnel of three medium T.M. Batteries reported back from School. HQrs. office of Div Arty being moved.

[Page 51]
this evening to Sailly. Capt Richards returned to Caestre and will return in the morning with Capt. Forrest and Col. Vernon, the latter to inspect his billet for D.A.C. and bomb store.
Walked round to HQrs of Waites, Hughes and Kings Groups, also to Rabett’s HQrs, where I had afternoon tea with Col. Stevenson. Fairly heavy strafe during night. Plenty of ammunition used.

Tuesday 4th July
Heard today that the Hun raided a portion of New Zealand trenches last night, killing about 30 and capturing five. Capt. Forrest and Col. Vernon arrived from Caestre.
Lt. Jackson taking over 1st Div Bomb store from Lt. Hare, and Lt. Stubbin similarly from 2nd Div Bomb Store. Col. Vernon inspected billets for D.A.C. Spent the day in HQrs office Sailly. Getting communication with Left Group (Waite) established. Signals not carrying out their specified duty in laying and maintaining lines from DAHQ to Groups. Lt. Fox took over trench mortars from Lt. Brown.
All T.M personnel took over. Balance of 4th Div Arty move in tonight to gun positions. Very welcome letter from Nell dated May 14th.

Wednesday 5th July
Took over from Gen. Hobbs 1st Aus Div Artillery, he and his staff moving out to Ballieul. First of all had a thorough clean out of offices, and waste paper, rubbish etc. burned.
At 5 PM had a Conference of Group Commanders, Col. Bernard also present, and went through a number of important matters with them, chief of which was the matter of instant communication between Infantry and Artillery and prompt assistance when called for from guns.
About midnight gas alarm was sounded, but nothing eventuated.

Thursday 6th July
At 6 AM left for Group and Battery positions riding Dick. Took Bligh with me. Saw Colonel Haig, missed Gen. Glasgow, missed Col. Hughes and Gen. Glasfurd, saw Col. Waite and Gen. Monash. Discussed with the latter the matter of telephonic communication from Companies to Batteries. Discussed with O C Signal Coy matter of communications generally and arranged for a letter to be sent in asking for responsibility to be fixed definitely.

[Page 52]
Secured a motor cyclist for Div Artillery work, to live and be rationed with Artillery. Gen. Christian, BM and ADC. called, went into details of grouping and sent them around. Cols. Cox, Taylor, Lucas and Caddy also going round groups.
Called on General Cox. Scheme for tonight (without cooperation of Infantry) ordered. General Glasgow came to see me at 4 PM re scheme for tonight. Col. King carried out the operation, using in addition the trench mortars. Gas alarm during the night.

Friday 7th July
In the morning called on Heavy Artillery re communications. General Nicholl came in while I was there. Line direct between myself and Heavy’s arranged for.
Major Bates R.F.A. reported for duty as Brigade Major. He joined the service in 1900, and as the result of a hunting accident retired in 1913. On outbreak of war he rejoined and has been in France continuously. He appears a very capable man and should be most useful. Richards now available as Battery Commander.
Gas attack ordered for tonight, but wind appeared unfavourable, and in consequence it has been cancelled. Instead a small artillery operation was carried out by Col. Waite.
Took Major Bates down to meet staff at Divisional Head Quarters.

Saturday 8th July
At 6 AM with Brigade Major went to Col. Hughes, Col. Waite and Gen. Monash’s HQrs., also looked at some gun positions of centre group. Introduced Brigade Major to Group Commanders. Called on G.O.C Division at 10 AM. He informed me the Division, less Artillery, would move out about 12th inst., and Artillery as soon as 5th Divisional Artillery are ready to take over. Our destination appears to be in connection with the push Southwards. In the meantime we are to get as much shell practice here as possible. Gen. Nicholl also called on the same errand. Col. Waite joined with Gen. Monash in a special rehearsal of a Barrage. Gen. Christian and some of his officers to afternoon tea.
Asher reported for duty as D.T.M.O., also Lieuts. Carse, Challoner, Scarrat and Walker – the former from Anti Aircraft Battery at Abbeville and the others from England.

[Page 53]
Sunday 9th July
Forwarded recommendations for promotion to Major of Edwards and Richards, also to Capt. of Evans, Sheppard and Asher. Great difficulty last night through being ordered at 11.30 PM to return 1st Div. T. Mortars by 5 AM today. Interviewed 5 officers being superseded by Asher, and explained reasons for my recommendation. No objection raised.
Hughes shooting last night very effective against parapets, and dead bodies counted in the morning. Another scheme this afternoon for Right and Centre Groups, and tonight schemes continuing through the night, bombarding all German roads on our front. Saw Gen. Cox with regard to Gen. Monash’s complaint re slow response of Left Group Artillery last night.

Monday 10th July
General Christian with me all the morning. Went into maps and positions generally. Batteries wire cutting during afternoon. Took Gen. Christian round to O.P.s during afternoon per bicycle. Infantry of 5th Division moving in, ours moving out. Our artillery expected to hand over to 5th Div. on or about 14th inst. and then we expect to go south. No strafe tonight as Infantry of 4th and 5th Divisions are in process of relief.
Plenty of aeroplanes overhead during the evening, the "Archies" also being particularly busy. Trench mortars returned to 1st Aus Div Arty

Tuesday 11th July
Ordered as President of Court Martial on two officers. Very unpleasant task. At 6 AM commenced a tour of the whole of our Sector of trenches and finished up at L'Armee at about 11.15 feeling very tired. Trenches here are really not trenches but built up parapets. Communication trenches alone are excavated. Parapets are an average of 12 feet thick in the centre and 6 feet at top. A tremendous amount of work has been done.
Our 4th Inf. Bde. very sorry to leave. They are so compatable – a great contrast to Gallipoli. Their spirits are irrepressible. In the parapets and immediately behind are innumerable "dug outs", named in most extraordinary fashion. One "Dill Macky Villa", others "Kosey Korna", "Latrine View", "The War Lord’s Lodge", "The abode of Love", etc. Some parts of the line have been badly shelled at times, and

[Page 54]
we in turn have equally strafed those of the enemy.
German planes were today endeavouring to get over our gun positions but our AA guns kept them back. We are doing some more strafing today.
General Christian and his staff here again this afternoon.
Secured some old photos of positions here and aerial photos.
Benson is making me a few sketches of the locality in colour.

Wednesday 12th July
Attended at Div HQrs. during early morning. Informed Division is moving south, but its Artillery is not to go at present. Court Martial at 10 AM No arrangements made. Prisoner’s friend did not appear. Witnesses late. Had to let the matter slide.
Reported to 6th and 4th Divs. also 1st Anzac. Finally got matters settled and arranged to convene at 10 AM tomorrow.
Batteries wire cutting during afternoon. Arranged for billets at Croix de Bac to which place we go tomorrow after handing over to General Christian. Gen. Coates, CRA, 61st Division adjoining on the south called on me together with his Brigade Major.

Thursday 13th July
Moved into new Quarters lately occupied by General Legge at Croix de Bac. Attended Court Martial at 10 AM Spent the whole day on the cases. Sent Capt. Baker (Judge Advocate) home to Ballieul in the car.
Batteries moved out of the line and handed over to 5th Aust Div (also Group Commanders). A good deal of firing during the night.

Friday 14th July
Again attended Court Martial at La Rolanderie Farm. Adjourned for lunch and resumed at 3 PM. Prisoners (Officers) found guilty and both sentenced to be cashiered. Very unpleasant task. General Godley called to see me during the evening to inform me of the forthcoming operation in the Sector. I have been attached to 2nd Anzac staff, and my batteries are loaned to 5th Division who are now in the line to supplement their artillery. The 5th Aus Div and the 61st Div whose boundaries adjoin are to have an attack during the next two days. They are being supported by extra infantry, my Batteries, and an added number of heavy guns.

[Page 55]
I shall now have the opportunity of seeing both the operations here and those down south while attached to Gen. Godley’s staff. Discussed details with Gen. Christian to whom my artillery will be attached, and arranged to hand on batteries during tomorrow morning. One’s arrangements are never certain for two consecutive days. We have just withdrawn from the line, and expected to get two or three weeks of strenuous manoeuvre behind the line – instead, we are sent back again into action. However it is all practice in moving at short notice, and incidentally is discipline for one’s temper.

Saturday 15th July
Called at DA 5th Div. Interviewed Gen. Carey, G.O.C. R.A. 11th Corps. Also met Colonel Allerdyce and Gen. Nicholl. The latter informed me he is being relieved from his duties at 2nd Anzac. Lent Forrest and Bates to Christian re ammunition and orders. In fact the orders were drafted by Bates. After lunch I went round to HQrs. of our three groups in 5th Div. Area, Bates helping our Battery Commanders. I returned to Croix de Bac about 6 PM and went to the Kite Section R.F.C. close by.
The Kite balloon was up, but as light was fading it was hauled down while I was there. A very uncanny thing it appears to be. Basket carries two operators, and is fitted with parachutes for forced rapid descent. Balloon was up 2000 feet.
All our batteries moved into position in the open during the night, dug in, and DAC supplied ammunition.

Sunday 16th July
Received message from Gen. Godley re visit of Australian and New Zealand Parliamentary Party. Called on the General at La Motte. He asked me to meet them, show them round this area, and take them back to Boulogne.
Major Studholme to look after New Zealanders.

Monday 17th July
Carefully inspected all 15 Batteries of Division, also Group Commanders HQrs. Operations postponed because of hazy weather. Heavy artillery registering. Included are 9.2" Howrs., 12" guns, 6" Howrs.,

[Page 56]
Tuesday 18th July
Went to La Motte and there received instructions to go to G.H.Q staff at Amiens, thence to Boulogne. Major Studholme did not come. Reached Amiens about 2 PM, via Hazebrouck, Lillers, St.Pol and Doullens. Had lunch at Hotel de Rhin and left immediately afterwards with a Member of Intelligence Staff (Lt Col Wilson) for advanced G.H.Q. at Beauquesne. Thence returned to Amiens, and had a walk round the interesting and historic city. The Cathedral particularly interested me, also the various Canals (from the Somme) which cut through various parts of the town, and have tenements rising perpendicularly from their banks. Stayed at Hotel du Rhin.

Wednesday 19th July
Rose at 3.30 AM and at 4 AM motored out to the scene of Battle beyond Fricourt. I took Benson with me to make some sketches. I went through the village and wood of Fricourt and from the North Eastern edge of the Hill I got a magnificent panorama of the country we have been so successfully working in. The village itself is absolutely destroyed and the Woods are stripped of branches and trunks shattered with shell fire. The ground too is honeycombed with huge shell holes. Heavy shelling of the Boche position was in progress. We inspected the old German trenches and dugouts. Many a score of German graves are in the vicinity, all neatly marked with Green painted wooden crosses. As noting German thoroughness many name plates were of enamel, with names of deceased, date of death, regiment etc. also enamelled.
Our Heavy Artillery was forward about 3000 yards of the Original German Front line. I returned to Amiens via Albert. Here the Church of Notre Dame has been badly damaged with shell fire. Benson made a sketch of the ruins. Church was just nearing completion in January 1915 when it was shelled. Cost 7,000,000 Franks. Received from Col. Hutton Wilson details of Parliamentary tour. Delegates timed to arrive at Boulogne about 11.30 AM today. Left Amiens about 10 AM and passed through billets of 2nd Div Artillery close to the City. HQrs. 1st Anzac are at Vignacourt.
Reached Boulogne about 6 PM via Abbeville, Hesdin (where I arranged motor Transport for visitors), (Montreuil G.H.Q. where I arranged for passes) Etaples (Australian Base Training Depot) and St. Etienne, taking the coast road from Etaples. Stayed at the Folkestone Hotel, Boulogne. Met Col. Griffiths and took him to

[Page 57]
dinner with me. Spoke to 2nd Anzac on phone. Was informed our intended operations eventuated today. Succeeded in entering German trenches, but British troops on our Right were not successful and as a venture it failed. We secured about 150 prisoners and killed a number of Germans, while our casualties I understand total about 4,000.
Delegates arrived from Parisand stayed at Folkestone Hotel.

Thursday 20th July
Left Boulogne about 9 AM for Calais. Col. Nicholson S.O.O. met us there, showed us round Ordnance shops, stores, Bakery etc., and took us all to lunch at Hotel Maritime. Australian Party consisted of Senators Keating, De Largie, Watkins, Barker and McGlynn, also Mr. Josiah Thomas, Burchell, Hampson, Palmer and Orchard. Lord Burnham accompanied them.
After leaving Calais at 3 PM we proceeded via ST. Omer to Cassell the HQrs of 2nd Army. Here General Sir H. Plumer received the party, and from the roof of his HQrs building we saw a magnificent panorama, such an one as I have never before seen, covering the whole 360 degrees. He told them how well our 5th Div. had done in the recent attack. We then journeyed to La Motte via Hazebrouck, dined with Gen. Godley (New Zealand delegates also being present) then took Australian Party to Croix de Bac where billets had been arranged. Lord Burnham stayed with me and messed with my officers.

Friday 21st July
Started out early. Called at Clearing Hospital where 2500 cases had been passed through during the last 2 nights. Inspected 9.2", 60 pr. and 18 pr. Batteries, also Anti Aircraft Sections. Home to lunch. At 2.30 motored out to Kite Balloon Section. One of the delegates (Mr. Palmer) went up and thoroughly enjoyed his experience. Boche shelling Nieppe close at hand.
Motored into Armentieres where we inspected the badly shelled Church, then on to the Aerodrome beyond La Gorgue, then home about 6.30. Quite a full day and I am sure the visitors were much interested. Witnessed burial of some of our Australian lads killed in the recent attack.

[Page 58]
Saturday 22nd July
Took party to Boulogne via Hazebrouck and St. Omer. The district passed through is very beautiful. Lunched at Hotel Folkestone. Took Capt. Forrest with me. Saw party off about 4 PM by boat. Forrest went to Base at Etaples. I visited No. 13 General Hospital at Boulogne and conversed with some 60 or 70 wounded men, some from our own recent operation, and some from the Somme. Many pathetic cases. Then I roamed over the high cliff land overlooking Boulogne. Turned in about 11 PM

Sunday 23rd July
Left Boulogne about 10 AM Called at Wimmereux Hospital on the way to Calais. Saw Col. Eames, the C.O. who showed us around. Spoke to many Australians wounded in the recent operations.
Went on through Calais to Dunkerque and Malo. Here we had lunch and purchased some post cards. Very fine beach. Came through Cassell and Poperingheto Ypres. This latter place is fascinating. It is a mass of ruins, the result of shell and fire. Particularly noticeable are the Cathedral and the Cloth Hall. Reached home at 7 PM. Wrote letters and attended to Office Correspondence. The 10th Brigade now attached to 5th Div, 11th Bde to N.Z. Div., 12th, 24th and DAC. in reserve.

Monday 24th July
Visited units during the afternoon, attended to correspondence in morning. Discussed with Gen. Gywnne the future utilisation of 4th Div Arty He informed me a definite sector would be allotted to us.

Tuesday 25th July
With Major Bates visited 2nd Anzac HQrs General Godley had returned the previous evening from Fricourt district and we heard of progress made. The 1st Aus Div now in and doing well in POZIERES WOOD. Discussed allotment of Artillery. Now decided to divide the Corps front into three Sectors as originally. We are allotted to the Centre Sector supporting two New Zealand Brigades. We shall have three Brigades in the line and one out. Col. Rabett and Col. Waite will be the first Group Commanders. Am ensuring my careful registrations being made and recorded for benefit of 3rd Division when it comes in.

[Page 59]
Forwarded names of 10 NCOs and men recommended for Commissions. These are I understand to go to 3rd Division.
Capt. Forrest attending Conference at 2nd Army HQrs re ammunitions. Lecture to B.Cs. and Brigade Commanders in our mess on points brought to notice during recent operations. Discussed with O.Cs., matter of promotions to 1st Lieut. Received my copy of Anzac book from London. Heavy Artillery fire north and south during night.

Wednesday 26th July
Brigade Major spent the day in reconnoitring positions for our Brigades. I visited several of our wagon lines. Brigade Major lectured in the evening. Informed by Gen. Powell G.O.C.R.A. 2nd Anzac of proposals re going into line.

Thursday 27th July
Received word from 2nd Anzac that though 4th Div Arty would take over Centre Section of this area, we would not be supporting New Zealand Infantry, but would be attached to 18th Div recently engaged on the Somme, who would be taking over Centre section. This is much more satisfactory from our point of view. We are to have four groups, so that each Brigade Commander will gain experience, also Brigade Staffs.
I presume the new G.O.C. will take over the billets I now occupy, so have arranged to move into others. Brigade Major out on reconnaissance. Gen McCay wrote me, asking for statement from Col Waite re Col Pope, who is accused of being drunk during recent operations. Corps Ordnance Depot opened in our area, to whom we will apply direct for equipment.
Asked to nominate an officer to go to the Somme to inspect gun positions. I propose sending Col. King.

Friday 28th July
Sent off 15 men under an officer as reinforcements to 4th Div. T. Mortars (Medium) Batteries. Brigade Commanders reconnoitring their areas. Gen. Powell called during afternoon. Informed me the arrangements made for 4th Aus Div Arty to cover 18th Division has been cancelled. They are now to bring in their own Artillery and we are to move to Training Area, a little West of St. Omer. How soon this will eventuate remains to be seen, and also how

[Page 60]
long we shall remain there if we do go. One cannot be sure of one’s movements for 12 hours at a time.
Bombardment down south very distinctly heard.

Saturday 29th July
Left Croix de Bac at 6 AM, taking Benson with me. Went into Ypres. Benson made sketches of the Cloth hall and also of the Cathedral. While he was doing so I walked round and through the City. It is a mass of wonderful ruins, not a house having escaped the effects of shell or fire. Then went to Armentieres, where Benson made a sketch of Church of Notre Dame, which was badly shelled about a month since. During the afternoon Fleurbaix Church was shelled and set on fire. Some families were driven out of the town, and it was rather pathetic to see them trudging along the roads westwards with their remaining worldly effects in wagons. General Metcalf, CRA 18th Div. called on me and discussed his taking over.

Sunday 30th July
Went with Capt. Forrest to look out Billets at Eecke. Went on to Cassell. Had an interview with Major General Frank’s 2nd Army HQrs re future movements and training. Definitely settled we are to go at once to training area West of St. Omer.
Rode to EstAire during evening. Wrote letters to members of family. Wire from George Halford stating that his discharge had been granted.

Monday 31st July
Rode to Estaires during morning. Gen. Metcalf and his Brigade Major went round our gun positions with Major Bates. We are to move into temporary billets at Steenwerck till our Brigades move. Am trying to get move ordered direct to St. Omer not via Eecke. Heavy firing during last night. Received letter from George stating that he must enlist in England in A.I.F. before he will be allowed to come over.

Tuesday 1st August
Capt. Forrest arranged for billets at Steenwerck into which we were to move tomorrow, but on calling at 2nd Army HQrs. today for maps I was able to complete arrangements to move direct to training area via Wallen Capelle. This will save us much trouble.

[Page 61]
Visited billeting area at Wallen CapellE also at Esquerdes, Setques, Lumbres and Quelmes. Will arrange for whole Divisional Artillery to occupy the first named three villages.
Major Bates issued all orders re moves etc.

Wednesday 2nd August
With Capt. Forrest left Croix de Bac at 8 AM The 24th and 12th Brigades had left earlier via Merville. I inspected them on the road. 12th Bde turn out particularly good.
Arrived at about 11 AM at Chateau we are to occupy at Lumbre as Head Qrs. Capt. Forrest completed billeting in detail. Very fine Chateau owned by a Viscount. He is about 50 years old and handed over the property for use of British Military officers. We shall be very comfortable here during our training period.
Lt Col Archdale R.H.A. who is to be our Camp Commandant called and stayed to dinner. Talked over details of training.
Part or our HQrs. staff arrived here about 3 PM, balance coming by road with 24th Brigade.
Nice trout stream running beside this property. Our Brigade Major is an expert with the rod so we hope occasionally to have fish for our table.

Thursday 3rd August
Capt. Forrest at 9 AM met Adjutants of 12th and 24th Brigades at Hallines, and pointed out their billets to them. After lunch I went with Capt. Forrest to Acquin where we arranged billets for D.A.C. Went on through Boisengham to training area, returning to Lumbre about 5 PM Major Bates went to see a R.A. Major at St. Omer, but he was not at home.
The 12th and 24th Brigades also Train settled into billets at Esquerdes and Setques. Secured good paddock for D.A.H.Q. horses. Country around Acquin is really beautiful – very hilly – fields a wonderful contrast in colours, real golden ripening wheat, sage Green oats, brilliant Green silver beet etc.

Friday 4th August
The Anniversary of Declaration of War – Two dreadful years – how many more? Visited 12th and 24th Brigade battery billets. Major Bates on manoeuvre area. Capt. Forrest met Adjutants of 10th and 11th Brigades also D.A.C. at Wallen Cappelland arranged billets.

[Page 62]
About 40 reinforcements arrived from Etaples after having been travelling since Sunday last. Asked by 4th Aus Div to provide complete extra personnel for Heavy trench mortar battery. 3 officers, 66 other ranks, also instructed vacancies available for Artillery School at Tilques for 3 officers and 5 N.C.Os. Motored out to training area. The 10th and 11th Bdes also DAC. commenced march from Croix de Bac.

Saturday 5th August
Major Bates rode out with me to manoeuvre area. Saw 24th and 12th Brigades at work. Came back at midday. Watched 10th, 11th Bdes and D.A.C. march into this area. Packing of vehicles of 11th Brigade not good – nor march discipline.
Shall have to be very persistent during the period of training to ensure a good standard.

Sunday 6th August
Anniversary of Lone Pine action Gallipoli. Brigade Major and myself motored to Etaples to discuss matters at Base regarding reinforcements. Saw Capt. Clayton O.C. and lunched with him. Saw O.C. Reinforcements and D.A.D.R.T. They neither knew our correct rail head, so in consequence our reinforcements have first been sent to 4th Aus. Div on the Somme.
Called on Major Short of 1st Div. Training Depot. Called at St. JOHNS Hospital and conversed with several wounded officers.
Took interesting route home, by sundry side roads and lanes. Received instructions to send four officers to England for course of training. Col. Griffiths wrote me re Halford and sent copies of letters he had forwarded to 3rd Aus Div and A.I.F. HQrs. in England. I think these will overcome all difficulties.

Monday 7th August
Out all day with batteries of 24th Brigade. Elementary work taking up positions. Major Edwards’ battery did very well. Generally a bit "sticky". Work criticised by Colonel and Camp Commandant.

Tuesday 8th August
Out all day with 12th Brigade. Lt. McCay did very well indeed. Similar scheme to that of yesterday.

[Page 63]
Many points brought out and drawn attention to. Went into St. Omer in the evening. Very fine town. Shall try to get a book of views to send to Nell. Arranged with officer from G.H.Q. (Major Lindemann) to assist farmers to get in harvest.
Have offered 500 men and 40 wagons.

Wednesday 9th August
The 10th Brigade at work on training area with same scheme as above. Batteries did very well generally, but many mistakes had to be corrected. Should see a wonderful improvement before we leave this district. Every day as crops are reaped we shall have a more extended area to work over.

Thursday 10th August
The 11th Brigade out today. Turn out not as good as other Brigades, the 12th being easily the best. More attention must be paid to detail. Work of batteries generally very fair, perhaps Capt. Hodgson the best. Lieut. Irving feels the Battery work rather heavy and desires transfer to D.A.C. Apparently he has been broken up a good deal by horses in his day and is not quite up to the fatigue consequent on continuous battery work.

Friday 11th August
Visited Canadian Corps, thence on to C.R.A. of 2nd Canadian Division whose front we are now ordered to take over. Went on to two of their groups (Col. King’s and Col. Stewart’s) and made an inspection of Gun positions and OPs. Our front will be about 3000 yards, with the St. Eloi craters as a centre. Had lunch with Col. King,. Three Belgian batteries are included in the Artillery of this Sector. Capt. Forrest given 7 days leave to England and went to Boulogne this evening.

Saturday 12th August
Out with Batteries all day, also motored well over the manoeuvre area. Batteries much improving. Apparently our men will not be required to assist in harvesting. Received wire tonight granting me 7 days leave to England.

[Page 64]
Sunday 13th August
Left Lumbres at 8.15 for Boulogne. Steam packet moved out at 10.30 and reached Folkestone at 12.30. Arrived in London at 2.30 and reached Whitehall Hotel at 3 PM. Wrote letters during the afternoon and evening. Miss Perks still staying here and she informed me Dr. and Mrs. Paul were still in London, staying at Strand palace Hotel. They have been touring France, Spain and Scotland.

Monday 14th August
Called at A.I.F. Head Quarters and reported myself. Had a long interview with Col. Anderson also Col. Griffiths who happened to be in London for one day. I ascertained that George Halford had reported to A.I.F. HQrs. and had been sent to Salisbury Plain, so I presume all difficulties in his direction are now overcome.
Called on Miss Coulishaw and Dr. and Mrs. Paul, also Admiralty re position of Charley’s ship. Met a Major Roxborough and his wife at Whitehall also her father (a Presbyterian Clergyman) and his wife.
Major Roxborough is the officer who was temporarily in command at Portabella Barracks, Dublin, during the recent Sinn Fein riots, and is under a cloud at the War office. They told me the whole story. They are in London seeing War office officials re the matter.

Tuesday 15th August
Called at Army and Navy stores, [indecipherable] Buckley, and Admiralty. Had lunch at "The Rendezvous" with Dr. and Mrs. Paul. Went to see Bric a Brac at night.

Wednesday 16th August
Admiralty informed me the "Australia" was out At Sea, therefore I shall have no chance to see Charley. Left London for Bradford about 10.30. Surprised Edith at 2.30 PM spent the evening at Chesham Grove with all the Halford family excepting Ruth and Mrs. Halford who were at Summerbridge holiday making. Showed them maps and photos of Battle front.

Thursday 17th August
Went with John, Edith and the children through

[Page 65]
Harrogate to Summerbridge by motor, about 35 miles. An exceedingly pretty run. Caught Ruth and Mrs. Halford finishing lunch. Stayed the afternoon and then brought them back in the car. Spent the evening at Merton Road, the whole family being there. Harrogate famous for its mineral springs is a fine town beautifully situated and as we passed through appeared thronged with fashionable folk.

Friday 18th August
Left Bradford at 9 AM and reached London at 1.30. Took Dr. Paul, Alice and Miss Cowlishaw to dinner at the "Rendezvous", then to see "Hobsons Choice" which proved a very entertaining show.

Saturday 19th August
Left London at 1 o’clock. Capt. Forrest returned in the same train. I was O.C. Troops on the journey to Boulogne, where we arrived at 5.30. Our car was waiting and we reached home at 7 PM, having thoroughly enjoyed the short leave. Found many letters awaiting me, also papers.

Sunday 20th August
Brigade Major and myself visited the Canadian Sector. Called at Corps HQrs., thence to HQrs. of 2nd Canadian Division. Went into plans, maps, etc. in the C.R.A.s Office. Lunched with Gen. Turner, G.O.C. 2nd Canadian Division. Visited temporary HQrs. of 4th Canadian Division, but missed the GOC. General Watson. I however saw Col. Ironside, GSO.I. Called at 2nd Army HQrs. on return journey. Picked up telephone which had been left for repairs, and also secured some maps of our new sector.

Monday 21st August
Spent the morning writing letters and going through orders accumulated during my absence. Col. Rabett and his Adjutant to lunch. I am informed Rabett is now the proud father of a son. Went into St. Omer during the afternoon re car supplies. Rabett went with me. Looked over the Abbey ruins and the Cathedral of Notre Dame. Both are very fine and well worth visiting. The former is a monument to the terrible doings of the

[Page 66]
French revolution. Purchased some stores at officers Canteen. All Colonels of Divisional Artillery dined at my Head Quarters. The Brigade Major’s gramophone livened us up afterwards. Saw them home in the car. Lt. Harlock temporarily appointed A.D.C.

Tuesday 22nd August
Col. Hughes and Waite (Group Commanders) and all Battery Commanders moved to 2nd Canadian Division Area. The former came with me in the car, the remainder by motor bus. ADC and myself went round all gun positions in the area to be held by 4th Aus Div Artillery, and also intended to look at some O.P.s but the Boche appeared to follow us up with 5.9" shells so we abandoned this part of the Programme. A few fragments fell uncomfortably close to us, so we decided to take no unnecessary risks. Returned to Lumbres at 5 PM.

Wednesday 23rd August
Brigade Major left for Reningheldst. Brigades getting ready for move. Division moving in three flights.
The DAC under Col. Vernon, half all Batteries and all Bde H Qrs. under Col. Rabett, and remainder under Colonel King.
Spent the morning writing. In afternoon visited wagon lines.

Thursday 24th August
D.A.C. under Col. Vernon and first half of all batteries under Colonel Rabett moved out. I carefully inspected them as they passed on the road. Turn out generally good. Visited St. Omer during my move on to Reninghelst.
The 2nd Canadian Division handed over to 4th Can Division today. Billet arranged for me at DAHQ. ADC came up with HQrs. by road. Went into records with CRA 2nd Can Div. Passed 15 Flight near GOODERSWELDE. Saw aerodrome at St. Omer. Major Gould in command showed me round. Saw manufacture of planes and repairs to damaged machines. Over 500 men employed and generally over 100 machines in stock. While there three fine machines (Rolls Royce engines) arrived from England, taking about 1½ hours to cross from Farnsborough.
An exceedingly interesting show generally.

[Page 67]
Friday 25th August
Remainder of all batteries moved out of billets under Colonel King. At 2nd Canadian DAHQ with Gen. Morrison. A section of each of our batteries got into position during early part of night.

Saturday 26th August
Capt. Forrest arrived from Lumbres. Office in motor lorry arrived about noon. Went round all battery positions during day. Brigade Major and myself messing with HQrs. 4th Can Div until arrangements can be made to get our own mess going.

Sunday 27th August
Took over officially from CRA 2nd Can. Division at 7 AM Balance of our guns went into the line last night. Rabett’s three batteries loaned to 4th British Division north of Canal. Gen. Hobbs and Major Miles arrived from Somme. The 1st Division is to go into the line north of the Canal and on their southern boundary join us. Conference with GOC 4th Can Div, his Brigadier, CRE and myself. Wrote letters. Received Australian mail, letters from boys, Nell and A.J. Derrick. Three Belgian Batteries of 7th Regt. under my command.

Monday 28th August
Met Colonel Waite at 6 AM. Returned to his HQrs. at 11.30 having walked about 15 miles. We reconnoitred all O.Ps. and new positions as well as gun positions.
Found manning of O.Ps. not quite satisfactory. Scottish Wood being heavily shelled. Casualties among infantry 1 killed, 4 wounded.

Tuesday 29th August
During morning went to 2nd Army HQrs. at Cassell. Arranged for mathematical instruments, etc., also drawing board, scales and set squares. Also secured a number of maps. Called at Poperingheon the way back. Saw 1st Division Infantry marching into the line. Had a talk with Col. Roberts. A heavy artillery bombardment today by 9th Corps on our Left. False gas alarm at 9.30. Another one equally false at 11 PM. Very heavy rain during night and high wind. Had dinner

[Page 68]
in our new temporary mess, situated off a Pork butchers shop, and not at all inviting. Hope to get sufficient material to build our requirements on the grounds attached to our Head Quarters.

Wednesday 30th August
An exceedingly wet day. Ground saturated and streams running "bankers". Decided to thoroughly reconnoitre some country and visit O.Ps. the day being so thick with rain that the Boche could see very little behind our lines. Walked for 5 hours, totalling about 15 miles. Visited O.Ps. of Colonel Hughes sector and inspected country thoroughly. Sopping wet by the time I reached home and very tired. Arranged for timber for officers mess.

Thursday 31st August
Called on Engineers yard in early morning re making of sign boards for trenches and boards for O.P Stations. Then visited Colonel Hanney at his Head Qrs. (British Div Arty Group attached to me) inspected his batteries and OPs., also walked down WATLING STREET and fixed positions for How. Batteries and 18 prs.
Called at Col. King’s HQrs. at 4.30 and reached home at 5 PM. Again about 15 miles. Met Colonel Tovey temporarily CRA of 19th division adjoining us on the left. Hanney’s group shooting a scheme this morning at 7.30 AM

Friday 1st September
Reconnoitred country north of Canal for gun positions walking about 10 miles. Called on General Hobbs to ask his permission to put batteries in his area. He promised to consult his General. Gen. Franks (Gocra 2nd Army) called at my HQrs. re cooperation of Heavy Artillery. Arranged to see him tomorrow.

Saturday 2nd September
Called on General Franks in his capacity of GOC Franks force, which includes 4th Can Division which we cover. Fixed up with him re Hanney’s O.Ps. being incorrectly built by Sappers. He promised to adjust matters. Obtained drawing board from Sappers, and had a T square and set square made. Set to work on O.P. drawings, commencing with Ecluse 7. Canadian Division moved to Westoutre, and we took over mess temporarily.

[Page 69]
Sunday 3rd September
Called on General Lane, 9th Corps, re cooperation of Heavy Artillery with us over our front. Col. Tovey a/CRA 19th Division also there on a similar errand. Afterwards went to Corps HQrs. 1st Anzac takes over today. Saw Generals Carruthers and Lobimere. Arranged with the latter re construction of O.Ps. He promised to get me tools and materials delivered at once. Arranged with workmen to commence new mess building.

Monday 4th September
With Gen. Franks inspected Left Group thoroughly. He will do the next group at a later date. Col. Hanney’s group rejoined 19th Division today. Our Southern boundary now is Diependaalbeek and P & O Trench.

Tuesday 5th September
Saw Gens. Birdwood and White. Had a long conversation with the latter regarding work required to be done in our area. Called on Col. Austin (Ordnance) and Gen. Lobimere. Obtained kit of tools for working party, also 200 sections steel cupolas and other building material, all being sent to the Brasserie at Dickebush. Germans reported to be relieving a Corps on our Front tonight. In consequence both Divisional and Heavy Artillery carried out a brisk artillery programme during the night.

Wednesday 6th September
General Birdwood called at 10.30 and I guided him round the OPs. and Batteries of this Sector. We walked about 15 miles and finished up about 7 PM. No lunch – and very tired. He informed me our Artillery would not follow the proposed British 6 gun battery scheme, but would remain as at present, excepting that the missing How. battery in each Div Arty is to be raised and trained at Salisbury Plain and sent out here as soon as possible. Obtained 7 days’ leave for my Colonels, and also again referred to him the question of recognition of work of Hughes and Marks.

Thursday 7th September
Brigade Major and myself went out at 5 AM

[Page 70]
and inspected position in front of St. Eloi Craters, with a view to bombardment and assisting in raids. Returned to breakfast at 9.30. visited C.F Corps. Secured further building material and cement. Col. King left for 7 days’ leave.

Friday 8th September
Took out D.A.C. working party at 6 AM to Lock 7 to commence O.P. Just commenced work when a 5.9" shell was heard coming. We all bolted towards a tunnel through the Canal bank. The shell however arrived first and detonated close behind us covering us with mud and soil. Three other shells arrived almost immediately, one killing 7 Canadians and wounding 8 others. Returned to HQrs. and worked on plans for gun emplacements.

Saturday 9th September
With Gen. Franks and Belgian officers inspected Right Group. Gen. Franks expressed pleasure at finding our fellows hard at work on all emplacements. Informed a second Padre is to be attached to Divisional Artillery.
Today a splendid Barrage was put up by Right Group, covering a Canadian rescue party. I received a special letter of thanks from GOC 4th Can. Division, Gen. Watson. Went out late in car to Lock 7.

Sunday 10th September
Called on G.O.C. Division. Arranged to visit Harringbeek tomorrow with him. Thanked him for his letter of yesterday. On drawings for gun emplacements. Padre Dexter and new Padre (Rev. Edwards) lunched with us. Gen. Cox called to see me.

Monday 11 September
With Major Bates and ADC. inspected new O.P. work at Ecluse 7, then on to Battery positions in 1st Division area, also new position in 4th Can Div Area (Harringbeek).
At 11 AM heavy shelling by 5.9" directed on Restaurant Corner. Three casualties in Collins battery. Called on Col. Hughes and Waite re new gun positions and permanent works. Called on Gen. Mitchell CRA 3rd Can. Div. re loaned gun positions.
Col. Bernard called at office.

[Page 71]
Tuesday 12th September
Received letter from Nell. Visited HQrs. 9th Corps R.A. during morning. Discussed details re cooperation of Heavy Artillery with our group. Visited four battery positions. Conference at 9th Corps Heavy Arty also.

Wednesday 13th September
With Col. Hughes and Waite selecting sites for permanent positions for Batteries.
On drawings in afternoon. Very wet miserable day.

Thursday 14th September
With Lt. Norman of Engineers inspecting work at Ecluse 7 and other O.Ps.

Friday 15th September
Went out in early morning with Gen. Cox inspecting gun positions. Sat as President of Court Martial on two officers. Completed proceedings at night.

Saturday 16th September
Completed final Artillery preparation of raid of 11th Brigade Can. Infantry. Belgians have one group, Col. Hughes another and Col. Waite a third. Attended at night at Gen. Odburns Head Qrs. while raid was in progress. Everything went off smoothly. Artillery work excellent, several prisoners captured and many Boch killed. Our casualties slight, three men killed. Among the German prisoners was one particularly tall hefty fellow. Watched bombardment of enemy trenches by our guns during day from Windmill O.P. Altogether tonight’s show was very interesting and exciting. Got to bed at 4.30 AM.

Sunday 17th September
Gen. Franks (Corps Commander) General Waters and Colonel of Belgian Artillery called on me to offer congratulations on the previous night’s work. The Army Commander also sent a congratulatory wire. Drawing all the afternoon. Called on Canadian Div HQrs and asked them to print plans of gun emplacements for me.

[Page 72]
Monday 18th September
Went out early to Lock No. 7 to inspect OP work. Very satisfactory progress. At Capt. Evans battery, also at OP Exchange. Very wet and unpleasant day.

Tuesday 19th September
Unpleasant day, turned out very wet. Spent the day with Gen. Napier in inspecting Battery positions. He informed me Dalrymple Hay was his nephew.
Very pleased with battery work generally.

Wednesday 20th September
Out with Batteries during morning. Conference in afternoon at Gen. Cox’s HQrs. Gen. White was present. Many points discussed, particularly re holding certain parts of the line.

Thursday 21st September
With Col. Hughes Battery Commanders and Engineer officer pegged out positions for new permanent works. Arranged to have work commenced at once.
In afternoon had tea with Gen. Cox and Gen. Brand, and discussed Trench Mortar positions and raids. Lt. Halford arrived from England and takes up appointment from tomorrow as my A.D.C. Hostile balloon brought down today in flames. For several days past our B.Cs. have been carrying out aeroplane and Balloon shoots.

Friday 22nd September
With B.Cs. of 12th Brigade and Engineer officer pegging out permanent Battery sites. Very active on both sides in the air this morning. Discussed several points with Gen. Cox prior to my taking over the Division tomorrow.
Called on Gen. Mitchell of 3rd Can Div Arty at Westoutre.
Col. Rabett returned from leave. Had to wait 24 hours in Boulogne both coming and going.

Saturday 23rd September
With Col. King and B.Cs. of 10th Bde. pegging out Battery positions. Vicinity of Gurds Battery badly strafed with 4.2" and 5.9". Inspected new OP at Lock 7.

[Page 73]
Work progressing satisfactorily. Waited at 12 noon at Junction of Old Kent Road and front line to see Gen. Brand. He was late so I returned, meeting him on the way back. With him was General Birdwood and one of his Battalion Commanders. Took over Command of Division. First duty was to make a recommendation as to whether the sentence of death recorded against a prisoner for cowardice should be carried out. Decided to recommend extreme penalty should not be suffered.
Confirmed a number of Court Martials. Appointed and promoted some officers.

Sunday 24th September
Spent the morning in writing letters. In afternoon went to C.E. Anzac re gun positions, then on to Cassell to see General Franks. Both officers were out.
Had afternoon tea at the R.A. & R.E. Chateau, Cassell.
Sent off Col Hughes in the car on 10 days leave.

Monday 25th September
Met Col. Waite and his B.Cs. at 7.30 AM accompanied by Engineer officer and pegged out 24th Brigade battery positions. Called on 16th Division. Gun positions at Harringbeek approved, also occupation of gun positions near Parret Farm. Use of train line authorised for carrying of materials. Malline (Chaffeur) failed to return to time with car from Boulogne.

Tuesday 26th September
Inspected gun positions during morning, also visited DAC HQrs. and dump. Very well kept and managed. After lunch called on Gen. Franks in his capacity of MGRA 2nd Army. Obtained approval for shell proof gun emplacements. Went on to see Gen. Glubb C.E. to 2nd Army, who informed me the required amount of cement would be unobtainable. Hence design must be modified, and only actual gun and ammunition emplacements constructed. Accommodation for personnell will have to be an after consideration.

[Page 74]
Wednesday 27th September
Malline returned with car. Very unsatisfactory explanation for delay. Given 7 days F.P. No. 2 and transferred to D.A.C. Prepared modified scheme for gun emplacements and discussed same with Col. Elliott CRE Now ordered to take over permanently the Vierstraat Road sector.

Thursday 28th September
Inspected work at Lock 7 at early morning. Also looked round new gun positions, but owing to shelling had to get away. Commenced on amended drawings for gun emplacements. Interview with Gen. Glasgow re raids.
Arranged with Bates and Gen. Napier re reliefs of Canadians.

Friday 29th September
Visited several new Battery positions. Directed how saved material should be used. Looked to drainage. Completed amended drawings for emplacements. Discussion with Gen. Glasgow re point for raids and wire cutting.
Rabett called re Right Group Head Qrs. Decided to keep existing HQrs. and make necessary telephone connections.

Saturday 30th September
Had blue prints made of gun emplacements drawing. Visited Lock 7 O.P. also position of Front line. Signed a number of routine papers with Division. Conference re trainees at Divisional Head Quarters.

Sunday 1st October
Miserable wet day. Stayed in all day writing letters.

Monday 2nd October
Very wet day. Inspected house at Dickebush as reserve Head Quarters for Right group. Very suitable. A good deal of glass needs renewing. Arranged about brick debris for gun positions from various ruined buildings.
Heavy shelling by Boche during morning.

[Page 75]
Tuesday 3rd October
Again wet day. Camouflage trees being erected near Bus House and another near Moated Grange. Visited Lock 7 OP. General Cox returned from leave, bringing with him Gen. Kitson. I handed back command to him.

Wednesday 4th October
With Lt. Bernard (Special Works) and Bates to Spoil Bank, Estaminet Lane, Old Kent Road, Old French Trench and Convent Lane. Decided on positions for O.P near Estaminet Lane. Boche shelling heavily. Very wet day. Called on Gen. Cox at 6 PM Boche increased shelling during evening. Eventually I had to turn on five batteries to silence him.

Thursday 5th October
Col. Waite and Major Bates left for 10 days leave to England. Called on Gen. Napier at Corps HQrs., and adjusted difficulties re ammunition returns and establishments, etc.
Went thoroughly round battery positions. Inspected new tree O.P. for Old French Trench.

Friday 6th October
With Forrest and Halford did a 25 mile walk. Left HQrs. at 6.15 and returned at 3 PM. Went from extreme right to extreme left flank, inspected Army O.Ps, which have been left unfinished. New tree O.P erected at Old French Trench.
Work progressing satisfactorily at Lock 7. Conference with Belgian group at 2 PM re new emplacements and arcs of fire.

Saturday 7th October
Conference with Infantry Brigadiers and Group Commanders at Burgomaster Farm. Many details re Artillery support satisfactorily arranged, also re S.O.S. signals, and offensive operations against Bois Quarante. With Gen. Cox in evening re foregoing details. Gen. Hobbs called re move of 1st Division and of our taking over part of the front now held by them – up to Hill 60. Can be arranged satisfactorily and I shall then be covering in all over 5000 yards.

[Page 76]
Sunday 8th October
Wrote letters. Worked out schedule of new Battery positions and O.Ps. The latter forwarded to Signals for early attention regarding communications.

Monday 9th October
Schedule worked out for bombardment of Bois Quarante in conjunction with the Heavies. Called on General Fraser re details. With Gen. Cox, Major McRae, Forrest and Halford went to Vieerstraat and watched the bombardment which commenced at 4.30. Shooting appeared exceedingly good. Gen. Cox very pleased. Received two nice letters from Nell also pair of knitted socks, and letters from Alvord and Chris. Nell for the first time gives indications that she may soon arrive in England.

Tuesday 10th October
With Major Williams visited No. 7 lock and his new Battery position on Northern Bank of Canal. Conference at Div HQrs with Brigadiers and Gen. Cox re proposed raids. Proposed to have one on night 12th/13th by General Glasgow’s Brigade.

Wednesday 11th October
Very early Halford and myself visited Lock 7 and new Battery positions of 37th Battery near Verbrandenmolen. Completed arrangements re taking over Bluff sector. Col. Hughes will command the group with HQrs. at Belgian Chateau including 3 Belgian Batteries.

Thursday 12th October
Working out new group system with new Battery positions for Diependaal – St. Eloi – Bluff sectors. Halford and Waite to Hazebrouck. Col. Vernon to dinner. Raid at 6.35 carried out by Gen. Glasgow’s Brigade (Lorenzo’s Battalion). I understand not successful though details are not yet available.

Friday 13th October
At 6 AM went out to see Lock 7 O.P. and new positions for 37th and 39th Batteries. Work progressing satisfactorily, and tram lines being laid. Raid of last night unsuccessful. Too many enemy flares up, in consequence raiders could not

[Page 77]
approach unseen towards enemy trenches.
The Artillery work was very good and infantry express themselves as being very pleased with shooting.
During the afternoon I accompanied General Cox in an inspection of wagon lines.

Saturday 14th October
Left HQrs. at 6 AM with Halford. Inspected Lock 7 work and every new Battery position returning to HQrs. about 1 PM. Work progressing satisfactorily.

Sunday 15th October
Wrote letters during morning. Raid by 12th Brigade carried out at night. Major McRae, Halford and self watched artillery barrage from Vierstraat. Raid unsuccessful, the enemy trenches being empty. Our infantry again very pleased with Artillery work. Went in afternoon to Hazebrouck.
Picked up Col. Waite and Major Bates on their return from leave. 1st Division moved out of line, and 2nd and 4th Divisions each took over part of their line. Boche bombardment fairly heavy tonight. We made a vigorous reply.

Monday 16th October
Round all Battery positions. Now hear that we are likely to move out at a very early date, and in consequence will be unable to finish works we have taken in hand. I hope the new C.R.A. will continue the good work. We will have had quite a number of different units associated with us before we finish in this country. So far we have covered New Zealanders, 5th and 4th Aus. Divs., 2nd Canadians, 4th British, 47th British and 4th Canadians. Now 41st Division is to take over from us. I have commanded Australian, Canadian (3rd Div.) British (36th Div) and Belgian (7th Regt.) Artillery in our stay in this noted Sector.

Tuesday 17th October
With General Franks walked round new gun positions, O.Ps. (especially Lock 7) and Heavy T.M. position.
He congratulated me on the work done. Major Barrett R.F.C. lectured to Brigade Commanders re cooperation with Air Craft.

[Page 78]
Col. Waite very unwell. Have sent Major Marks to him.
Wet and cold weather.

Wednesday 18th October
Received instructions re handing over to 47th Division in Bluff sector on night of 21st/22nd and 22nd/23rd.
Handing over of St. Eloi and Diependaal Groups to 41st Division will take place after 24th inst. We shall then move back to concentrate and from thence to our new destination on the Somme. Lt. Col. Massey a/c CRA 47th Div. and his Brigade Major (Major Muirhead) called, went into details of Bluff group and with Major Bates went out to see Group Head Qrs. They lunched with us, also Col. Hughes. At night Col. Baron Greindl of 7th Belg. Regt. FA, his Brigade Major and Liason Officer dined with us.

Thursday 19th October
Col. Massey and Brigade Major 47th Division again called. Fixed up re taking over Bluff group. Very heavy rain during day and night. 38th Battery flooded out of its position on Bollardbeek, and came back to old 37th Battery position. Relief of Col. Hughes Bluff group infantry completed. Major Walker S.O. R.A. 2nd Army called, had tea with us, and discussed details re artillery work in hand.

Friday 20th October
Inspected 38th old position on Bollardbeek with Brigade Major. Found a proportion of ammunition damaged by water. Enemy shelling vicinity of Chateau Segard while we were returning. Arranged for 10 days’ leave for Col. Vernon. With General Cox during afternoon. Met acting G.O.C. 41st Division.

Saturday 21st October
Col. Vernon went off on leave. Major Richards, his servant and B.S.M went off to join new 119th Battery. Sent Col. Vernon and Richards to Boulogne by car. Report from D.D.V.S. re horses, with note from Corps and G.O.C. Division attached. Not at all satisfactory. Very difficult proposition now that all batteries are in the line and three groups employed. Also very difficult for any of the staff here to get round regularly – there is so much to

[Page 79]
be done at the front line. Much strafing in the air today. Two of our planes brought down but no one hurt.

Sunday 22nd October
In connection with Lt. Col. Aully GSO I of 41st Division I visited all guns and some O.Ps. showing him what work was actually in hand. Returned to DAHQ at 3 PM after watching 12" How. shooting. The enemy this morning blew up two mines near the Bluff and occupied them. During the day artillery kept pegging away. Infantry of 47th Division appears to have been not quite prepared for what did actually happen. Another letter from Nell also woollen socks. Bitterly cold night. Wrote letters to all at home. Relief of artillery Bluff group completed.

Monday 23rd October
Conferred with Col. Hughes re delay in opening fire in connection with yesterdays mine explosions. He took evidence during the afternoon. It was found that relieving Telephonists were responsible for delay, but B.C of 37th Battery should have had his own men on the wires till totally relieved. Report sent to 47th Division also to RA 1st Anzac and to Gen. Cox.
At dinner with Col. King and his officers. Returned home at 10 PM Attended demonstration of 6" Trench Mortar at Berthen School.

Tuesday 24th October
Visited 1st Anzac HQrs. Saw General Birdwood. Arranged re Col. Vernon’s confirmation of rank and Capt. Fox’s appointment. Saw Col. Taylor re motor lorry for our travel to new area. Attended demonstration of 2" M.T. Mortar on Decauville tramway at Berthen School. Quite unsuccessful. Then turned on 6". Much more interesting and successful. Just before we arrived a premature took place from 2" Mortar, killing an Australian gunner who was firing the mortar. Army Commander present, also Gen. Franks, and tons of other Generals including Hobbs and Christian. The latter I had not seen for some time.
The 41st Division took over at noon from 4th Aus Div The latter moved to Steenvorde. Corps moves on 26th inst. and 10th Corps takes over. Gen. Stranbenger the new G.O.C.R.A.

[Page 80]
Wednesday 25th October
Attended at Diependaal Group Head Qrs. to select a BSM and instructor for 4.5" How. to go to Etaples by 30th inst. These men are to be relieved every two months. In afternoon called at Steenvorde re 3 motor lorries for 4th Aus Div Arty and arranged for same. Said "Goodbye" to General Cox and Staff. They leave tomorrow. Called on G.O.C.R.A. 10th Corps. Discussed our front with him.

Thursday 26th October
Very wet miserable day. Stayed at DAHQrs. and prepared maps to hand over to incoming C.R.A.
General Stranbenger [?] with his A.D.C called. Div. Commander, Maj. General Lawford C.B. returned from leave. Letters from Nell and Alvord.

Friday 27th October
With Lt. Arche visited Lock 7, then on to new gun positions for 37th and 39th Batteries. Work at Lock 7 progressing favourably. Called at Col. King’s HQrs., picked up Col. Waite, he lunched with us. Later we went to Hazebrouck. Col. Waite has had trouble with his eyes and in consequence consulted the Army Oculist in the town and obtained suitable temporary glasses. Left two barometers for adjustment at Meteorological Office. Arranged to go round front with Gen. Lawford but later tour cancelled.

Saturday 28th October
With General Stranbenger [?] went round O.Ps. at Vieerstraat, Moated Grange, Sniper Barn, Vermozeele and Windmill Mound. Returned to office at 5.30 PM Called on General Lawford. Leave boats stopped because of Boche destroyers.

Sunday 29th October
Wrote letters morning and afternoon. Capts. Forrest and Halford to Hazebrouck in afternoon. Orders prepared for strafe in Bluff Sector. Major Wynter Sora went round part of front with Brigade Major. Hodgens returned from leave in England. Raid by 16th Div. successful. Our Diependaal Artillery cooperated.

Monday 30th October
With Capt. Forrest visited Vierstraat, Parret Farm

[Page 81]
Push& Go, Tea House, also new position at Harringbeek. Returned to DAHQ at 1 PM Arranged programme for Road strafes and Trench Mortar operations.

Tuesday 31st October
For a change a fine day. Stayed in office all day preparing maps. Major Bates and Capt. Forrest went to inspect Heavy Trench Mortar emplacement. Long conference this morning with Divisional commander and CRE re laying of train lines, approach trenches to O.Ps., etc. Assistance promised.

Wednesday 1st November
With A.D.C. made a tour of whole front OPs., H.T.M. and gun positions. Made drawings of Moated Grange and Vierstraat HOUSE.

Thursday 2nd November
Left Div HQrs with Gen. Lawford at 8.30 AM. Commencing at Capt. Evans battery inspected all Battery positions, excepting 111th, 46th, 44th and 48th. Also visited Elzenwalle O.P exchange and Windmill O.P. Lieut. Coghlan RE reported for duty with artillery. Bates and self on maps and records of OPs., etc. to hand on to incoming C.R.A. and staff.

Friday 3rd November
At 7 AM with Lt. Coghlan commenced a tour (for his information) round O.Ps. and Battery positions, from extreme right to extreme left. Saw our Reninghelst Balloon break loose at 2 PM. The observer made a graceful descent in his parachute, while the Balloon quickly drifted off over the Ypres salient and Boche lines, being solidly shelled by friend and foe alike. It however dodged all shells.
Arranged for various engineer materials to be made available for O.P. at Lock 7 and for Capt. Sheppard at his new gun position.

Saturday 4th November
Major Sir John Keane to lunch. Afterwards with me inspected new H.T.M emplacement, and from Lock 8 watched the MTM bombardment from 3.15 to 4.15. Mediums

[Page 82]
very effective. Heavy fired 8 rounds, only two up to range. Ammunition defective. Not much reply from the Boche. Duke of Connaught visited this HQrs. at 2 PM and later from Scharpenberg or rather Kemmell watched the bombardments. At night Major Bates and myself dined with Col. Baron Greuidl, Commanding 7th Belgian Regiment. Many of his officers present, and two Imperial Intelligence officers from 2nd Army. One of these officers was with a battalion in Dublin during the riots and gave us a very interesting account of the proceedings. Staff Capt. 41st Div. Artillery arrived at Reninghelst.

Sunday 5th November
Wrote letters during morning and evening. During afternoon called on Big. Gen. Vincent Commanding 10th Corps Heavy Artillery. He proved to be an officer I had met atLoosin December 1915. Visited Xth Corps HQrs. re move of 4th Aus Div Artillery; thence on to 2nd Army HQrs. Saw Major Walker Sora, secured a few maps I needed. An awful day – a bitterly cold hurricane wind. Staff Capt. 41st Div Arty with Capt. Forrest arranging re wagon lines. Relief is set down for night of 10th/11th, and 11th/12th. We are then due to entrain on 13th inst.

Monday 6th November
Colonel Cardew R.F.A acting as CRA 41st Division arrived with his Brigade Major. Together we went into position of batteries, etc., and showed him office records. A very wet miserable day.

Tuesday 7th November
With Major Oerty Staff Officer to Colonel Greuidl went to Belgian G.H.Q. at Houtem. General Sir F. Arnould KCMG took me around many of his gun positions. Halford accompanied me. We saw 75th, 4.2", 6" How. 8", 4.7" and 9.5" mortars. Gun emplacements were generally very good. Teeming wet day. Lunched at GHQ with the Chief of Staff. H.M. the King of Belgium is the Commander in Chief of his Army. We inspected the map and aeroplane photo sections. The Capt. in charge of the latter showed us a most interesting establishment, including a lantern show of several good photos. He gave me a few samples, including a good one of Ypres. I had also some panoramas given me, prepared by

[Page 83]
the Survey Staff. Being a wet misty day we were able to motor close to the front line at several places. The inundations are exceedingly interesting. We went close to Dikmude and had the weather been fine would have visited the vicinity of Nieuport. Better luck next time.

Wednesday 8th November
In early morning went out to Lock 7 supervising work there. Country flooded everywhere, especially Bollardbeek. Work on Lock 7 progressing satisfactorily. Rails and timbers being brought up by working party to day. Altogether this party has done good work.

Thursday 9th November
The 41st Division on the way here. Battery Commanders, officers and Telephonists arrived and reported to Battery positions. Again wet day. Arranged details in office for handing over to new C.R.A.

Friday 10th November
Around the whole front making final inspections. A great strafe with M.T. Mortars in the afternoon. Major Bates and myself watched it from Vierstraat.
A record established, 125 rounds from 1 gun during the hour and an average of 66 for three guns.

Saturday 11th November
Again at Lock 7 giving final instructions to working party. Getting balance of materials in position. During afternoon completing records and sketches.
At night dined with Corps Commander. Gen. Stranbenger had a birthday party. General Spedding of 47th Div Arty also present. Corps Commander Gen. Morland exceedingly affable.

Sunday 12th November
Again on sketches and plans. Went to Army HQrs. in morning with reports etc.
Lunched with Maj. Gen. Franks MGRA. Gen. Lushington, CRA 41st Division arrived.

[Page 84]
Monday 13th November
With General Lushington and his Brigade Major went round most of the line, returning to HQrs. at 3 PM. All our HQrs. staff officers dined with Divisional Commander, also General Lushington. A very pleasant evening, a string band helping with excellent music. Showed Benson sketches to General Lawford and promised to have a small sketch of Ypres made for him. Letter from Mrs. Lester.

Tuesday 14th November
All arrangements complete for handing over to CRA 41st Division tomorrow morning.
Brigades completed reliefs about 6.30 PM.
Handed over formally to Gen. Lushington. HQrs. Horses etc. and Signal Section moved off about 6 AM. Halford and Ashe with them. Div Artillery now to march to the Somme, as Capt. Forrest is marching with them to arrange billetting. Col. King in charge.
Major Bates and myself left in car. Arrived at Coq de Paille at 9.30. Corps Commander and Gocra were there and inspected the Brigades as they marched past. Gen. Franks also came to see them. Bates and self went on to Bethune, thence via the West of Arras to Doullens, thence on to Amiens staying the night at Hotel du Rhin.

Wednesday 15th November
Left Amiens after breakfast, called at Corps HQrs. at Heilly. Spent some time there. I find I am to Command Artillery of 1st and 4th Divisions, which together will cover one Infantry Division front. Came on to Div HQrs at Pommier Redoubt. Traffic on roads very congested and surface in a terrible condition. Received leave for 2 days to Pariswhile waiting for my Artillery to come in.
Left for Amiens in the car in the evening and stayed the night at Hotel du Rhin. Heard with great regret that Gen. Glasfurd had been killed while taking over from 1st Aus Div

Thursday 16th November
During the morning made a careful survey of Amiens Cathedral. At 3.35 left Amiens for Paris.

[Page 85]
Wired Mrs. Lester (who is passing through Parison her way to Australia) that I was coming. Arrived at Parisabout 1 hour late at 6.30. Mrs. Lester at the Station to meet me. Stayed at Hotel Marboro where she was staying.

Friday 17th November
With Mrs. Lester spent the day at the Palace of Versailles. The palace itself was not open but we had a good look around the grounds which are truly wonderful. On the way back to Pariswe skirted the fortified boundaries and saw some of the Forts. Saw Mrs. Lester off by train for Marseilles leaving at 8.15 PM. Gave her messages for wife sister and parents. A bitterly cold night. Snow falling when I returned to my Hotel.

Saturday 18th November
Left for Amiens at 9.30. Reached there at noon. Bates to meet me with car. Called at 4th Army HQrs. and saw General Budworth MGRA, also Maps officer, then on to Corps where I had an interview with Gen. Hobbs and a long confidential talk with Gen. White. He confirmed my previous information that we are to be here for the winter.
Came on to Divisional Head Quarters and "turned in" early. I forgot to note that the country from Paristo Amiens looked particularly beautiful this morning under a heavy mantel of snow. Bitterly cold.

Sunday 19th November
Commenced out at 9 AM to look round all Battery positions of 2nd Aus Div which we have to take over. I rode up through MONTAUBAN, Bernafay Wood, Longueval and Delville Wood. Leaving the horses at the latter point I walked on to Brigade HQrs. and Battery Positions. Delville Wood full of Heavy Howrs. and guns. Battery positions very miserable indeed. Our men will have plenty to do to get them secure and comfortable. The forward Brigade is close to Flers, with one Battery among the ruins. These latter batteries are about 2500 yards from Boche front line.
Flers is a wonderful example of the horrors of modern war.

[Page 86]
Buildings and roads shattered, broken vehicles, dead men, horses and mules in the streets and among the ruins. A true picture of desolation. Artillery on both sides sending out missiles of destruction, roads knee deep in mud, and the weather bitterly cold. Our men are having a dreadful experience.
My battery commanders come in tomorrow. Col. Robertson is to command 12th Inf. Bde., and Gen. Holmes is to command the Division when Gen. Cox leaves at the end of the year.
Today I also looked round battery positions of 1st Aus Div Their 18 prs. practically in one long line. Not too satisfactorily placed I imagine.

Monday 20th November.

Stayed in all day. Worked out map schemes. Gen. White late CRA here departed. Gen. Johnstone reconnoitring his new area. The 1st and 4th Divisions are to work together, also 2nd and 5th ditto. Brigade and battery commanders came in to the line. Relief to be completed by 8 AM 24th inst. Capt. Fox came in. His men uncomfortable at BELLEVUE farm so he arranged with Town Mayor of Albert for billets for his men. I have decided to have two groups only, one at Flers, and the other some 600 yards south of Flers. One Colonel will be with his Brigade in rest, and the other is to be O.C. wagon lines. I shall put King and Waite in first.
We shall, I can see, have a very strenuous and miserable time here in the winter. Both men and horses will need very close attention to keep them fit. Heavy shelling during the night, and aeroplanes dropping bombs, two in close proximity to our Head Quarters.

Tuesday 21st November
With General Johnstone went through all schemes, everything now ready for taking over. Gen. Johnstone inspecting his new zone. The 1st British Division is on our left, with Gen. Cartwright still CRA, and Col. Dobbin now GSO I in place of Col. Longridge who was killed here recently. Rovey Dougall still R.A. Brigade Major. Gen. Holland the Divisional Commander is now MGRA 3rd Army.

[Page 87]
Wednesday 22nd November
A wet miserable day. Went round portion of the front,. Hope to make arrangements for all ammunitions to be supplied by train and thus save our teams.

Thursday 23rd November
Half our batteries took over from 2nd Aus Div Conditions appalling, especially at wagon lines. Halford to Abbeville re Canteen stores.

Friday 24th November
Balance of Batteries and DAC took over from 2nd Aus. Division. Relief completed at 3 PM at which time I took over command of 1st and 4th Aus Div Artillery and responsibility for the front. Went to Amiens in the morning to get measured for a pair of breeches. Discussed with Gen. Hobbs re training Camps. He wants to send an extra Colonel back, much against my will.

Saturday 25th November
Spent the whole day riding round the front positions. Teeming rain, got sopping wet – really wet through. Arranged with Col. Fewtrell re service of trains for ammunition supply. Conference with Cols. King and Waite at Flers, regarding position of HQrs., batteries etc. Got back at 3 PM. Gen. Johnston left this HQrs. and moved to Bernafay Wood. Our own mess took over from last night.

Sunday 26th November
Conference with Gen. Hobbs re Training School. Much against my wishes it has been decided to take a Colonel for School Commandant in addition to the O.C. the Brigade in rest. In future therefore I shall send individual batteries of Brigades to rest instead of actual Brigades.
Miserably wet and cold day. Wrote letters.

[Page 88]
Monday 27th November
With Col. Fewtrel, Vernon, King and Waite made a reconnaissance for train routes to supply batteries with ammunition. Satisfactory arrangements made. Personnel of H.T.M. Battery will be divided between Nos. 3 and 4 groups for the construction of these connecting lines, and also to build new Howitzer positions, each for 6 Howrs., with dug outs complete at about 30 feet depth. Returned to HQrs. about 3 PM. With Vernon inspected Rail Head Ammunition depot and quarry. Made arrangements for certain improvements. Lamed Jack during my peregrinations so had to walk home. Roads in dreadful condition.

Tuesday 28th November
Remained in Camp all day. Attended to Office, the Brigade Major going round the Groups. Completed arrangements and syllabus for artillery School at Naours. Arranged with Col. Rabett to take over as Commandant. Got him in here during the afternoon and in the evening completed all details. Heard of casualties to DAC salvage party the information being that 5 men are killed, 15 wounded and 15 mules killed. Correct details not yet available. Arranged with Vernon re salving ammunition. Extremely cold night.

Wednesday 29th November.

Received full particulars regarding DAC casualties of yesterday. Four men killed, 8 wounded (four seriously), 24 mules killed and 4 horses. One of the mules kicked a "dud" shell with the above results. Rabett went off to Naours. Desperately cold day and night.

Thursday 30th November
In the morning rode out to Bazentin, our proposed new Head Quarters. Intensely cold day. Lt. Col. came in during the afternoon with his batman, prior to going to Naours. Did a good deal of writing during the afternoon.

[Page 89]
Friday 1st December
In early morning went out to Naours re School. Called at Albert, saw HQrs. billets and stables. They are fairly comfortable. Called at Army HQrs. Querrieu, to see DD of S & T re Claxton Horn for car. Found his office some distance out of the village. Lt. Col. accompanied me. Reached Naours a little after noon. With Col. Rabett had a look at Hall, School, Chateau etc., in relation to use for lecture purposes. Had lunch at 41st Battery HQrs. Found nothing had been done by Corps in anticipation of School; so on my way back I called at Corps and strafed everybody concerned. Came through Amiens on the way to Heilly. Had afternoon tea with General Hobbs. Road near Pommier Redoubt triple banked by British How. Batteries. Road and traffic blocked for an hour.
The coldest day and night we have yet experienced. Boche strafing with Heavy Artillery.

Saturday 2nd December
Interviewed Engineer Corporal at Gen. Birdwood’s request re proposed new design for Fuze.
Gen. Hobbs called at 10 AM and together we rode to Delville Wood where we left our horses. Then walked towards Brigade HQrs. but as shelling was going on in the vicinity we skirted Delville Wood to the N.E. and thoroughly inspected a tank in the vicinity. They are very ingeniously designed. Here are plenty of evidences of the heavy fighting which took place – plenty of German F.A. ammunition lying about indicating hasty retreat, also arms and equipment of all kinds, British as well as Boche. Very many dead still lying unburied.
We inspected several batteries and went into Flers, passing one of our own wrecked aeroplanes as we went.
A bitterly cold day – much below zero; and for the last three days and nights the temperature has been much below freezing point. Received very nice letter from Nell. Rather a serious matter occurred to day. We had prepared a nice Artillery Scheme for a proposed operation in taking a certain trench. An Infantry Brigadier and a Battalion Commander were so indiscreet as to allow the document to be carried up to the front line by a runner for the information of a

[Page 90]
Company Commander. He lost his way – got into the Boche trenches and with the orders and Artillery programme was captured.
In consequence the operation is "off" and Gen. Cox is highly incensed, as well he might be. An enquiry is to be held tomorrow.

Sunday 3rd December
Wrote letters all day. Cleared off all correspondence. Enquiry held re yesterday’s episode. The Battalion Commander, Col. Dare, has been relieved of his Command and returned to A.I.F. HQrs. London. Very sorry for him, but in my opinion the Infantry Brigadier was most to blame. Boche artillery very active. Gen. Cox and Col. Bernard dined with us. The former will soon be leaving us. My Brigade Major had just received some grouse from England, so we had an enjoyable dinner.

Monday 4th December
Had Colonel Vernon to see me re DAC salvage work. Not running too smoothly with 1st DAC Complaints from Infantry regarding short shooting. Found one 1st Div. 18 pr. shell had fallen in our lines. Shell a "dud" and identity yet to be established. Enemy artillery very active during day and on our flanks he was especially busy during the nights.
Again a very cold night.

Tuesday 5th December
A bitterly cold day. I was out riding during the morning and for the space of an hour the driving rain, sleet and hail was very biting. Conference at Bernafay Wood with General Budworth MGRA 4th Army. All CRAs. present (excepting Gen. Hobbs) and 7 group Commanders. He drew attention to points concerning training, ammunition, construction, Boche killing etc. and asked us all to do our best to have the best possible trained Artillery for the offensive operation when launched. I walked to the Conference and back again, about 6 miles of muddy road, but I was glad to get my feet warm.

Wednesday 6th December
Stayed in all day, worked on maps and Artillery Schemes. Received two parcels from Nell,

[Page 91]
one of socks, and the other of handkerchiefs and ties, all very useful. Also received two letters from Alvord and one from Chris.

Thursday 7th December
Left HQrs. at 8 AM. Rode to Delville Wood. Sent Bligh back with the horses. Walked on through 37th and 39th Batteries. Saw Col. King at his Head Quarters, then walked on to 38th Battery at Flers. Work progressing satisfactorily on gun emplacements. Inspected site for 110th Battery. Found what appears to be a splendid deep "dugout", possibly a Bde H Qrs. judging by the number of Boche telephone lines leading to it. Getting this cleaned out for use of 110th Battery. Walked on to 112th, 38th, 44th and 40th Batteries. Heavily shelled during last night; one pit hit and four men casualties. Two men of 24th Bde H Qrs. also caught by shell in front of their telephone office. Lunched with Col. Waite. His battery deep dugouts well under weigh. With Col. Waite inspected his forward gun positions towards Factory Corner and then made a reconnaissance of country for future gun positions. Found one apparently suitable place for a 6 How. Batty. with German gunner dugouts already constructed. Came back through 112th present battery position. Called on Gen. Walker who today took over from General Cox. He has just received Corps instructions to the effect that the Division holding the line will have its own CRA, so from 11 AM tomorrow I hand over. This will give me more time to attend to School at Naours, also to keep in touch with batteries in the line, and arrange a new Camping area for wagon lines etc.

Friday 8th December
Under orders issued from Corps the CRA of the Division actually holding the line is now to control the Artillery, so at 11 AM today I handed over to 1st Aus. Div Arty General Hobbs here during morning. Discussed details re Artillery Schools, and Artillery work in the Front line. School arrangements have been beautifully bungled by Corps. No attempt has been made to provide necessary accommodation. In consequence the Division has now been asked to take the matter in hand.

[Page 92]
Saturday 9th December
Major Bates and myself thoroughly reconnoitred ground in front of Flers almost up to Guedecourt. Some guns of 1st Division very badly placed – in my opinion they should be withdrawn. Two German field guns have been lying close to these batteries for some weeks, yet have not been salved. Cannot understand it. Carefully examined Flers, also position for 110th Battery and 38th Battery. The latter doing good work in his position, and will have splendid emplacements. Good cellars being located, among them one used as an electric light Station by the Boche with all its plant intact and a dozen dead Boche inside. Lunched with Capt. de Low. Forrest and Halford at Naours. Matters still very unsatisfactory re School. Col. Bernard also there to day.

Sunday 10th December
With Bates went to School at Naours. A chapter of accidents – three punctures. Called at Div HQrs re syllabus. Rabett doing well at School, but still difficulty re materials. Engineer officer present who is now making arrangements for what is required. Gen. Rabett grant of £10 for mess requirements.

Monday 11th December
Early this morning (at 1.45) I was awakened by bombs dropping in the vicinity of our camp, three falling uncomfortably close. At once our "Archies" opened fire, the search lights commenced to play and pandemonium reigned for some time. I heard a number of explosions in the vicinity of Amiens – about 50 – and conclude the Boche was bombing the City. One plane kept circling around us at a low altitude and loosing off machine guns directed along the roads. It was a beautifully clear moonlight night with a heavy frost. This morning I made a further reconnaissance of Left Group Zone. Arranged with Col. Waite re position of Edward’s How. Battery, then inspected O.P. position in front of Flers, then on to Guedecourt. I had an orderly from 10th Brigade with me and together we flitted from shell hole to shell hole till we reached the battered remains of Guedecourt. This place offers splendid facilities for observation. Shelling

[Page 93]
all around very persistent, luckily nothing in Guedecourt while I was there, but commenced soon after I left. Much aerial activity this morning, the day being very clear and bright. About lunch time it became overcast and later rained. Got home at 5 PM very tired and wet.

Tuesday 12th December
Stayed in all day. Worked on plans and wrote letters. Fine fall of snow.

Wednesday 13th December
In early morning went out to Front. Inspected 45th and 46th Batteries. With Capt. Ellis went through Flers and pointed out to him proposed O.P.; then on through Grove Alley to front line or within a few yards of it. The Boche rigorously shelling the front line trench. At Junction of Grove Alley we waited for ¾ of an hour. As however shelling continued I decided to return. Got a splendid view of the country. Condition of trenches indescribable. In many cases well up to the thighs in sticky mud. On one occasion I got stuck and it took me 10 minutes to pull myself out. Capt. Ellis also got stuck but could not extricate himself till he withdrew his feet from his boots, the latter remaining stuck in the mud. He walked a few yards in his socks and these too were left stuck, so he came back some 300 yards to a Field Ambulance barefooted and there received a pair of gum boots. I was exceedingly tired when I got home. Bates, Fox and Halford out at Naours and T.M. School. Bates staying there a couple of days. T.M. School not satisfactory. Firing must be arranged for. Got breeches from Amiens. Issued with pair of brown Field Boots.

Thursday 14th December
Went out this morning with Col. Vernon to look at site allotted for wagon lines for DA at Buire.
Called on Dados at Albert, Div HQrs at Rubimont, and Corps at Heilly. Gen. White strafed a little re School at Naours. Came on to Buire. Areas are not consolidated but generally are well chosen. Watering arrangements good. Hope to get

[Page 94]
a start at once sending horses back. Reached HQrs. at 3.30 and while we were having a late lunch the Boche commenced shelling our HQrs. The first one fell about 20 yards from our Mess and scattered lumps of mud over the canvas roof. About 15 in all were sent over. No damage done I am informed. Gen. Hobbs is appointed temporarily to command 5th Aus Div owing to illness of Gen. McCay.

Friday 15th December
Went out to Naours during morning. Called at Albert, picked up boxes for Col. Rabett and mails for our HQrs. Took new road to Naours – not very good. Picked up Brigade Major at School. Called at T.M. School at Fremont. Had a strafe with Capt. Brown, Commandant, re 4th Aus Div T.M. instructors. Called at Corps. Saw Gen. Hobbs, also Col. Taylor re Buire camp sites, tents, etc. Called at Div HQrs Rubimont re Trench Mortar School. Gen. Cox very unwell.

Saturday 16th December
In the office during morning. Moved into new Bow Hut, hope to be fairly comfortable. Forrest taking over new remounts. Heavy gun again shelled HQrs. but only a few rounds. Conferred with Col. Fewtrill re type of trucks for ammunition etc. Very suitable truck completed as sample. Very slushy and wet walk to his HQrs. Snow falling heavily. Took over again command of combined 1st and 4th Div Arty during Bessel Browne’s absence on leave. Col. Rabett and Capt. Forrest leave approved as from 19th inst.
Received letters from Nell, Alvord and Chris, also letter from Sir Newton Moore re two of my men and an officer. Discussed details with Col. Vernon re camp at Buire. He is to commence move tomorrow. Called at DAC dump at Quarry Siding. Salving of ammunition cases well in hand. French reported to have had a fine victory near Verdun. About 7500 prisoners, many guns and booty. Our Artillery (heavy and Divisional) having a strafe tonight. Conference with Gen. Walker.

Sunday 17th December
Very cold and bleak day. Wrote letters.

[Page 95]
Received letter from Mrs. Frazer. Much more comfortable in new Quarters. Conference with Gen. Walker.

Monday 18th December
With D.T.M.O. visited Left Flank of front line. Good positions for T.Ms., both medium and heavy, also Artillery O.Ps. Enemy shelling Factory Corner briskly. Prepared reconnaissance report re Artillery positions. Conference with Gen. Walker. Lunched with Col. King. French have now captured 11,500 prisoners near Verdun.

Tuesday 19th December
Left HQrs. early for Amiens. Capt. Forrest and Col. Rabett going on leave. Trouble with punctures. Had to borrow General Carruther’s car at Heilly to complete journey. Did some shopping. Interviewed Gen. White at Corps HQrs. on return journey. In view of special operations he wants us to have all our battery positions as close up as possible, and new dugouts and emplacements ready. Will complete reconnaissance tomorrow morning.

Wednesday 20th December
Went out early with D.T.M.O. to reconnoitre Right Flank in vicinity of Guedecourt. Motored to Bernafay Wood and then walked. When a little to the East of Guedecourt the Boche commenced to shell it rather heavily, and a fragment from one shell caught me in the right thigh inflicting a rather nasty flesh wound. Nothing serious. I applied a field dressing, completed reconnaissance then walked back, leg giving some trouble. Called at 14th Field Ambulance, Bernafay Wood and had wound dressed by Major Sawers. A remarkable set of circumstances circles around this officer. He dressed my wounds on the "Gloucester Castle" in May 1915, the first time I was wounded at Gallipoli, later saw him in No. 17 Hospital Alexandria when I was ill with enteric in September 1915, saw him again at Wandsworth Hospital, London in October 1915 and now here again. Except for these occasions I have not met him since May 1915.
Reached Pommiers Redoubt, packed a few things into a bag

[Page 96]
and reported to No. 38 Casualty Clearing Station at Heilly for X Ray treatment. Rays proved no fragment left in my thigh. O.C. promised to return me to my HQrs. on Friday if I layed up there, and provided no unsatisfactory symptoms developed.

Thursday 21st December
Quite a treat to be in bed all day and rest. It is a miserably wet day and I couldn’t be in a more comfortable place than a Hospital, even if it is in a tent. Wound apparently quite clean and developing no septic conditions.

Friday 22nd December
Halford arrived for me about midday. Dr. quite satisfied that wound would heal satisfactorily if given rest. Called at Albert. Cabled Nell, reached HQrs. about 4 PM. Now taking things quietly. Arranged for Col. Burgess to carry on till Col. Brown returns.

Saturday 23rd December
Went through orders and maps issued and received during my absence. Medical officer (Col. Huxtable) came to see me. Was satisfied that wound was progressing favourably tho’ he thinks I still have a fragment embedded.

Sunday 24th December
Wrote letters. Received word that trip to Italy would have to be deferred. Leave for Halford and self to England approved, commencing 27th inst. Packing up one box which I want to take over with me, and thus lighten my kit here. Col. King will act as C.R.A. during my absence. Capt. Hordern returned from School in England, had lunch with me, then went on to take over command of 43rd Battery.
During the evening the Boche put up a big artillery show, killed two men, wounded Hordern and several more – all 11th Brigade.

Monday 25th December
Christmas Day. The last one spent on the water between Gilbraltar and Malta. Capt. Styles sent to us to assist

[Page 97]
in the care of horses arrived to day, and is attached to us for the winter months. Had Col. Vernon and his Adjutant to dinner with us. Had a very fine dinner at midday, the main feature being an enormous turkey from Bradford. Halford worked up a nice menu card. Men had a sumptuous dinner at 6 PM. I had to go and see them and make a speech. To bed early.

Tuesday 26th December
Went early to Amiens to get boots that had been repaired. Called at No. 36 CCS, and saw Capt. Hordern. He was operated on last night, and is doing reasonably well. He received a nasty wound in the back, a fragment of shell puncturing his lung. Col. Vernon to dinner with us and is staying tonight. He purposes having a look at the front tomorrow, and will then move to Buire where his command will be concentrated by tomorrow night. Gen. Budworth is to have a look round part of our positions tomorrow.
Halford and myself off on leave tomorrow.

Wednesday 27th December
Left HQrs. with Halford at 8 AM. Motored through Doullens and Etaples to Boulogne. Found steamers had been stranded blocking Harbour entrance, so had to go to Calais. Embarked at 4 PM landed at Folkestone, took train to London and arrived at Victoria at 10 PM., 1 hour late. Most appalling fog. No porters or taxis. Left luggage at cloak room and took Tubes to Russel Square. Found Whitehall Hotel in Guilford St. full, eventually went to another branch of the same establishment at Montague St. Very comfortable.

Thursday 28th December
Reported with George to Horseferry Road. George left for Birmingham. Called at Admiralty and Commonwealth Offices re Charley. Found his ship was At Sea.
Called on A.T. Sharp, Sir Percy Bates and Miss Cowlishaw.

Friday, 29th December
Called on Sir Percy Bates re visiting the

[Page 98]
shipbuilding yards of Messrs. Harland and Wolfe, Belfast. At Commonwealth Offices and Admiralty. Dined with Miss Cowlishaw, took her to see Cavaliera Rusticana and Pagliacci.

Saturday 30th December
Went out to St. Albans to lunch. About 17 convalescing Australian Sisters staying at Mrs. McIlwraith’s house, kindly placed at their disposal. Saw Sister Barry there who had looked after me on my journey from Alexandria to England in December 1915. Saw the interesting old Church in this town.

Sunday 31st December
Leg not too good. Left for Bradford by 12 noon train, arrived 5.30 PM George and Margaret also arrived the same evening. Everybody to tea at Chesham Grove. Talked with John and Edith till midnight. Stayed at Merton Road.

[Page 99]
Monday 1st January 1917

Stayed in all the morning. Rather heavy rain. Walked into town with John and Edith in afternoon. Arranged for Cooks to send my Egyptian luggage to John. Called at Chesham Grove. Met Mr. and Mrs. Georgeson from Brighouse. All to tea at Merton Road. Met Arnold in town during afternoon. It must be 16 years since he was in Sydney.
Caught 7.23 PM train for Fleetwood via Manchester and Preston. Arrived on board "Duke of Cumberland" at 11 PM A turbine vessel of 2000 tons, speed 21 knots. Very rough passage.

Tuesday 2nd January
Arrived at Belfast about 7 AM. Breakfast on board. Took jaunting car to 20 College Gardens, where I called on Mrs. Rosborough. She accompanied me around Harland and Wolfes shipbuilding yards. A very fine concern employing 15,000 men and doing naval and mercantile ship building. Later visited Town Hall, a fine building, and saw main street. Jaunting cars very quaint. Wet afternoon. At night with Mrs. Rosborough and her mother went to Hippodrome.
Stayed at 20 College Gardens over night.

Wednesday 3rd January
Left Belfast by train at 10 AM for Dublin. Pretty and interesting country. Arrived Dublin at 1 PM. Lunched at Amiens St. Station, then walked through city, Phoenix Park, Sackville St., etc., returning to Amiens St. Station for dinner. Buildings destroyed during Sinn Fein riots in Sackville St. now being rebuilt. Caught train for Kingstown at 8 PM thence by steamer to Holyhead. Beautiful moonlight night and a splendid trip across the Irish Sea. Left Holyhead at midnight.

Thursday 4th January
Reached London at 6 AM. Had great trouble to secure a room. London crowded. Eventually at noon secured rooms at Ivanhoe Hotel, Bloomsbury St. Very comfortable. Visited Naval Office re Charley. Printers re Gazettes and Despatches by F.M. Sir Douglas Haig – tailoring at Berkleys and instruments at Stewards.

[Page 280]
Friday 5th January
With Miss Cowlishaw left Victoria Station at 28.5 AM for Brighton. Beautiful day. Arrived about 11 AM. Had a good look round the Esplanade, Piers etc. Saw Hove golf links, and the suburb of Hove. Brighton a fine town. Called on Popes (Farmers of Sydney) at Metropole Hotel. Stayed to dinner. With Mr. Pope discussed war matters. His son has joined up in 3rd Division.
Returned to London at 28.30 PM Mrs. Pope’s sister (Mrs. Nevin) with Mrs. Pope.

Saturday 6th January
Completed shopping. Had a look at Kensington Gardens. Had afternoon tea at the "Waldorf". Very entertaining. Caught train for Southampton at 6 PM from Waterloo. Halford had gone on by 4 PM train. Embarked on packet at about 8 PM and moved out of harbour at 11 PM Beautiful passage across.

Sunday 7th January
Arrived at Havre in early morning. Had breakfast on board. Halford turned up about 9 AM. Had a look round Havre and lunched there. Left in car at 1 PM and motored through St. Saens and Neuchatel to Amiens, thence on to Pommiers Redoubt, reaching there at 8 PM Country very pretty, and a charming day. Plenty of letters, orders etc. awaiting me. Col. King went on leave.

Monday 8th January
Stayed in all day. Wrote letters, and went through orders etc. Major Bates returned from 3 days leave to Paris.

Tuesday 9th January
With Major Bates visited Corps HQrs. Saw General Napier, re new allotment of fronts and role of Artillery. Arranged reliefs with 1st Division. Saw Gen. White re hutting, gun positions, reorganization of Artillery etc. Did a good days work.
Reported to General Holmes who now commands this Sector.

Wednesday 28th January
Spent the day on the front with my two Group Commanders arranging re altered positions etc.

[Page 281]
Went out with Gen. Holmes and Col. Bernard. Saw General Glasgow at his HQrs. Arranged with engineers for dugout material etc. for Battery personnel.

Thursday 11th January
Stayed in all day. Rearranging disposition of Artillery for extended front to be shortly taken over.

Friday 12th January
Visited Quarry Ammunition depot.
Conference with R.T.O. and Col. Fewtrell re taking ammunition to Longueval. Decided to use Decauville to Junction of train line with Longueval-Flers road and then lay our own train line forward to batteries of 12th Brigade.
Decided to get deep dugouts for ammunition dump personnel.
Arranged for C.R.E Circuit to do the work.
Bitterly cold day. Keen wind – hail and snow.

Saturday 13th January
With Brigade Major motored to Bernafay Wood, then walked via duckboards to Col. Waites HQrs. (No. 1 group) between Delville and Trones Woods. He accompanied us forward to positions being selected for his batteries, also on to HQrs. of later No. 2 group which is to be an O.P. Station for the Group. Thence back to positions of 37th and 39th Batteries, which when formed into a 6 gun battery position will be handed over to No. 1 Group. Col. Waite left us here. Major Williams acting as OC No 2 Group went with us to 12th Bde. battery positions. Not very satisfactory. Gun pits of 45th Battery very untidy. Discussed position re supply of ammunition by train to these batteries.

Sunday 14th January
With Col. Armstrong and Capt. Forrest inspected new wagon lines to be taken over by 4th Aus Div Artillery in a few days. Now in possession of 1st British Division. Good standings and shelters for horses also huts for men. All ranks will appreciate new conditions.
Bde. Major called on Gen. Wardrop Gocra of 14th Corps. He was given details of Gen. Gough’s captures during the last few days.

[Page 282]
Among other interesting methods of securing prisoners, the following is perhaps unique. Two Intelligence Officers dressed as Germans, entered the German trenches and induced 8 Boche to accompany them back to the British lines. Wrote letters.

Monday 15th January
With Capt. Forrest inspected both Groups, Flers, and old Flers Group. Then on to Tank Guns, Factory Corner Cheese Road, Guedecourt and back to Brigade HQrs. by train line. Saw General Rawlinson, the 4th Army Commander. Told him how we had moved our 11th Bde. on trains in two nights. He was very interested. Very cold day. Boche shelling intermittently along the whole front. Small enemy raid during night on our Left front. Easily repulsed. Several casualties to enemy – none to us. Arranged with 258th Tunnelling Co. to commence Artillery Dugouts.

Tuesday 16th January
With Forrest and Styles inspected new wagon lines. Very satisfactory. Shelters for about 2,000 men and horses. Being apportioned to units. In afternoon went to Corps, then to DAC at Buire. Discussed moves and reorganization with Col. Vernon.

Wednesday 17th January
Heavy fall of snow during night. Ground covered to a depth of 6 inches. No office staffs working. All snowballing. Worked out distribution of officers to new Brigades under reorganization scheme. In afternoon took Bates to Amiens to attend French Artillery course for two weeks. Called at Army Corps work shops re observation Station boards. Lt. Waite came to HQrs. to take on Staff Capt’s work.

Thursday 18th January
Again heavy snow during night. About 1 AM offices ofADMS, AQMG, and DAA & QMG were destroyed by fire. Capt. Forrest happened to be just going to bed, and with others managed to save most of the records. Early in morning went to French Artillery School via Amiens. Watched shooting from observatory on range and work of Batteries on main Rouen road. Not favourably impressed either by shooting or Fire discipline at battery end.

[Page 283]
Friday 19th January
Capt. Forrest went to Corps School re ammunition accounting. Capt. Fox to 4th Army T.M. School. Col. Waite took over as Brigade Major. Went with him through all papers, maps etc. Received Corps orders re new Artillery organization. Set to work on my own orders for necessary moves and changes, completing same by 28 PM.

Saturday 20th January
With General Budworth M.G.R.A. visited 41st, 42nd, 40th, 48th, 44th, 39th, 37th and 128th Batteries. General very pleased with arrangements for storing ammunition, and with the way guns were kept. Col. Rabett arrived from leave in England. Bitterly cold day. Snow still remains on the ground. Thermometer registering 15° of frost.

Sunday 21st January
Visited Colonel Vernon in morning re new organization. Obtained his selection of officers. In afternoon drafted orders for moves and reorganization. Bitterly cold day. Several degrees of frost. Snow everywhere. Three letters from Nell via Bradford.

Monday 22nd January
On organization matters. Fresh orders from Corps re Brigades that are to go out rendered fresh orders necessary. Bitterly cold again, below freezing point all day. Capt. Leys and Kennedy from Corps called re organization orders and moves. Preliminary moves of batteries completed.

Tuesday 23rd January
Bright clear day, but bitterly cold. At our gun positions at 7 AM the registered reading was 17° of frost, and it has continued so all day. Still our aeroplanes and the enemy’s were busy. Water frozen solid in my hut, ink frozen in the office, and soda water frozen in the mess. I slept in my Jaeger sleeping bag, with 4 blankets over me, two woollen jackets and a wool cap, and still I was cold. To night promises to be similar to last night.

[Page 284]
Lectured during the afternoon to officers of 4th Infantry Brigade at Mametz on "Cooperation between Artillery and Infantry". Gen. Holmes present also Gen. Brand.

Wednesday 24th January
Stayed in office during morning. In afternoon called on Col. Vernon re organization of D.A.C. under new establishment. Work well in hand.

Thursday 25th January
Had Colonel Rabett at office during morning. He left at 28 AM for Naours to superintend removal of School appurtenances to Beaucourt Chateau. Col. Waite went with him. Re-organization of all Brigades and D.A.C completed at 5 PM, excluding details from 5th and 3rd Divisions - not yet having reported. Advised Gocra of completion of reorganization.

Friday 26th January
At Mametz all day as President of a General Court Martial on an officer who was found guilty of disobedience of orders. My vote had to decide whether he should be dismissed or severely reprimanded, so I saved his Commission for him. I shall watch his future to see if he has profited by his experience of Court Martial. Again a bitter day. I could not get warm at night.

Saturday 27th January
Visited Colonel Vernon at DAC. Everything working smoothly. Saw Callenan, Turner and Hallard re their being superseeded. The 14th Corps on our right bombarded heavily to day and later attacked the Boche very successfully. Full details are not yet to hand, but I understand a good strip of country has been gained and over 300 prisoners.

Sunday 28th January
With Gen. Brand, Col. McSharry and Lt. McPherson T.M.O., made a reconnaissance of enemy front in N21d. Rather heavily shelled in Eve Alley. Discussed details of proposed operations. Walked from DHQ to front line and back,

[Page 285]
about 20 miles. Discussed proposals with General Holmes at night. No letters written.

Monday 29th January
Visited Col. Vernon at D.A.C. Writing my mail during the afternoon.

Tuesday 30th January
With Gen. Brand, Col. Waite, Major Williams and Trench Mortar Officer at Col. McSharry’s Head Qrs. re proposed operations now fixed for 31st inst. All details settled.
Walked back around battery positions, inspecting new dug outs. Discussed plans with Gen. Holmes at night. Trench mortars bombarded during afternoon, but not very successful against wire. Forrest returned from Corps. Issued orders for operation.

Wednesday 31st January
Forrest arranging new wagon lines. Bates returned from French Artillery School. Heavy’s bombarded trenches in N21d from 1.30 to 3.30 PM to day, prior to capture tomorrow night.

Thursday 1st February
Reconnaissance of objective in N21d last night showed necessity for further heavy artillery bombardment. Heavies commenced again at 1.30 PM and continued for an hour. The 15th Battalion attacked at 7 PM, under our barrage.
Barrage excellent. Infantry got into Boche trenches just as it lifted and without a casualty. Captured 2 officers and 50 other ranks. Rather anxious and troubled night. Eventually at about 4.30 AM the boche put in a heavy counter attack and drove our troops back.

Friday 2nd February
With Gen. Holmes and Brand visited Battalion Head Quarters. Nett result of interview rather gave the impression that Infantry had not kept machine guns to the front, consequently were unprotected, and further that no organised system had been established in rear to resist counter attack.

[Page 286]
Altogether not very satisfactory.
Interview with Gen. Napier (representing Gen. Birdwood) and Gen. Holmes.

Saturday 3rd February
Gen. Holmes discussed with me proposals for retaking last trench. He conferred with Gen. Birdwood and later gave definite orders that attack was to take place on night of 4th February. Prepared all necessary orders.
Naval Division 5th Army attacked north of the Ancre tonight.
Captured all their objectives and 200 prisoners. Artillery bombardment terrific.

Sunday 4th February
Round groups in the morning. Wrote letters in afternoon. Operation commenced at 28 PM Very busy night, the telephone ringing continuously. Turned in at 1.30 AM All objectives gained, 68 prisoners including 2 officers, and trenches I hope now securely held. Heard that America had broken off relations with Germany.

Monday 5th February
With Gen. Holmes visited 14th H.A. Group and 4th Inf. Bde H Qrs. He went on to captured trenches, while I went round my batteries and congratulated the men on the previous night’s work. Expect possible counter attack tonight. Gunners all ready. Gen. Birdwood sent a very nice wire to all concerned.

Tuesday 6th February
Stayed in during morning. Left at 1.30 to visit La Chaussee Infantry School. First went to Corps to get certain timber approved, then to Amiens for certain purchases, then to School. Lectured on "Cooperation between Artillery and Infantry". I had brought ammunition with me to illustrate lecture. Returned home at 11 PM.

Wednesday 7th February
With Capt. Forrest inspected wagon lines and with Col. Vernon went on to new Ammunition Rail Head, Bazentin. Thence to our new Divisional HQrs., thence No. 1 Section D.A.C.,

[Page 287]
thence home. Horses and men will be very comfortable in wagon lines.

Thursday 8th February
Major Bates left for 28 days leave. Went out to Battery positions and O.Ps. this morning. Inspected new Group HQrs. and Battery dugouts. Received letter from Commander Grant R.A.N. College in answer to mine re Alvord.

Friday 9th February
Stayed in office all day. Working on maps. Conference with Gen. Holmes.

Saturday 28th February
Col. King’s Brigade ordered to assist 2nd British Division in new operation. Sent Col. King off in the car to reconnoitre. Visited wagon lines.

Sunday 11th February
With Major McRae thoroughly inspected newly captured trenches near Guedecourt, also new gun positions, Hay Reserve, and Battery positions.
Gen. Holmes informed me I was recommended for Italian Decoration. The General left today on leave. I am Commanding the Division.

Monday 12th February
Wrote letters during day and prepared sundry maps. Obtained German rifle from Guedecourt trenches recently captured. Gen. Birdwood called to see me re 5th Div. operations on 14th/15th, also Bessel Brown. Birthday, 42.

Tuesday 13th February
Went out to front line. Called on Gen. Glasgow, inspected tunnelling. With Col. Ridley went up to Left Flank front line re proposed operations for night of 14th/15th. Arranged for officer who is to carry out task to come with me to Group HQrs. where all details were arranged. Came back with Col. Armstrong and Major McRae.

[Page 288]
Wednesday 14th February
Bitterly cold morning. Sent in recommendation for M.C. for Lt. McPherson. Planes busy on both sides. Visited wagon lines. Col. Vernon making an ideal camp. Wrote Col. Hughes giving him details re reconstruction of Artillery.
Gen. Birdwood called re operation 5th Division, which was successfully carried out tonight at 9 PM. Killed a number of Boche and captured prisoners. Gen. Glasgow carried out minor operation on Left Flank.

Thursday 15th February
In the morning called at HQrs. 5th Div. re taking of trenches raided last night. Operation to come off in a few days. The 4th Aus Div cooperating. We are also preparing a scheme for our left Flank and improving our right. At 28 AM today we came under 5th Army, 4th Army having moved to our right. We now become right flank Corps of 5th Army. Noted details for G. Branch of proposed front line operation.

Friday 16th February
Went out to Longueval with Col. Bernard. Called on O.C. No. 2 group and instructed him to prepare Group O.P. indicator board. Completed one was taken to No. 1 Group O.P. and placed in position. During early morning Boche planes were busy bombing back areas etc. They got one nice ammunition dump adjoining us in next Corps. It is still on fire and shell exploding continuously. Our planes very busy all day.

Saturday 17th February
Writing up diary during morning. In afternoon went to Div Arty wagon lines. Gen. Frazer called re allotment of Heavy Artillery. Many batteries being withdrawn.

Sunday 18th February
Went out to Bde HQrs. Saw both Infantry Brigadiers and arranged Artillery programme for operation for each Brigade. Called at 5th Aus Div on my way back to arrange our Artillery barrage to fit in with theirs for their operation on 24th inst. Amending Defence scheme. Worked out

[Page 289]
Artillery Barrage and Task tables. Dealt with sundry Divisional matters. Gen. Browne called re Artillery Barrage.
Received word from Capt. Haworth Booth that Charley is transferred to H.M.S. "Vanguard".

Monday 19th February
Wrote letters during day. Attended to a number of Divisional matters. Writing up diary.

Tuesday 20th February
Completed Artillery arrangements for attack tomorrow morning. Gen. White called and informed me that the 4th Aus. Div,. is to go out of the line about the 23rd inst. for possibly a month’s rest prior to going into an operation on present 2nd Aus Div front. Owing to adverse weather conditions it appears impossible for this Division to straighten up the whole front line as we intended.

Wednesday 21st February
Early this morning 12th Bde. pushed up 200 yards further into Stormy Trench and captured 29 prisoners. Our casualties 1 officer and 5 other ranks slightly wounded, the worst case being a broken arm. Very successful show under dreadful weather conditions, mud being knee deep.
Called on Gen. Robertson and Gen. Glasgow at Bde H Qrs. Artillery work pleased the Infantry. Hope to advance further tonight.

Thursday 22nd February
No advance made last night owing to bad weather conditions. Communication trench for Goodwins Post North Eastward improved. A further attack will take place tonight commencing at midnight. Col. Waite returned from Havre. Major Bates detained. Visited new billeting area for 4th Aus Div Artillery at Bavlincourt and Behencourt. Rather a nice Chateau at the former place which will be our Div. Artillary Head Qrs. No standings for horses unfortunately. Called at Corps H.Qr. on the way down. Saw General White, discussed with him when 28th and 11th Bdes. would be withdrawn to rest. Told me of forthcoming operation for 4th Aus Div

[Page 290]
Friday 23rd February
Operations early this morning again successful. Another 280 yards of trench captured and 32 prisoners. Conditions in captured trench indescribable. Men fought in thigh deep mud. Tonight connection will be finally established with Goodwin's Post. Met General Coxen at Brigade HQrs. and inspected Artillery Group HQrs. dugout. Col. Cohen also present. Arranged to hand over No. 2 Group at 12.30 PM tomorrow. Called on Gen. Robertson and congratulated him on the result of his operation. Saw his prisoners and had a few words with a Cadet who was to be made an officer in a few days. All seemed glad to be captured. Called at 5th Aust. Div. H.Qrs. on my way back. Arranged to hand over No. 1 Group at 12.30 PM tomorrow. Then my responsibility for the front will cease. Officer in charge of Wireless Station called.

Saturday 24th February
Called on Col. Vernon and inspected in detail Div. Artillery wagon lines. Col. Vernon has done excellent work. Met Percy Carruthers – now serving as a private in 2nd Battalion. He looked very well. His brother is with motor Transport at Rouen. Packing up. Officially handed over to C.R.A. of 1st and 5th Aus Div at 12.30 today.

Sunday 25th February
Head Quarters Div Arty marched to Bavelincourt reaching there at 4 PM. Major Bates and myself proceeded in car via Albert to Bavelincourt thence on to Amiens to purchase a number of personal wants. Met Col. Hughes who has just returned from the South of France and looks very well indeed. He lunched with us. Returned to Bavelincourt in the evening.

Monday 26th February
Yesterday the Boche commenced to evacuate his front line opposite 5th Army, and is now falling back on Baupaume. 1st Anzac Corps has advanced and occupied many trenches. Guns being moved forward. Major Bates and myself went to Army HQrs. at Toutencourt, saw the Army Commander, General Gough, who discussed the situation with us. Secured a number of maps. Then went on to

[Page 291]
Corps and Divisional Head Quarters. I understand all my Divisional Artillery will be brought out of the line immediately. Trench mortar batteries arrived here after marching from Mametz. Col. Rabett called.

Tuesday 27th February
Capt. Forrest and Halford went to Amiens via Albert. Major Bates at Divisional Head Quarters. Col. Anderson and Lt. Rigg from Artillery School called in and stayed to lunch. Received orders for 10th Brigade to march here from wagon lines starting tomorrow morning. Dined with Colonel Rabett at his billet in Frechencourt. Major Bates dined with Col. Anderson. Fresh gains along our front. Wrote letters.

Wednesday 28th February
In the morning advance parties from 10th Brigade, together with Padre Stevenson arrived. Padre lunched with us. Col King’s Brigade arrived during afternoon. Cols. Rabett, Vernon and Austin conferred at Corps HQrs. re DAC. and Army BAC equipment. Certain Corps orders have never been received by us. Major Williams returned from School in England.
Col. King, Major Williams and Lt. Burke dined with us.
Further advances along the Army front.

Thursday 1st March
Rode out with Major Bates to Divisional Head Quarters. Very beautiful day. Discussed operations and future prospects along Anzac front. I understand the 4th Aus Div will be allotted an important task very shortly.

Friday 2nd March
With Major Bates closely examined horses of 10th Brigade. Condition generally not very satisfactory. All require clipping and although somewhat late in the season it must be done. Harness being taken in hand, and a great improvement noticed. Col. Anderson dined with us.

Saturday 3rd March
On Artillery range with Major Bates and Col. Anderson. Had an inspiriting gallop over the open fields.

[Page 292]
Quite a lot of game to be seen, especially hares and Partridge. Unfortunately one is not allowed to shoot, otherwise our mess would profit. Called on General Holmes at Divisional Head Quarters and arranged for him to accompany me to Hesdin tomorrow to hear lecture by Gen. [Uwaike?] MGRA 5th Army. Capts. Garling and de Low dined with us.

Sunday 4th March
Left Bavelincourt at 7.15 AM, called for General Holmes then motored to Hesdin, about 50 miles. Desperately amazed on reaching Lecture room to find lecture had been postponed and no advice given our Corps. Roads very bad as a result of recent thaw. Returned home via Amiens where we had lunch. General Holmes gave me details of formation of a new Australian Division and other items of interest. Forwarded lists for Honours and Mention in Despatches to 4th Aus Div Received letter from Nell also from Gen. Foster, Chief of General Staff, Melbourne.

Monday 5th March
Inspected Trench Mortar Batteries during the morning. A very creditable show indeed. I.O.M inspected guns of 10th Brigade, six of which will have to go to workshop for overhaul. Arranged with RA 1st Anzac for guns of 14th and 11th Brigades to be exchanged during forthcoming move. Heavy fall of snow during last night, much fun in consequence to day among the men in snowball battles.

Tuesday 6th March.

Orders out for move of 14th Bde. to here, and 11th Bde. plus 112th and 110th Batteries back to "T" area. Guns of 14th Bde. left behind here today. All painted in camoflage patterns. Inspected the guns, also baths which are working well under Lt. Isaac. Called at Divisional Head Quarters.

Wednesday 7th March
All Artillery of 4th Aus Div moved last night from line to Wagon lines. Called on General White. Explained position re alleged "packing" of 12th Brigade. Arranged for 118th Battery to be handed over to 4th Aus Div at once to complete How. Batteries to 6 Hows. each. Put in a word for Col. Burgess as a prospective C.R.A. Attended Col. Bernard’s lecture at Brestle on communications. Bitterly cold day and night.

[Page 293]
Thursday 8th March
With Major Bates rode to Rubimont during morning to witness an attack by 4th Infantry Brigade. We had a wretched ride through heavy snow and sleet squalls, and when we reached the Rendezvous found the Infantry were just returning home, the operation being postponed. In consequence we had a 7 mile ride back again in the cold, not too well pleased. Watched 37th Battery during afternoon also T Mortars. Dined with officers of 38th Battery at night. The 11th Brigade and 110th and 112th How. Batteries marched into Behencourt during the afternoon.

Friday 9th March
Intended to watch attack (in cooperation with planes) of 13th Brigade, but when ready to leave we had trouble with the cars and so missed the show. Owing however to bad weather planes could not cooperate so again we missed nothing. Visited Divisional Head Quarters during day. Reconnaissance with Col. Bernard.

Saturday 10th March
All Brigade and Battery Commanders accompanied me to witness attack by 13th Infantry Brigade. Very well carried out but again due to bad weather aeroplanes could not cooperate. Looked around Batteries during the day. Dined at night with Trench Mortar Officers. Lt. Peel a wonderfully clever elocutionist, a couple of items given by him after dinner being especially enjoyable. Orders received for all batteries to go into the lines on 12th inst. to assist 2nd Aust. Div.

Sunday 11th March
With Major Bates took Brigade Commanders to 2nd Aus. Div Arty H. Qrs. thence on to Martinpuich, in the vicinity of which the Batteries of 4th Aus Div are to be placed. We saw one of our planes brought down by a Boche, but fortunately made a good landing, the pilot being shot through the leg. A few minutes later the Boche himself was brought down, and fell straight to earth like a stone. Bates and myself reconnoitred the country and from Gird Trench obtained a splendid view of enemy country. Found General Coxen at my HQrs. when we returned in the afternoon. Halford completed a four days course on reconnaissance duties.
All battery commanders, signallers, linesmen etc. went forward to day.

[Page 294]
Monday 12th March
Batteries moved forward to allotted positions. I watched them pass, and noted that still much improvement can be effected in turn out etc. During afternoon called at Divisional Head Quarters to meet the Right Hon. Walter Long, Secretary of State for the Colonies. Left sketch from Stormy Trench with General Holmes. Details out re the Dardanelles mission, but not yet fully available. Word received that General Maude had occupied Baghdad. Called at Corps, witnessed the amusing sight of Corps Chief Engineer, Col. of "Q" Branch and ADOS experimenting with 2" mortars against Tanks, represented by screens. Had afternoon tea with "A" mess at Corps. Overlooked the fact that General White was lecturing to our Division at 5 PM and in consequence failed to attend.

Tuesday 13th March
Heard from C.R.A. 2nd Aus. Divn. early this morning that the Boche had evacuated GreVillers Trench and Loupart Wood, so that the arrangements made for the attack in which our guns were cooperating came to naught. Our guns were ordered out, and late at night two of 11th Brigade batteries arrived back in training area, having been ordered by their Colonel to return independently.

Wednesday 14th March
Remainder of 11th Bde. and 10th Brigade detained in wagon lines pending further orders. Boche has definitely fallen back to Baupaume line, and Anzac batteries are moving forward.
Went for a long ride in the afternoon.

Thursday 15th March
Batteries and D.A.C. of 4th Aus Div came back under my orders from 2nd Aus Div Brigades reached Training area during afternoon. Col. Waite lunched with us and Col. King dined with us. In the morning called on Maj. General Uwaike [?] R.A. 5th Army and arranged to visit 6th Corps (3rd Army) near Arras to inspect disposition of artillery for coming offensive. Prepared Barrage schemes for 4th Aus Div for signal exercise on 19th inst., and took same to Division. Rabett called re reinforcements for his Brigade.
Received new of death of Duchess of Connaught. Two letters from Nell through Edith Halford. Letter from Denmark.

[Page 295]
Friday 16th March
Visited Corps during morning re alleged shortage of Horses and men in 12th Army Brigade. Sent in a report showing Corps had overlooked the fact that sections from 3rd Aus Div had not arrived at the time Schedules of Strength were prepared. Col. Armstrong called from Division having walked across. Boche now reported to be shelling Baupaume and Peronne. He must surely have evacuated them and wishes to deny these towns to our troops.

Saturday 17th March
At 8 AM with Major Bates motored through to HQrs. of 6th Corps of 3rd Army at Noyelle Vion where arrangements had been made for us to inspect Artillery for offensive at Arras. Gen. Haldane C.B., D.S.O., commands the Corps with Lord Loch as BGGS, Gen. Tullock (who I met at Loosin 1915), Q Branch, and Gen. Rotten as BGRA I was the guest of the Corps Commander during my stay. In the afternoon Gen. Rotten motored us out to Arras where we saw the emplaced field artillery and from several OPs., secured a fine view of the country and especially the Boche front lines which are very heavily wired. In the evening we went through the orders for the operations of 6th Corps as well as the general outline of the 3rd and 1st Army proposed operations generally. Gen. Birdwood inspected Artillery of 4th Div. Baupaume occupied.

Sunday 18th March
After breakfast General Rotten again took us to Arras this time to inspect the Heavy Artillery which range from 12" downward. Natural conditions favour emplacement of guns. The town has not been very badly damaged, the Cathedral has been badly strafed also the railway Station, but tho’ this town is closer to the Boche line than Ypres it has not suffered to anything like the same extent. Left 6th Corps at 3 PM, and reached HQrs. at 6 PM. Dined with Gen. Holmes and Col. Watson at Divisional Head Quarters. Boche has evacuated much more country.

Monday 19th March
Divisional scheme eventuated commencing at 11 AM and terminating at 2 PM. Generally communications worked well, the Artillery being particularly satisfactory. Received wire asking me to inform George Halford that his mother passed away peacefully on Saturday. Boche has still further fallen back. We expect to go into the line as a Division during the next two or three days.

[Page 296]
Tuesday 20th March
With Capt. Forrest inspected Batteries of both Brigades. Found a good deal that was not satisfactory particularly in regard to horses and harness. Advised today that the 4th Aus. Division less Artillery is to move into the line on 23rd instant, and guns are to follow on 30th inst. Head Qrs. of Division will be temporarily at Fricourt Farm and later at Baupaume.

Wednesday 21st March
With Capt. Forrest and Halford left HQrs. at 8 AM and motored to Baupaume via Albert, Pozieres, Le Saars and Warlencourt. Several craters blown in main road. We walked from Le Saars into Baupaume. Saw 12th Army F.A. Brigade near Baupaume. Col. Fewtrell busy laying train line into the town. Motored through Baupaume some three miles North East and East and got a good general idea of the country. Baupaume itself has been badly damaged by the Boche when evacuating. Most of the buildings destroyed and trees everywhere cut down. Still when the town is cleared of debris a large number of troops will be able to secure accommodation in cellars.
Returned home at 4 PM. At 5 PM lectured to officers of 11th Brigade and at 7.30 PM to officers of 10th Brigade. Col. King dined with us.

Thursday 22nd March
G.O.C. Division inspected Divisional Artillery less D.A. Column. At 11 AM he inspected 10th Brigade dismounted, at 11.40 the Trench Mortar Batteries, at 12.30 the 11th Brigade. Trench mortar personnel made the best show, the 10th Brigade and 111th Battery were also good. General Holmes lunched with us, and at 2.30 watched the 10th Brigade in marching order pass on the St. Gratien road, followed by 11th Brigade.
Still further pushing back of the Boche.

Friday 23rd March
Artillery Scheme carried out. Col. Bernard acted as G.O.C. Division. Both Brigades complete were concerned, and a useful day spent. Visual signalling only employed. Col. Bernard lunched late with us.

[Page 297]
Saturday 24th March
Major Bates and Capt. Forrest went up to 2nd Aus Div Arty re information concerning taking over. In morning I visited Corps and discussed with R.A. matter of exchange of guns with 2nd DA.
Visited Battery lines.

Sunday 25th March
Took Colonels King and Waite to 2nd Aus Div HQrs. at Baupaume. Gen. Johnston provided horses, and took us to Col. Lloyds HQrs. at Benagtre. From there we rode on to Battery positions in the vicinity of Vaulx-Vraucourt. From the Battery positions we walked on midway to Morchies. From the ridge East of Bois de Vaulx we obtained an excellent view of the country. The ride across open fields exceedingly enjoyable. Called at Corps HQrs. on the journey home. Had tea with the Corps Commander and General White. Urged the Corps Commander to allow us to take in our own guns and wagons complete. Understand we go into the line about 30th inst.

Monday 26th March
Stayed in all day. Major Bates and Capt. Forrest called at Divisional HQrs. at Fricourt Farm, then on to 2nd Aus. Div Arty HQrs. Capt. Forrest arranged site for "A" Echelon D.A.C. Both these went on and reconnoitred country for battery positions in the vicinity of Vaulx and Lachicourt. Baupaume Town Hall destroyed during the night. The Boche had laid a mine under it, and whether it was operated by a time arrangement or by means of a trip wire etc. will never be known. Some men killed including two French Deputies, and many men buried. Just what one might expect of the Boche.

Tuesday 27th March
Paid a surprise visit to early morning stables (6.30 AM) of 37th and 38th Batteries. As a consequence I placed the Orderly Officer of each Battery under arrest for absence from the parade.
Called on Gen. White at Corps HQrs. re taking guns into line, and relief generally. Paper chase with Col. Waite’s officers over about a 10 mile course. Many jumps included. Some officers came to grief but my old horse saw me through safely. Ride rather long and fast for horses in present soft condition. A little more of this kind of thing would be good for our officers who owing to trench warfare conditions have of late had little opportunity for riding.

[Page 298]
Wednesday 28th March
Attended 6.30 parade of 110th Battery. Again found matters very slack. No officer on parade. Orderly officer placed under arrest. 56 rank and file attended parade late. Their names were taken and given to their O.C. Visited 42nd parade at 7 AM. Parade correct, but harness in a filthy condition and horses not well cared for.
All battery Commanders with one Subaltern from each battery and Brigade Adjutant, also R.A. reconnaissance officer, journeyed per motor bus to new front. Col. King came with Bates and myself in car. Traffic very congested on Baupaume road. Thoroughly reconnoitred the country forward from Vaulx-Vraucourt to Lagnicourt and Morchies, also to vicinity of Noreuil. Excellent sites for O.Ps. commanding all Boche back country. I saw a good deal of enemy movements in rear, Transport, trains and troops. Several Boche observation balloons up. Saw General White on the return journey. Called on Gen. Glasgow while at Vaulx. Received orders re relief of 2nd Aus Div Artillery.

Thursday 29th March
Capt. Forrest on leave in Amiens all day. Bates and myself arranging orders for taking over from 2nd Aus Div Artillery and prepared sundry notes for issue to units regarding gun positions, ammunition supply, sanitation etc. Interview with Capt. Hodgens re 42nd Battery. Interview with Col. King re officers under arrest.

Friday 30th March
Inspected all Batteries of 10th Brigade. Horses apparently much improved. Manes all hogged. Harness only fair. Leather work appears to have had attention, but work on steel work only just commenced. Section of 110th Battery which came from 3rd Aus Div made a good showing. Col. King called re officers under arrest and further discussed matters. Major Edwards returned from Parisyesterday, and took over command of 11th Brigade during Col. Waite’s absence on leave in England.

Saturday 31st March
Inspected all Batteries of 11th Brigade. Here again horses had evidently benefited since being in rest area. All manes hogged excepting those of 111th Battery. Leather work of Harness well cared for, but steel work only just being taken in hand. Section of How. Battery from 3rd Div. again the best. Discussion with Army R.A. re motor traction for guns. Bates to call and see staff. Army HQrs. moved to Albert.

[Page 299]
Sunday 1st April
Stayed in all day letter writing. Heavy snow during the night but a beautifully bright day. Brigades busy preparing for their march into the line again. Move postponed another 24 hours.

Monday 2nd April
The 10th Brigade marched to the line, leaving Behencourt at 9 AM I watched them pass. March discipline generally very good. At 10 AM I inspected the trench mortar Batteries. Very well turned out. At 11 AM Major Fraser, O.C. Signals 4th Aus Div called re organization of Divisional Artillery Signal Service in accordance with new establishments. During the afternoon I visited the 5th Army trench mortar School at Valereux, but owing to a terrific wind and snow storm all class work was suspended. Went on to 4th Aus Div Infantry School at La Chaussee and lectured on "Cooperation between Infantry and Artillery. Spent our last night at Bavelincourt Chateau.

Tuesday 3rd April
Watched 11th Brigade move out on its march. Here too march discipline was reasonably good. Major Bates and self came on to Baupaume in the car with our new Chaffeur, Staton having been ordered to rejoin his unit, Imperial ASC The new man is unused to a "Daimler" and we had a very unpleasant journey forward.
Called at Divisional HQrs. and saw Gens. Holmes and Johnstone. Then went on to "A" Echelon D.A.C. where we are staying till I officially take over the Artillery of the Left Sector, Anzac Corps. The 10th Brigade arrived.

Wednesday 4th April
A very wet miserable day. Major Bates and myself made a reconnaissance of the Longatte Valley, also Norieul Valley. Col. King and Major Edwards with their Battery Commanders, also Col. Rabett made a reconnaissance of the above two Valleys and Lagnicourt Valley handing in their reports in the evening.
In yesterday’s notes I omitted to refer to a brilliant performance of a German Aviator during the afternoon. Two of our Kite Balloons were in position when suddenly a Boche plane came along at a terrific speed, fired at on all sides by "Archies" and machine guns. He reached the first balloon, and fired his incendiary bullets. The balloon at once burst into flames, and simultaneously the two observer occupants in the basket

[Page 300]
made a parachute descent, the falling burning balloon several times appearing to envelope them. However they reached the ground safely. The occupants of the basket of the second balloon seeing what had happened, lost no time in also making parachute descents which were successful. In the meantime the plane had reached this balloon and treated it in a similar manner to the first. It also fell in flames. This all happened within 300 yards of Divisional Head Quarters, and the whole staff from the Divisional Commander downwards watched the combat with bated breath. All this time the plane was being shot at from all directions, but its work being done it returned over our lines flying very low, and apparently without serious injury. The whole episode took no more than 5 to 10 minutes, but was enthralling, and I so much admired the pluck and fearlessness of the aviator that I could not help being pleased that he got off safely. The 11th Brigade arrived, mechanically drawn.

Thursday 5th April
At 11 AM today I officially took over Command of Artillery Left Sector, 1st Anzac Corps from Gen. Johnstone, CRA 2nd Aus Div When all Artillery allotted is in position I shall have 1st, 2nd and 4th Divisional Artillerys also 12th Army Brigade in all 162 guns and howitzers. During the afternoon with Col. Rabett I called at Col. Lloyd’s HQrs. and explained to him the new regrouping arrangements.
Saw Gen. Uwaike and Major Broad at Div HQrs also Generals Birdwood and White. Col. King and group and Battery Commanders of 4th ADA made a further reconnaissance of their proposed positions.
Incensed to find that 2nd ADA batteries and groups are still using earth return wires in spite of definite orders to the contrary.

Friday 6th April
Conference with Divisional Commander and Infantry Brigadiers at 10 AM re forthcoming operation. At 12 noon at rear of Longatte
I met Gen. Anderson, CRA 62nd Division, and arranged re location of our interloping batteries, and also gunner boundary between us. Col. King accompanied me. Col. King moved his batteries into the line during the night and 2nd Aus Div and 12th Army Brigade moved their batteries to new positions. "Good Friday".

[Page 301]
Saturday 7th April
Stayed in during the morning. At 1 PM I met the Army Commander General Gough near Vraucourt, and explained to him my Artillery disposition. He had Colonel Tandy with him from G.H.Q. Afterwards we walked on to the spur between Noreiul and Longatte and had a good look at the enemy’s lines. Weather much improved. Lieuts. Rundle and Bellamy badly wounded today, also a number of gunners wounded and one killed. The 2nd Brigade 1st Aust. Div. Artillery moved into action tonight behind Longatte. Gen. Godley visited us.

Sunday 8th April
With Capt. Forrest reconnoitred positions for D.A.C. of 1st, 2nd and 4th Aus. Divs. Col. Vernon reported from D.A.C. X29d, and is tomorrow bringing up his "B" Echelon. Charming day. Still no definite details regarding projected operations. The 1st Brigade 1st Aus Div Artillery moved into action tonight also behind Longatte. All Artillery now in the line. A solid 10 minutes strafe from all guns commenced today at 3 PM Very little retaliation. Suggested proposal to go through Hindenburg Line between Bullecourt and Quenit Salient. Tanks to the number of 4 to cooperate. Big show at Arras
commences tomorrow morning.

Monday 9th April
At 6 AM in blinding rain and sleet I rode off to look round all Battery positions in Left Anzac Sector. Watched the bombardment at Arras some 12 miles distant. A unique sight. It looked just like a low wall of irregular flame for some miles, with smoke rising from it. Some 2000 guns are in action at this point. Rode round all battery positions, also to country near Ecoust spur south of Longatte, Noreuil and Lagnicourt. Our gunners having a thin time. Bitterly cold, heavy work and many casualties. Generals Birdwood, Anderson and Sir Neville House lunched with us. Gen. Anderson promised to write Nell when he returns to Australia next month. In afternoon attended Conference with Gen. Fraser at Heavy Artillery Head Quarters Avesgne, afterwards came on to Division where orders had been received to attack to night under cover of 12 tanks, or rather at 4.30 AM tomorrow. Great rush to get out necessary orders to groups for allotment of tasks to Batteries. Heavy Artillery shelling Riencourt and Bullecourt all night.

[Page 302]
Tuesday 10th April
Arras show proved very successful yesterday. A splendid advance has been made and three lines of defence pierced. Some 6000 prisoners have been taken and 30 guns. Cavalry of three Divisions now hope to get through. A day or two since a great aerial battle took place near Cambrai. A large number of our planes went out on a bombing expedition and were attacked by Boche machine, they losing 46 planes while we lost 26. Operations this morning postponed, the tanks not having reached their starting point on time owing to their having lost their way during a heavy snow storm in the night. Solid artillery work went on all day yesterday. The 1st Aus Div captured Hermies, Demicourt and Boursies.

Wednesday 11th April
Early this morning (4.30 AM) the 12th and 4th Infantry Brigades attacked the Hindenburg Line between Bullecourt and Queant supported by 12 tanks. These latter were discovered by the enemy just as the advance commenced, and six were put out of action. The Infantry got into the enemy’s trenches and a large number of our men pushed on to Riencourt and later, following two tanks, went into Hendicourt. Meanwhile the 62nd Division on our left which was to attack Bullecourt was waiting for its allotment of tanks to come to their flank after helping our Division. Only one got to Bullecourt and was there made a derelict. The Infantry (4th Aus Div) were having a thin time in the trenches owing to the difficulty of getting up supplies of bombs etc. Our Artillery was ordered not to barrage Eastern edge of Bullecourt because of Tank operations, and these latter being held up, the enemy was able to use his machine guns against our carrying parties. Finally the enemy bombed our Infantry out of the trenches and forced them to retire on their original line. Though the Brigadier 4th Infantry Brigade affirmed none of his troops advanced to Riencourt and Hendecourt our Artillery observers everywhere reported such to be the case, and confirmation came in later for an aeroplane observer who had seen 300 of our men being marched along the road north East from Cagnicourt under escort. He came down low and machine gunned the escort causing many casualties. This observer also reported seeing a tank, evidently captive, moving along road north from Hendecourt. The whole operation was a costly one, casualties passing through field Ambulances by evening totalling 32 officers and 1065 other ranks. This inclusive of our men

[Page 303]
taken prisoners, wounded and dead in enemy’s hands
The 4th Aus Div is being withdrawn from the line and the 2nd Aus Div is coming in. I understand I am to remain as CRA of the massed Divisional Artilleries. Good news from the Arras sector. So far 11,000 prisoners have been taken and 103 guns, while a good advance has been made into the enemy’s country.

Thursday 12th April
It has been decided to again attack the Hindenburg Line, this time under an Artillery barrage, to take place on Sunday next. An elaborate scheme is being worked out. In order to get best results I am pushing more batteries forward, and with this object met Col. Rabett at his HQrs. and also Col. King at his. As a result each group is pushing forward one 18 pr. and one How. battery into Noreuil and Longatte. Very wet and cold miserable day. During last night heavy snow fell, and I felt very sorry for the unfortunate wounded still lying out and where it was unable to reach. Forces on the north captured Green Line without much opposition and are advancing on Fontaine Les Croisilles and Cherisy.

Friday 13th April
The 2nd Aus. Division was to have taken over this sector today but move has been postponed till midday tomorrow. Troops on the north have now captured 15,900 prisoners and 203 guns, besides about 270 machine guns and 69 trench mortars. Barrage scheme (advance copy) received from Gocra. A copy sent out to each group for early information. A total of 48,000 rounds will be required, about 550 tons and will need some strenuous night work to finish.
Army Commander visited D.H.Q. Special message sent to 4th Aus Div by C in C and Army Commander. Another attack is to take place at an early date by 2nd Aus Div and 62nd Division. Train knocked out at Baupaume.

Saturday 14th April
The 4th Aus Div to day handed over to 2nd Aus Div and General Holmes and staff left about midday. Discussed details of forthcoming attack with Gen. Smythe, and showed him Barrage map just received from Gocra. Gen. White called and discussed Artillery programme with me. Arranged with him to supply 600 rounds at the guns and all echelons filled.

[Page 304]
Sunday 15th April
This morning at 4.48 I received word from Col. Stephenson commanding "19" group that 1st Div. Infantry covering Lagnicourt were falling back through his gun positions, before strong bodies of Boche, and that he expected to have to abandon his guns. I instructed him to hold on as long as possible with 1st Brigade and cover 2nd Brigade, also if forced to retire to remove breech blocks and sights and all orders re forthcoming operations. Infantry (enemy) pushed forward to road in which Col. Stephenson’s HQrs. were placed, overrunning our guns. In the meantime the 2nd Aus Div had brought up 2 battalions from Vaux and prevented the Boche advancing further. The line held of the Division was held and a protecting flank thrown back to Noreuil. Heavy fighting took place. We barraged Lagnicourt with 18 prs. and Heavy artillery and continued to the front of Noreuil. In the meantime the position of "Q" group was distinctly critical and I ordered up the teams in anticipation of enforced withdrawal. A similar order given to "P" group. The Infantry from Vaux and Noreuil now began to make themselves felt and commenced to envelope the enemy who thereupon attempted to retire. Immediately information was first received from Col. Stephenson as to enemy covering through Lagnicourt I ordered "P" Group to put up a barrage East of the Village, and also got the Heavy Artillery to do the same. Hence large number of Boche were killed.
Later I arranged for similar barrage in front of Lagnicourt (West side) which undoubtedly prevented the enemy from destroying all the guns. In the enemy retirement artillery of "Q" group successfully engaged large numbers at 1500 yards range. About 300 prisoners remain in our hands, and casualties killed are estimated at 2,000, including those killed on front covered by 1st Aus Div which was also attacked. The guns of the first and second Brigades 1st Aus. Div Arty all had gun cotton charges in them when recovered. Plenty of gun cotton charges were lying about denoting hurried retreat. During the afternoon I visited Col. Stephenson and his batteries, and also went on to the spur north East of Lagnicourt. In one small area about 200 yards square I counted 65 dead Boche, many sadly mutilated by shell fire and dismembered. A tragic struggle evidently took place on the sunken road entering Lagnicourt from the East. Here 1 Australian lay dead and around him 12 dead Boche four of whom had been bayoneted, evidently as they tried to rush the post. In the Noreuil Valley hundreds lay dead, and many wounded being brought in.

[Page 305]
While the attack was in progress Ecoust and Longatte were subject to a heavy barrage, and plenty of 5.9" shell. The batteries of "P" group had a very thin time indeed and suffered heavily, especially the 43rd which had its Battery commander and a Subaltern killed (Major Pybus and Lt. Clarke) 10 men killed and many wounded including 2 officers. Others were badly shell shocked. Lt. Rundle wounded a few days since died as a result of an abdominal wound. I shall be very glad when the proposed operations really eventuate. The only three valleys possible for placing of guns are continuously shelled, and casualties in personnel and guns are already abnormally heavy. A battalion is tonight posted in front of Lagnicourt and arrangements have been made for a platoon with a Lewis gun to be attached to each Artillery Brigade as an Escort.

Many of the Boche dead and wounded are boys of 18 or 19. The attack along the Corps front was made with 18 Battalions.

Monday 16th April
This morning I attended the funeral of Major Pybus and Lt. Clarke. They were buried in the Baupaume Cemetery. Coffins being unavailable they were shrouded in their blankets and their Artillery colours sewn on thereto. I tried to say a few words to the officers and men present regarding the service and qualifications of the deceased officers. I am afraid I made a very poor showing for I certainly spoke from a full heart.
The DAC made all the funeral arrangements including provision of a firing party and trumpeters who sounded the "Last Post".
The Boche, in order to make room for his own dead, has exhumed many French bodies, and fragments of bone and coffins are left, lying about in a scandalous manner. In this Cemetery is a fine monument erected by the French to the memory of the soldiers who fell at Baupaume in the "70" war. The boche has erected beside it a large stone monument to the memory of his men who fell in the vicinity of Baupaume in 1915 and 1916. Whether the French will remove this or not remains to be seen.
Gen. Johnstone today held an enquiry into the details of abandonment of guns of 1st Aus Div Artillery during the Boche attack a few nights since.
Lt. Col. Shellshear is to report to me tomorrow from 3rd Aus Div Artillery to take over command of 4th Brigade 2nd Aus Div Arty, vice Col. Watts killed in action.
Gen. Carruthers here re ammunition railheads and supply to guns. New Chaffeur arrived.

[Page 306]
Tuesday 17th April
Discussed barrage plans for forthcoming operations with Gen. Smythe, also arranged to get copy from 62nd Division of their barrage, and make a complete map, showing tasks for Heavy Artillery as well as for Field Artillery. Final orders issued to all Groups re moves of Brigades when final objective has been gained.
Bitterly cold weather. More sleet and snow. Lt. Col. Shellshear arrived and instructed to report to "Q" group. Two men of 47th Battalion 4th Aus Div who were in the operation of 11th inst. returned to our lines last night. They had been with two others in a shell hole in the Boche wire luckily in a portion which we were not shelling. The two others had been killed by shell fire. They are giving a great deal of useful information. Naturally they were very exhausted from want of food and exposure to the wet and cold weather experienced since the day of attack.

Wednesday 18th April
Quite a good Australian mail in today. Two letters from Nell, two from Alvord, one from Chris and one from Charley. His exams are just about commencing and he seems satisfied that he will get through satisfactorily. Obtained Barrage map from 62nd Division, Halford instructed to prepare a combined barrage map. Halford provided 1st Lieutenant. Officers for Artillery Signal Sections arrived. These are now being organised. Very wet miserable day so I did not go out to the front line. French and Boche having a bitter fight between Soissons and Rheims. The French have captured over 11,000 prisoners and all front line systems. Despite many and heavy counter attacks in which reserve German Divisions have been employed, the French have held on to all the gains. British in the edge of St. Quentin also Lens.

Thursday 19th April
Miserable wet and cold day. Stayed in office. Worked out Barrage maps. Army Commanders called during afternoon. Informed us our operations still further delayed till 27th instant. Arranged with General White that batteries should be withdrawn leaving only one Brigade in the line in each Artillery group. Thus a chance will be given to some of the Batteries for a rest and clean up. All the personnel have had a very thin time indeed, working night and day with very little sleep, and suffering many casualties.

[Page 307]
Friday 20th April
For a change the sun shone out to day. I rode out to Col. King’s Head Quarters at 9.30 AM, left my horse there, and with Major Williams walked round some of the Battery positions, into Ecoust and Longatte, also to Railway embankments North East of Ecoust, thence via sunken road to Norueil, and then back to Colonel King’s Head Quarters. From OPs. of 37th and 39th Batteries in Longatte I had an excellent view of the whole country over which our attack is to take place. When I returned to DHQ. I learned that Gen. Johnstone, CRA 2nd Aus Div is to take over Artillery Command tomorrow at noon. Attended a conference at 2.30 with Divisional Commander concerning forthcoming operations which are now to take place on the early morning of 27th inst. Back axle of car broken when returning from overhaul.

Saturday 21st April

During the morning I made all arrangements for handing over to General Johnstone which was done at 12 noon. Major Bates is remaining on as Brigade Major till proposed operations have been carried out. Office moved into temporary quarters, and small camp pitched for ourselves opposite Div HQrs

Sunday 22nd April
With Capt. Forrest rode from Baupaume to Arras. Batteries of Heavy Artillery are Stationed all along the road and were busy as we passed. The Boche was rigorously shelling Monchy, and also a valley in which were placed many of our batteries.
Very interesting to see the old Boche line East of Arras. Took Capt. Forrest to one of the concrete O.Ps. in Arras, and had a short walk around the Town. The Boche was putting in a few heavy shell at the time. Returned to camp about 4 PM

Monday 23rd April
Early this morning I was aroused by heavy artillery fire on our Left. An attack was in progress in Cherisy and Fontaine Les Croisilles. Visited OCs. 10th and 11th Brigades and DAC re posting of officers. Later with Halford I rode out to ridge south of Croisilles and watched the attack above referred to. Artillery fire from all natures of guns simply terrific. Halford made a sketch of it all. On the way home we rode through Mory.

[Page 308]
Loan car arrived from "K" Supply column. Halford and I went as far as possible on the Peronne Road in order to see the country around Le Transloy. A very desolate waste, ground nothing but shell holes. Hope to later ride through to Peronne.

Tuesday 24th April
With Halford had a day round the front line. We motored through Beugny towards Lagnicourt. Here we left car and proceeded on foot to Eastward of Lagnicourt where many Boche victims of 15th April still lay unburied, affording food for cats of the village. Thence onwards to Norueil and to high ground 500 yards Eastward, where we get a good view of every front line and wire. Then on to sunken road leading from Norueil to Longatte. At the highest point of the road one gets a magnificent view of Bullecourt, Mendecourt and Riencourt, and it is from this spot that I hope to watch the attack, now postponed from 27th to 30th inst. Called on Col. Waite and Col. King. Picked up car at the Sucerie and returned home at 4 PM Major Bates at conference at Corps HQrs.
No news of Cherisy attack, or of French operations southward.

Wednesday 25th April
"Anzac Day". What memories it recalls. Two years have flown as on wings. With Capt. Forrest and Lt. Ashe our Signal officer I rode to Peronne. We passed through the villages of Baulencourt, Le Transloy, Sailly-Saillisel, Rancourt, Bouchavesnes, Mt. St. Quentin on the way to Peronne. and on the return journey came through Clery Sur Somme, Maurepas, Combles, Guillement, Ginchy and Guedecourt. We had a most interesting day, especially in the country where the French fought so bravely in the early stages of the Somme battle last year. We brought back a few French bayonets and a rifle, besides grenades as souvenirs. Particularly interesting was the ride through Guedecourt and across Stormy Trench, which is so definitely associated with the 4th Aus. Division. Peronne is prettily situated on the Somme, but has been much damaged, principally by the Boche when evacuating. The whole country from Baupaume to Peronne is a wilderness waste, the result of continuous heavy artillery bombardment, and one can well imagine how glad the Boche soldiery must have been to evacuate this zone and get to a new line in open and undamaged fields.

[Page 309]
Thursday 26th April
With Major Bates left Baupaume for Amiens at 10 AM. Called at Divisional Head Quarters at Baizeau, saw General Holmes and described to him details of Boche attack on morning of 15th inst. Recommended Lt. Col. Vernon for Legion of Honour. Informed all recommendations for immediate honors to members of 4th Aus Div Artillery sent in a few days since, have been recommended by Divisional Commander and forwarded on to Corps. Called at 1st Anzac Artillery School. Left my groom there to bring my horse (Jack) back to Baupaume. Went on to Amiens to lunch, and did some shopping. Had another look through the Cathedral. Returned home at 6.30 PM Informed projected operations of 2nd Aus Div and 62nd Division again postponed, this time to 3rd May. Received Australian mail with letters from Nell, Alvord and Chris, also papers from Nell. Wrote letters all the evening.

Friday 27th April
Stayed in office all day. Bright sunny day. Weather appears at last to be improving. General Napier round the front with Col. King. Majors Bates and Williams also round. Enemy shelling somewhat brisk. Major Williams dined with us.

Saturday 28th April
Enemy artillery fire very brisk especially at Longatte. At the 39th Battery O.P. Lieut. Edwards of that battery was killed. Further delay in commencing our attack. Now postponed to 5th May. Col. King dined with us. A second horse master reported for duty with 4th Div. Artillery.

Sunday 29th April
Australian elections carried out for HQrs. Staff. Capt. Forrest arranged all details. Wrote letters during the morning. At 2.30 I attended funeral of Lt. Edwards in Baupaume Cemetery. Again the DAC provided the firing party. Service conducted by Padre Stevenson. Later I went to advanced Corps HQrs. Saw General White to whom I gave a sketch of Bullecourt and Riencourt, also AD of Signals and Major Wynter. General White informed me I could apply for 14 days leave. I shall arrange to get it after we come out of the line.

[Page 310]
Monday 30th April
Capt. Forrest left for three days leave to Caestre. Heavy fighting North and South of the Scarpe River. Germans are throwing in many counter attacks and he is losing heavily from our Artillery and machine gun fire. America has decided for conscription by overwhelming majorities in both the Senate and the House of Representatives. Expect we shall soon see American troops here. Late in evening received a wire from Capt. Forrest that car had broken down near Hazebrouck and was being towed to that town for repairs.

Tuesday 1st May
Went round the front and selected positions in Noruiel–Longatte road from which I can watch the battle on the 3rd instant. A telephone will be installed for me, to be in communication with Col. King’s group. A.I.F. order published to day awarded 12 military medals to 4th Aus Div Artillery. Batteries that have been out are returning to night to position in the line. Hard fighting continues on the north.

Wednesday 2nd May
Rode round country to East and South East of Baupaume. My route from camp was through Bancourt, Haplincourt, Bertincourt, Ytres, Manancourt, Mesnil, Rocquigny, Barastre, Fremicourt and Favreuil. Roads are wonderfully good, an enormous amount of work having been carried out on them by our troops. Quite the best way to go to Peronne from Baupaume.
All arrangements completed for attack tomorrow morning, commencing at 3.45 AM A number of officers and men wounded and killed to day. Lt. Carse and Brough of 12th Army Brigade both died of wounds.

Thursday 3rd May
This morning at 3.45 British forces launched heavy attacks against the German line, extending from north of the Scarpe to Queant. Our immediate task here coupled with the 62nd British Division is to take Bullecourt, Hindenburg Line, Hendecourt and Riencourt.
I got up at 2 AM, had breakfast and rode out to Vauxcourt, then walked on passed Col. King’s battle head Quarters to my post in Longatte-Norueil Road. Halford and Benson accompanied me. Punctually to time the artillery barrage commenced, and such a terrific cannonade I have never before witnessed. We had the equivalent of 4th Divisional Artilleries with the 2nd Aus Div Infantry who were attacking, while the 62nd Division had I understand equal artillery strength.

[Page 311]
Then in addition the heavy artillery has to be added. This included guns and howitzers of all calibres from 15" to 60 pr. Added to our fire was the Boche barrage which came down very promptly, mostly heavy H.E. shell. Our artillery barrage was excellent, very few shrapnel bursting high. Until daylight nothing could be discerned of our troop movements. Even when the sun arose nothing could be seen, other than bursting shell. The day was very hazy and the spume and dust from the artillery bombardment made an impenetrable screen. I waited till 7 PM and then returned home. While in the sunken road shelling was uncomfortably close. Saw General Howse at the road dressing Station also Capt. Bean.
By night fall the position appeared to be as follows: our 5th and 6th Brigades had taken and were holding the front and support levies of the Hindenburg Line, the 62nd Division had failed to take Bullecourt, and this evening the 7th Division is to try to secure this strong point. Apparently very heavy fighting continued throughout the day and the amount of artillery ammunition expended on both sides was enormous.
Our trench mortar batteries who were to assist the 62nd after the capture of Bullecourt had a bad time. Owing to the 62nd being held up our men had to wait, and came under heavy Artillery barrage from the enemy. The result is that of 48 men, 9 were killed, 8 shell shocked, 13 wounded, and all the remainder missing believe killed. Strangely enough and very fortunately all four officers present were saved, but badly shaken. Lt. O’Reilly with 10th Brigade did magnificent work with the Infantry in the captured trenches as F.O.O., his information being the most consistent and reliable of all that came through, which apart from his was very meagre. Our wounded who passed through our Ambulances up to 6 PM total about 2500 – no estimate can at present be made of killed or missing.

Friday 4th May
During the night our right flank gave a little ground under enemy bomb attack. Bullecourt still held by the evening. The 7th Division is relieving the 62nd, and the 1st Aus Div Infantry Brigades are relieving those of 2nd Aus. Division. Very sorry to learn that last night Lt. O’Reilly was killed. He had done excellent work and I was recommending him for the Military Cross, but under the regulations this cannot now be done. Received reports from Trench Mortar officers of 4th Aus Div They had a most trying experience, and behaved most gallantly. Boche plane dropped several bombs in Baupaume this evening.

[Page 312]
Saturday 5th May
The Boche is fighting hard to hold his present line. He is throwing in heavy reserves, and counter attacking frequently. As a consequence we are killing Boche in large numbers. We still hold the Hindenburg Line between Bullecourt and Queant, but the enemy still holds Bullecourt. I presume we shall keep on attacking till our final objective for 3rd May is secured. Bombs dropped last night unfortunately caused casualties in 12th Army Brigade, Capt. Collins and Lt. Lewis being killed, and a visiting Lieutenant also very seriously wounded. Oppressively hot day, followed by heavy thunderstorm in the evening. Major Matterson RGA, who was under my command with a 60 pr. Battery at Serapeum in May 1916, called to see me. He now commands a 6" Mark VII Battery, two guns of which are working with 5th Corps, and 2 with 1st Anzac Corps. Gen. Russell G.O.C. New Zealand Division, accompanied General Birdwood around the front during this afternoon.
Infantry put up S.A.S. Signals about 10 PM tonight and for an hour we put up a terrific bombardment – all unnecessary, no attack having apparently been intended by the Boche.

Sunday 6th May
Sent in recommendation for Lt. Anderson for Military Cross, and 4 men of Trench Mortars for Military Medals, in connection with operations of 3rd inst. Wrote letters during morning. In afternoon went round some of the Batteries. The 58th Division is to attack Bullecourt early tomorrow morning. Lt. Callinan who was wounded by bomb on 5th died this morning.

Monday 7th May
In the morning rode out to Advanced Divisional HQrs. Informed 58th Division this morning secured their objective in Bullecourt and linked up with Anzac Corps on the right. I should have said 7th Div. not 58th Div. carried out this attack. Visited 42nd, 43rd and 38th Batteries. British Batteries foolishly bringing up ammunition to their guns during the day, consequently Ecoust Valley was heavily shelled. At night with Major Bates dined with D.A.C. HQrs. officers. Infantry band gave us a number of fine selections. Looked through a large German Cemetery in Favreuil wood. Rain set in about 10 PM.
Divisional Commander wrote asking me to command Division during his forthcoming leave of absence.

[Page 313]
Tuesday 8th May
Miserable wet day. Did not go out from HQrs. Lt. Stamp IOM, late W.O. 3rd AFA Bde. dined with us. Boche very busy again on Noreuil and Ecoust valleys, and casualties inflicted.
Have just heard that 4th Aus Div is to move at once to 2nd Anzac. Whether this is or is not a permanent move is not known. I understand our guns are to come out almost at once, and that we are to take part in the Wyschaate push up north, commencing somewhere about the beginning of June.

Wednesday 9th May
Visited some batteries and 10th Brigade wagon lines. Heard from Mr. MacKellar Solicitor of Sydney re his two sons who are in the Artillery and whom he wants me to help. Boche counter attacked again last evening but did no good to his cause.

Thursday 10th May
With Major Bates rode down to Stormy Trench, overlooking Guedecourt. Very interesting indeed to walk along and carefully examine this trench, the scene of such fierce fighting between the Boche and the 4th Australian Division. Salvage Corps now busy in this area collecting equipment of every conceivable nature.
After lunch called on Mr. Stamp’s workshop. He explained to the Brigade Major and myself the new air recuperator being fitted to 18 pr. guns. W.O. Miller sent off to England for a course to qualify as L.O.M. Divisional Commander wrote me stating that owing to new move for the 4th Aus Div he was not taking his leave at present.

Friday 11th May
In the morning visited 10th Bde. wagon lines. The wagon lines of 11th Bde. are being shelled today so they are moving back to Baupaume. In the afternoon took tea with General Birdwood and General White. Learned details of our new move. We are still to remain a part of 1st Anzac. Discussed with General White certain points brought to notice during recent Battles. He asked me to prepare them fully and send them on to him as also copy of my notes re Boche attack on Lagnicourt on the morning of 15th April. I am also preparing for him a brief history of the 4th Aus. Div Arty

[Page 314]
Saturday 12th May
Received letter from AAG informing me that Capt. Morris of 3rd F.A. Bde. is to be appointed one of my Battery Commanders and that Temp. Major Evans who is junior is to be deposed. I rode over to Advanced Anzac to see the AAG who was unfortunately not in. I discussed the matter with Capt. Jennings and will write in officially. Received word that some 300 horses are arriving at Abbeville tomorrow for us. Sent off Majors Ross and Evans with a party to bring them back. Continuous fighting at Bullecourt and rather more successful, as the British and ourselves now have the village, and have captured during the night about 500 prisoners.

Sunday 13th May
Parade at 12.30 PM for DAC and Trench Mortar Batteries for the Corps Commander. He presented ribbons to the men of Trench Mortars who had been awarded the Military Medal. I gave the Corps Commander copy of a letter sent on to the Division re Major Evans, and also discussed the case with him.
Car arrived back from Supply Column. All units of 4th Aus Div Artillery tonight withdrew from the line, and will march tomorrow to camps in the vicinity of entraining Stations at Albert and Edgehill.

Monday 14th May
At 10.30 AM General Birdwood inspected the 10th and 11th Brigades, and presented ribbons to those men who had recently been awarded Military Medals. Both yesterday and today the General made very nice speeches, and expressed his appreciation of the work of the 4th Div. Artillery, as well as his regret at our temporary detachment from 1st Anzac Corps.
Saw DAC march out at 7 AM. Far from a creditable performance and a detailed criticism has been sent on to the C. Officer.
In afternoon watched Brigades march out. Very satisfactory.
Gave additional evidence before General Johnstone re abandonment of guns of 1st Aus Div

Tuesday 15th May
With Major Bates motored through territory south of the Somme recently given up by the boche. Went through Combles, Clery, Peronne, Ham, Moyon and Roye to Amiens. The last three mentioned towns have been left

[Page 315]
undamaged, perhaps indicating a hasty withdrawal on the part of the enemy. The country is very beautiful, and at the present time the fruit trees of which there is an abundance, are all in blossom. No trees of any kind appear to have been destroyed, the only damage done appears to be to a few bridges, and road intersections blown up by mines. When crossing the old front line system near Roye one could not help being struck by its undamaged condition. It is apparent that on both sides in this locality the fighting during the last winter has been a negligible quantity, and very different to the vicinity of Flers and Guedecourt.
Lunched at Amiens, and on the way back to Baupaume called on General Holmes at Divisional HQrs. at Baizieu.

Wednesday 16th May
Major Bates and myself left Baupaume about 9.30 AM and motored through to Ballieul. On the way past Arras we went up on to Vimy Ridge, and though the day was hazy one got a magnificent view. It is indeed a commanding point and I can well understand the disappointment of the Boche in losing it. Because of the recent advance in this sector it is now possible to motor through from Arras to Bethune on the main road. We lunched at Bethune, then came on to Hazebrouck, Caestre and Ballieul. At the latter place met Capt. Forrest and Divisional Staff. Comfortable billets arranged for us. Called on G.O.C. R.A., Brig. Gen. Powell, and talked over the situation generally. Pending arrival of our HQrs. by rail we are messing at Officers Club. Country everywhere very beautiful.

Thursday 17th May
Went out early with Major Bates to New Zealand Divisional Artillery HQrs. Saw the Brigade Major, Major Richmond, and with him went through the proposed scheme of offence for this sector. Units commenced to arrive during the night. Billets are arranged not far from Ballieul, while troops are detraining at Ballieul and Caestre. Having our meals with officers club pending the establishment of our own mess.

Friday 18th May
With Major Bates went out at 9.0 AM to West HOF FARM, HQrs. of N.Z. Division. General Johnstone C.R.A. then accompanied us around all the field Artillery positions (being prepared for forthcoming operations) which will be occupied by the Artillery under his command.

[Page 316]
They are mostly situated near Wulverghemand Hill 63. Quite a lot of work has been done, but our units will have much to do before positions can be considered as ready. Most ammunition will be delivered by Decauville. Balance of units completed detraining and marched into billets. I have arranged that when they go into the line, they may be given no night work for at least a week in order that they men may get some well deserved sleep. Letters and photos from Nell. Very good indeed.

Saturday 19th May
Attended to office work during the morning. In the afternoon attended a conference at 4th Aus Div HQrs. The new operations were fully discussed. Later a discussion took place re reduction of horses and instructions given for proposals to be in tomorrow. Mess established in Building opposite the office. Leave to England for Major Bates approved. Trench Mortar Batteries temporarily loaned for forthcoming operation to 3rd Aus. Div Arty Guns being sent to G.O.M. for overhaul. Lt. Anderson awarded M.C. for his work at Bullecourt on 3rd instant.

Sunday 20th May
Major Bates left at 10.30 AM for Boulogne on leave to England. Lt. Rayburn accompanied him. Brigades advised to move to their wagon lines. In afternoon Halford and myself rode to 3rd D.A.H.Q. at Steenwerke. Saw General Grimwade C.R.A. and Major Playfair, Major Nicholls and Capt. Irvine. Stayed to afternoon tea. Interviewed Paymaster 4th Aus Div with Major Williams and Major de Low concerning delay in return to pay office of [indecipherable] rolls. Matter cleared up satisfactorily. Wrote a brief history of 4th Aus. Div Arty

Monday 21st May
Corps Commander called on me at 10.30 AM and I took him round wagon lines of 10th Bde. and DAC. The units were of course far from being spick and span, having only the night before marched into these wagon lines. Horses are improving fast and both units have a nice field for grazing, while watering arrangements are also very satisfactory. troughs being provided in each field with pumps. Corps Commander had not time to go forward to 11th Brigade area. Heard today that H.M. Transport Themistocles with a large number of invalid Australian officers and men, and which left Plymouth on May 4th, had been torpedoed. Brig. Gen. Christian was on board and is I believe drowned.

[Page 317]
Tuesday 22nd May
Stayed in office all day. Halford at 3rd Aus Div DAHQ getting positions of Batteries for offensive. During the day I wrote up some notes concerning operations before Bullecourt, ammunition expenditure and casualties to personnel and material. Copies of all (also History of 4th Aus. Div Arty) forwarded to Gen. White and Gen. Holmes.
Received letter from Admiralty agreeing to let Charley spend his next leave with me here. Letter also from Charley stating that he had finished his exams, had passed in Gunnery and Torpedo and the balance of results were expected to be out by 23rd inst. He promised to wire me results.

Wednesday 23rd May
At 9.30 AM Capt. Forrest and myself called on General Grimwade. He had arranged for Major Playfair to show us round the gun positions of 3rd Division. We motored out to Ploogsteert, and then walked round all the positions, Gas trench and Heath trench in which latter O.Ps. are situated. These O.Ps. are on the forward slopes of Hill 63. Met Col. MaCartney and Col. Cohen who were looking round O.Ps. All artillery including trench mortars busy at 12 noon.
4th Aus Div Batteries are now all in the line. I hope to see them all tomorrow.

Thursday 24th May
During morning Commander in Chief called together with his Artillery Adviser Maj. Gen. Birch. Forthcoming operations discussed. Also recent fighting at Bullecourt. During afternoon took Halford round all the N.Z. Battery positions occupied by 4th Aus Div Artillery. All batteries are making themselves very comfortable, and after their recent experiences down south they think their present task quite a picnic. Called at CRA’s office of N.Z. Division and also 25th Division. Map being prepared showing all battery positions, both Heavy and Field.

Friday 25th May
Received word this morning that my leave has been curtailed because of forthcoming operations. I expect I shall get about 6 days only instead of 14 as was first arranged. Wrote all my Sunday letters to members of the family.

[Page 318]
Saturday 26 May
With Colonel Vernon left in car for Boulogne on leave to England. Found boat did not leave till afternoon. Reached Folkestone about 4.30 PM and London about 7 PM I went to Whitehall Hotel to stay. Had a long talk with Miss Perks and Mrs. MacLaren who are still staying there.

Sunday 27 May
Called on Miss Cowlishaw and with her went to Oxford. Saw General and Mrs. MacLagan there. Visited most of the Colleges, the one appealing to me most I think being Magdalene College. Saw the river at this point full of boats laden with Cadet Officers and young ladies. Trees, flowers and fields are a charming sight just now. Chestnut trees being in full bloom, also lilac and rhododendron. Lunched at MITRE Hotel in the main street. More colleges now given over to Military authorities for Cadet School work and Hospitals.

Monday 28th May
Whitsuntide Holiday. Caught midday train to Bradford (via Leeds) arriving about 6 PM Not remembering John Halford’s new address I went first to Chesham Grove. Mr. Halford Sen., is very frail but seems to be improving in health. John and Edith came down and we all stayed to tea.
John’s new home is very nicely situated, is substantially built of stone and roomy. Fitted up with electricity throughout.
Talked with John and Edith till nearly midnight.

Tuesday 29th May
With Edith walked through the Reserve’s Park and the Golf Links. Bluebells everywhere in abundance. John stayed home in the afternoon. Holiday in town. Nell and Ruth came up to tea. Left Bradford about 7.30 PM for Ireland via Fleetwood, leaving the latter place about 11 PM. The skipper of the boat informed me that service had recently been temporarily suspended owing to enemy submarine action in the Irish Sea. He asked me to arrange a military guard to maintain order in case of a submarine attack.

[Page 319]
Wednesday 30th May
Arrived in Belfast about 8 PM. Lt. McKinstry came aboard, introduced himself and told me he had his car waiting to take me to their home. Rather a miserable day so remained indoors. Mrs. McKinstry and her daughter Mrs. Rosborough pressed me to abandon my trip to Ballyshannon and stay with them at Belfast. As the son was home on leave he was available to drive their car, and they promised to drive me around the country to the most interesting places. I finally decided to remain in Belfast. A second married daughter was also at the house.

Thursday 31st May
A trip was arranged to Bangor, a favourite summer resort on the coast at the entrance to Belfast Lough
We had two punctures on the way there, and had to walk part of the way into the town, where tubes were repaired. We returned home about 7 PM. The country is exceedingly beautiful and the Rhododendrons in particular make an exceedingly fine show. At night we went to see a play in the local theatre.

Friday 1st June
Another motor run was arranged for to day. This time to another favourite watering place named NewCastle situated on the shores of Dundrum bay and just at the foot of the Mourne mountains. Here there is a magnificent Hotel, golf links etc. On the way down we passed through Downpatrick. We had a look at the restored Cathedral and visited the grave of Ireland’s patron Saint, St. Patrick. Here again we had another puncture. We brought back home an enormous bunch of beautiful lilac blooms. At night I sang a few songs.

Saturday 2nd June
To day we had quite a long run, about 170 miles. Leaving Belfast at 10 AM we skirted the shores of Belfast and Larne LoughS, passing through Carrickfergus and Larne. We then continued up the coast road of the rugged Antrim shore through Glenarm, Carnlough and Cushendall. At this latter place we took the road leading over the high moor land to BallyCastle.

[Page 320]
The moors are very interesting. Covered with gorse in full bloom, heather not yet in flower they looked very pretty indeed. Here and there are the bogs from which thousands of tons of peat were being taken for winter fuel. From BallyCastle we again took the coast road to Ballintoy and Giants Causeway. At the Hotel at the latter place we had lunch, and then inspected the huge cave and the Causeway from the sea, going round in a roomy boat, and returning over land. The formation is intensely interesting. I sat on the famous wishing chair and had the three wishes allowed by custom, later having a drink of clear water and another wish at the wishing well. Our guide told us all sorts of weird superstitious stories. We then motored on to Portrush, another fashionable summer seaside resort. Here we had afternoon tea and then returned homewards via Coleraine, Ballymoney and BallyMena to Randalstown. This latter town is where Rev. McKinstrey’s Church and congregation are. He met us at his manse and then showed us the famous old grounds and Castle on the Banks of Lough Neagh, known as Shane's Castle. I have never before seen such a magnificent show of Rhododendrons, while the whole 2000 acres of the estate was in reality carpeted with prunises and bluebell. The River Main runs through the property and is open to invalid soldiers for fishing. The old Castle too is historic, and I was told the origin of the Red Hand of Ulster borne on the Arms of the O’Neill family who own the property. We returned to Belfast at 9 PM. In each of these journeys the party has consisted of Mrs. McKinstry, her son, two married daughters and myself and all have been intensely interesting and most enjoyable.

Sunday 3rd June
In the morning we went into the Botanical Gardens to see a magnificent display of Tulips as well as the content of glass houses and fernery. In the afternoon I left Belfast, catching train at 4 PM, and arrived in Dublin about 7 o ’clock. There caught train to Kingstown, boarded the Cross Channel boat, crossed to Holyhead and left there at 12.22 AM by train for London. Crossing rather choppy and I did not feel very comfortable. Holiday in Ireland most enjoyable.

[Page 321]
Monday 4th June
Arrived London at 6.30 AM Drove to Whitehall, had bath and breakfast. Made a few purchases in London. Caught train in afternoon for Folkestone. Sent my dressing case over by boat, then arranged to fly over from Folkestone Aerodrome to St. Omer, and telephoned for my car to meet me at St. Omer. We ascended about 6.30 PM, Hovered over Folkestone and Dover for about 15 minutes then headed for the French Coast, which we crossed just south of Calais and reached St. Omer 65 minutes after starting out. It was a beautifully clear and still evening and I had a magnificent view of the Channel and the Dover Patrol. We used a F.E.2B. machine and flew at an average height of 3800 feet. The experience was a most enjoyable and exhilarating one. I dined with the R.F.C. at their Aerodrome at St. Omer, and later came on home in the car. Created C.M.G.

Tuesday 5th June
Went through orders concerning forthcoming operations now definitely fixed for the morning of 7th inst. Lunched with Gen. Holmes and discussed with him details of attack by 4th Aus Div on the Green LINE. Received Congratulatory wire from Gen. Plumer, 2nd Army Commander. I hear the 5th Army including 1st Anzac is shortly to arrive close to us for proposed operations further north. I understand we shall then go back to 1st Anzac. The 9th Corps Dump just outside Ballieul was blown up this morning and the explosions were so severe that a great deal of window glass in the town has been destroyed by concussion. The local population have been very busy all day moving their effects further away from the Battle Zone.

Wednesday 6th June
This morning I called on General Grimwade re 4 of B.Cs. sent to him and also re trench mortar batteries. I then went on to N.Z. Artillery HQrs. where Bates and Forrest are now both established. We move up tomorrow. Went through schemes. A great deal of Artillery activity on both sides.
Ballieul being shelled at intervals by long range heavy gun.

[Page 322]
Thursday 7th June
To day the greatest battle scenes ever witnessed were enacted. At 3.10 AM a number of mines which had been laid under Boche positions from Hill 60 to Messines were exploded causing the earth to tremble as if a violent earthquake was in progress. Simultaneously thousands of guns (about 2550) of all calibres from 18 pr. to 15" loosed off and under the finest barrage ever conceived our Infantry advanced over a nine mile front everywhere capturing all objectives.
In our Corps front the attack was launched by the 3rd Aus Div, N.Z. Div. and 25th Div., while the 4th Aus Div was in reserve, and after the first objectives had been taken they pushed through and captured the advanced objectives. The whole show was a huge dramatic success, all objectives being gained to time table and with light casualties, while the Boche lost 7000 prisoners, many guns, mortars and machine guns, and had thousands killed. I went up close behind Messines during the afternoon, everywhere the effects of the terrific Artillery bombardment being in evidence.

Friday 8th June
The battle still continues though in a lesser degree, simply straightening out unsatisfactory pockets. The Boche has shelled the new front lines fairly solidly, as well as Messines but has fired little on our batteries. As a consequence they have suffered few casualties. Tomorrow I take over from C.R.A. New Zealand Division who has up to now had command of his own guns, 4th Aus Div, and two extra Brigades.

Saturday 9th June
At 3.45 AM I left my billet for a reconnaissance of the whole of our front line. I crossed over North West of Messines to our new front line and thoroughly investigated the positions held by our troops. Many dead Boche to be seen and a few of our own men. Tanks had got well up to our front line and close behind were two derelict. They had got into a soft patch of soil, and had in their struggles to get out only further buried themselves. Our new positions afford excellent opportunity for Artillery observation and control of fire. Commander in Chief called at Westhof Farm and was very congratulatory in his reference to all arms of the Service. He sent a special message of thanks to the gunners.
Took over Artillery command at 5 PM from Gen. Johnstone C.R.A. N.Z. Division.

[Page 323]
Sunday 10th June
Balance of 4th A.D.A HQrs. moved from Balliel to Westhof Farm. Batteries of all groups being moved well forward behind Messines. Getting new maps etc. prepared and generally rearranging our offices. A new offensive to improve our front will soon eventuate. Conference with Gen. Godley and Divisional Commanders of 25th and 4th Aus. Divs. Decided to straighten out a portion of the line tonight at 10.30 and an artillery programme proposed accordingly. Tomorrow I shall have under my command, 4th N.Z. and 25th Div. Artilleries, Col. Cockraft ’s Brigade and one Battery – a total of 29 batteries equally 174 guns. This Command will take some handling. Our trench mortars of all Divisions are temporarily helping 3rd Aus Div in wire cutting tasks. Wrote my usual weekly budget of letters.

Monday 11th June
Little operation last night quite successful. Our Infantry found over 100 dead in the German position, apparently killed by Artillery fire – Artillery of both sides very active during the night.
During today our mounted troops pushed forward towards the Warneton line – followed by Infantry patrols, who will establish themselves well in front of the Green Line if possible.
N.Z. Division taking over from 3rd Aus Div, Gen. Johnstone taking over command of the massed Artillery. Later 25th Division is to relieve 4th Aus Div at which time the 25th Div. CRA will assume command of combined Artillery. To day his artillery and Col. Cockraft’s Brigade came under my command. Received very kind letter of congratulation from Lt. Gen. Sir H.V. Cox, our late Divisional Commander.

Tuesday 12th June
Our Infantry Patrols last night established themselves about 300 yards Eastward of our present established front line. Machine gun fire prevented further advance. We are now close up to the Warneton line, which we may expect will be held in strength by the Boche.
Received orders to hand over Artillery Command to 25th Division at 6 AM tomorrow. Called on CRA 25th Division during afternoon. Arranged for my Brigade Major and Staff Captain to assist staff of 25th D.A. as may be required.

[Page 324]
Wednesday 13th June
At 6 AM handed over Artillery Command to C.R.A. 25th Division. At 9 AM accompanied by Lt. Halford and Corporal Benson I motored to Llankhof Farm near Ypres. Walked through Lock 7 where we inspected our old concrete O.P. structure which has been used for some time as an Artillery Brigade HQrs., thence on through Verbranden Molen to Hill 60 where we saw the crater of mine blown up on morning of 7th inst. It is about 100 yards in diameter and about 40 feet deep. In the vicinity we saw French bayonets, equipment etc., relics of the early fighting in 1914. We then walked on to the Bluff thence across the canal to White Chateaux, incidentally being forced to take cover for some time from 4.2" shelling. Then on to St. Eloi, where we saw another new crater similar in size to the one at Hill 60. Then on through Wytschaete to Messines and back to our car at Wulverghem. Between Wytschaete and Messines we saw two more craters, each being about 150 yards across and fifty to sixty feet deep. It was a very hot trying day but the walk was exceedingly interesting. Such a walk shows one very clearly how the line Wytschaete-Messines has dominated the British lines since the end of 1914, and it now in turn gives us domination over the Boche territory. Guns have been pushed forward all along the line, also our balloons, while our Air Service absolutely dominates the air.

Thursday 14th June
Spent most of the day in visiting Battery positions of 4th Aus Div All have established themselves reasonably comfortably.

Friday 15th June
Capt. Forrest went on leave to England. Halford and I went with him as far as Cassell, calling at Hazebrouck en route. Gen. Robertson joined car at Cassell he too going on leave. Called on M.G.R.A. and obtained map locations of all batteries engaged in recent battle, and also mine craters. Halford preparing a combined map for me. Visited the old Church at Cassell, a grotesque mixture of Gothic and Classic. Heavy casualties in 110th Battery.

Saturday 16th June
Again around battery positions. It has been decided that we are to be relieved tomorrow night. All our men will be glad of a short rest and clean up. Wonderful evolution this evening by Naval Triplane.

[Page 325]
Sunday 17th June
Gen. Holmes with Col. Bernard journied to 1st Army and were shown over the Vimy Ridge position. They found it exceedingly interesting. I spent the day writing letters. An Australian mail delivered last night. They are now very irregular and infrequent. Col. Rabett and Major Richards dined with us. Discussed many matters of common interest.

Monday 18th June
Saw Mr. Brissenden in Ballieul. He is now Claims Officer of 3rd Aus Div Had a long talk over old times.
Attended a conference of Gunner Generals at Cassell under the Presidency of Major General Franks R.A. to discuss details of recent operations from a gunner’s point of view. Much interesting discussion. Among those present were Gen. Wardrop 14th Corps, Gen. Cartwright 1st British Division, Gen. Shepherd who served under me at Gallipoli, Gen. Lushington of 41st Division and many others, about 30 in all. Gen. Franks invited us to lunch afterwards, and there were also present a number of American Gunner Officers who are looking round the 2 nd Brig. Front. Received letter from Admiralty stating that Charley would be granted leave to France before he took up his duties as Sub Lieutenant, which rank has evidently been given him. He should soon therefore be over here. Gen. Watson 4th Can. Div. called with his Staff.

Tuesday 19th June
HQrs. 4th Aus Div moved down to the vicinity of Strazeele. There is still much uncertainty regarding our future. CRE and myself with our Staffs are staying on here temporarily, and we are given to understand that in about 10 days time we shall relieve the N.Z. Division at Armentieres and then later become G.H.Q. reserve. Another Zeppelin brought down in England. Boche very quiet on the front. He has evidently decided it is useless to further try to regain his lost territory here.

Wednesday 20th June
Batteries cleaning up generally. Men being bathed and supplied with clean underclothing. Gen. Godley inspected wagon lines. All guns inspected by I.O.M. Five men from 10th Brigade awarded Military Medals for bravery in action before Bullecourt. Forwarded recommendation for M.M. on account of three men of D.A.C. Two Boche planes came over our lines this evening at a terrific speed and brought down in flames two from balloons. Occupants escaped safely in parachutes. Bates invited all B.Cs. to dinner at Ballieul.

[Page 326]
Thursday 21st June
Gen. Jobson and his HQrs. arrived at Westhof Farm to day, and are remaining here till tomorrow. He lunched with our Mess.
Received letter from Nell dated April 22nd, previous one being March 24th. Evidently five letters or at least four are missing.
Attended in the afternoon at 11th Brigade wagon lines to witness a cricket match between 10th and 11th Brigades. The latter easily won.
At night 10th Brigade had a Concert but I did not attend.

Friday 22nd June
Received instructions today to vacate our quarters here. Heavy Artillery G.O.C. and staff are taking possession as from noon on Monday next, and we will go back to the Division’s HQrs. Out riding during the afternoon.

Saturday 23rd June
GOC Division and Col. Bernard watched the 10th Brigade pass our Head Quarters. Generally a very good turn out.
About 1 o’clock Boche planes attacked our balloons, and succeeded in igniting three, which quickly fell in flames. Altogether about 6 balloons were involved, and for a time the air was full of descending parachutes. All observers I understand reached the ground safely. During the afternoon Major Lord Bentwick lectured to our senior N.C.Os. and officers on horse management. He gave an interesting lecture. The last time I saw him was on board HMS TBD. Harpy off Gallipoli. We were landing from the Destroyer and were badly shelled by the Turks, suffering 42 casualties. He remembered the incident very well indeed.
Late in the afternoon I rode to Kemmell where a magnificent view is obtainable of the whole Country over which the recent advance was made as also beyond to the North, East and South. I shall get Corporal Benson to make a sketch from the summit.

Sunday 24th June
Parade of 11th Brigade during morning. Wrote letters during afternoon. Preparing to move out of these HQrs. tomorrow morning. Three balloons brought down by Boche planes. Took Benson to Kemmell to make sketch of Messines Ridge. Bates also rode out later with Col. Waite, and incidentally had a nasty fall from his horse. Boche planes dropped bombs all around our camps last night, but no damage close to Artillery.

[Page 327]
Monday 25th June
Moved out to Vieux Berquin during the day and Heavy Artillery occupied Westhof Farm. Lunched at Ballieul Club. Afterwards with Major Bates attended 11th Brigade sports. They had a very good show indeed. Am informed we are to take over from New Zealand Artillery at the end of the month. Preparation being made for special parade in Ballieul tomorrow afternoon. 11th Bde. dinner at night.

Tuesday 26th June
Divisional Commander watched the DAC on its route march. It made a very creditable showing – this was yesterday. Today the 10th Brigade are again marching out. At General Holmes’ request I accompanied him to the special parade in Ballieul at 2.30 PM at which His Royal Highness the Duke of Connaught reviewed representatives from all Divisions of the 2nd Anzac Corps. All made a very good showing. Gen. Plumer was present and a numberless host of generals of all grades. Gen. Holmes accompanied me to 11th Brigade sports afterwards.

Wednesday 27th June
Accompanied by General Holmes and Major Bates I left Vieux Berquin at 7.30 AM to visit Belgian G.H.Q. at Houthem, and to see part of the front in that sector. On our way up we called in at an Aerodrome and examined the latest Biplanes and Triplanes. General Arnould, Director of Artillery Belgian Army gave us his morning and took us out to see many battery positions, the trench systems and part of the inundated country. We lunched at G.H.Q. mess, and afterwards were taken to see the Aviation, Intelligence and Topographical Sections. All were very interesting and seemed very efficient. We came back home through Poperingheon our way seeing another of our balloons brought down in flames.

Thursday 28th June
With Major Bates and N.Z.D.A. Brigade Major inspected Battery positions to be taken up by 11th Brigade on the south side of our new front. The Boche artillery has of late been very active and has done a good deal of damage. Plenty of suitable positions available. Lunched at NZDA HQrs. O.Cs. 10th and 11th Bdes. will take over present Artillery group HQrs. of N.Z. Division Artillery.

[Page 328]
Friday 29th June
With Major Bates and D.T.M.O. visited Artillery School at Tilques (2nd Army). The Colonel Commandant shewed us around and I was agreeably surprised to find such an up to date show. Every facility exists for officers and N.C.Os. to learn their work thoroughly. Later we went to 2nd Army T.M. School at LEULINGHEM.
A special demonstration had been arranged for the benefit of the R.A. Generals of 5th Army, so we too witnessed it. Met Majs. General Franks, Uwaike and Birch and a number of Corps and Divisional R.A. Generals. Show proved very interesting indeed.

Saturday 30th June
With Major Bates reconnoitred gun positions in Northern Sector of our new front to be covered by 10th AFA Brigade. It was a miserably wet day and we were drenched before we reached our billets. HYDE PARK corner in Ploogsteert wood had been very heavily shelled during the previous night, and generally this locality is far from being a healthy one. Many battery positions have been heavily crumped and much ammunition destroyed. Our group and Battery Commanders have all completed their reconnaissance prior to take over by 2nd July. Mesopotamian Commission finding published.

Sunday 1st July
Wrote letters. Batteries completing tonight their "take over" from NZDA. and I assume command tomorrow at 10 AM of the artillery of this Sector of the Front. Our Head Quarters will be in Steenwerck.

Monday 2nd July
A very sad day for 4th Australian Division. During the morning I had completed "take over" from Cra. NZDA, and had just gone to my room to do some writing when Major Bates came in and informed me General Holmes had been killed by shell fire. He had left Divisional HQrs. about 9.30 AM in company with Mr. Holman Premier of N.S.Wales, intending to show the latter the recent battle ground. The party had just left the car at White Gates, Hill 63, when one solitary H.E. shell arrived severely wounding the General, and knocking Mr. Holman down. A fragment had entered the General’s body under the left shoulder with its exit in the left brEast. He was immediately taken in the car to a Dressing Station where he succumbed a few minutes after arrival never regaining consciousness. Mr. Holman returned at once to Divisional

[Page 329]
Head Quarters where he remained till after lunch and then with his Secretary returned to Corps HQrs. In the meantime I had been ordered by 2nd Anzac to assume command of 4th Aus. Division. I at once wired General Birdwood and later wrote him full particulars. The body was removed to 2nd Australian CCS near Steenwerk, and the funeral has been arranged for 3 PM tomorrow. The General’s death has cast quite a gloom over the whole Division, and I for one have lost a good friend. A number of sympathetic wires were received this afternoon notably from the Army Commanders, Gen. Birdwood, Gen. Godley, Gen. Walker and Gen. Hobbs.

Tuesday 3rd July
Early this morning Major Holmes, Lt. Col. Travers and Lt. Col. Watson arrived from 1st Anzac to attend the funeral. At the funeral itself the following attended: Representatives from all units of 4th Aus Div, Representatives from the Army Commander General Plumer, who could not himself attend because of the King’s arrival at Army HQrs., Generals Birdwood, Godley, White, Carruthers, Hobbs, Russell, and many others whose names I cannot remember at present. The funeral ceremony was very impressively carried out, Gen. Glasgow’s Brigade finding the firing party and bugles. Major Holmes and Col. Travers are staying till tomorrow to go through and pack the late General’s effects.

Wednesday 4th July
This morning I attended to various papers including several Court Martials. I found it absolutely necessary to recommend the death sentence in the case of 4 men guilty of desertion. At 2 PM in company with Cols. Bernard and Armstrong, Mr. Maxwell, Gens. Glasgow and Robertson with their Brigade Majors I attended at the Ballieul Town Square to meet His Majesty King George. In company with Gen. Plumer he received representative officers of 2nd Anzac and its Divisions, and then inspected the captured trophies from the Messines Battle. Later he left for the vicinity of Neuve Eglise and the Tankodrome.
In the morning he had visited the old Front lines before Wytschaete and had also gone to the top of Kemmell. An investiture was to have been held at 5.30 PM at Army Head Quarters at which I had been commanded to attend, but owing to Insignia not having arrived from the Lord Chamberlain the Investiture had to be cancelled.
Major Holmes and Lt. Col. Travers returned to 1st Anzac during the afternoon and I moved my quarters to Divisional HQrs.

[Page 330]
Thursday 5th July
Attended to a great number of papers dealing with "A" and "Q" matters. During the afternoon with Mr. Maxwell rode out to Tankodrome, where an officer conducted us round and described the Tanks. He also showed us the route taken by a tank the previous afternoon in an exhibition before the King, the most notable being the ascent on a 30 ° slope of a concrete block house, and a descent on the far side at an angle of 90 °. Tanks are gradually leaving us for another sphere.

Friday 6th July
At 6.30 AM with Rogers and Maxwell went round the front. First going through the 41st and 111th Batteries, then inspected O.Ps., thence into N.Zealand Sector and on through Gen. Brand’s front back to his Brigade HQrs. which we reached at 12.30. We then went on to HQrs. New Zealand Brigade at Nieppe, returning to DHQ at 2.30 PM
At about 7.30 PM the Boche landed a shell just outside Gen. Brand’s mess killing one of his officers, and wounding himself and three others. At about 10 PM I saw them at Col. Welch Field Ambulance and their wounds are not serious excepting those of the Brigade Major Johnstone.

Saturday 7th July
With Col. Bernard called on Col. Brockman acting in Gen. Brand’s place. With his present improvised staff he can carry on satisfactorily. Gen. Powell called re 6" Howrs. beside Gen. Brand’s HQrs. He has ordered they shall remain quiescent. Gen. Hart of 4th N.Z. Brigade, Gen. Glasgow and Gen. Robertson dined with us. Received group photo from Belgian G.HQrs.

Sunday 8th July
Part four 4th Aus Div Artillery is to come out of the line tonight and be relieved by the N.Z. Artillery. With Col. Bernard called on Gen. Lawford of 41st Division to whom our guns will be attached, also called on CRA 40th and 41st Divisions. Our guns will be placed between St. Eloi and Spoil Bank to assist in an operation which will form the Right flank of the 5th Army attack, soon to eventuate. Owners of our Chateau a French Infantry Captain arrived home for a few days’ leave.
The Boche dropped about 100 bombs in our area last night, 88 being in Ballieul. A great deal of damage was done, and many casualties caused. Church Parade and Corps Commanders presentation of ribbons cancelled because of inclement weather.

[Page 331]
Monday 9th July
Gen. McCay arrived from 1st Anzac. In the evening he went to Corps Head Quarters, Ballieul to dine. Col. Rabett whose Brigade is leaving tomorrow for DUNQUERKE dined with us. I promised to do what I could to get his brother attached to his Brigade. Informed that Gen. MacLagan is to be the new Commander for 4th Aus Div and will arrive about the end of this week. I shall be delighted to welcome him both as a keen soldier and an old friend. Gen. Gellibrand and Col. Foote are going over to England to join Gen. MacCay’s staff, the latter to be made a Brigadier General.

Tuesday 10th July
Ceremonial Parade held at 10 AM at which Gen. Godley, Corps Commander presented Military ribbons, V.C., D.C.O’s, M.C’s, Military Medals and D.C.Ms. About 2500 on parade. Gen. MacCay attended. Gen. MacCay left for Boulogne. We provided his car. In the afternoon I had a powwow with all officers of 4th Aus Div Artillery and gave them final warning that any officers found unsatisfactory in their work, either due to negligence or incompetence, would be recommended for removal from Artillery and if necessary the A.I.F.

Wednesday 11th July
The 10th and 11th Brigades together with "A" Echelon D.A.C. moved out, passing starting point at DE SEULE corner at 6.10 AM. Generally the whole show was uniformly very fair. Garling Battery was perhaps the best turned out. The Boche intermittently shelled this corner while they were marching past, but luckily all shells were "plus". Received letter from Gen. Birdwood late last night, re 4th Brigade staff, and replied this morning. I also wrote him re MacNaghten and enclosed Gen. Grand’s letter stating he had again succumbed to his old failing. Apparently he still remains unreliable.

Thursday 12th July
In company with Capts. Craig and Maxwell we inspected left sector of our front, examining communication trenches supports, front line, wiring, and finally Subsidiary Line. I am hoping to be able to take the Corps Commander in detail round the front so that he may get some idea of the work done by 4th Aus Div I hear however that he is off on leave tomorrow and will not return till after the 20th, the date on which we are to be relieved in the line. Ballieul badly shelled today and bombed last night. Gen. Gwynne to lunch – he says Corps HQrs. is to move to Fletre.

[Page 332]
Friday 13th July
In company with Capt. Maxwell left HQrs. early for Calais. Paid my respects to new Gocra 2nd Army, thence on to No. 5 Remount depot just south of Calais. A good show. Arranged with the O.C. to have horses selected for colour in future supplies. Motored on to Ambleteuse to 2nd Army Rest Camp. Found this concern under the command of a Colonel who seems peculiarly suited for the appointment. Everybody – officers and men – appear to be having a splendid time, the beach and briny holding many attentions. Our 4th Divisional Artillery personnel at present there speak in terms of the highest praise of the Camp.
Called at "Australian Hospital" at Wimereux and No. 2 Australian General Hospital in close proximity. Talked with about 40 men from all areas of 4th Aus. Division. Found Matron Grey in charge at No. 2 Hospital. She is a very old friend of the Lindsay family and Alice has often spoken of her to me. She recently was Matron at Harefield, England. Returned home via St. Omer-Aire and Merville. At Aire saw Capt. Plouvier, the owner of our Chateau, who with his wife is making a two days’ stay with his married daughter. He introduced us to them. Arrived DAQ at 8.30 PM A huge accumulation of documents to attend to. Wire received from Gen. MacLagan informed us he will arrive at Boulogne on Sunday morning next.

Saturday 14th July
Stayed at HQrs. during the morning. Col. Bernard round Brigade HQrs. In afternoon attended Horse show of 4th N.Z. Infantry Brigade, and presented ribbons to prize winners. Quite an excellent show generally. Our D.A.H.Q. wireless picked up POLDAU Station today and took in several messages – one stating that H.M.S. Vanguard had been blown up while at anchor – with great loss of life. I was naturally very anxious about Charley, but later received a wire from him stating he was on Destroyer "Partridge" and was quite well. Of the 800 complement only about 2 men and officers were saved from the ship – though fortunately about 100 officers and men were away from the ship at the time of the disaster.
Dined with 2nd Australian Casualty Clearing Station officers mess.

Sunday 15th July
Capt. Maxwell left early for Boulogne to meet General MacLagan. Gen. Lawford 41st Division called here, also Gen. Monash who is acting as Corps Commander 2nd Anzac during absence on leave of Gen. Godley.

[Page 333]
Waited up till midnight for General MacLagan and then received a wire that he was staying at Boulogne for the night and would reach here about noon tomorrow.
Full details of loss of H.M.S. "Vanguard" in yesterday’s Times which reached us to day. Have forwarded copy to Nell. Wrote usual letters.

Monday 16th July
General MacLagan arrived about noon. Went through many matters with him concerning the Division and after lunch motored out with him to 4th and 12th Brigade HQrs. also 4th New Zealand Brigade HQrs. Met the C.Os. in each case and General MacLagan discussed with them various matters. At 6 PM I arranged for Staff of Divisional HQrs. to meet the General. Col. Barnard and myself dined with Gen. Hart of N.Z. Brigade.

Tuesday 17th July
Took General MacLagan to HQrs. of 13th Infantry Brigade, and he discussed many matters with General Glasgow. Later we walked through Anton’s Avenue to Subsidiary Line, thence back to Ultimo Avenue, calling to see Col. Whitham on the journey back, and thence through Ploogrsteert to our HQrs. During the morning the Boche had been heavily shelling our Steenwerck Balloon. An Army Brigade last night reinforced our Artillery in the line. During last night Boche planes were active in 41st Division area where our 4th D.A. are now placed. One bomb casualtied 53 horses in 111th Battery.

Wednesday 18th July
At General MacLagans request I am remaining at DHQ till we hand over to N.Z. Division on 20th inst. The G.O.C. today inspected Transport lines of 4th Brigade. Gens. Delaney and Gwynne called at D.H.Q. and General MacLagan dined at Corps HQrs. Col. Douse who yesterday reported to 1st Aus Div as AA and QMG has returned to this Division to take up a similar appointment here vice Col. Armstrong who is to leave us and is presumably going to a British Division, much to his disgust. Received letter from Mr. Pope thanking me for helping his son to get to St. Johns Wood Cadet School.

Thursday 19th July
Stayed at DHQ all day. Not feeling very well. Long interview with Gen. MacLagan. Letter from Charley telling of "Vanguard" catastrophe.

[Page 334]
Friday 20th July
Left Steenwerck at 9 AM and took up HQrs. at Vieux Berquin. Attended to Artillery papers. Received letter from Col. King asking to be relieved of his command. In the evening discussed his case with G.O.C. and arranged to call on GOC. AIF on Sunday for a decision. During afternoon visited 10th Brigade wagon lines and inspected all teams hooked in. A very creditable show indeed. Had a talk with Col. King concerning his letter of this morning. He feels he is on the verge of a collapse. Later called on CRA of 47th and 41st Divisions in order if possible to secure a better HQrs. for Col. King’s group.

Saturday 21st July
In the morning rode to Hazebrouck and La Motte. At the latter place I saw Colonel Waite, who has certainly improved but seems to be still far from well. Gen. Bessel Browne and his Brigade Major lunched with us. Major Bates had 5 days’ leave to Parisgranted dating from tomorrow, and he will go with me tomorrow as far as Amiens when I go to call on Gen. Birdwood.

Sunday 22nd July
Major Bates deferred his Parisleave for 1 week.
At 9.30 AM I left for 1st Anzac Corps, first calling at the Canadian Hospital at Arcques. Reached Amiens at 1.30 and lunched there. Later went on to Corps HQrs. at Querrieu. Discussed with Generals Birdwood and White also Col. Hoad the question of sending off Cols. King and Waite. Arranged everything satisfactorily. Dined with Corps Commander and stayed for the night.

Monday 23rd July
Left Querrieu at 9.30 AM bringing a Corps officer & W.O. as far as Hazebrouck. Reached home at 2 PM. Stayed in all the afternoon writing letters. Col. Armstrong to go to 2nd British Division. Ordered Col. King to move to England tomorrow. Conference at D.H.Q. during afternoon.

Tuesday 24th July
Sent car for Col. King, and he and Major Bates left for Boulogne at 9 AM. Very sorry to lose Colonel King. Stayed in all day. In the evening dined at Div HQrs and said goodbye to Col. Armstrong. Infantry Brigadier also present.

[Page 335]
Wednesday 25th July
At 9 AM in company with Col. Waite and Halford visited wagon lines of 11th Brigade. Col. Waite is being evacuated to England and wished to obtain remainder of his kit from his HQrs. With Halford I went on to 11th & 13th Bde H Qrs. and saw some of the Batteries. They are having a very thin time, being heavily gassed every night. Up to date we have had about 65 casualties to personnel and a similar number to horses. Col. Waite evacuated.

Thursday 26th July
With Major Bates called on Gocra Corps and went through scheme for forthcoming operations. Then went on to Reninghelst to see CRA 1st Aus Div, but found he had not yet taken up his abode there. In afternoon discussed with Col. Vernon details re officers of his section. Major Bates & Col. Vernon granted leave for 5 days to Paris.

Friday 27th July
At 8.45 AM attended a lecture given by Archdeacon Ward to the troops concerning venereal disease. Col. Barber ADMS spoke on the medical side, while the Archdeacon took the moral aspect of the case. He gave an excellent address. Major Bates lectured to Intelligence Officers of Infantry concerning cooperation with the guns.
Col. Vernon lunched with us, and afterwards together with Major Bates and Mr. Fulton left by car for Boulogne to catch train for Paris. Still further casualties with the Batteries. Major Edwards slightly wounded but remaining at duty. Arranged details for Signalling course.

Saturday 28th July
At 9.15 AM met Gen. Birdwood & Gen. White at Divisional HQrs. Gen. Birdwood visiting Infantry units. Later I went to see the A..A.G at Hazebrouck re sundry promotions etc. Met CRA 2nd Aus Div there. Discussed details re proposal to treat all A.I.F. Artillery as one Regiment. We both agreed. This would overcome many existing anomalies regarding promotions.
Discussed possibility of getting Lt. Col. Hughes for Command of 11th Brigade, Col. Mahony to go to 5th Aus Div as OC. D.A.C.

[Page 336]
Sunday 29th July
Letter received from Nell dated May 17th. They are few and far between these days. Submarines have sadly interfered with both our outgoing and incoming mails. Wrote letters during the morning. In the afternoon went to Dunkerque via St. Omer and Loon Place. Had three punctures on the way. Owing to these delays did not have time to call on Col. Rabett who is at present with 4th Army. Dunkerque full of troops of all nationalities. An ominous sign of impending operations was the number of new Red Cross Ambulances barges lying in the Canals. Arrived home at 8 PM. Terrific storm at night.

Monday 30th July
In morning called on O.C. No. 6 Supply column Steenwerck re overhaul of car. Arranged to have it completed by evening of August 1st, so that it might be available for Charley when he arrives on 2nd, this being the suggested date. Called on OC. B Battalion DAC. Lt. McAdair. He is taking a good grip of the show and has already made a substantial improvement in the turnout of his unit. Letter received from my sister.

Tuesday 31st July
Heavy bombardment early this morning heralded the opening of operations against the Boche involving 5th and 2nd British Armies and 1st French Army. Cannonade continued very heavily till about noon. Wires received indicate successful occupation of objectives all along the front. The New Zealand Division had a stiff fight in La Basse Ville, and the 3rd Aus Div in Warneton. Boche counterattacked several times unsuccessfully. Will receive full details tomorrow. My gunners have suffered fairly heavily in the St. Eloi-Spoil Bank positions and generally have had a very thin time.

Wednesday 1st August
Battle continued during day. In the main all objectives have been gained tho’ line held up at a few points. Received word from G.H.Q. that permission could not at present be granted for my son to visit me here. During morning rode through edge of Forest De Nieppe, and thence through Merville back to HQrs. Conference with Gen. MacLagan at D.H.Q. Discussed necessity of getting 4th Aus. Div Arty out of the line as soon as possible - also question of Honours and Rewards. Heavy rain commenced during day.

[Page 337]
Thursday 2nd August
Car went into Boulogne and picked up Col. Vernon and Major Bates on their return from leave in Paris. Col. Vernon dined with us. Apparently they had a splendid time.
Conference at Div HQrs with GOC and Infantry Brigadier. This Division is to take over 37th Division Front and part of 3rd Aus Div The 4th Brigade commence moving into line tomorrow. Battle of Ypres being much hampered by continual wet weather. About 5,000 prisoners and a quantity of war material captured to date. French Army too appears to have been very successful. Interview with O.C. Signal company re officers etc. of Signal section and necessity for "understudy". Lt. Asche commenced Wireless Course at 2nd Anzac.

Friday 3rd August
Received word re promotion of Capt. Forrest and appointment of Lieut. Waite and Staff Captains. Made arrangements for Major Forrest to report to 10th Bde. tomorrow to take over command of 39th Battery. Informed that 4th Aus Div. Artillery is to come out of the line and have 10 days rest. Conference with Divisional Commander.

Saturday 4th August
Visited office of G.O.C. R.A. 1st Anzac. Strafed them about non return of the late Lt. Hobson’s horses and saddlery. Heard of many casualties in 1st D.A. particularly Major Olding who is rather badly hit. Discussed details of promotions of some 4th Aus Div Arty officers. Informed by D.A.G., that I am shortly to take over command of 9th Infantry Brigade 3rd Australian Division and that Lt. Burgess will be my successor as Cra.

Sunday 5th August
Early visited Major Olding in Casualty Clearing Station at Proven. He has been badly wounded in the head by HE. fragment – but is progressing very favourably. He was able to recognise and talk to me. Brigade to commence withdrawal from line tonight. Wrote letters. Another Australian mail lost.

Monday 6th August
Early had an interview with GOC Division re my proposed transfer to 3rd Aus Div He had been advised of the impending move by General Birdwood some little time since. It is evidently intended that I shall be next for a Division. Balance of Brigades came out of the line. With Major Bates rode to La Motte.

[Page 338]
Tuesday 7th August
Visited 1st Anzac at Hazebrouck. Brigades and Sections of DAC moved from 10th Corps to 2nd Anzac Corps arriving at their wagon lines during the afternoon. Called on CRA 37th Division re disposition of artillery and on CRA 3rd Aus. Division. Received letter from GOC 41st Division re work of Artillery Brigade. In the evening called on O.Cs. 10th and 11th Brigades and learnt particulars of their relief. Notwithstanding our protest guns were changed in the line and some actually appropriated.

Wednesday 8th August
At 9 AM saw Divisional Commander and informed him of what had happened to our guns. GOC & SO. R.A. 2nd Anzac called at DAHQ re reliefs. Informed another Divisional Artillery is coming to the Corps and then 4th Aus. Div Arty will be relieved. One Section per Battery moved into new position. During afternoon visited all DAC Sections and 37th and 38th Batteries. Also called at DAHQ 37th Division. 1st Australian Division moved into this area. HQrs. 4th Aus Div took over at DRANOUTRE at 10 AM Heavy rain during the evening. Wire received from GHQ now authorising Charley’s visit to me.

Thursday 9th August
Maj. Bates went out early to reconnoitre Battery positions. Staff Capt. visited new wagon lines and R. Officer called at DAHQ 37th Division. At 10 AM at Gen. Monash’s request I attended a conference of Brigadiers at 3rd Aus Div HQrs. I understand I shall take over 9th Brigade in a few days. A number of enemy planes over early this morning (4 AM) dropping bombs in the vicinity of Strazeele. Search lights and Archies very busy. Balance of 4th Aus Div Batteries moved into position tonight.

Friday 10th August
Spent the day at Divisional HQrs. as President of a General Court Martial on an officer of 13th Battalion.
Lt. Col. Mahony arrived from England to take Command of 11th AFA Brigade.

Saturday 11th August
Left D.A.H.Q. at 6 AM in company with Col. Mahony. We visited Artillery group HQrs. and all batteries of 3rd and 4th Aus. Div Arty and in addition some forward Country in the vicinity of Anzac FARM where a good general view of the Divisional Front is obtainable.

[Page 339]
Discussion with the Divisional Commander on my return re number of guns actually required in the line.
The Boche dropped a number of bombs (about 100) in our back areas during the night. He did no damage to Artillery Units but destroyed some animals in Infantry Transport lines.

Sunday 12th August
Col. Mahony with us at DAHQ going through "G" & "Q" matters with Bates and Waite so that he may be quite au fait with our system. In the afternoon Bates visited Group HQrs. and arranged certain details re O.Ps. etc. Wrote letters during the morning.
My old horse and good old Pal "Squire John" (Jack) had to be destroyed today. He had developed a disease of the fore feet which made him continually lame and unsound and because of his advanced age the DD of R. 2nd Army decided he should be cast. In order that he should not be sold to the highest market or possibly ill used I had him shot and am keeping his hoofs to prepare as trophies. It will be many a day before I can secure a similar fine charger.

Monday 13th August
In the early morning Brigade Major and GSO I visited Artillery O.Ps. Later I accompanied the GOC Division round horse lines of DAC, 43rd, 38th and 39 Batteries. Conditions somewhat unsatisfactory because of recent heavy rain. In the afternoon attended a conference of Brigadiers and Battalion Commanders at HQrs. 3rd Aus. Division under the Divisional Commander. Lessons of recent battles discussed.
Lt. Col. Mahony attached to 10th AFA Brigade for instruction. In view of his statements to me regarding his lack of experience I had to advise the GOC that I could not recommend him for command of a Brigade until he had at least one month as an understudy.

Tuesday 14th August
Halford to Hazebrouck. Front spring of car broken, delay in getting repaired and returned to D.A. At request of 3rd Aus Div wagon lines of 4th DAC and 43rd Battery are to be moved from Reserve Division area, and have had sites allotted to them in the vicinity of Kemmel. Received wire from Charley stating he is appointed to "P" 33. I understand this class are the 40 Knot Submarine Chasers. I shall be interested to get further particulars. His leave to France will now possibly be postponed.

[Page 340]
Fifth Army are to again attack on 16th inst. and we are to help here by a show against Warneton and vicinity. In this task our guns are firing into the New Zealand Divisional area. Major Bates attended at NZDAHQ to arrange details. Howitzer batteries are placed at the disposal of the Counter Battery S. Officer. Major Bates very unwell. Forwarded second letter to Division re Col. O. Mahony enclosing his statement to me of lack of opportunities in England. Forwarded letter to Division regarding Major Bates’ services recommending him as being fully qualified for appointment as CRA of a Division, S. Officer to MGRA of Aus. Army (or GOC RA. of a Corps) and Command of a Brigade of Field Artillery.

Wednesday 15th August
Conference with Divisional Commander re Artillery support for Reserve Line. He expressed himself as satisfied. Major Bates visited Group Artillery HQrs. of both Divisions. Prepared Honors and Awards Schedule for next Half Yearly list to send in to Division before I vacate appointment of C.R.A. Divisional Commander visited Brigade HQrs. and at the same time saw our Artillery Group Commanders. DAC moved to new wagon lines at the foot of Kemmel.

Thursday 16th August
At 4.45 AM watched the Artillery bombardment for our attack by 5th Army opposite Ypres. We viewed the show from the top of Kemmel from which point a magnificent view of the whole country is obtained. General Lushington CRA 41st Division also there. The effect was magical. Thousands of guns – heavy and field – loosing off at a great rate, and the bursting shrapnel together with an occasional exploding dump, made a brilliantly lighted up panorama. In addition the Boche were sending up coloured flares of all descriptions. Our aeroplanes were buzzing overhead and no less than 12 of our observation balloons were up in this Sector long before day light.
Letter from General Birdwood re Gunner Fitzgerald of Trench Mortar Batteries, asking if he is considered suitable for a Commission.
Interview with Capt. Sherwood H.T.M. Battery re his alleged Supersession. He admitted he was in error and requested to be allowed to withdraw his complaint. Granted.

Friday 17th August
Spent the morning visiting Battery positions, and in the afternoon studied all and sundry publications from General Staff bearing on Infantry work. I must prepare for my new command.
Boche planes again overhead tonight dropping bombs.

[Page 341]
Saturday 18th August
Last night marked the close of my third year of war and today I commence my fourth year. It is marvellous how the months and years roll by and still the end is not in sight.

Today I visited G.H.Q. Machine Gun School at Camiers between Etaples and Boulogne. There must have been fully 200 generals present, including the Commander in Chief and three Army Commanders as well as numerous Corps and Divisional Commanders and Artillery Generals. An illustration was being given of machine guns massed for barrage work. The show was very interesting and certainly brought to notice the possibilities of machine guns in barrage. I arrived back at DHQ at about 9 PM Found an Australian mail had arrived. One letter from Nell dated June 3rd.

Sunday 19th August
With Brigade Major made a complete reconnaissance of our Divisional front for the placing of three forward Brigades of Artillery. Had to dodge some Hun shelling but really had a fairly quiet morning, tho’ only partially successful in securing Battery positions. Heard this afternoon that our boundaries are to be again moved necessitating another side slip on the part of 4th Aus Div Halford left on leave. I understand my transfer to 9th Infantry Brigade is now approved. Notification will arrive possibly tomorrow. Wrote letters during afternoon.

Monday 20th August
Boche bombed rather badly during the night and inflicted a number of casualties in back areas. He has done us no harm so far. Orders received re our new Divisional Front. Our Artillery at last seems to have a reasonable chance of getting a substantial rest.
In afternoon visited General Monash, GOC 3rd Aus Div and discussed details regarding 9th Infantry Brigade. Good news from Verdun and Italian front. Received notification of appointment to Command of 9th Infantry Brigade. Col. Burgess receives his promotion to Brig. General and takes over from me while Col. Stephenson assumes command of 3rd Arty. AFA Brigade. So I now commence my 4th year of war with the "Feet" as the Infantry is generally designated. Boche again bombing during the night. His methods are a distinct contrast to those of our airmen who do most of their bombing by day when objectives can be seen and accurately located. The Boche chose not do his stunts in the hours of daylight for fear of destruction by our planes.

[Page 342]
Tuesday 21st August
Called on General Monash re 9th Infantry Brigade. Arranged to meet him at Brigade HQrs. on 23rd inst. at 11 AM, with the object of having all C.Os. introduced to me. As Gen. Burgess will probably not arrive here till 23rd inst. I shall return to 4th Aus. DAHQ after seeing Infantry officers, and will hand over on 24th or 25th inst.
Called at Madame Plouvier Steenwerck (late Div HQrs) and arranged to have my war trophies stored there till a later date.
Orders issued for the relief of Div. Artillery and taking over of new front. Gen. Grimwade called during afternoon.

Wednesday 22nd August
Col. Joseph 148th Bde., acting CRA 30th Division called re taking over our northern Sector. He comes here at 10 AM tomorrow. We move to RAVELSBURG HQrs. tomorrow. Conference with General re new front, etc., also question of "Manpower". The C in C is making special efforts to put an extra 100,000 men in the field at once, and as a consequence anticipates some substantial crumpling of the Boche before November ends.

Thursday 23rd August
Went off in morning to Campagne the HQrs. of 9th Infantry Brigade. Here I met General Monash and Gen. Jobson. The Staff and Battalion Commanders were all present and introduced to me. Many matters of common interest discussed. Afterwards Gens. Monash & Jobson gave me an outline of the peculiar characteristic of each C.O. Battalion.
Stayed to lunch with Gen. Jobson in his interesting old Chateau. In afternoon went on to Boulogne to arrange about some tailoring, and on the return journey when near Desvres the back axle seized up and we had to leave the car in this town. The local Requisitioning Officer sent me on to Campagne in his car – and an Army car brought me from 3rd Division to Ravelsberg. Army HQrs. at Cassell yesterday shelled with 15 pr., and bombed at night.

Friday 24th August
Last night 1 Section per Battery of 4th Aus Div moved out of the line and tonight the remainder come out prior to alteration of zones on new fronts. Conference with Divisional Commander re future methods of attack. Cleared up all outstanding matters in the office. Brig. Gen. Burgess arrived and I went through many matters with him.
Burgess, Bates and myself dined with Divisional Commander.

[Page 343]
Saturday 25th August
The morning completed going through papers with General Burgess, also maps new front etc. I handed over command officially to him at 12 noon. I then saw the assembled Brigade and Battery & DAC Commanders, introduced them to Gen. Burgess and then said a few words of farewell to them. Not an easy task.
Three years ago to day I assumed command of 3rd Field Artillery Brigade which command I held for exactly 18 months, being succeeded by Major Burgess one of my Battery commanders. After exactly 18 months in Command of 4th Aus. Div Arty I assumed command of 9th Infantry Brigade and Colonel Burgess is again my successor.
Left 4th Aus Div at 2 PM after having said goodbye to Divisional Staff, motored to Boulogne and arrived at 9th Bde H Qrs. at 6.30 PM in the village of Campagne. Reported my arrival to 3rd Aus Div

Sunday 26th August
during the morning visited HQrs. of 33rd Battn. and met the C.O. and his Officers. Later we visited his Billets. In the afternoon met C.Os. and officers of 34th, 35th and 36th Battns. and Machine Gun C.O. Later went through Brigade matters with General Jobson discussing policy details etc.

Monday 27th August
Attended Brigade Parade (less Transport) with Gen. Jobson. Quite a good show. Gen. Jobson said a few words of farewell and then said goodbye to the Officers individually. We watched the whole command march off on the way home. At 12 noon Gen. Jobson left for Division thence to England in due course.
Long conference with my Brigade Major. I find many matters require attention and for a time my close supervision will be necessary. Generally the command appears to be a good one. Moved into Chateau. Very wet afternoon and night.

Tuesday 28th August
Miserable wet day. Very heavy showers continuing through the day and night. conference with Div. Commander during the morning conferencing Staffs and other Brigade matters. Later went through many matters with Brigade Major and Staff Capt. In afternoon went to hear lecture by Col. Peck, 1st Anzac.

[Page 344]
He failed to attend, so Lt. Col. Jackson GSO, and myself had to take his place. Subject wood fighting. Drafted a number of official letters during the evening and wrote some private letters.

Wednesday 29th August
Again a wretched wet day. Very upsetting to the Training Parades which are periodically being cancelled. Attended to a number of Brigade matters read Divisional Standing Orders of all kinds, analysed programmes of training. Bde. Major round Companies during the morning. My horse has not yet arrived from 4th Aus Div Artillery. Sports of 35th Battalion cancelled on account of inclement weather, and postponed till tomorrow. Received word from General Monash that Staff Training Bde. Major Read would soon be posted to Command a Field Battery so I must look out a successor.

Thursday 30th August
Another wet day. Continual heavy showers. In the morning went through a number of Brigade matters. Colonels Commanding Battalions to lunch and afterwards conference concerning many matters requiring adjustment in the Brigade. I think now the way is clear for a harmonious pulling together of the various units in the Brigade. Training much disarranged by reason of wet weather. Made application to Division for Lt. Nowland 4th Aus Div to be transferred to Command 4th ALTM Battery.
Horse and groom arrived yesterday from Ravelsberg.

Friday 31st August
Showery morning. With Brigade Major rode round to see work of part of 33rd Battn. Machine Gun Co. and Trench Mortar Battery. After lunch rode out about 3 miles to a point where arrangements had been made to assemble one man in marching order, one L.G.S. wagon, and one Cooks Cart per Battalion in order to decide on method for carrying of extra kits etc. and turn out generally.
On my return to HQrs. received letter from Nell dated June 24th via Bradford. Fine afternoon and now a brilliant night.
Capt. Read, Trainee Brigade Major left to report to 1st Aus Div Artillery where I understand he is to have command of a battery.

[Page 345]
Saturday 1st September
In morning went in Divisional Car to Boulogne to get some tailoring done. Miserable wet day. Car had to wait till arrival of afternoon boat from Folkestone. Arrived home at 6 PM Brigade Sports were to have been held, but were seriously interfered with because of rain. Gen. McNichol called during afternoon.

Sunday 2nd September
Wrote letters during morning. In afternoon with Brigade Major rode to Falkmembergue to Divisional Head Qrs. Adjusted a few matters with GSO. L Returned home at 7 PM Distance ridden 10 miles.

Monday 3rd September
Transport inspection. In morning closely criticised 33rd and 34th Battalions, in afternoon 9th Machine Gun. Co., 9th Field Co. Engineers and 9th Field Ambulance. Much to find fault with. Generally Transport in this Brigade has been neglected. Definite standard and methods now laid down. Divisional Commander spent 1½ hours with me in the morning at the Chateau.
Battalion cooking competition being conducted.

Tuesday 4th September
Completed inspection of Transport 35th and 36th Battalions. Fairly good. In afternoon Divisional Commander inspected all Group Transport on the line of march and expressed his pleasure at the turnout. Later he watched a similar march of 10th Brigade and then attended evening meal distribution of a selected Company of each Battalion in 9th Brigade. A very excellent show in each case. Returned to office at 7 PM Mr. Murdoch (Correspondent) accompanied Gen. Monash. Capt. Waite called at lunch time.

Wednesday 5th September
Inspected Brigade HQrs. and Signal Section Transport. Very unsatisfactory indeed. At 9.30 AM left by car for Boulogne on leave. Boat left at 11.30, pleasant trip over reaching London about 4.30 PM Called at tailors and caught 5.30 PM train for Liverpool. Caught Irish boat leaving at 1.20 AM and reached Belfast about 11 AM Boarded train at 12 noon for Portrush where

[Page 346]
I am to spend part of my leave. Arrived Portrush at 2.30 PM A very pretty spot – visited last May – and I shall enjoy swimming etc. Am staying with Major & Mrs. Rosborough. Mrs. Rosborough’s mother and brother also being of the party and another married sister with her Padre husband also staying in the town.

Thursday 6th September
Showery day. Early swim at the "Pool". Very cold. Had a long walk to White Rocks. Music in the evening.

Friday 7th September
Again an early morning swim, and diving. Very invigorating. Walked round to Port Stewart near to Loch Foyle. Very rugged coast and heavy sea. Got back in evening very tired. More music at night.

Saturday 8th September
Swim in morning. Miserable wet day so remained indoors. Several visitors to dinner at night and had some music afterwards.

Sunday 9th September
Wrote letters home during the morning and also purchased two books of views which I posted to Nell. In the afternoon roamed over the Golf Links which are very celebrated, and considered the finest in the north of Ireland.

Monday 10 September
Swim in morning. A very fine day. Roamed along the beach to White Rocks. More music at night.

Tuesday 11th September
Very cold swimming this morning but still very enjoyable and bracing. Walked to Dunluce Castle, an old Ruin on the coast midway to Giant's Causeway. It is placed on a very rugged and wild Headland, and dates back to Armada days. On the return to Portrush was caught in heavy rain storm and got very wet. Anniversary of wedding day, 20 years ago.

[Page 347]
Wednesday 12th September
Service in the morning, and as weather was not very inviting remained indoors practically all day. Music in the evening.

Thursday 13th September
Very enjoyable diving and swim in the early morning. Walked to White Rocks and in the afternoon well on the way to Port Stewart.
Left Portrush for Larne by 4.0 clock train reaching jetty at 6 PM Boat left for Stranraer at 7 PM and we had a very rough crossing to Scotland. Train left Stranraer at 10 PM and we arrived at EUSTON Station at 9 AM, one hour late.

Friday 14th September
Called at Whitehall and arranged room. Called at Commonwealth Naval Office and on A.T. Sharp, also at A.I.F. HQrs. Lunched with Col. Griffiths and Arthur Colvin, then inspected A.I.F. institution and arranged details for visit to Salisbury Plain tomorrow. Met Lt. Christian at Horseferry Road. He is returning to Australia and has promised to call on Nell.
Did sundry shopping in afternoon. Took Miss Cowlishaw to dinner at Frascati's and afterwards went to see "The Maid of the Mountain".

Saturday 15th September
Left London at 8.30 AM for Salisbury Plain. G.O.C’s car met me at Andover Station and we drove to Bhutpore Barracks where I saw Gen. McCoy and discussed with him matters concerning 9th Training Battalion. Later motored on to Col. Lamb’s HQrs. where I lunched. Met Major Rodd and fully discussed his grievance with him. He is appointed O.C. Training Battalion vice Prince who has proved unsatisfactory. Motored back to GOC. HQrs. where we had afternoon tea. Later motored to Andover and took train to London.

Sunday 16th September
Left London about noon for Folkestone. Had pleasant crossing. Car met me at Boulogne and I reached HQrs. about 6.30 PM Many letters awaiting me including two from Nell, two from Alvord and one from Father & Sister.

[Page 348]
Monday 17th September
Took over from Col. Goddard and remained in all day going through multitudinous correspondence and instructions re forthcoming operations which had accumulated in my absence. Wrote letter home.

Tuesday 18th September
From early morning till late in the afternoon attending 11th Brigade Scheme. Very interesting. Corps Commanders and GOC RA present. Many faults to find. Pow wow afterwards and still later a conference of Brigadiers with Divisional Commanders re forthcoming operation. Heavy rain fell during afternoon, and we reached home absolutely drenched.

Wednesday 19th September
In early morning went out with assistant Brigade Major and Intelligence Officer to new ground for Brigade exercise on Friday and Monday. Prepared large scale plan giving necessary information. Interview with Dados re methods of supply and with O.C. Signals re scheme for Friday and Monday. Talked over T.M. work with Lt. Nowland who during my absence on leave was appointed O.C.
Informed today that the Commander in Chief will review the Division on Saturday next.

Thursday 20 September
Interview with Capt. Tuckett Div. Signal Co. re exercise on Monday. Friday exercise cancelled. Attended exercise by 10th Brigade. Generally satisfactory but many unsatisfactory points. In evening with Lt. Col. Jackson GSO I. discussed various battalion formations in attack and decided on three for exercise on Monday next. Successful attack by 2nd & 5th Army (including 1st Anzac).

Friday 21st September
In morning visited T.M. Battery and watched demonstration with sling attachment, also watched 36th Battn. at work. In afternoon watched exercise of 33rd and 36th Battalions and addressed the latter.
Lt. Colonel Donnelly from 3rd Aus Div Base came to see me and is remaining billeted with us for a few days.

[Page 349]
Saturday 22nd September
At 10.30 AM the Division less Artillery and a few details was reviewed by the Commander in Chief. Luckily the threatening early morning developed into a fine bright day, and the Parade was a very excellent one indeed and drew forth unstinted praise from the C in C Immediately afterwards I had a powwow with all officers of the Brigade concerning the exercise for Monday morning and after lunch called together the Umpires provided by 10th Brigade on the actual ground and went through the scheme with these. Later with the Brigade Major I inspected another piece of ground for a Brigade exercise on Friday next.

Sunday 23rd September
Made final arrangements for Brigade Scheme for tomorrow. Later inspected part of Engineers Co. Wrote letters in afternoon. Australian mail in. One letter from Nell – and some from the boys.

Monday 24th September
Out early arranging some "bobbies" for Trench Mortar to attack. Scheme commenced at 10 AM Gen. Godley and Divisional Commander attended. A beautiful day, and generally the scheme worked well, though there were many errors. It was particularly noticeable that all Battalions kept up exceedingly well under the barrage. Powwows afterwards. Divisional Commander later gave details of our proposed employment in the offensive – slightly different country now to traverse as we have side slipped northwards. The 9th Brigade is to hold and prepare the front line for 10th and 11th Brigade to go through. Brigade moves on 26th and 33rd Battalions moves up to Elnes area tomorrow in order to reduce its days march on 26th.

Tuesday 25th September
The 33rd Battalion march to Elnes area. Battalions sent their quota of 25 men each to Engineers and 8 men each to Machine Gun Co. to assist. Inspected Brigade HQrs. Transport. Packed up effects etc. ready for tomorrows move. Cleared up all official correspondence etc.

[Page 350]
Wednesday 26th September
Brigade Group marched to Renescure area with Brigade HQrs. at Wardreques. Brigade Major & myself spent the day in riding up and down the line checking faults and generally strengthening up units. Very tired at night. Dinner at 9 PM – no lunch.

Thursday 27th September
Brigade Group marched to Eecke area. As happened yesterday roads were packed with troops, divisions both in to and out from the line. Brigade Major and myself again spent the day in supervising the march of the various units. Conference with Div. Commanders late in afternoon re moves.

Friday 28th September
Brigade Group moved to Winnezeele area. Brigade Staff with Major Williams & Sig. Officers accompanied me to the sector we are to take over on night 29/30th and 30/1st October. We will take over from two Brigades of 3rd British Division, that on the right commanded by Brig. Gen. Porter and that on the left by Brig. Gen. Potter. They have had a very thin time and I fully expect we shall have the same. Australians of 1st Anzac will be on our right and New Zealand Division on our left.
Returned to Winnezeele late in afternoon. Conference at Div HQrs in evening. Battalion Commanders and advanced parties moved forward.

Saturday 29th September
The 33rd and 34th Battalions moved up into the line and took over Right Sector of our Divisional Front. Received letters (2) from Nell – one dated August 1st not very cheerful or specially welcome. Moved Brigade HQrs. into line and took over from Brig. Gen. Porter 26th Inf. Bde. Buildings for HQrs. are old concrete block houses built by Germans and very good but absolutely filthy. This right Sector includes the country south of railway and including Zonnebeke. The 33rd Btn. in the line with 34th in Reserve. Advanced parties of 35th and 36th into the Sector north of railway now held by 8th and 9th British Divisions.

[Page 351]
Sunday 30th September
Advanced parties from 6th & 7th Brigades reported to study our Right Sector which is to be handed over to them. The 35th & 36 Battalions came into the line and took over from troops of 8th and 9th British Brigades. Front extending from Railway northwards for 1100 yards. Provided working party from 33rd Battn. and buried 250 yards of cable. Working party of 250 provided in rear for ammunition dumps etc. Bosche shelling fairly vigorous.

Monday 1st October
Handed over Sector South of Railway to 7th & 6th Brigades of 2nd Aus Div Brig. Gen. Wisdom came into our dug outs to share the Head Quarters but was far from gentlemanly and as a result I had to speak very firmly to him.
Side slipped 33rd and 34th Battalions into position behind 35th and 36th Battns. north of Railway. Division wanted certain burying of cable to be done tonight but owing to reliefs I could not manage it and told Col. Jackson (GSO I) that work would be completed to morrow night. Vigorous patrolling along our front.

Tuesday 2nd October
Provided working party of 650 men to bury 1000 yards of cable. Work completed by 5 AM. Unsatisfactory assistance from O.C. Div. Signal Co. Personally inspected work between 10 and 12 PM. Improving Brigade HQrs. Arranged for 3 Sappers to be attached. Brought in 1 officer and 2 men of 9th British Division who had been out in shell hole in "no man’s Land" (wounded) for 4 days.

Wednesday 3rd October
Bosche shelling vigorously. We have had a number of casualties. Lt. Callaghan was killed yesterday morning. Rescued another officer and man of 9th British Division from shell holes in "no man’s" land. Both wounded. In this case they had been out for 8 days and were in a terrible condition. All preparations complete for attack tomorrow morning.

Thursday 4th October
Attack commenced this morning (over an 8 miles front) precisely at 6 AM under cover of a stupendous

[Page 352]
Artillery barrage – divided into depth of 5 zones – 1st, 18 pr. 2nd 18 pr. and 4.5", 3rd machine guns, 4th 6" Howrs. 5th 8" and 9.2" Howitzers. In the Second Army 1st and 2nd Anzac Corps operated, the 1st consisting of 1st and 2nd Aus. Divs., and the 2nd Corps of 3rd Aus and N.Z. Divisions. On our left the 5th Army also attacked.
At 9.30 AM our final objective was captured representing an advance of over 2000 yards – and prisoners came streaming in. The whole show has been wonderfully successful, and while our troops have fought magnificently our casualties are reported light. During the day Brig. Gen. Trevers of 199th Inf. Bde. came to see me with his Battalion Commanders. He is to take over the new front tomorrow. Pack Transport moving up well to front line troops and field guns are advancing to positions just beside our H.Quarters.

Friday 5th October
The Bosche Counter attacked 5 times during the night but each time found our men too much for him. Prisoners total between 5 and 6 thousand of which about 1200 were captured by 3rd Aus Div Today I handed over my HQrs. to Gen. Travers. Our Brigade moved out to No. 2 area Winnezeele, scattered parties coming in all through the night. We are to be ready to take part in a show if required on 8th inst., and if not then a few days later. The 9th and 10th Bdes. are to be assaulting troops with 11th Bde. in Reserve. My men are very keen to be in it.

Saturday 6th October
Conference at Divisional HQrs. re proposed operations on 8th instant. All Brigadiers present. Afterwards held Conference of my Battalion Commanders, and went through whole proposals with them. Clearing of arrears in Administration accumulated while we were in the line.

Sunday 7th October
Further Conference with Divisional Commanders. It has now been decided that 3 Australian and the New Zealand Divisions are to be held in readiness to exploit a possible success. Anzac mounted troops and a Cavalry Division also in Reserve. The British Divisions of 2nd Anzac (in company with Divisions of

[Page 353]
other Corps on the North and South are to attack on the morning of 9th inst. My Brigade is to move to Berthen area tomorrow to be ready for entraining on the morning of 10th inst. Wrote letters.

Monday 8th October
Conference at Divisional HQrs. with Brigadiers and G.O.C. re forthcoming operation. Reconnoitred front as far as within 300 yards of existing front line. Major Wooten and Lt. Broiler also "Signals" accompanied me. Very heavy going and we returned home very tired having walked about 5 miles through shell torn and muddy area. Gained much useful information. British Division (66th) not very clear as to position of its front line. Move to Berthen area cancelled, also possible rapid advance through 66th Division.

Tuesday 9th October
At 5.30 AM British and French attacked over a wide front. The 66th Division on an old front also included but progress very uncertain and position not clear. Conference at Divisional HQrs. in the morning and at 1 PM in company with the Assistant B.M I went forward to reconnoitre for a Brigade HQrs. in newly captured area from which I could direct and control my share of the 3rd Division attack now decided for morning of 12th inst. Many dead both British and German to be seen, but when just reaching the first objective of this morning’s advance I was cautioned by an officer and a party of 197th Bde. against showing myself because of Bosche snipers. The position was most obscure, but it appeared that the final objective had not been gained and Bosche were still located among our troops, having not been properly mopped up. As a consequence I could not reconnoitre Augustus Wood where are placed the concrete block houses I intended to use for Brigade HQrs. Numerous isolated parties of British troops were scatted around in shell holes, making no effort to clear up the situation or to reorganise. Altogether the impression given of these troops was most unfavourable. We found two badly wounded men of the Brigade who had lain for two days and nights without food or water. The Brigadier himself admitted to me that his men had received no hot food or drink for 4 days. On our return journey we had to pass through a fairly stiff Bosche barrage and we were thankful to reach the rear in safety. S.O.S. signals were being sent up all

[Page 354]
along the front at 5 PM. During the afternoon saw a Bosche plane shot down in flames and crash, later a British machine came down under control but turned twice over on reaching the ground. I am of opinion anything like a serious counter attack by the Bosche could easily drive in the British troops now in position. In fairness to the 66th Division this is their first fight, and seem to know very little of arrangements always necessary for such operations. Reached our Billets at 11.30 PM very tired indeed. We walked about 10 miles.

Wednesday 10th October
From information received this morning it appears the 66th Division have fallen back almost to our old front line as handed over to them some days since. Apparently the Bosche did not counter attack, but our troops simply retired. Now it becomes incumbent on Australian Divisions not only to capture the Paschendaal Ridge and Village as intended but also to retake ground lost yesterday afternoon and evening. Conference at Divisional Head Quarters. Informed Battalion Commanders later of new objectives and tasks. Brigade Transport moved to wagon lines East of Ypres at 9.30 AM and troops moved by bus at 2 PM. I was ordered by the Divisional Commander to stay at Winnizeele till tomorrow AM in case he should find it necessary to communicate with me. We are allowed very little time to prepare for our attack which under present arrangements is to eventuate on the early morning of 12th inst. Cold miserable weather and I seem to have caught a heavy cold last night.

Thursday 11th October
Units had a bitterly cold time last night no tents being available. Heavy rain fell and the condition of men was most unsatisfactory. Brigade Major and myself left Winnizeele at 6 AM, called at Divisional HQrs. at Ramparts then on to Bivouac of Battalion, thence to General Robertson’s HQrs. thence to my own Battle HQrs. with General Cameron. Tonight our Battalions take on their approach march prior to battle tomorrow morning. General Cameron’s men took over the line from the 66th Division last night but the actual front line is very indefinite. It will doubtless be cleared up today. The whole arrangements for the ensuing battle have been far too rushed, and the country over which the attack passes is very heavy.

[Page 355]
Friday 12th October
At 5.25 AM this morning our attack commenced. All battalions were formed up on their tape lines by 3 AM. The approach march was difficult, the conditions of the ground only permitting movement at the rate of ¾ mile per hour. The approach march was further interfered with by two Battalions of 4th Aus. Division who used the same route Eastward from Zonnebeke.
During the approach march enemy shelling caused a number of casualties. Enemy barrage came down on our front line about five minutes before zero and many casualties resulted, the 36th Battalion losing 50 men before crossing our taped line. The 34th Battalion detailed for 1st objective experienced trouble from Block houses in Augustus Wood and later from Block houses at D.11.d. 25-40. The 10th Brigade after leaving "jumping off" tape did not keep touch along inter Brigade boundary but bore away to the left, later gaining touch in vicinity of Red Line. This movement on part of 10th Brigade left a considerable amount of country not mopped up, and the 30th Battalion in consequence dealt with this area, from which a good deal of machine gun fire was being directed.
The Red Line was taken and occupied by 34th Battalion and upon the Red Protector Barrage lifting, the 35th Battalion promptly followed the Barrage. Considerable trouble was experienced on Right Flank from Blockhouses in vicinity of Tiber Copse, and heavy machine gun fire was encountered on the Left from vicinity of Deck Wood and Crest Farm. As a consequence the reorganised 34th Battalion assisted the 35th in cleaning up Tiber Copse on the Right and the 36th Battalion assisted the 35th on the Left.
The latter Battalion during the advance from the Red & Blue Line suffered heavy casualties. Its Left Flank Company was wiped out as a unit, also its Reserve Company which had been detailed to assist 10th Brigade if necessary in mopping up of Passchendaele. Casualties were caused mainly by machine gun fire.
On reaching the Blue Line the position was therefore as follows:- On the Left the 36th Battalion who had suffered heavy casualties, in the centre the 35th Battalion who had suffered most, and on the Right the 34th Battalion.
My reports received during the Battle were emphatic that my troops had captured the Blue Line, but that nothing

[Page 356]
could be seen of 10th Brigade on the Left, and that the casualties had been so heavy as to make it impossible to advance to the Green LINE.
Acting on the personnel instructions of my Divisional Commander orders were issued at 1.30 PM that Blue Line was to be consolidated and held at all costs, while my Left flank was to be refused to join up with the 10th Brigade in vicinity of Deck Wood.
These orders were definitely received by Company Commanders in the Blue Line. Lt. Col. Milne O.C. 36th Battalion was placed in Command of all Blue Line troops and 33rd Battalion was held in Reserve in D.H.C., two of its Companies being placed at the disposal of Lt. Col. Milne to assist if necessary in repelling counter attacks while the remaining two Companies were held as Brigade Reserve.
During the afternoon information was received that Bosche shelling and machine gun fire on Blue Line was intense, and that 10th Brigade had withdrawn to original "jumping off" line. Later I was informed troops of 9th Brigade had also fallen back to position running from D.17.b 30-30 to enemy block houses at D.11.c. 30-05. The remnants of 34th, 35th and 36th Battalions were posted on this line under Lt. Col. Milne as O.C. front line, while the 33rd Battalion was held in reserve at D.16.b.
This was the situation up to and during the night 12th – 13th.

Saturday 13th October
Early this morning I was informed by my Divisional Commanders that one of our planes flying very low and very early this morning, reported our troops still on the Red Line.
I immediately sent out my Intelligence Officer with written orders to Lt. Col. Milne to personally verify this information, taking necessary covering party with him. This was attempted but on reaching the vicinity of Dealine Copse they were fired on by machine guns from the Copse where Germans were actually seen, and were also fired upon from AsSyria.
I personally interviewed all Battalion Commanders at Seine Block houses and was assured by each one that all men excepting perhaps wounded and a few possible stragglers, had fallen back to line above given.
This line was in process of consolidation and was last night handed over by Lt. Col. Milne to relieving 11th Brigade.

[Page 357]
Regarding the withdrawal of 9th Brigade Troops from Blue Line the evidence is conclusive that the fact of 10th Brigade failing to come up to the Blue Line had no direct bearing on our withdrawal, but our men were driven out by concentrated artillery and machine gun fire. The 10th Brigade not reaching the Blue Line naturally left the high ground at Crest Farm in the possession of the enemy, who from this position and also from Meetcheele heavily machine gunned our Blue Line in enfilade.
Further the enemy had Field guns, firing point blank, located in Echo Copse and along the roadway in E.7.a, from about 30-70 to 90-50. Gun flashes were also visible from vicinity of Enlist Farm and Encore Wood.
The attached strength of Battalions gives a definite idea of the heavy fighting involved, and I have formed the opinion that officers and men of all Battalions fought valiantly, and only concentrated machine gun and artillery fire accounted for the withdrawal from the Blue Line (which being on forward slopes could be readily located).
All officers agree that the Barrage brought down by the Bosche on our Blue Line was the heaviest they had ever witnessed.
The lessons learnt from the attack on 12th inst. appear to be as follows:-

(a) Enemy has evidently plenty of guns placed for the purpose of denying the high ground south of Passchendaele and the village itself to us. He also has innumerable machine guns.
(b) Silent guns placed well forward to be used only in case of attack.
(c) Special attention must be paid to high ground in vicinity of Meetcheele. Unless this is held by us any advance on our present right would appear to be precarious.
(d) The generally expressed opinion among my officers of all ranks is that our own barrage while accurate, was insufficient, and many enemy machine guns continued firing uninterruptedly through our barrage.
(e) Pace of barrage appeared to be suitable.
(f) The nature of the country is such that at the present time a total advance of approximately 2500 yds. is too much for Infantry to negotiate, especially if any severe

[Page 358]
fighting is necessary.

Battle Strength Of Battalions Not Including "B" Teams In Camp Near Ypres.

Battn. - Officers - Other Ranks - Total
33rd – 21 – 450 – 471
34th – 19 – 509 – 528
35th – 19 – 450 – 469
36th – 20- 530 – 550
Totals – 79 – 1939 – 2018

Strength Of Battalions After Battle

Battn. - Officers - Other Ranks - Total
33rd – 10 – 231 – 241
34th – 3 – 139 – 142
35th – 4 – 84 – 88
36th – 7 – 130 – 137
Totals – 24 – 584 – 608

Battle Losses

Officers 55 including 15 Company Commanders
Other Ranks 1355
Total 1410

Machine Gun Co. and Trench Mortar Battery personnell not included.
The condition of the Country is appalling, and the condition of all ranks after two bitterly cold and wet nights plus a full day’s heavy fighting is far from satisfactory. All are absolutely fatigued.

Sunday 14th October
My troops relieved during the night by 11th Brigade. Battalions withdrawing to reserve positions where they will reorganise and get as much rest as possible. After 48 hours out of the line they are to go in again for 48 hours and then be finally withdrawn to Campagne area. The 49th Division follows us here, then the Canadians who are to take the famous Passchendaele Ridge and Village which proved too much for us. Gen. Godley’s ADC called.

[Page 359]
Monday 15th October
My troops trying to get a rest. Arrangements made for good supply of whale oil, dry socks, cocoa, rum and underclothing. Shelters also provided. During the afternoon General Godley called at my Brigade Head Quarters. Just as he was arriving the Bosche shelled our HQrs. very severely, and as a consequence he had to rush for shelter, and was detained much longer with us than he intended. My men relieved the 11th Brigade in the line during the night, relief being completed at 6 AM. Our Head Quarters shelled continuously during the night with 5.9" and gas shell. Everybody affected by gas.

Tuesday 16th October
Six new forward posts established about 150 yds. East of our present front line. These are being connected up with a definite trench. Brigadier of 148th Bde., 49th Div., who is to take over from me, arrived at my HQrs. with his Bde. Major, Battalion and Company Commanders. Later Brigadier of 4th Can. Division and GOC 3rd Can. Division called on me, and I gave them full details of the front areas. The Canadians are to do the job we failed to complete. Col. Ironside, GSO I of 4th Can., with Col. Jackson our GSO I came round yesterday.
Weather has improved somewhat. All staff here suffering very much from effect of mustard gas. It specially affects the eyes and throat also bronchial tubes. I shall get one of the Medical Officers to call tomorrow. Perhaps he may be able to give us some relief. Received advice from Division that our relief is postponed one day, and will now take effect on night of 18th/19th October.

Wednesday 17th October
Received word early this morning from our rear HQrs. that the Bosche had dropped bombs at 6 AM on our HQrs. horse lines. My best horse, the Bde. Major’s best horse and the Staff Capt. 2nd horse were all badly wounded, while the Interpreter’s horse was killed. Bosche very busy shelling batteries in vicinity of our Head Quarters and as a consequence we came in for a good deal of attention ourselves. During night three new posts were established [indecipherable] about 300 yds. in front of 6 posts established two nights since. We have thus secured a

[Page 360]
good "jumping off" ground for the Canadians who are in the near future to take the Passchendaele Ridge and Village.
Troops generally very knocked up. Gas effects very painful.

Thursday 18th October
Bosche again bombed rear camps this morning. My best horse again wounded, my second horse killed and my groom badly wounded. Major Wootten had his second horse also wounded and his groom very badly so, it is not thought that he can survive. Division authorized camp to be moved to SOUTH Ypres. This was done during day. In the afternoon Signal Section of 148th Bde. took over from our signals and at night 9th Brigade was relieved, relief being completed and Command passing at 10.30 PM Major Wootten and myself then walked back to Ypres having to run the gauntlet of enemy shelling for about 400 yds. from our Head Quarters. Both of us were completely exhausted by the time we reached Divisional HQrs. the effects of gassing being responsible. Division provided us with a substantial supper, and billets for the night with 9th Field Co. Engineers.
Capt. Tolley, Lt. Brodie and Lt. Simpson also several of our men on Bde H Qrs. staff were evacuated as a result of gas and I rather think Major Wootten and myself will be treated similarly before long. Our eyes are intensely painful and continual coughing night and day is very distressing.

Friday 19th October
Breakfasted with Division and then went out to Brigade Camp. At once went to bed and commenced to take medicine prescribed by the A.D.M.S Stragglers from all Battalions from Front Line wandered into Camp this morning. Bosche planes dropping bombs during the day and night but none close to our camp.

Saturday 20th October
Lay abed till nearly lunch time. Very distressed night. Went to Gas centre during afternoon and the Medical Officer in Charge promptly ordered me to be evacuated. In view however of our early move back to

[Page 361]
Campagne area I arranged that we should be again examined in two or three days and if no substantial improvement is apparent both Major Wootten and myself will be sent off to a Hospital for special treatment for one week, possibly to the Coast Hospital at Dieppe. I certainly seem to have crowded more genuine physical suffering into the last few days than I have experienced in the accumulated troubles of my whole life. Bosche very active bombing during the early part of the night.

Sunday 21st October
Early this morning the Bosche planes dropped about 100 bombs in our area, twenty of which fell within four hundred yards of our camp. Luckily we suffered no damage or casualties. Units moved out of Camp early and journed via Train and Motor Bus to our old area at Campagne. Major Wootten and myself had a car placed at our Disposal by the Divisional Commander, and reached Campagne a little after noon. Took up my quarters in the Chateau previously occupied by me when last in this area. Units arrived in the area very late at night and very tired.

Monday 22nd October
Units sorting themselves out. Transport arriving. Stayed in bed until after lunch. Still very much feeling the effects of gas. Major Wootten also far from well. Our mess reestablished at the Chateau. My horse arrived by road. I am afraid he will not recover.

Tuesday 23rd October
Division supplied me with a car and I visited all Battalions, interviewing officers & NCOs. who had been in the recent operations. Prepared draft report at night for Divisional Commander dealing with the 9th Brigade association with the Battle. Arranged to use Major Massey’s horse until I am provided with new chargers. Miserable wet day. Throat feels somewhat better.
Dealt with a number of "Q" papers, seconding of officers, promotions of officers and N.C.Os. etc.

[Page 362]
Wednesday 24th October
Divisional Commander called, and discussed many matters. He informs me many changes pending in the A.I.F. G.O.C. 48th Division sent home a few days since. Apparently there has been trouble with Gen. Godley.
Dealt with an abnormal amount of Correspondence from Division.

Thursday 25th October
Capt. Hawkins left on leave to England. I accompanied him and Col. Martin who also went on leave as far as Boulogne, leaving Billets at 7.30 AM. A bitterly cold journey in an open car. Morning sailing suspended because of rough weather. Forwarded Schedule of Immediate Honors and Awards for October 12 th, 1 V.C., 1 D.S.O., 10 M.Cs., 6 D.C.Ms. and 43 M. Medals. Took them personally to Divisional HQrs. Lunched with Divisional Commanders and afterwards had a Powwow with Brigadier concerning the operations of October 12th.

Friday 26th October
In office all day dealing with an amount of Correspondence from Division. Interview with Lt. Col. Milne re posting of Major McDowell as 2nd in Command. Major Blacklow yesterday returned to 35th Battalion. Miserable wet day.

Saturday 27th October
In office all the morning. In afternoon walked through Thiembronne Wood. Very beautiful sight. The foliage of the various trees are in their different shades of autumn tints. Arranging to secure guns and cartridges. There is a fair amount of game in this district.

Sunday 28th October
In morning with Brigade Major, visited Bayonet fighting course now in progress of construction and inspected billets to be occupied by class. School commences tomorrow. Wrote letters during afternoon. Very miserable day – wet and cold.

[Page 363]
Monday 29th October
Received an interesting note from Major Bates, Brigade Major 4th Aus Div Artillery. He states casualties in 4th Aus Div from Sept. 11th to October 14th, total 6 officers killed, 13 wounded, 55 other ranks killed, 275 wounded. Truly the Artillery have a very bad time nowadays. Generals McNeible and Cameron away on leave.
Training according to Syllabus commenced in all units.
Inspected Transport of 33rd Battalion. All vehicles painted and in good order, harness in very good order and horses ditto. The Transport officer of this Battalion, Lt. Harman takes a keen interest in his work.

Tuesday 30th October
Dealt with a number of applications for Commissions to replace our recent heavy casualties. In all 68 officers were lost, killed and wounded.

Wednesday 31st October
With Brigade Major inspected Machine Gun Company by Sections. Looked in at the various billets, Harness and Animals in good order. Vehicles being painted and repaired. Sundry items of personal equipment missing from men, such as badges, colour patches, crossed guns etc.
Also looked in at Brigade Signal Class. In afternoon the Divisional Commander called and I informed him in detail of the condition of all Battalions in personnel and equipment. He informed me we should probably leave this area between 8th and 12th November to take up a defensive sector of 2nd Army front. Interview with O.C. Signals.

Thursday 1st November
All Saints day. The village Church bells have been ringing all day, and the local inhabitants all out in their Sunday best to attend memorial services.
Brigade Major and myself intended to visit French Front in Belgium but a car was not available today from the Division. Interview with D.A.D.M.S. Brigade staff inoculated against Typhoid.

[Page 364]
Friday 2nd November
Special services in all French Churches for the Souls of departed. Many of our soldiers attended. Very wet day. Work of all units very much hampered in consequence. Letter from Gen. Waite re Kings prospects for Cra. Italian retreat now seems to be arrested. French and British Divisions being dispatched to Italy. Fine French successes over Chemin de Dames.

Saturday 3rd November
Again very wet day. All training outside in consequence suspended. I understand we will soon move back to the line and in all probability will come under 1st Anzac.

Sunday 4th November
Brigade Major, French Interpreter and myself left the village at 9 AM in order to visit the French front in Belgium. Army HQrs. at Berques from which we motored to Rexmoude. Here we telephoned the Commandant of an Artillery group at [indecipherable] and arranged to visit him. Half an hour later we reached LOO, lunched with the Commandant and his officers, had a group photographed then inspected Heavy Artillery – 7" and 11". The Commandant gave me some interesting photos showing effect of counter battery shoots. Returned home at 8 PM
Found my second horse had died as the result of wounds received on October 18th from aeroplane bombs near Ypres.

Monday 5th November
With D.A.D.V.S. and Major King visited No. 4 Remount Depot at Boulogne to select horses. I secured two suitable ones for myself and one for my Brigade Major. Returned home at 6 PM. We are definitely to go into the line on November 9th and will come under Command of 1st Anzac.

Tuesday 6th November
Conference at Divisional HQrs. re new Front. Works policy outlined. Major Williams new C.R.E. 4th Aus Div to go into reserve and if required to be used to reinforce other Divisions.

[Page 365]
Wednesday 7th November
In the morning interviewed a number of Candidates for direct Commissions. In afternoon dealt with correspondence. Not away from Bde H Qrs. during the day.

Thursday 8th November
At 12 noon Staffs and Senior Officers of the Division and Gen. Godley to say goodbye to him on the transference of the 3rd Aus Div to 1st Anzac Corps definitely and permanently in accordance with the policy now approved of having all the Australian Divisions under one Command. Gen. Godley appeared to be genuinely sorry to lose the Division from his Corps.
Capt. Hawkings proceeded to Douliou area to arrange billeting for the Brigade moving forward to new area.

Friday 9th November
With Major Wootten motored to new Bde H Qrs. at Douliou. After lunch visited 1st Anzac at Hoograffe. Saw Gen. Coxen, Lt. Col. Ross and Col. Dodds. Spoke about Halford’s proposed transfer to 34th Battn., and to be Intelligence Officer, to Brigade HQrs. Informed Major Wootten soon to leave me for appointment as GSO II to 5th Aus. Division. I think possibly I will get Major Pain, now at Corps HQrs. as my Brigade Major.

Saturday 10th November
Brigade Major accompanied me to HQrs. 8th British Division at Steenwerck under whose orders we now come. Thence to HQrs. of 23rd Brigade where we are to relieve. The Divisional front will be from the LYS to the Douvre a frontage of 7000 yards of which my Brigade on the right will be holding 5000 yards and on the Left the 10th Bde. holding 2000 yards.
Went on to Right Battalion HQrs. and forward to Company and Trench HQrs. Returned to Billets at 7 PM very wet and tired.

Sunday 11th November
Brigade Major accompanied me around Left Sector, calling first at Battalion HQrs., thence to Company and Trench HQrs., thence along Front line to all posts and then back to Battalion HQrs. A great deal of work to be done.

[Page 366]
Reached 23rd Bde H Qrs. at 1 PM where we were kindly provided with lunch. Arranged to take over from the GOC on night 13th 14th. Rode my dark brown horse. A very comfortable ride indeed, and quite a nice looking animal. Rather inclined to shy at cars. Conference with Battalion Commander at 8.30 PM.

Monday 12th November
Interview with Divisional Commander at 10 AM concerning new front, works policy etc. Wrote letters during remainder of day. The 36th and 35th Battalions moved up to position of Reserve Battalion at Rossignal and Pont Nieppe respectively.
Dined with Capt. Plouvier and family at their Chateau (Divisional Head Quarters) Steenwerck. Reached billets again at 12 midnight.

Tuesday 13th November
Moved from Douliou to Brune Gaye, with Brigade Major and Staff Captain. Signals took over during the day and with the relief of the two line Battalions of 23rd Bde. by my 35th and 36th I assumed command of the sector at 11.15 PM
The 23rd Bde. generally gave us an excellent hand over and were exceedingly kind to us. Everywhere our men go into good camps and will be very comfortable.

Wednesday 14th November
The 3rd Aus Div took over from 8th Division at 10 AM Brigade Commander and Staff of 23rd Bde. departed. Balance of our Bde H Qrs. moved in from Douliou.
Major Playfair temporarily commanding the guns covering me, came in and discussed the position generally. OC 10th Field Co. also called re temporarily assisting me till 9th Field Co. is available.
Boche shell approaches a good deal with gas shell during the night, one man killed and three wounded of 35th Battalion last night. General Monash called at 2.30 PM and discussed matters of policy including question of new Brigade Major.
Lieut. General Sir William Birdwood promoted full General & ADC General.

Thursday 15 November
Remained in office all day. The 33rd and 34th Battalions moved from Douliou to position at Pont Nieppe and

[Page 367]
Rossignol respectively. They will have very comfortable billets. Weather conditions somewhat settled, much to the benefit of the men, though all front line troops are really very comfortably off for accommodation.

Friday 16th November
Remained in office all day. Working on maps, communications etc.

Saturday 17th November
Spent the day thoroughly inspecting Right Battalion front in company with my Brigade Majors, the two Battalion Commanders and in conference with the 9th Field Co. officers. Much work requires to be done in the line of trench of forward posts. Arranged priority of work etc. During the day General Birdwood called with General Monash.

Sunday 18th November
With Bde. Major and two Colonels of Left Battalion inspected the whole of Left Sector. Here again a great deal of work requires to be done in front line system. Decided on lines to be held viz front line, support line and reserve line. Selected new HQrs. for Right Battalion near Despierre Farm and gave instructions to O.C. 33rd Battn. to have same ready for occupation by date of relief. Col. McCartney O.C. Artillery Supporting group called. 2/Lt. Gifford reported for duty as signal officer. At night wrote private letters.

Monday 19th November
Conference at Divisional HQrs. in morning. Works policy decided – and lines for defence as recommended by me endorsed and decided upon. In afternoon called on Col. Dodds and Gen. White at Corps HQrs. Halford’s transfer to 34th Battn. approved to take effect immediately. Gen. White informed me Major Pain was to be my new Brigade Major with Major Wootten as GSO II to 5th Aus. Division. Met Gen. Hobbs also at Corps HQrs.
No information available concerning my own future.

Tuesday 20th November
Went round part of Left Battalion Sector

[Page 368]
Conference with Major Drake Brockmann re Engineer works in whole Brigade Front. Working parties arranged for to commence operations on morning of 22nd inst. Col. McCartney called re Artillery working parties. The 35th and 36th Battalions relieved tomorrow night in the line by 33rd and 34th Battalions respectively. Col. Ross & Major Pain went round part of line with Bde. Major.

Wednesday 21st November
Conference with Major Hamilton O.C. Div. Sig. Co. re communications, supplies, and Signal Officers attached to Brigade. Battalion relief carried out without casualty. During the 8 days 35th & 36th Battalions have been in the line the casualties have amounted to 4 killed and 6 wounded (including gassed).

Thursday 22nd November
With Staff Capt. visited new Battalion HQrs. Staff Capt. then went on to inspect dumps etc. while I inspected support line of Right Battalion in company with Col. Morshead and his second in Command. Work of drainage progressing well, and Infantry working parties well employed.
Cols. Goddard and Milne to lunch with us. Discussed many line details. Successful British offensive during the last two days before Cambrai.

Friday 23rd November
With Staff Capt. visited Transport lines of 33rd, 35th and 36th Battalions and 34th ditto just after lunch. Condition of Harness, Vehicles and Horses was excellent in 35th Battalion, and considerably improved upon. 33rd and 36th passable, 34th very bad – will arrange for Brigade Transport officer to supervise all Transport of all Battalions.
Gen. Monash called during afternoon and discussed future policy. Mr. Woodburn, Comforts Funds Commissioner from London with the local representative of 2nd and 3rd Divisions called re comfort generally. Cambrai operations still further successful. A few aeroplane bombs tonight.

Saturday 24th November
With Brigade Major left HQrs. at 6.45 AM for left sector. Called at Battalion HQrs. and reconnoitered several trenches and site for new trenches. Trench discipline of this Battalion is bad.

[Page 369]
Rifles in bad order, living quarters of men not looked after, and trench frames in many cases being destroyed for fire wood. On my return journey again called at Battalion HQrs. and strafed the C.O. Col. Waites A/O.C. of 5th Inf. Bde. of 2nd Division who is to relieve me called during morning but I was absent. He went up to Right Battalion, and called at Bde H Qrs. on his return in afternoon.

Sunday 25th November
Wrote letters during the morning and in the afternoon called on General Monash at his HQrs. and discussed question of staff with him.

Monday 26th November
Miserable wet day so did not go out till evening. Dealt with a good deal of correspondence, promotions etc. In evening Major Wootten and myself dined with the officers of the 35th Battalion in Pont Nieppe. Col. Goddard left for a month’s leave to England. Col. McCartney called re S.O.S. practices. Cambrai operations still further successful.

Tuesday 27th November
Had arranged to visit Right Sector with Bde. Major but as it was a bitterly cold and wet morning we postponed our operations visit. Bosche party discovered to right close to front line of left Battalion. They were driven off but no casualties inflicted.

Wednesday 28th November
Brigade Major took Lt. Col. Miles GSO II 2nd Div. around right sector, and later in day I took General White round the same area. He lunched with us at 2 PM and afterwards inspected Transport of 35th and 36th Battalion. The former was in particularly good order. This morning one dead Bosche was discovered as a result of last night’s encounter and normal identification secured.

Thursday 29th November
General Monash called re Staff appointments and to discuss "Intelligence" concerning encounter of night 27th November. Day S.O.S. signals tested but not satisfactory. Battalion & M.G.Co. reliefs effected.

[Page 370]
Friday 30th November
At 10.30 AM 5 Japanese Military Attaches called at my HQrs. and I gave them a certain amount of information concerning German methods etc. in recent battles, but told them nothing of our own arrangements. Capt. Suter returned from leave in England. Interview with Col. Martin re encounter on night of 27th November. Forwarded to Division map showing proposed regrouping of Trench names etc. Two successful raids carried out by 10th Brigade, each returning prisoners and many enemy being killed.

Saturday 1st December
It is definitely decided that I am to have Major Pain (Corps GSO II) as my Brigade Major, and Major Dunlop (now with 11th Brigade) as Trainee Brigade Major. I have recommended Capt. Hawkins for a Company Command in order to give him Regimental experience and then propose he shall be a Trainee Brigade Major. I have also recommended that if this course be adopted Capt. Suter should be appointed as Staff Captain. Boche patrol encountered tonight by Col. Milne’s Battle Patrol close to PONT ROUGE. Our men opened fire and the Boche bolted leaving two caps, five rifles and a respirator behind, from which normal identifications were obtained. Gen. Monash called also French Heavy Artillery Officers (from LOO).

Sunday 2nd December
Bitterly cold wind and driving sleet. During the morning I inspected Transport lines, horses, harness and vehicles of 9th Machine Gun Company. All are in excellent order. In afternoon wrote letters. Boche planes dropping bombs around us during the night. No damage to my units. Major Dunlop, new Assistant Brigade Major reported from 11th Brigade.

Monday 3rd December
With Major Dunlop visited HQrs. of both line Battalions and with the C.Os. discussed work policy and patrolling etc. Again a bitterly cold day with keen wind.
Major Larnack who is to be GSO III of this Division vice Jackson has reported. We shall all be sorry to lose Col. Jackson who is a very able officer indeed.

[Page 371]
Tuesday 4th December
At 10.30 AM Gen. Birdwood presented ribbons to officers, N.C.Os. and men of the Division who have recently been awarded decorations. Quite a nice Ceremonial Parade near Neuve Eglise. He informed us the 4th Division had been ordered to the Cambrai front, rather upsetting the arrangements made to complete the other four Divisions to full strength.
Capt. Collier 24th ASC Company called re recent happenings in 3rd Div. Train. I promised him I would see Col. Henley in the matter.
Again a very cold day with slight fall of snow.
Gen. Monash left for a 14 days leave period, Gen. McNicholl to act as Divisional Commander during his absence.

Wednesday 5th December
With Major Dunlop inspected Transport lines of 34th and 36 th Battalions. The former still requires a good deal of energy expended to ensure satisfactory Harness, vehicles etc.
Called at Divisional HQrs. during afternoon. Said goodbye to Col. Jackson. Roads very slippery owing to continued frosts. Walked back to my HQrs.

Thursday 6th December
With Major Dunlop spent the morning at Brigade Bayonet fighting School. Instruction very thorough and officers and men in the class doing well. Saw Colonel Henley re recent trouble at A.S.C mess. He promised to set up a Court of Enquiry. An officer of 34th Battalion involved, and the O.C. duly informed and instructed to take necessary action. Very cold day and night. At 5.30 PM with Capt. Hawkins went to see the Pierrot Divisional Show at Nieppe. Quite a good programme, and Pioneer Band selections excellent.

Friday 7th December
Major McKenzie the newly appointed DADVS called with Colonel Jackson. Necessary to move animals of 35th Transport to new standings because of infection in existing ones. Gen. Birdwood inspected 10th Brigade front, tho’ as I had been informed by Division that he was to do my sector today I waited in for him. I spoke to him on the phone during the evening and he informed me he would visit my area on Monday next. Aus. Comforts fund provided Bde H Qrs. with a Gramophone and sundry records. Informed Col. Martin of Baulchi escapade with ASC

[Page 372]
Saturday 8th December
Line Battalions relieved last night. We are now on our last 8 day period. With Major Dunlop again inspected all Transport. The 34th and 36th still the weakest. The 33rd and 35th super excellent and the Machine Gun Co. Excellent. Visited range at Pont Nieppe and had a personal "series" with the Vickers guns.
My groom suffering from Trench fever and has been evacuated.

Sunday 9th December
Accompanied ASC officer in his usual weekly inspection of Transport, harness and horses. Visited all Units.
Majors Hawley and Blake to lunch with us. Miserable wet day. News of dreadful disaster at Halifax, Canada received. Three thousand tons of T.N.T. exploded in a ship as a result of a collision and country for many miles devastated, while thousands of lives lost. Wrote letters.

Monday 10th December
Accompanied General Birdwood round both Battalion fronts of our sector, returning to Camp at 5 PM. He informed me among other matters of interest that he had recommended to the Australian Government a substantial increase in the salary of Majors and Brigadier Generals. Boche "Gothas" dropping bombs in afternoon.

Tuesday 11th December
Major Pain arrived yesterday to take up duties of Brigade Major. Going through records with Major Wootten. Recorded my vote in the Referendum concerning Reinforcements from Australia. Preparing Brigade Defence Scheme.

Wednesday 12th December
Took General Smith (5th A.I. Brigade) round the sector. His Brigade is to relieve ours on 14/15th and 15/16th.
More "Gothas" over during the afternoon, bomb dropping. One was brought down in flames by two of our planes.
Two of my Battalions on being relieved in this Sector are to be a Reserve for the defence of Armentiere. The Commanders concerned to day got in touch with their opposite numbers. Major Wootten left to take up duties as GSO II 5th Aus Div Major Hamilton OC Div. Signal Co. called re Brigade or Divisional Signalling School for coming month.

[Page 373]
Thursday 13th December
Stayed in camp during the morning. In afternoon Brigade Major and myself motored over to HQrs. 38th Division and discussed with GSO I the arrangements concerning the defence of Armentieres, for which purpose two of my Battalions are held available. We afterwards called on the Brigadier (at Erquingham) who is directly responsible for the above defences, and discussed further details with him.
Completing defence Scheme maps for handing over to 5th Brigade.

Friday 14th December
The 35th and 36th Battalions changed places with two Battalions of 5th Brigade. I watched the 35th on its march and the whole turn out was exceedingly good. Completed all Defence Scheme maps. Major Pain spent the morning on the Front line.

Saturday 15th December
Signals of 5th Brigade took over during morning and shortly after lunch all personnel of 9th Bde H Qrs. excepting the Brigade Major and myself proceeded to new HQrs. at Steenwerck. General Smith G.O.C. 5th Brigade arrived with his staff during afternoon. Bde. Major and myself dined with him at night. Relief completed at 10 PM. Division provided car to convey me to HQrs.

Sunday 16th December
Division handed over to 2nd Aus Div at 10 AM and reopened at Ravelsberg. With Brigade Major and Staff Captain rode to camp to be used by Brigade Signal School. It has been left in a very filthy condition by 5th ALTM Battery, the previous occupants.
Wrote usual weekly letters.

Monday 17th December
General McNicoll called re new proposal for 3rd Aus. Division to temporarily take over about 8000 yds of front south of the LYS. It was decided that 9th Brigade should take over the left Sector of 5500 yards and the 11th Brigade take over the right Sector of about 1500 yards. The whole arrangement is very unfair and indicates bad staff work. Three Brigades are being moved where only two need be involved, also during the period of relief the Defence of Armentieres is jeopardised. Further the 10th Brigade who were relieved immediately

[Page 374]
after the Battle of 12th October before Passchendaele, should have been the troops to go into the line and not the 9th Brigade. General McNicholl in his capacity as acting Divisional Commander has evidently considered the comfort and well being of his Brigade, before that of the Division as a whole and has certainly ignored tactical considerations.

Tuesday 18th December
In early morning Brigade Major and myself visited General Grogon Thomas (of 115th Bde. at Erquingham) from whom I am to take over. We went through many matters and arranged all details for advance parties etc. Returning to Brigade HQrs. I conferred with all C.Os. and gave them verbal orders. Advance parties from all units moved into the line. A young moon and frozen ground helped materially. Called at Divisional HQrs. at Steenwerck. British Convoy sunk in North Sea, also H.M.S. Partridge.

Wednesday 19th December
With Brigade Major called for General Grogon Thomas. He took us through Armentieres and round his whoLe Sector excepting a small portion of the extreme right front. Our advance parties seen everywhere making themselves familiar with their sectors and duties. Returned to Bde H Qrs. Steenwerck for lunch. Battalions moved into line. Called at Divisional HQrs. at 2.30 re Battalions required for defence of Armentieres and then being kept absolutely clear of all demands for working parties. Relief of Battalions completed at 10.50 PM at which hour command of both this Sector and Armentieres defences passed to me. General Grogon Thomas and his Brigade Major dined with us.

Thursday 20th December
General Blackadder GOC 38th (Welsh) Division called. During the morning a Boche Patrol attacked on No. 2 Post Right Sector. We had one officer killed and we inflicted casualties on the enemy. Later one of our patrols went out to reconnoiter and encountered the enemy. A free fight resulted in casualties to the Boche and none to us. We secured one prisoner and one dead German. Two of our signallers were missing from the vicinity of the post during the morning and have evidently been taken prisoner.
Dined at night at DHQ (38th Div), Major Pain accompanying me.

[Page 375]
Friday 21st December
Gen. Monash called to see me. Decided in view of present unsettled policy that my trip to the French front should be deferred till we come out of the line. Discussed various matters with him including honours and rewards. Bitterly cold weather, snow and freezing. Canadians have arrived. Conscription policy. 11th Brigade moving into Sector on our Right.

Saturday 22nd December
Brigade Major called on 11th Brigade and with the BM visited part of the line adjacent to our southern boundary. Arranged re liaison between both Brigades. Col. McCartney called. His Brigade is taking over artillery covering us. Armentieres shelled fairly heavily during the day. Bitterly cold weather.

Sunday 23rd December
With Major Drake Brockman O.C. 9th Field Co. inspected all Field Artillery positions with a view to wire protection. On the way back called at office of Staff Officer Armentieres defence who was not in. He called at my HQrs. later and we discussed wiring and recent manning of two Battalions 10th Brigade. Gen. Cannan called re posts on our boundaries and completed liaison established.
Discussed wiring proposition with Gen. Monash on the phone. He authorized me to proceed at once with what I considered best.
Court of Enquiry under presidency of Lt. Col. Morshead sitting to get at facts re withdrawal from Blue Line at Passchendaele on October 12th, Major Carr, a wounded officer chiefly concerned having now returned to duty. Arrangements made for Major Hawker to retain Major Rodd as C.O. 9th Training Battalion, the latter officer to join 36th Battalion and to be fully tried out. The G.O.C. A.I.F. in England reports unsatisfactorily. Col. McCartney called. DADMS called and was informed that the RMOs. of 34th and 36th Battalions were unsatisfactory. He was asked to have them replaced.

Monday 24th December
D.A.D.M.S. called and told me arrangements had been made for new RMOs. for 34th and 36th Battalions.
Major Brockman called re wiring south and East of Chapelle Armentieres. Working party (one company from 34th Battalion) commencing tonight.

[Page 376]
Units preparing for Christmas dinners. Signal Section at Brigade HQrs. had theirs tonight, so as to permit of Brigade HQrs. staff having the same room tomorrow night. G.O.C. Division approved suggestions re wiring.

Tuesday, 25th December
This makes the fourth Christmas day I have spent away from Australia. The first at Mena, Cairo, Egypt, the second in mid Mediterranean, the third frozen up at Pommiers Redoubt, Somme, and this the fourth here at Erquingham, Armentieres.
This morning the Brigade Major and myself visited the scene of last nights wiring and found splendid progress had been made. Then called on three line, and the reserve Battalions to see how the men’s Christmas dinners had been arranged. All were well supplied with no end of luxuries. Gen. Monash rang me up re works on late Sector. He informed me General Birdwood was coming round tomorrow and asked me to clear up if possible the suggestion that Brigade when in the line in the last Sector had not worked as they should. Gen. Grimwade and his Brigade Major called during the afternoon just to wish us good luck. Col. MacCartney dined with us tonight and generally we had a very happy meal. Our Mess Secretary (the French interpreter attached to the Brigade) had secured some poultry and most of the members of the mess had gift parcels from England. So after all tonight the war was forgotten. A piano had been secured and after dinner we had a good sing-song.

Wednesday 26th December
General Monash called to see me during the morning. He discussed our future movements and incidentally told me what my own personal immediate prospects were for promotion.
Major Williams (C.R.E.) called re sapper materials. Gen. Birdwood called at 10.30. I discussed with him our works during the period we were in last Sector. He accompanied me through the whole of the Subsidiary Line and everywhere he found men very cheerful. I showed him new wiring at Chapelle Armentiere. Brigade Major round the line with Lt. Col. McCartney. Heavy fall of snow last night, today the ground is well covered everywhere – typical Christmas weather.

Thursday 27th December
Asst. Brigade Major went round part of Right Battalion Front. GOC of 171st Brigade (Gen. Longbourne D.S.O.) and

[Page 377]
his Brigade Major called and went through details of relief set down for nights 1st/2nd January. Arranged details for guides to meet his C.Os. on 31st inst. Gen. Monash rang me up re posting of Lt. Tedder to this Bde. He told me it had been ordered by Corps HQrs. Possibly he is a son of Col. Tedder of Sydney. This Subaltern has not done well in 5th Division and is now to be given a chance under another commander.
Excellent progress made on wiring at Chapelle D’Armentieres during last night. Further work will be done tonight.
Arranging details for Schools to be commenced as soon as we go out of the line. Still more snow – but temperature much warmer.

Friday 28th December
Divisional Commander arrived during morning with Major General Kennedy and Col. Ross of U.S.A. Army. I went through the details of my whole Brigade front for their information. Col. Ross in particular seems a keen capable man. He comes from 78th Division while the General comes from 79th Division. Major Pain round the line examining new work – especially wiring. Dined with 10th Field Ambulance.

Saturday 29th December
With Major Pain visited new line for wire East of Cross Cut. Work is to commence tonight and two companies of 11th Brigade are assisting. Bitterly cold weather with much snow.

Sunday 30th December
Attended Church Parade at Steenwerck and afterwards General Birdwood presented medals and ribbons to officers & men. Mentioned in Sir Douglas Haig’s Despatches – London Gazette Supplement dated 28th December – wrote letters during afternoon.

Monday 31st December
With General Kennedy and Col. Ross USA Army visited the whole of our Subsidiary Line, three front line posts, trench mortar positions and a field Battery. I think they were interested in all they saw and in all they were told. Accompanied them to Divisional HQrs. at Steenwerck in late afternoon. Dined with Madame Plouvier at the Chateau which is Divisional HQrs., and there saw the old year out and the new year in. One of 11th Brigade bands played for some time. Informed by General Monash that I have been awarded Belgian Croix de Guerre.

[Page 378]
Tuesday 1st January 1918

Staff completing arrangements for handing over to 171st Brigade, 57th British Division.
Relief of all units completed during afternoon and evening. Brigadier of 171st Bde. assumed command of sector about 10.30 PM Brigade staff moved to new HQrs. at Meteren during afternoon, while Brigade Major and myself remained behind to hand over. Wiring of Cross Cut was completed last night.
Division supplied me with a car to take me to Meteren and on our way called at Divisional HQrs.

Wednesday 2nd January
New Year Honours announced. Generals Monash and Hobbs created K.C.B. and many other honors conferred on our officers. Wrote letters of congratulation to my friends concerned. Battalions moved to Meteren area, the 34th by route march, the remainder by motor bus. Divisional "Q" arrangements not satisfactory for billetting. Major Massie getting arrangements in hand for Brigade School for prospective officers. Divisional Commanders witnessed march of 34th Battalion and Brigade Transport, the latter very good, the former uniformly bad. He wrote me in the matter and I am taking necessary action. I had previously instructed the C.O. to ensure a specially good show.

Thursday 3rd January
Spent the day in office arranging matters re Schools etc. Major Massey visited WISQUES School and gained much information and assistance. Arranged to send our instructors there for a few days prior to commencing our School. Very cold weather.

Friday 4th January
Conference of COs at 10 AM. Discussed many matters fully – especially object of Schools. Walked to Divisional HQrs. at Merris. Discussed many subjects with the G.O.C. Left with him copies of correspondence sent to Col. Martin. Future policies, and Schools etc. discussed. Completed arrangements for leave, reporting first to A.I.F. HQrs., London then on to Grantham, machine gun course after which my month’s leave commences.

[Page 379]
Saturday 5th January
Left early in morning by car for Boulogne, Capt. Hawkins accompanying me. Roads very heavy with snow. Boarded boat at 11 AM, reached Folkestone about 1 PM and London about 3.30 PM Went straight to Whitehall Hotel. Some of the old faces still there, especially Miss Perks.

Sunday 6th January
With Miss Cowlishaw visited Canterbury, leaving Victoria Station about 10.30 AM. Quite nice weather and I much enjoyed my visit to this ancient town. We lunched at the Grays County Hotel and then proceeded to the Cathedral which I found intensely interesting. The transition from Norman through Early English to Perpendicular Gothic is very clearly marked. Attended the National Service of prayer at 3.30 and caught train back to London at 5 PM Stayed in all the evening at Whitehall.

Monday 7th January
During the morning called at A.I.F. HQrs. where I found that Griffiths had been promoted Brig. General as from 1st January. I also saw General Hobbs so had the opportunity to personally congratulate him on his recent elevation to Knighthood. Gave an order to the (Mutual Stores) Army & Navy Stores to forward sundry mess kit for NCP Brigade School. Made sundry purchases for myself. In afternoon left for Grantham. Commandant Brig. Gen. Cummings was at the Station and placed his car at my disposal to visit the Camp and then to return to my Hotel (the Angel). Bitterly cold weather.

Tuesday 8th January
Attended at School at 9 AM Several Brigadiers present previously known to me. Very interesting lectures and demonstrations on the miniature range. Inspected Printing & Studies building.
While sitting at dinner at the Hotel at night I received a wire recalling me to France to assume command of 1st Aus. Division during the temporary absence of General Walker. Rather annoying to have one’s leave upset, but still the task is worth returning for. To night I have had to write several letterers cancelling arrangements made.
A heavy fall of snow last night and the country is everywhere inches think. There is a very nice Church at Grantham which I hope to inspect before I leave.

[Page 380]
Wednesday 9th January
Trudged through heavy snow to the School. Again lectures and demonstrations this time on the main range. Barrage fire especially interesting. In the afternoon visited Training Centre for drivers. Harness in fine condition, and we saw several classes being trained in riding and driving. Later we visited the main parade ground where plenty of work was going on, and we finished up by inspecting three Service Companies who are ready to leave for France at once.

Thursday 10th January
During the morning the class moved out by R.F.C. tenders to an exercise ground some miles out of the town. Here a scheme was illustrated and explained having special reference to machine gun tactics. After lunch a conference was held at which many points were discussed. Altogether the course was very interesting and instructive.
Before attending the School in the morning I visited the Church, which in part dates back to the 11th century. It is a very interesting building with a fine spire. Returned to London at 8 PM and immediately went to Hyde Park Hotel to dine with Mr. & Mrs. Pope and Miss Cowlishaw.

Friday 11th January
Spent the day in shopping visiting the tailor etc. Very wet and muddy in the streets. Called on General Griffiths. Found a line for me there from Gen. Monash stating that a car would meet me at Boulogne on evening of 12th inst. Stayed at Whitehall during evening.

Saturday 12th January
Completed purchases, called at Commonwealth Bank, lunched at Whitehall Hotel and left in car (kindly provided by Gen. Griffiths) to catch 2.15 PM train to Folkestone, arriving at the pier about 4.45 PM Several crowded boats well escorted by several T.B.Ds. crossed in convoy and we arrived at Folkestone about 7 PM The Field Marshal C in C was on board. Car was waiting for me at the pier – and I arrived at Meteren at 9.30 PM I received a note from General Monash telling me the reason for my recall and informing me of my movements. He spoke to me personally on the phone and told me to suit my convenience when I reported to 1st Aus Div I have arranged to be there at 10 AM tomorrow morning.

[Page 381]
Sunday 13th January
Reported at 1st Aus Div HQrs. at 10 AM With General Walker went through maps and dispositions generally of troops of the Division. General Walker left at 1.30 PM During the afternoon discussed matters with Col. Blamey, G.S.O. I. I am not satisfied with machine gun dispositions. Maj. General Montgomery M.G.G.S. 4th Army called at 5 PM I had previously met him at 4th Corps HQrs. nearLoosin December 1915. General Anderson CRA discussed with me the artillery programmes and barrages. Arranged for the DMGO to get in to touch with him concerning barrages generally. Wrote home letters.

Monday 14th January
Heavy snow fell during the night and the whole country is today inches deep. Gen. White, Gen. MacLagan and Capt. Montgomery (9th Corps) conferred with me re front support reserve and Corps lines on our extreme left. Certain lines selected involving practically no alterations on 1st Aus Div front.
During afternoon I called at my Brigade HQrs. at Meteren, Corps HQrs. at Fletre and 3rd Aus Div HQrs. at Merris. I handed to General Monash programme and results of demonstrations of machine gun course at Grantham.

Tuesday 15th January
Very stormy wet day so decided to stay indoors. Gen. Coxen called and discussed various matters, and I also saw Col. Martin CRE re Divisional Front generally, works etc.
Relief took place to night of 3rd and 2nd Bdes – or rather part of relief, the remainder being concluded tomorrow night. Boche attempted to raid post at Green Wood, but was unsuccessful. One dead Boche brought in.

Wednesday 16th January
In morning called on ‘General Lester’ at HQrs., 1st Brigade and with him visited HQrs. of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th & 6th Battalions. All very cheery after last night’s relief notwithstanding the wet and cold. A.D.M.S 3rd Aus Div called to say goodbye. Back to Australia.

Thursday 17th January
In morning called on Col. Luxton temporarily in command of 2nd Infantry Brigade, and with him went forward

[Page 382]
through Messines to HQrs. of 7th and 8th Battalions. Relief finally completed last night. Weather conditions very bad and the Douvre in flood.
In afternoon Col. Blamey visited works in Reserve Line, while the ADC and myself visited Steenwerck returning to DHQ at 6.30 PM.
D.A.D.M.S. 3rd Australian Division called on me.

Friday 18th January
To day I visited the three Field Artillery Brigades employed in this Divisional Area, the 1st and 2nd Brigades belonging to the 1st Aus. Div, and the 12th Army Brigade which was at one time part of my 4th Aus Div Artillery Command. I found Lt. Col. Williams in command of the latter group – and he looks very fit and well. Later on I hope to go round all the Battery positions.

Saturday 19th January
Visited 9th Inf. Brigade School at Meteren. Major Massie is doing very well indeed with the embryo officers, while Captain Yates has the signalling School in hand. Afterwards I visited 2nd Brigade School at Caestre under Capt. Lilley – but it did not favourably impress me. Boche prisoner captured last night.
Called on General Barnes G.O.C. 57th Division, HQrs. at Chateau Steenwerck.

Sunday 20th January
General Birdwood called. Discussed Divisional front generally and suggested that front line posts might be reduced during the present heavy weather. Informed me of proposal to reduce all Brigades to three Battalions each. This alteration however will not be adopted by the A.I.F. till after the next big offensive. In the meantime every effort is to be made to conserve every man. No useless casualties and unnecessary sick. Wrote usual weekly letters. Patrol of 1st Brigade came under enemy M.G. fire during the early part of night and one officer and man who were wounded have not yet been brought in.

Monday 21st January
No trace so far of officer and man missing last night. During morning with Gen. Bennett I visited all four battalions of 3rd Brigade. Major Phillips famed as an officer who desired to avoid front line service is now a/O.C. 11th Battalion. In evening I attended Divisional Concert Troupe concert. Items were exceedingly good and their "girl" was a splendid imitation.

[Page 383]
Tuesday 22nd January
Very miserable wet day so remained indoors and attended to administrative work.
Lt. Bull the missing officer from 1st Brigade returned to our lines after 48 hours absence during which time he had been behind the Boche front line and owing to keen enemy operations he was unable to return earlier. He supplied some useful information re enemy posts. News received of loss of Breslau and Goeben off the Dardanelles. Halford returned from Corps Intelligence School.

Wednesday 23rd January
This morning visited Brigade School and Battalion Transport lines at Meteren. Returned to Div. H.Q. at 12.30 and found General White here. Discussed Divisional and School matters with him. After lunch took Col. Milligan and C.O. 1st Inf. Bde. School to 9th Bde. School Meteren, where a demonstration Platoon from 4th Army School attended and gave an exhibition. Gens. Monash and White also present. Stayed for meal with Massey’s School and afterwards gave them a short address.
Halford left for 14 days leave. Rabbett & Ellis boarded for Australia.

Thursday 24th January
Again a miserable wet day. Remained at D.H.Q. all day. Attended to a good deal of administrative work. Discussed various matters with Gen. Bennett who left during the afternoon for a month’s leave in England. I accompanied him as far as Campagne where my Brigade had been billeted in September and November.

Friday 25th January
Returned to D.H.Q. at 11.30 AM General Birdwood around Right Brigade Sector with Col. Elliott a/c Brigadier.
During afternoon called at 3rd Bde. H.Q. re nomination of a Sergeant for Cadet Course and overruled Brigade & Battalion Commanders objections.

Saturday 26th January
With Col. Williams inspected all Batteries of 12th Army F.A. Brigade. Saw many old faces from the days of early training in Egypt. Went on through Dam Strasse to

[Page 384]
Demys and Ravine Woods thence back to Wytschaete via HQrs. 4th Battalion at Prince Ruprecat's Farm.
Received word from John Halford that a little daughter arrived at their house on Jan. 20th both Edith and infant doing well.

Sunday 27th January
Stayed in all day attending to administrative matters and writing usual weekly letters. Quite mild weather in fact almost indication of the arrival of Spring.

Monday 28th January
During the morning I visited all four batteries of 2nd F.A. Brigade going round with Major Edwards who is temporarily commanding the Brigade. Later I visited 1st and 3rd Batteries of 1st Aus Div F.A. Bde. with Major Selmer who is acting in Command.
Saw quite a number of original 1st Divisional Artillery men including two from my old 44th Battery. Advance parties from "G" & "Q" Staffs 5th Aus. Division arrived at our HQrs.

Tuesday 29th January
Visited remaining batteries of 1st Aus. F.A. Brigade with Major Selmer. All the men are very comfortable and after their strenuous battles of September and October last in the Third Battle of Ypres they are having a comparative rest here. General Birdwood asks that all Divisional Commanders may meet him on 2nd Feby. to discuss some important A.I.F. matters. He is visiting Gen. Lester’s Brigade today.

Wednesday 30th January
During morning went through original and alternative Defence Schemes and maps. All are ready for incoming Division. In afternoon visited 57th Divisional HQrs. at Steenwerck. The 14th Brigade 5th Aus. Division relieved 1st Inf. Bde. in Left Sector. Relief completed at 11 PM. Received Agenda Papers for Conference on 2nd Feby.

Thursday 31st January
During morning in company with Corps and 3rd Division Commanders watched the march of 9th Brigade through Ballieul. Exceedingly good show. Passed 1st Bde. Transport on the road. Very straggly and unsatisfactory. Generally discreditable.

[Page 385]
Both General Birdwood and General Monash very pleased with 9th Brigade turnout. Transport especially good.
In afternoon in company with Gen. Anderson inspected 1st D.A.C. Generally, with the exception of one section, the whole command was very satisfactory. Animals in good condition, harness and vehicles well cared for and stable arrangements very satisfactory. Major Wootten GSO II 5th Aus Div arrived from Samer.

Friday 1st February
Whole relief of 5th Aust. Div. completed last night. At 11.30 AM today I formally handed over command to Gen. Hobbs and with 1st Aus Div HQrs. moved to Merris. Bitterly cold day. Col. Blamey visited Corps School near Albert.

Saturday 2nd February
Attended a conference of Divisional Commanders at 5th Aus Div HQrs. Gen. Birdwood presided and he was accompanied by General White and Colonel Dodds.
The chief matter for discussion concerned the reduction of Brigades to three Battalions and on my suggestion the Battalion selected to be dropped will have its number, records etc. transferred to England, and it will become the training Battalion for its Brigade. This suggestion met with unanimous approval and cleared up a difficult situation. Other items discussed were discharge of unsuitable officers, granting of special leave to Australia to officers & men up to about 50 per month for the A.I.F., temporary holding up of promotions because of reduction of Battalions, levy on Canteen and Cinema profits, and holding of surplus officers in England for further advanced training. Colonel Blamey returned from Corps School.

Sunday 3rd February
At 10.30 AM attended Church Parade of 9th Brigade. General Birdwood and General Monash present. After the service the former presented many medals and ribbons. I was called on to receive the Ribbon of the Belgian "Croix de Guerre" recently conferred on me. During afternoon Chaplain General Holden visited our HQrs. He is looking up the Methodist Chaplains, and will leave us tomorrow forenoon.

[Page 386]
Monday 4th February
Chaplain Holden left during morning. At 9 AM Mr. Murdoch accompanied me to Corps School at Aveluy, arriving there about 12 noon. During afternoon visited various departments of the School. Motored down via Bethune-Arras-Baupaume.

Tuesday 5th February
Watched various demonstrations during the morning and after lunch returned back to Merris. Took direct road from Achieux to Arras, but had to make a detour westward in the vicinity of Gommecourt where old front lines cross the road. Much salving of Engineer material in progress, Chinese troops being employed. Reached Merris at 6 PM and at 7.30 PM. Col. Milligan and myself dined with the Corps Commander. Visit to Corps School exceedingly interesting and the Commandant (Col. Heritage has a good show. Col. Blamey on leave.

Wednesday 6th February
Visited in the morning Transport of 1st Bde. Found it generally very good. Later visited 3rd Field Ambulance Harness rooms. Harness in very poor condition. In afternoon attended lecture in Ballieul on "Tanks", with especial reference to the Cambrai show. Very interesting.

Thursday 7th February
During morning called on Brigadier Heane of 2nd Inf. Brigade. Interviewed certain officers re supersession. Afterwards inspected Transport of Machine Gun Co., 5th, 7th and 8th Battalions. Generally harness, horses and vehicles in very good order.
Received instructions from Corps to nominate 4 Sergts. and 14 other ranks specially selected for visit to Australia with 2 clear months leave in Australia. Dr. Carruthers Son (in supply column) called re Cadet School with gunners. General White arranged to lecture to Divisional Intelligence course on Tuesday afternoon next. Arranged to visit Tank Headquarters on Monday next. Warned to attend Army Commanders Conference tomorrow at 3 PM at Abeele.

Friday 8th February
During morning called at 9th Bde H Qrs. and then went on to inspect Transport of 3rd Bde. including 3rd Machine Gun Co.

[Page 387]
Generally I found harness very unsatisfactory. On my return I called at 3rd Bde. H Qrs. Here I found harness again far from creditable, and told Col. Elliott a/c Brigadier how I had found things generally. Horses on roads not properly bitted hence not controlled.
At 3 PM the Army Commander gave a lecture in the theatre Abeele to Corps and Divisional Commanders also CRAs and GSO I. Subject Lesson from Cambrai battle. He gave an excellent lecture – very interesting and in excellent style. Perused Australian Corps Defence Scheme.

Saturday 9th February
With Mr. Murdoch in the morning inspected Transport of 1st and 2nd Field Ambulance, and 1st, 2nd and 3rd Field Co. Engineers – all could do with much improvement in harness particularly all Field Ambulances. After lunch rode round 1st Artillery Brigade and inspected all Batteries. Turnout generally very creditable. Had a most enjoyable ride. My brown horse very fit and very fresh. For a change we had a bright sunny afternoon.

Sunday 10th February
Attended Church Parade of 8th Battalion at Locre. After the service Gen. Birdwood presented a number of medals and addressed officers and men. Had an early lunch and left at 12.30 for Boulogne. Reached there at 2.30 PM, interviewed Sir John Twigg of the British Red Cross, left again for home at 3 PM and arrived at Merris at 5 PM. Very cold windy day.

Monday 11th February
During morning inspected Transport of 21st Machine Gun Co., 6th Battalion and Pioneer Battalion. The two former in very fair condition, while the latter was generally very good indeed. After lunch called on General White at Corps HQrs., and brought before him for recognition in the next honours list the name of Rabett and Major Ellis. Afterwards attended a lecture given in Ballieul to our Intelligence course by General White. On returning to our HQrs. found Gen. Howse and Col. Manifold there. Called on General Monash.

Tuesday 12th February
Full details available of the raid of 10th Brigade on night of 10th/11th. A very successful show and many prisoners taken while

[Page 388]
over 100 Boche were killed. I am informed my Brigade is to go in to the line in about 2 weeks time for a period of a fortnight and that during that time we too are to organise a big raid.
Received word that Gen. Walker is returning here tomorrow.
Early this morning with Col. Milligan visited Tank Corps HQrs. On the way we visited Vimy Ridge. Had a very interesting and instructive tour round the Tank Workshop, saw their latest models, and rode in the 9 miles per hour Cavalry Tank as well as the regular pattern. Almost all the workmen are Chinesemen and are proving very suitable. Tonight in company with Gens. Birdwood, White, Howse and Carruthers attended a performance of "The Sentimental Bloke" in the Ballieu theatre. It was an excellent show and much appreciated by everybody. (43)

Wednesday 13th February
Spent the day or rather morning going through many papers etc. pending handing over to General Walker. In the afternoon rode around all batteries of 1st Aus. Div Arty (1st Brigade). Generally harness and animals in splendid order. My horse very fresh – and I thoroughly enjoyed the ride. Gen. Walker returned at 8 PM After dinner I went through several matters with the General and then returned to my Brigade HQrs. My men are to carry out a raid at an early date and I discussed matters with Col. Goddard and arranged for the necessary personnel to be withdrawn from such battalion. Leave to England for four days approved.

Thursday 14th February
Left in morning by car for Calais. Just missed midday boat so had to wait till about 6 PM Had rather a choppy crossing and finally reached Whitehall Hotel London about 10.30 PM A.I.F. HQrs. had a car to meet me at Victoria Station.

Friday 15th February
During morning called at Bank, Admiral Howarth Booth, Mr. Sharp and Miss Cowlishaw. Approval given by both RN and RAN for Charley’s transfer to the RAN, so it should soon now be an accomplished fact. Did some sundry shopping. Called at Horseferry Road but missed Gen. Griffiths who was absent in France. Saw Major Forrest who is now being returned to Australia for 6 months. I promised to have a letter written to Col. Dangar concerning both Ellis and Rabett, to ensure their return here in due course.

[Page 389]
Saturday 16th February
Visited HQrs. AIF during morning. Saw Paymaster A.I.F. re 4th Aus. Div Arty Trust a/c. Called at Army & Navy Stores and paid account for Brigade School Mess Kit. Not feeling too well. Stayed at Whitehall during afternoon and evening. Boche planes over during night but only one succeeded in reaching London. It dropped one bomb and was then driven off. Hotel folk crowding into corridors etc.

Sunday 17th February
A.I.F. HQrs. sent a car to Whitehall for me at 7.30 AM Caught train for Calais at 8 AM. Had a look around Calais while waiting for the boat. Saw marks on cliffs etc. where submarine shelled the town on the previous night. Arrived at Calais late in afternoon. Stayed at Grand Hotel during night. Car failed to report for me. Boche bombed about 8 PM

Monday 18th February
Car did not arrive for me till 7 PM, so wasted a whole day at Calais. Arrived at Bde H Qrs. at 9.30 PM. Went through several papers with Col. Goddard and Brigade Major.

Tuesday 19th February
In morning attended a conference at 5th Aus Div HQrs., General Birdwood presiding. He gave us detailed information of enemy strength in Divisions on the Western front, his possible further reinforcement in men and guns and generally the allied strength. Discussed preparations and methods necessary to ensure success against the enemy. During afternoon went through many papers.
Personnel for forthcoming raid accommodated in Special Camp. Col. Milne placed in Command.

Wednesday 20th February
With Major Pain spent the day in reconnoitering work done by this Brigade on 2nd zone of defence. A huge amount of work has been done but concrete work should in my opinion have been concentrated on a few "pill boxes" to start with rather than commence all work simultaneously and in consequence it will be some time before any are finished. Rang my Divisional Commander and told him my views.

[Page 390]
Approval given for me to move my HQrs. to "Big Sam" dugouts in Ploegsteert wood. This will put me much nearer my work than were I to take over Romarin Camp. Heavy rain during afternoon and evening.

Thursday 21st January
In the morning General Monash called re Court of Enquiry concerning Passchendaele operations and sundry matters of routine. He also referred to seeming friction between Col. Joss and Major Pain. Lt. Cols. Abbott and Bennett called. Conference with officers concerned regarding details of raid now proposed to be carried out on 3rd March. Decided on objectives etc. Wrote home letters during the afternoon.

Friday 22nd February
At 9 AM with Battalion Commanders and other officers watched 9th Brigade School personnel at work. Altogether the show was exceedingly good. I addressed the School. Later accepted School method of wearing equipment as the one to be adopted throughout the Brigade. At 11 AM had a conference with Col. Clougstone and Major Brookman re work on Corps line. At 2.30 PM Divisional Commander called and discussed various matters. Major Williams (CRE) called re accommodation for "C" Battalion in forward area.

Saturday 23rd February
During morning Divisional Commander held a conference at Brigade HQrs. re forthcoming raid, present in addition to myself, GSO I, Col. Milne, DMGO, TMB Commander, CRA & Bde. Major and Major Pain. Decided on general lines of raid. After lunch inspected personnel of raiding party, and addressed both officers and men separately. Then moved with part of staff to new advanced HQrs. near Ploegsteert.

Sunday 24th February
Attended Church Parade in morning at Nieppe. Afterwards General Birdwood presented medals, and on behalf of the King of Belgian presented me with the Croix de Guerre. Then called at 10th Bde H Qrs. and went through works policy of the Brigade. Arranged for works officers to show me round tomorrow morning. Major Pain took Asst. BM of 10th Bde. along the whole length of 2nd Zone. Divisional Commander informed me Gen. Birdwood wants raid repeated the next night.

[Page 391]
Monday 25th February
During morning in company with Works officers of 10th Brigade went round both front line Battalion areas. On the right I went down to La Basseville and had a look at the locality from which our raid is to be launched. Later I went to the front of the left Battalion area. Much work remains to be done but the withdrawal of the necessary 600 men for the two raids rather upset our working parties. Major Sandford called re wire cutting on front to be raided and necessary arrangements made with C.O. 33rd Battalion for withdrawal to a flank of personnel of post No. 8.

Tuesday 26th February
All day conference at Divisional HQrs.
During morning Divisional Commander addressed all C.Os. of Division and after lunch addresses were delivered by GSO I, AA & QMG and ADMS. Finally fixed details with C.R.A. concerning Artillery support for Raids on 3rd and 4th instant. Also finally arranged details with ADMS concerning evacuation of wounded. Machine gun programme also fixed. Called on Colonel Milne late in afternoon also at rear Bde H Qrs. at Romarin. Battalion working parties took off for various tests.

Wednesday 27th February
Conference with Battery Commanders of 9th, 10th and 11th ALTM Batteries and then tasks allotted for night of raid. C.O. 9th ALTM Battery Co. to take forward and be responsible for ammunition for all three Batteries. With Major Pain decided on orders for Raids on night of 3rd and 4th March next ensuing. Col. Milne with three of his O.Cs. assaulting parties called and discussed many matters referring to the Raids.

Thursday 28th February
In morning held a Conference at Rear Brigade HQrs. Present GSO I and Assistant, DMGO, OC. Raid, his four Captains, my Bde. Major, Staff Captain and myself. Finally fixed all details for raids on night of 3rd and 4th March. Draft orders finally approved and sent for typing.
Making improvements at Bde H Qrs. and doing much necessary cleaning up. Our Chief is to visit Ultimo Crater in our Sector tomorrow.

Page 392]
Friday 1st March
Busy in HQrs. all day completing preparations for raids, obtaining necessary stores etc. Final orders completed, typed and issued. Bitterly cold day.

Saturday 2nd March
During morning attended with Divisional Commanders at Bulford Camp. Here we saw the Raiding Party for night of March 3rd/4th do their task across a model piece of country. Afterwards both Parties were formed up, and the General addressed them in rousing terms. In afternoon at Brigade Head Quarters.

Sunday 3rd March
General Birdwood accompanied by the Divisional Commander and myself watched the Raiding Party for night of March 4th/5th go on their course. Gen. Birdwood then addressed both parties and wished them luck. All final arrangements completed at Brigade HQrs.
Promptly to time 11.45 PM our men entered into their tasks. They carried out their duty splendidly all tasks being fully completed and to time table. We captured 1 officer and 10 other ranks of the enemy, one Heavy Machine Gun and two light M.Guns. We killed over fifty Boche and there must be many wounded in addition. Our casualties were killed 1 officer, 3 other ranks, wounded – all slightly – 1 officer, 18 other ranks. The whole show went off very satisfactorily and information came in splendidly, both frequently and accurately.

Monday 4th March
Snatched 3 hours sleep during the day, and completed arrangements for second raid. Again very successful though the Boche made a stout resistance. In consequence we brought out no prisoners, but actually accounted for over 40 killed and very many wounded including the occupants of six dugouts. These men refused to come out so were bombed. Two light machine guns were captured.
Our losses, 1 officer killed, 3 men killed, 1 officer wounded, 21 men wounded, all but four being very slight. In each of the above raids I employed a total of 300 all ranks. All are much bucked at the results.

[Page 393]
Tuesday 5th March
Raiding parties clearing up in their camps. With Brigade Major I visited them. They are all in splendid spirit. Advance parties from 6th Brigade arrived to reconnoitre positions. Prepared Honors and Awards for officers and men who did best work in the raids. Visit from Representatives of British Press.

Wednesday 6th March
At 10.30 AM Gen. Birdwood presented twenty four Military Medal ribbons to selected NCOs and men as immediate reward for good work in raids. Col. Milne had a nice ceremonial parade arranged with his captured machine guns and rifles, much in evidence. Later General Birdwood addressed the parade.
I then accompanied General Birdwood round the front line four sector, or rather the support line. He took with him Messrs. Murdoch and Gilmore Australian Press representatives. We visited both line Battalion Commanders and Ultimo Crater. During the afternoon the 15" of Heavy Artillery destroyed the famous Warneton Tower, which has for so long been used by the Boche as an O.P.

Thursday 7th March
In morning with the Divisional Commander inspected my Brigade Group Transport as it marched along the Ballieul Road. It made a splendid showing and the Divisional Commander was very enthusiastic about it. In afternoon Gen. Paton, 6th Brigade with his staff arrived at our forward Brigade HQrs. Our two rear Battalions were relieved during the day and the remainder of Brigade units at night, relief being completed and command passing about 11 PM.
Division provided us with a car and we reached our temporary HQrs. at midnight.

Friday 8th March
Visited DHQ and had a conference with G.O.C. re training, destruction of property etc. He then handed over to G.O.C. 2nd Aus Div and left for Nielle Blequin. With my staff I watched entraining of Battalions at Steenwerck and then with them journed by rail to Desvres. Division had arranged for a car to meet me there, and we arrived at our new HQrs. about 8.30. A fine old Chateau at Henneveux.

[Page 394]
Saturday 9th March
Per car visited all Battalions. I found them settling down comfortably and generally well satisfied with their billets. Called at Division and signed sundry papers. The Divisional Commander left on 3 weeks leave to the South of France, and from to day I assume command until I too go on leave about the 17th inst. Our HQrs. are so pleasant and comfortable that I have decided not to move to Divisional HQrs. during my period as GOC Division.

Sunday 10th March
Motored to Division and dealt with sundry papers. Then on to Belgian Hospital at GUEMPS near Calais, and No. 2 Australian General Hospital at Wimereux. Here I saw Matron Grey and Col. Powell. I invited them to visit us next Saturday when we will have our Bands playing. They decided to come and will bring about 10 nurses with them. Returned home at 7.30 PM

Monday 11th March
D.A.D.M.S. had conference here with RMOs re sanitation and other matters appertaining to their department. He lunched with us. In the afternoon rode round some units of 33rd and 34th Battalions. Guard mounting of 34th Battalion particularly good. Returned home at 6 PM.
Have arranged that signallers and other details at Brigade HQrs. shall be organised as two platoons and trained as such, so that in case of necessity they may be of some value as fighting troops.
Arranged for Staff Capt. and Brigade Major to go on leave on 13th inst.

Tuesday 12th March
At Brigade HQrs. during morning. In afternoon rode over to 36th Battalion and discussed many matters with Col. Milne. He gave me a useful report concerning our Raid operations on night of 3/4 and 4/5 March. Boulogne bombed.

Wednesday 13th March
Major Pain and Capt. Suter left on leave to England. Called at Base Stationery Depot Boulogne concerning repairs of Typewriter. Called at No. 2 General Hospital Wimereux also visited HQrs. of 10th and 11th Bdes. C.R.E. and Divisional HQrs. also Pioneer Battalion re damage caused by troops.

[Page 395]
Thursday 14th March
Miserable wet day – remained indoors.
Conference with Major Fry and Capt. [indecipherable] re Brigade N.C.Os. and Signalling Schools. All details now arranged and Schools will open on 18th inst. in Village of Alingthun. Opened canteen for Brigade HQrs. and Schools. Conference with Capt. Pike and Major Blacklow re details of machine gun Battalion. Agreed to let Blacklow have Capt. Brodziac as Adjutant and Capt. [indecipherable] as Signalling Officer, and recommendation accordingly sent on to Corps. Two Lewis guns received for use of Bde H Qrs. platoons.

Friday 15th March
During morning attended to office matters. In afternoon rode to demonstration ground of 35th Battalion to watch smoke screen. Unfortunately Col. Goddard forgot I was coming and commenced the demonstration before time. Major Weik also came too late. Rode on afterwards to 33rd Battalion. Found Col. Morshead just about to have a game of tennis. I joined in tho’ wearing ordinary boots. Arrangements complete for my visit to Cap Martin.

Saturday 16th March
During morning attended smoke demonstration on 33rd Battalion ground. Both 33rd and 34th Battalions present. Quite an excellent illustration of what can be done by smoke in masking every strong point. Afterwards had three sets of tennis with Col. Morshead. In afternoon a party of nurses from No. 2 Australian General Hospital, Wimereux visited us at Brigade HQrs. They were accompanied by Col. Powell who commands the Hospital, Matron Gray and two Padres. Our Field Ambulance vehicles brought them along and took them back at 5 PM The massed bands of the Battalions played for us and our Mess Secretary had arranged a very nice "afternoon tea". I think the nurses all thoroughly enjoyed their afternoon.

Sunday 17th March
Attended to a few matters prior to going on leave. Sent water colour sketches over to London for Lt. Benson, in order to help his application for appointment as an official artist to A.I.F. Left Bde H Qrs. at 5.30 PM for No. 8 British Red Cross Hospital at

[Page 396]
Boulogne. I find I must enter as a patient and will not leave here for Cap Martin till Tuesday morning 19th inst. Many restrictions, must have all meals at the Hospital, breakfast at 7.30 must be in room, cannot go out till seen by the M.Officer. Must be in by 6.30 PM in evening, must be in bed at 9.30 PM. Plenty of "musts". However the Hospital appears to be well run and discipline must take its part. Capts. Dixon and Paterson came down with me, and rather enjoyed my discomfiture at the multitudinous regulations.

Monday 18th March
After breakfast and while waiting for the M. officer I watched sea planes being launched from the Hangars and going off on their allotted tasks. My ward is on the 6th Floor and has a magnificent view of the whole Harbour and coast line.
Before and after lunch I had a nice walk along the foreshore. A Boche plane was overhead about 2.30 PM and anti aircraft guns had a great time until eventually he was driven off. The Harbour is really very interesting – Hydroplanes, [indecipherable] boats, Destroyers, trawlers and innumerable other craft. Informed we leave about 6.30 tomorrow morning for Cap Martin via Amiens-Paris-Lyons and Marseilles. A very nice piano here and two young subalterns who play magnificently have been entertaining us.

Tuesday 19th March
Breakfast at 5.30 AM Caught train for Parisat 7.30 AM Party all told 16 in number, 3 Colonels and myself travelled together and had a few games of cards while on the journey. Lunched at Amiens, and arrived in Parisabout 4.30 PM One of the Colonels found his wife awaiting him. She is coming to live at Menton while her husband is at Cap Martin. Dined with them and a New Zealand Colonel at Gare Du Lyon, Paris. In the afternoon took the Underground Railway to the Opera House and spent half an hour in the centre of Paris. I should have mentioned that the British Red Cross Authorities provided motors for our party at Gare du Nord to take us to Gare Du Lyon. Boarded Menton train at 7.30 PM and left Parisat 8.15 PM. Arrangements had been made for "couchettes" for eight senior officers so I personally had a very comfortable night. Train a very fine one indeed.

[Page 397]
Wednesday 20th March
Passed Lyons about 4.30 AM, and reached Marseilles about 11.30 AM Breakfast at 7.30 AM and lunch at 11 AM. The Rhone Valley is exceedingly pretty and at the present time so gay with fruit tree blossoms. The villages and towns en route remind me very much of Cairo and Alexandria or rather one realises how much of French influence and character there is in the two towns referred to.
From Toulon the journey along the Riviera is intensely interesting. While the coastal scenery and mountain effects are not one whit better than much of our Australian country, yet the vivid colouring of the water and the distinctive character of the valleys and towns together with the sub-tropical foliage and paten life makes the whole ensemble very pleasant to look upon. From the railway one gets a fair general view of water scape and land scape, something of Cannes, Nice, Monaco, Monte Carlo and finally Menton which latter place we reached at 8.30 PM, one hour late. The latter part of the journey in particular was very tiring tho’ a few games of bridge helped to relieve us. It was raining rather heavily when we reached our destination. Cars were waiting for us to take us to Cap Martin Convalescent Home – and at 9.30 PM we sat down to a very nice and much appreciated dinner. I have a magnificent room (with Bath and Sitting room adjoining) overlooking the blue Mediterranean. To bed at 10.30 PM dead tired.

Thursday 21st March
A treat to have a fine hot bath. Breakfast at 8.30 AM after which I made my "bow" to the Commandant and listened to his words of wisdom concerning regulations etc. Then at 10 AM I reported to the Doctor under whose care I am. He duly sounded me and reports my lungs quite sound. Possibly I may need three weeks here. Gen. Hart (late of 4th N.Z. Brigade is here together with two other Generals and we four have a table allotted to us. At 10.30 Gen. Hart and myself walked to Menton, he to make a call, and for myself to call on General Monash who is staying at the Regina Place Hotel. He was not in so I left a note for him.
Walked back to the Home in time for lunch. Quite a pleasant stroll along the Esplanade. After lunch I thoroughly reconnoitred the grounds surrounding the Home and walked along the

[Page 398]
Coad Cliff track almost to Monte Carlo. A delightful walk this rugged pine clad country. Many fine villas here overlook the ocean. The Home itself is a very fine pile – accommodating about 180 officers with necessary staffs. The Dining room I understand will seat about 500. Thoroughly enjoyed afternoon tea at 4.30 PM I really felt very tired after my morning and afternoon strolls. Played bridge with our party of Generals till 11 PM

Friday 22nd March
Called on General Monash at his Hotel MentonE at 10.45 AM. With him took train to Monte Carlo. Had lunch at the Cafe de Parisand afterwards spent a very enjoyable hour in looking round the town. Specially visiting the Casino, Opera House, looking in at the Gaming Tables, and generally admiring and criticizing Architecture and Gardens. I was exceedingly interested to find that the fine vista between the Casino and the Bank is flanked with palms and trees most of which came from Australia. I refer especially to Cabbage Tree palms, Currajong and Moreton Bay figs. Also, I have seen quite a number of fine specimens of Australian eucalyptus.
At 2.30 PM we boarded the rack and pinion railway leading from Monte Carlo to La Turbie. The ascent is very steep and the highest point reached is about feet. Leaving the town of La Turbie we walked to the Grand Corniche route and thence westwards for about 3 kilometres. Then taking a short cut down the hill side to the lower Corniche road we reached the interesting old village of Eze. We walked through it till we finally reached the old keep at the summit. From this point there is a magnificent panorama extending for the full 360°. We then walked down a well graded track to the seaside, about 3 kilometres, and took train back to Monte Carlo, then changed and continued the journey back to the Hotel. One gets a fine view of Monaco while coming through and later I shall hope to inspect the Museum and the Prince’s palace. Generally the mountains and gorges are very interesting, much terracing everywhere, and much cultivation of vines and olive trees, also lemons. The Harbour works at Monaco and in fact all engineering work in the district in the way of viaducts, bridges, roads, etc. impress one as being of excellent design and construction. Altogether a very interesting day and full of pleasure and not the least being conversation on many topics with General Monash.

[Page 399]
Saturday 23rd March
The Boche seem to have commenced their long talked of attack on a front of about 60 miles. Here one can get no details. This morning I spent in the grounds of the Hotel and after lunch walked on towards Monte Carlo calling at the Villa Roquiek where Australian nurses have a rest home. Both the Matron and all the nurses were out. Stayed at the Hotel during afternoon. Immediately after dinner I received a wire ordering my immediate recall so it has been decided that General Monash and myself return together tomorrow morning. As usual my luck is out – my leave seems further than ever from realisation.

Sunday 24th March
With General Monash left Menton at 10.15 AM Had a very comfortable journey.

Monday 25th March
Arrived at Parisat 9.15 AM. Generals ADC at the Station with car. Had breakfast etc. in town and left at 10.30 for the Division. Parisgreatly excited because of German long range shelling, estimated at 120 kilometres. Arrived at Amiens at 2 PM. Passed many refugees between Beauvais and Amiens. Many wounded passing through the latter town. Had an excellent lunch at the E.F.C. officers club, then motored on to Doullens. Ascertained the Division was about to move here so I decided to remain and endeavour to prepare the way for my Brigade. Motored out to Mondicourt and established a Brigade HQrs. in a Chateau in the town. Succeeded in getting a decent billet and a good night’s rest. Our Bde. advance Parties (including Halford) arrived at Doullens today and is now with me here. Brigade due to arrive tomorrow.

Tuesday 26th March
10th Brigade first to arrive entraining at Mondicourt. At about 11 AM alarmist reports came in the Boche cavalry were in the village of Colincamps, and then commenced what can only be described as a disgraceful withdrawal. When military forces retire of course the civilians did the same – and very soon Mondicourt was deserted, the inhabitants having simply walked out and left everything behind them. At this juncture I heard my Brigade was arriving at Doullens so motored down in a train car and joined the Battalion, giving all the information

[Page 400]
I could. Unit then commenced their march to Mondicourt. I rode ahead with CO 33rd and 34th Battalions to Henu where they were to be billeted and established an outpost line – the real front line was some three miles Eastward and held by British troops. The two Battalions above mentioned reached Henu at Dusk – and the 35th Battn. later in the night marched into and billeted at Famechon. Machine Gun Co. at Couin.

Wednesday 27th March & 28th March

During the night orders were received that Brigade was to be bussed to Franvilles on the Amiens-Albert road. Accordingly orders were issued and the Convoy of 160 Busses left Famechon at 7.45 AM and reached FranVillers at 9.45 AM The 10th and 11th Brigades had preceded us to the same destination – and had been ordered to go at once into the line holding from Sailly Le Sec to Mericourt while the 9th Brigade went into Reserve in open fields north West of Heilly. The 33rd and 34th Battalions were later ordered to take over the line from Mericourt to Amiens Road, but had barely completed the move before the Brigade was ordered to move to Bonnay and hold a defensive flank along the Somme. The 36th Battalion had not yet arrived from Doullens so 35th Battalion was ordered to move at once (about 8 PM) and hold a line from Sailly Le Sec to main roadway through Corbie, while 33rd Battalion was ordered to hold line from main roadway through Corbie to Aubigny, the role of the Brigade being to prevent the enemy from crossing the Somme and from taking Corbie. The 36th Battalion arriving before midnight and bivouacked just north of Bonnay, while 34th Battalion moved into Bonnay.

Thursday 28th March
Called at Division and discussed many matters. Brigade HQrs. established at Bonnay at 9.30 AM Here also are HQrs. of 34th, 35th, 36th Battns, Machine Gun Co. & T.M. Battery, also a cyclist company attached to us from Corps, 33rd Battn. HQrs. in La Neuville with advanced HQrs. at Corbie. Made a personal reconnaissance of our line, called on and established liaison with 1st Cavalry Division and 16th Division whose HQrs. are at Fouilloy. It is pitiable to see the evacuation of the civil population. As an instance the morning of our arrival at FranVillers I saw an old man of over 70 years wheeling away his old wife of similar years in a wheelbarrow, and just a few of their most treasured possessions with them also in the barrow.

[Page 401]
Friday 29th March
Last evening while at dinner I received word from General Monash that my Brigade was to be detached from the Division and move southward. Later however he cancelled the order. Today I have again been all round my front and in liaison with 7th Cav. & 16th Division. This evening we again received orders to move south – this time definite – and to proceed to Cachy reporting to HQrs. 61st Division at Gentelles. Our Field Ambulance and Train Company are to accompany us. Leading Battalion left Bonnay about 8 o’clock and arrived at Cachy about 11 PM All units complete arrived during the night. I reported to Gen. MacKenzie, 61st Div. at Gentelles and established Brigade HQrs. in this village. British troops very pleased to see us.

Saturday 30th March
Arranged for all troops to evacuate Cachy during the day to avoid casualties from shell fire. They accordingly moved northward about 1000 yards to the edge of a wood. At 2.15 I was ordered by GOC 61st Division to counter attack and re-establish the line immediately West of Marcelcave to Aubercourt inclusive. I immediately proceeded to the Battalions called the COs together and ordered the 33rd Battn. to carry out the attack with 34th Battalions in support. The 12th Lancers (of 2nd Cavalry Division) about 400 strong protected our flank and assisted us in a splendid manner. Though my troops did not reach their final objective as laid down they drove the enemy back and established a splendid line. I received a very kind note of appreciation from the GOC 61st Division. Our casualties were officers killed 5, officers wounded, 5, OR killed 28, OR wounded 157, missing, 11 ORs, Total 217.
The 33rd Battalion was relieved by troops of the 18th Division during the night. We captured 4 prisoners and two machine guns. No more prisoners were needed. The 35th Battalion during the night took over from 1st Cavalry Division the line just West of Marcelcave to just West of Abancourt. This was done to give an opportunity for fragments of units to withdraw and be reorganised.
31st March. During the night 61st Division handed over Command of Sector to 18th Div. (General Lee) under whose command we now come.
Evacuation of wounded worked splendidly and our Field Ambulance is to be heartily congratulated on its efforts.

[Page 402]
Sunday 31st March
My references under date 30th March to relief of 61st Div. by 18th Division should come under date 31st March.
During the morning called on Col. Morshead and heard his story of the counter attack, then on to the C.O. of the 35th Battalion and satisfied myself that all was well on his part of the line. During the afternoon Cachy and Gentelles shelled with 5.9. About 24 casualties in 34th Battn. in Cachy. Here shells landed round our HQrs. and concussion of bursting shell smashed our windows but we suffered no casualties. My Brigade still reserved for counter attack work. Situation just south of us not very satisfactory this afternoon and there seemed at one time a possibility that my troops might be required. However the 54th Bde. of this Division was moved to the threatened point and we were not required. Reconnoitred the whole country on the Southern and Eastern slopes of Cachy ridge.

Monday 1st April
Prepared report re operations on 30th inst. and forwarded to 61st Division and several other units, particularly 2nd Cavalry Division whose 12th Lancers helped us so splendidly. During the day the remainder of 61st Division troops on our front were withdrawn.
Enemy shelled Cachy and Gentelles again this afternoon with 5.9" Our battalions now living in huts and in the open away from the village of Cachy. Instructions given late tonight regarding the construction of a switch line in front of Gentelles and Cachy. The enemy appears now to be held on this front. This afternoon we watched him attacking south East of Hangard in solid formation, but the artillery got on to him, drove him back in disorder and caused him heavy casualties. It is interesting to note the composition of Carey’s force relieved by us on the night 30th March. They included elements of 216 A.T. Coy. RE, 253 Tunnelling Co., III Corps School, No. 1 RE Battn. XIX Corps, Canadian Machine Gun Corp., No. 4 Workshop Co. RE, No. 2 Canadian Railway Battalion, 144, 213, 217, 353, A.T. Coy. RE, 5th Army Infantry School, 5th Army Musketry School, XIX Corps School, U.S.A. [?] Troops, 5th Army Signals – Total as at March 26th of about 3000.

Tuesday 2nd April
During the morning visited C.O. 35th Battalion and Col. Adams commanding the Artillery covering my front. Discussed fully all details as between Gunmen and Infantry. Later called on General [indecipherable]

[Page 403]
CRA to 18th Division. With him discussed the necessity for the provision of Liaison Officers from Heavy Artillery to live with FA Groups, thus ensuring prompt action against targets beyond the range of Field Artillery. Discussed with Divisional Commander the proposed switch line and received instructions to get on with it at once. During afternoon in company with Bde. Major, COs of 34th and 36th Battalions and CO 9th Marchine Gun Co. I reconnoitred and fixed this line, and then got in touch with the C.R.A. for tools wire etc. Boche again shelling Cachy and Gentilles, causing several casualties in the latter town to 9th Field Ambulance personnel.
The 54th Brigade (18th Div.) improved its line north of Hangard as the result of a minor operation. The enemy put down a very heavy barrage on their part of the front and also south of Hangard. The French during the night took over northwards from British as far as and including Hangard.

Wednesday 3rd April
In the morning in company with Bde. Major visited the new switch line and found all units had work well in hand. I then went on to Villers Bretonneux to HQrs. of 35th and 33rd Battalions. Arranged for 35th Battn. to use all companies in the front line, while 33rd will be responsible for construction of support line. The 33rd Battn. is providing a party of 50 NCOs and men under Major Hunt of 35th Battalion as a picket for the town. Australian Corps Provost Staff and 1st Cavalry Division also providing personnel. The condition of this and every other town through which our British troops have returned is too awful for words. Looting and drunkenness has been the order of the day and in my opinion have been directly the cause of so much falling back. We are trying our best to straighten up the towns again but it is a Herculean task. General Monash called about noon but unfortunately I missed him, not having returned from front areas. Heavy Artillery Liaison Officer now located with Field Artillery Group and Infantry in Villers Bretonneux. We have thus established a record for the war. I have never known it to be done previously and we can now arrange for fleeting targets beyond range of field guns to be taken on immediately.

Thursday 4th April
We were all roused at 5.15 by heavy enemy shelling which extended right along the Divisional front as well as southward and northward. At 6.15 the enemy attacked our Brigade front and simultaneously north and south of us. Reports from my 35th Battalion stated they had beaten off the attack inflicting heavy casualties on the Boche,

[Page 404]
and that they feel quite capable of dealing with any further attacks. Soon afterwards I was informed that the 74th Division on my left Flank had fallen back under enemy pressure, and to ensure a continuous line I had to fall back my left flank in concert with them. Later in the day the British troops on my right of 18th Division also gave way and I was again forced to fall back a flank, this time my Right, to maintain touch. At this stage the enemy pressure was very great and the situation somewhat critical. Under orders from 19th Corps my responsibility was to hold Villers Bretonneux, so I had moved up two battalions for counter attack purposes – the 34th immediately north and the 36th immediately south of the town. I should have noted that the 35th held our original front line and the 33rd were in support.
About 5 PM the enemy reached the southern outskirts of the town and the 36th Battn. was launched in counter attack. In brilliant fashion they did their job, drove the enemy back, captured 6 machine guns and 3 prisoners (the conditions making it impossible to deal with numbers of prisoners) and re-established the line. All the evening our Lecor’s guns and the captured machine guns caused heavy casualties to the massing enemy and when night fell our positions remained intact. I personally went forward at dusk, saw a good deal of the line and then conferred with all C.Os., reallotted the front to three Battalions, 33rd on left, 34th in centre and 36th on Right, while the 35th was ordered to withdraw and re-organise in support. During the night I ordered an advance of about 1000 yards to resecure our old support line trenches. This was done successfully, about 50 enemy being killed and 19 prisoners taken. The casualties to the enemy are estimated conservatively at 4,000. Our casualties were as follows:-

Btns. – Officers Killed – Officers Wounded – O.R. Killed – O.R. Wounded – O.R. Missing

33 – nil – 3 – 7 – 75 – nil
34 – nil – 5 – 20 – 100 – nil
35 – 3 – 6 – 43 – 191 – 44
36 – 4 – 8 – 26 – 106 – 1
M.Gun Co. – nil – 1 – 1 – 13 – 4
ALTMB. – nil – nil – nil – nil – nil
Total – 661

Troops of 15th Australian Brigade and also 5 Aus. Brigade have arrived in this locality. Some of our Bde H Qrs. killed during the bombardment this morning, including my best horse. My second has been evacuated sick, so I am now without any animal. Villers Bretonneux sadly damaged by enemy shell fire. Called at Division at BOVE, also 9th Field Ambulance. Reached my H.Q. 3.15 AM, 5th.

[Page 405]
Friday 5th April
Situation this morning quiet. During the day enemy commenced to mass along our front but from our excellent positions we caused him heavy casualties, estimated at 1000, as a result of combined fire of rifles and Lecon guns etc. All day long there were indications of enemy attack, so on my putting up the case the 19th Corps ordered 5th A.I. Bde. (Gen. Smith) to place 2 Battalions to support me for counter attack work, and if not used, to relieve my line during the night. These troops were not required and relief (excepting one Co. of 36th) was completed during the hours of darkness. Two Battns., the 33rd and 34th are being held on a close position of readiness to assist if necessary in counter attack for protection of Villers Bretonneux. General Smith took over also from British Troops of 18th Division and now holds as far south as Hangard where he joins the French. Gen. Hobbs today established his HQrs. in the village and holds from main Amiens road at Villers Bretonneux to the Somme while 3rd and 4th Aus. Divs. hold up to Albert. Thus the lines of approach to Amiens are controlled by Australian troops who hold about 15 miles of front and are the right of the British line.
Representatives from 4th Army, 19th Corps and GHQ called during the day and congratulated the Brigade on the success of the operations of yesterday.

Saturday 6th April
Have not yet been able to get detailed report prepared of operations on 4th & 5th insts. Battalions have not yet sent me their reports. Both 33rd and 34th Battalions have secured accommodation in huge factory cellars in Villers Bretonneux and will thus escape inclement weather. Capt. Pike and Capt. Moss Col. Jackson called from 3rd Aus. Division in order to see if we wanted anything. Canteen stores arrived from Division and were much appreciated. At night 17th & 18th Battalion AIF relieved by 175th Brigade and my counter attack battalions also relieved from their duty. Front quiet. Capt. Bushell killed tonight.

Sunday 7th April
Conference with C.Os. at Villers Bretonneux at 10 AM. Urged necessity of submitting reports of operations at once also list of casualties. These arrived during the afternoon and were collated and Brigade report prepared therefrom. This was sent to many outside formations for information and to the 3rd Cavalry Division I forwarded a letter of appreciation concerning the work of 1st Dragoon guards & 17th Lancers.

[Page 406]
Capt. Pike and Capt. Moss from 3rd Aus Div called to assist us in any way possible. Draft report of operations sent by Capt. Pike to General Monash. The 35th Battalion is now also accommodated in cellars in Villers Bretonneux with the 33rd and 34th. I hope to accommodate the 36th in a similar manner.

Monday 8th April
A quiet day generally, tho’ this morning there was heavy artillery fire on the French front on our right. Major Pain went forward to see Battalions and select forward Brigade Station in case we again go into the line as appears now to be possible. Australian Corps now established on the sector and comes under 4th Army. I expect the Corps southern boundary will be Hangard and the northern boundary in the vicinity of Buire. Major King from 3rd Aus Div and Dados called re equipment, stores, clothing etc. Prepared recommendation for immediate honors and awards to Officers NCOs and men of 33rd and 34th Battalions in connection with counter attack operations on 30th March. Informed by 18th Division that two of my Battalions would tomorrow night go into the line from Hangard midway to Villers Bretonneux.
Miserable wet day. The 5th Aus. Brigade and 175th Brigade are tomorrow morning early to advance their line to the old front East of what we know as Lancer Wood.

Tuesday 9th April
Operation intended for this morning postponed till approximately 13th inst. in order to permit of French co-operation on South. Brigade Major and myself called on GOC 5th Aus. Inf. Bde. and arranged details of relief tonight of 34th and 36th Battalions. GOC 18th Division called and in detail gave me the nature of proposed operations on 13th inst. and the role of this Brigade on that date as Divisional Reserve.
Boche shelling a good deal during the day and towards evening sent over some gas shell. London "Times" of yesterday’s date gives an interesting column to the work of the Cavalry during the recent fighting and incidentally refers to our working with and appreciation for the Cavalry.
Relief by 34th and 36th Battalions carried out, and 33rd & 35th Battalions also 9th Aus. Machine Gun Co. and Trench Mortar Battery become Divisional Reserve and will remain for the present located in stray cellars on the north West corner of Villers Bretonneux.

[Page 407]
Wednesday 10th April
Received instructions from 18th Div. to provide one Battalion for immediate garrison and defence of Villers Bretonneux. I have therefore instructed Lt. Col. Morshead to so employ his Battalion and have given him the 9th ALTM Battery and 2 Sections of 9th M.Gun Co. He himself becomes O.C. defences Villers Bretonneux and comes directly under the orders of GOC 18th Division, tho’ as GOC 58th Division will in a few days take over the line Col. Morshead is to carry out the works policy in accordance with the latter ideas. The 35th Battalion and 9th Machine Gun Co. (less 2 Sections) remains Divisional Reserve.
During morning in company with 2nd in Command 35th Battalion reconnoitred position for Divisional Reserve to occupy during forthcoming operations. Capt. Suter went up to Hazebrouck with a party from 3rd Aus Div HQrs. to arrange re moving records back.
Heard this evening that the Boche had attacked north and south of Armentieres. On the south he had reached Estaires and BAC St. MUR, while on the north he had pushed in to Messines ridge and Ploegsteert Wood. A counter attack by 19th Division drove him back on the north.

Thursday 11th April
Attended conference at 18th Div HQrs re forthcoming operations now decided for morning of 14th instant. Cleared up situation regarding definite role and powers of C.O. Villers Bretonneux. Lt. Larke & Halford went to Hazebrouck re kit etc. and if possible will endeavour to get some of my belongings from the cellar at Sternwerck Chateau. However our line runs now so close to this town that I am afraid they will be unsuccessful. Capt. Suter returned from Hazebrouck. He succeeded in sending all Brigade records and some officers kits (including my own) back to Desvres. The 1st Australian Division also British Cavalry moved northward today and I expect we shall soon hear of them being hotly engaged. This front quiet yesterday tho’ further south on the French front we could hear heavy artillery fire. Much aerial activity on both sides. The HQrs. 5th Aus Div have moved to BUSSY on the north side of the river. Amiens now deserted. All civilians evacuated.
The 58th Division (Gen. Cator) will take over the sector in a few days, and judging from a letter I have received from General Monash the prospects of our early rejoining the 3rd Division are not very hopeful. The 3rd Div. anticipates having to hold its present line indefinitely.

[Page 408]
Friday 12th April
This morning the Boche made a strong attack on the French at HANGUARD affecting my right Battalion the 36th. Orders came through from 18th Division about 9 AM to move the 35th Battn. and machine gun Co. from Villers Bretonneux to a position of readiness near Gentelles Wood. Later in the day I received word that a 5.9 shell had struck the HQrs. dugout of 36th Battalion, that Lt. Col. Milne and his Adjutant Capt. McFee were killed and that Major McDowell, second in command was seriously wounded. Major Fry from 34th Battn. was placed temporarily in command of 36th until I could send down Major Grant from 35th Battn. and Major Dunlop to act as Adjutant. Spoke to Division about the question of command. General Monash later came to see me and as a result of my recommendations Major Fry will remain in command of 34th Battn. and Major White second in command of 33rd, will command 36th Battn. both with temporary rank of Lieut. Colonel. Very sorry indeed to lose Colonel Milne. A brave and courageous as well as capable officer and one whose place it will be difficult to adequately fill. At this juncture we cannot spare officers of any rank, let alone senior officers. Since 29th March when we arrived in this area my losses in officers have been as follows – Killed 13, died of wounds 2, wounded 31 – Total 46 – nearly all as the result of machine gun fire. During the night the 36th Battalion was relieved and moved back to Bois de Blangy. The 34th Battalion was also withdrawn from the line but at present is held as a counter attack battalion in close support to front line Battalions. The 35th Battalion and 9th Machine Gun Co. remained in Bivouac in a position of readiness as Divisional Reserve just north of Gentelles Wood. A great deal of artillery fire during the night and an abundance of enemy bombing – sounding in the direction of Corbie.

Saturday 13th April
Called at Divisional HQrs. (58th Div.) at Glisy. It is decided that 9th Bde. shall remain as Divisional Reserve for some few days and will occupy the Bove-Blangy line. Rode round Battalions with Bde. Major and allotted definite areas. The 34th came right out of the line this evening. The 36th evidently did exceedingly well on the afternoon and evening of 12th. Operations intended for 14th further postponed this time indefinitely. GOC 58th Division assumed command of sector from 18th Division at 3 PM today.

[Page 409]
Sunday 14th April
Rode round Battalion bivouacs. Majors Fry and White definitely appointed by Corps to command 34th and 36th Battalions respectively with temporary rank in each case of Lieut. Colonel.
Called at Divisional HQrs., arranged about ordnance supplies etc. We are definitely for those services to come under 58th Division.
Arranged details for move of Brigade HQrs. to tents in copse T32 central and signals instructed to connect up all Battalions.
Late in the evening received word that on 15th inst. my Brigade is to mann the Reserve line – Gentelles-Bois L-Abbe. This cancels previous instructions that we were to be on Bove-Blangy line for some days. About the 19th inst. I am to take over Left Sector of Divisional front.
News from the north indicates that the Boche is now held up. It would appear that the advent of Cavalry Divisions and 1st Australian Division has had the desired affect. The Boche will be rather non-plussed – realising that simultaneously with having his march on Amiens barred by Australian troops, he still has Australian troops opposite him on the Ballieul line. Miserable drizzling wet day and bitterly cold.

Monday 15th April
Met C.Os. of Battalions at Bois L-Abbe, told them the location of the units in the Reserve line from which they are to take over – and they moved off to their respective areas making necessary arrangements for relief tonight. Visited new tunnelled Brigade H.Quarters in railway cutting Bois L-Abbe which we will occupy in a few days. They will be quite comfortable and at the same time secure from shell fire and bombs. Battalions moved to new locations and completed reliefs about 8 PM. Much night shelling by both enemy and ourselves.

Tuesday 16th April
With Brigade Major visited all Battalions. Told them off to their sectors when I take over the line so that the necessary reconnaissance may be made by all officers. Lunched with CO 33rd Battalion at Villers Bretonneux. He has the defences of the town well organised. Later visited the very fine Chateau in the town. Splendidly furnished and fitted with a wealth of carving it is a charming home. Grounds and flower beds well laid out, hyacinth, tulips and other bulbous plants in bloom – a fine aviary covering about ¼ acre – with all kinds of birds etc. all being gradually demolished by enemy shell fire. Ruthless destruction

[Page 410]
and one cannot help being dominated by a feeling of revenge against the country and the people who were responsible for the dreadful war. Called at new Brigade HQrs. on my return journey. They will be ready for occupation by us on 19th inst. Called on Colonel Erskine commanding the Artillery Group covering our front. Arranged working parties for tonight to bring cable from new Bde H Qrs. to connect with line Battalions.
Upon my return to HQrs. met Gen. Cator GOC 58th Division who informed me our arrangements for taking over the line on 19th inst. cancelled and that on 20th inst. my Brigade would return to 3rd Aus Div and bivouac temporarily to Camon and Lamotte near Amiens. I presume we shall have two or three days in which to bathe and generally clean up the men and then take over part of 3rd Aus. Division front. Tho’ we have had an interesting time here we shall be glad to rejoin our own Division. Dined with Divisional Commander near Boves at Fort Manoir.
Appreciated letter received from French General concerning assistance of British troops including our 9th Brigade. Charley transferred to RAN and appointed to HMAS Melbourne. Work on buried cable route not very satisfactory owing to delay in bringing up tools and to an insufficient number of men.

Wednesday 17th April
Boche shelled Villers Bretonneux very heavily in the morning and again in the afternoon with gas shell of all calibres. At the same time he also gassed Bois L-Abbe. Altogether he put in about 8000 rounds into the town and 4,000 in the wood. As a result he casualted practically the whole of a British Battalion held for counter attack work and every Brigade he caused casualties to 11 officers and over 300 other ranks with more still being evacuated. The 33rd particularly in the town had a very bad time indeed. As a result of these casualties I had to push up my 35th Battalion for counter attack purposes and also send up one company of 36th to reinforce the 33rd in the town. Working parties on burying of cable had therefore to be abandoned, tho’ I had hoped to have it all finished before leaving the Sector.
During the morning Gen. Haig commanding 24th Battn. of 8th British Division called to see me. He is to take over the Villers Bretonneux front on night 19th-20th April. Gen. Grogan commanding 23rd Bde. of same Division will on the night 20th/21st take over from my Battalion in Villers Bretonneux. Strangely enough I took over from this Brigadier at Brune Gaye in December last.

[Page 411]
Thursday 18th April
Again the enemy has shelled with gas and we have suffered further casualties in the Brigade including 7 more officers. The officers comprise Col. Morshead and his Adjutant, and the 33rd Battn is now exceedingly weak. I have therefore sent forward the 36th less one company to take over from 33rd. Col. White becomes Commandant of the town and the remains of the 33rd have been taken out by motor lorries to Bove where they are being billeted, bathed and fitted out with fresh clothing while their own is being fumigated.
General Montgomery, M.G. General Staff to Gen. Rawlinson called to see me, expressed his thanks for the work of the Brigade in the sector which has been very valuable and much appreciated, and his regrets at our heavy casualties from gas. The Army Commander has evidently been pleased with our work. Staff of 58th Division doing all they can to help us re bathing, billets and clothing.
Major Grant placed temporarily in command of 33rd Battalion.
Division informed of our total casualties.
During the day I called on General Monash and arranged with him details of our move into his area and our location therein. All satisfactorily fixed up. Bde H Qrs. will be at Frechencourt.
Battle up north appears to be now more or less Stationary, and our troops reinforced by French appear to have held the enemy up.
Enemy bombing continuously during the night. No damage at Blangy-Tronville.

Friday 19th April
Advanced parties of 23rd Bde. 8th Division called re new relief. Col. Anderson Morshead (a connection of our Col. Morshead) is to take over the defences of Villers Bretonneux while his G.O.C., General Grogan, will take over our HQrs. at Blangy-Tronville. Strangely enough I took over from Gen. Grogan at Brune-Gaye at the end of last year.
Heard today that Major Garling, 4th Aus. Div Arty had been killed in action.

Saturday 20th April
During the day the 34th and 35th Battalions were relieved in Bois L-Abbe – and marched to FranVillers and Lahoussoye respectively.
At night the 36th was relieved and at 11 PM commenced its march to Lahoussoye. Machine gunners are to be relieved tomorrow night and will then rejoin the M.G. Battalion and be billeted at Bonnay. The 9th F. Ambulance and train Co. both rejoined our 3rd Divisiion today. I formally handed

[Page 412]
over command of Villers Bretonneux at 12 midnight. Major Pain and myself then moved on to our new Head Qrs. at Frechencourt.

Sunday 21st April
Our HQrs. are in a Chateau where also are billeted officers of 4th Aus Div Infantry. The building has been denuded of furniture and is far from being comfortable. We shall have to secure (or salve) enough furniture for our needs also a cooking stove. All units settling down in their new billets. The 33rd Battn. and trench mortar battery arrived from Bove today by motor lorry, so we are once again complete and with our Division. Halford accompanied me in a long walk over the country in search of Partridge and hares, and tho’ we saw a few of each we couldn’t get close enough to shoot them. I have the late Col. Milne’s gun.

Monday 22nd April
Conference with Divisional Commander in morning re question of breaking up one battalion. He decided that if 500 NSW reinforcements could be supplied me during the next 2 weeks, we would keep to the four battalion organization. Otherwise the 36th Battalion will be broken up at once and the personnel distributed to the other battalions, the major portion going to 33rd Battalion. At 12.30 PM General Birdwood called for me and accompanied me to all Battalions, seeing the officers and men. On my return to Bde H Qrs. I learnt the Army Commander intended to call during the late afternoon and he arrived about 6 PM. He thanked me for the work of the Brigade while detached south. Major Hawley is being recalled from England and Major Blake is to take over his place.

Tuesday 23rd April
It has been decided that 4th Aus Div will relieve 3rd Aus Div in the line on night 24/25th April. As the 4th Bde. of 4th Aus Div has not yet rejoined its Division my Brigade is to remain in its present location temporarily and be attached to Gen. Max Lagan as his Reserve Brigade. Much artillery action south of the Somme and prisoners state Boche is to make a big attack tomorrow morning. During tonight and the early hours of tomorrow all artillery is to engage in a big counter preparation programme. I shall be interested to see what happens in the Villers Bretonneux sector particularly.
Major Priestman and Col. Chateres called from Army HQrs. The latter whom I last met at Grantham is now Machine Gun adviser to 4th Army. Major Pain & myself dined with Gen. Max Lagan.

[Page 413]
Wednesday 24th April
This morning the Boche attacked from Hangard to the Somme. With Villers Bretonneux as a centre he succeeded in driving back troops of 8th Division to the Bois L-Abbe. At this juncture the 13th Bde. of 4th Aus Div was ordered to move to Blangy-Tronville and I was ordered to have two Battalions ready to move at shortest notices to reinforce our own line or counter attack as might be necessary. The 5th Australian Division held its ground. Later in the day a Brigade of 8th Division in counter attack succeeded in driving the Boche out of BOIS D’AQUENNE into the town, but was held up by machine gun fire from further advance. The situation till evening remained as above with some parts of the line not definitely located. I saw today at Division HQrs. an interesting graph setting out the employment in various categories of the Brigade of the Division since its arrival in France. They are as follows –

Actual Battle – 9th Bde. 55 days – 10th Bde. 10 - 11th Bde. 50
Line defence – 9th Bde. 191 days – 10th Bde. 245 - 11th Bde. 210
Rest or Reserve – 9th Bde. 250 days – 10th Bde. 240 - 11th Bde. 210

Thursday 25th April

News this morning shows that the 15th and 13th Australian Brigades have retaken Villers Bretonneux and re-established our former line. This is the third time Australian troops have saved this particular sector, and it seems a great pity that our fine men should be frittered away in retaking ground so consistently being lost by British troops.
Conference with Divisional Commander and O.C. Div. Signal Co., re transfers of men from Battalions to Sig. Service.
Inspected Transport during afternoon and arranged for horses to be exchanged with Artillery for mules. Major Blake went off to England.
Dined with Divisional Commander and "A" men this being Gallipoli day. It is hard to realise that three years have passed away since that eventful day.
I have just had compiled total list of casualties while detached from the Division and operating south of the Somme.

Battn. – Officers killed – Officers wounded – Officers gassed – O.Rs. killed – O.Rs. wounded – O.Rs. gassed – Missing

33rd – 3 – 8 – 20 – 50 – 246 – 395 – 7
34th – 1 – 7 – 1 – 33 – 181 – 27 – 17
35th – 2 – 6 – 0 – 57 – 234 – 54 – 61
36th – 7 – 3 – 4 – 36 – 164 – 60 – 3
9th AMG.Co – 0 – 1 – 4 – 2 – 15 – 58 – 3
9th ALTMB – 0 – 0 – 4 – 0 – 7 – 41 – 0

Total – 73 officers – 1750 other ranks

[Page 414]
Friday 26th April
It has now been decided that 9th Bde. will relieve 11th Bde. on the night 30th/1st April and 1st/2nd April, remaining in the line under normal circumstances for a period of 16 days then coming out for 8 days. Visited Transport during morning. Wrote Gen. Foote re tools for Brigade HQrs. tradesmen. Discussion with Divisional Commander re abolition of 36th Battalion and he endorsed my proposals which are to be referred to the Corps Cdr. for approval. American Engineer troops arrived at Frechencourt.

Saturday 27th April
Conferred with all Battalion Commanders re abolition of 36th Battalion and explained proposals. Visited Corps HQrs. unfortunately missed Generals White & Foote also Col. Barber ADMS Then went on to Divisional HQrs. "B" teams finally arranged from all Battalions, and arrangements made to locate them at La Houssie.

Sunday 28th April
Wrote many letters. Advised finally about relief of 11th Bde. though no orders have yet been issued by Division. Have decided to put 34th on the Right and 35th on the Left of the line. Necessary reconnaissance being made by officers of all Battalions. Called on General Cannam at Heilly and discussed with him details affecting his front. Had a look at new Brigade HQrs. being tunnelled through wall and high bank surrounding Heilly Chateau. When completed will make a very fine Head Quarters.

Monday 29th April
Very misty morning. Walked round the whole outpost line of the front we are to take over and am not quite satisfied. Will advance my line considerably as soon as possible after taking over. Called on Gen. Monash and told him my views which coincide with his own. The 35th Battalion completed its relief during the night without incident.

Tuesday 30th April
The notes in date 29th regarding my tour of the line and visit to the General, as also to the relief of 35th Battalion should refer to 30th inst. Brigade HQrs. living arrangements are far from satisfactory and will need much alteration.

[Page 415]
Wednesday 1st May
Inspected Transport during morning and arranged certain exchanges and pairing of horses. Called on C.O 34th Battalion re advancing his line, then moved on to Bde H Qrs. at Heilly.
Called on General McNicoll of 10th Bde. and visited new tunnelled HQrs. which are not progressing satisfactorily. Told the CRE such was the case. Relief by 34th Battalion completed and command passed to me at about an hour after midnight. Have arranged mess and sleeping quarters in a small house close to the cellars which constitute the Infantry and Artillery offices. At last liaison good between gunners and Infantry. Saw General Birdwood while calling on Gen. McNicoll.

Thursday 2nd May
With A/BM and I.O. visited all three Battalion HQrs. also Flank Battalion C.O. of 8th Bde., and 8th Bde H Qrs. at Corbie. Arranged final details for advance of 34th Battalion on night of 4th May and 35th ditto on night of 5th May, including working parties for wiring and digging of posts. Spoke to Divisional Commander re arrangements. A great deal of difficulty in securing necessary amount of pickets for wiring.

Friday 3rd May
Divisional Commander called during morning and discussed fully details for operations on 4th and 5th. Later went with him to see Gen. McNicoll on the same matter. The G.O.C. has allotted me certain working parties from the Pioneer Battn. Interview with CRE and CO 11th Field Co. re new Bde H Qrs. The 11th F. Coy. is to complete this work. Two Boche planes brought down in our area today. Used messenger dogs from Battalions to Brigade for first time. Dog took 33 minutes to bring a message 5000 yards. Discussed artillery programme for 5th inst. with Cra. Sent forward last night and tonight sufficient wire and pickets to do 2000 yards of double apron wiring.

Saturday 4th May
Went round the line and visited all Battalion HQrs. Discussed with Battalion Commanders proposals for operations on 4th and 5th insts. Visited Right Flank re new line of posts. Arranged that two companies of 33rd Battalion should take over Front line from 35th on night of 4th, thus leaving Col. Goddard’s command fire in his own hands to be used as he thought best.

[Page 416]
Sunday 4th May
Saturday 4th May
Busy in the office all day. Prepared final instructions for tonight’s advance on front of Right Battalion. Called at 35th HQrs., and with Col. White and Major Dunlop visited Right Flank. We thoroughly reconnoitred the site for new posts and assisted the Pioneers and Infantry to tape out new posts. While taping out line for wire we three were faced by a party of 6 Boche – I called on them to halt, but they attempted to bolt off. Col. White and myself both used our revolvers each winging a Boche. The remainder excepting one promptly fell on their knees and put up their hands in token of surrender. The solitary one who eluded us ran into some of our men a little distance off and was captured. We took the remainder in hand, had the wounded men attended to and then walked off with our prisoners. The Battalion Commanders were highly amused to see their Brigadier bringing in his own "Identification", so urgently called for by Division. I reached my HQrs. at 6.30 AM on 5th inst.
Our line of posts as intended was established.

Monday 5th
Sunday 5th May
Orders prepared for attack tonight by 35th Battalion and part of 34th on front north of Corbie Road. South of the Road the remainder of the 34th Battalion will swing up its left Flank to join our new line. Photos received today show that in front of us the Boche now has north of the Corbie Road, a complete front line and support line so our task is a bigger one than we at first anticipated. Lieut Halford joined 35th Bde H Qrs. before commencement of operations. At 11.45 PM Barrage opened and troops advanced successfully capturing the whole system and on the Right the 34th Battalion swung up its left. Heavy fighting took place on the extreme flanks of the objective. Altogether about 160 prisoners were captured including 3 officers, 9 machine guns and 2 T. Mortars. A Pioneer Company lent to the Brigade for the night consolidated the new front line and pushed out a number of Sap heads Td. As they were not ready to commence work till 12.30 they did excellently.

Tuesday 7th
Monday 6th May
Early this morning we were inundated with Congratulatory messages on last night’s operations – from the Army, Corps and Divisional Commanders also from many friends in various Brigades. Gen. Plumer also sent a congratulatory wire. Much useful information was obtained from prisoners. At night 34th Battalion attempted to swing up its line on my extreme right but found the enemy system too strong to deal with, without artillery support. A scheme will be prepared for tomorrow night to secure the desired end.

[Page 417]
Tuesday 7th May
Conference at my HQrs. during morning with Gen. Tivey of 8th Brigade, my Group Commander and his. We discussed fully proposed advance tonight on my Right Flank, and after some difficulty persuaded Gen. Tivey as to objectives. Later however Gen. Hobbs decided to somewhat modify his objectives, not however materially our operations.
During the day 34th Battn. had some difficulty with the Boche in their position in front line south of Corbie road, but T.Ms. dealt with the situation.
Major Pain went forward to 34th Battn. HQrs. to remain there during the show tonight. Zero hour at 11.30 PM. Succeeded in establishing our new line on the left but on our right we can get no information and this situation is obscure.

Wednesday 8th May
The right of our line not established last night, but as some officers and men are not accounted for it is presumed they are on the general line but not connected up. Major Lieut. Fry very unwell and he is to go back to CCS for a rest. Gens. Birdwood, Monash, Cameron and Grimwade called about noon. To night Col. White attempted to definitely link up our right flank to 5th Aus Div, but owing to heavy machine gun fire and the darkness of the night he was unsuccessful. It must therefore be surmised that those officers and men unaccounted for on the previous night have either been killed or captured. As far as is at present known they total 4 officers and 10 other ranks.
Shelling of Heilly about 10 PM, driving us to our cellars.
Last night we captured 8 prisoners, two being wounded in process of capture.

Thursday 9th May
Today advanced parties of 5th Aus. Inf. Bde. (which is to relieve us came into the line. It now appears certain that 5 officers and about 62 men are missing from night of 7th May of which number the Boche claims 4 officers and 41 other ranks as prisoners. Our fellows must have been overwhelmed from a flank and must have fought well.
Work at new Head Quarters progressing satisfactorily. Line of posts finally linked up on my right flank and with 5th Aus Div
A great deal of artillery activity tonight on both sides. Enemy shelled Heilly and drove us all to take shelter in cellars.
London papers contain many eulogistic references to our work of the last few nights.

[Page 418]
Friday 10th May
Our HQrs. inundated to day by representatives of incoming units. General White also called in order to obtain first hand full details of our recent operations. Col. Allsop called during afternoon also Major Wootton. Spoke to Gen. White re Major Crisp for consideration as Brigade Major Staff Trainee. Col. Martin (commanding 5th Inf. Bde.) and his staff arrived. Relief rather complicated and not completed till early morning. I handed over command of the sector at 4.30 AM.

Saturday 11th May
Battalions came out of the line in early morning and all remained in the vicinity of Lahoussoye till about 11 AM, when they moved off leaving a few men behind whose feet were in such a condition as to prevent them marching. The 9th Field Ambulance brought them along. All units mounted passing lorries on their way to their allotted billetting area. Men very tired and foot sore. The last 8 days have been very strenuous indeed. I moved to our rear HQrs. at 9 AM and at 11.30 AM moved to Rivery, a suburb of Amiens. Here my HQrs. and a big part of the Brigade are billetted in huge hospital buildings and will be very comfortable indeed. A few days rest will be much appreciated by myself and staff as well as by Battalion officers and men.

Sunday 12th May
Wrote a number of letters during the morning, and had a long interview with Col. Goddard. After lunch went with Dados to Desvres where I wanted to get some of my kit and also band music for two of the Battalion Bands. I stayed at my old HQrs. at Campagne, while car went on to Desvres and Boulogne. Country is everywhere very beautiful. On the way called on Madame Plouvier and her daughter. They are staying with a married daughter in FRUGES. Very depressed over the loss of their home. Major Grant to temporarily command 34th Battalion.

Monday 13th May
Returned to Rivery during afternoon. Found Gen. Monash had called to see me. Capt. Hawkins appointed Trainee Bde. Major to 11th Bde., and Capt. Paterson Trainee Staff Capt. to my Brigade. Col. Jolley called and informed me that Col. Fry would have to be evacuated tomorrow. Heard that Lt. Jones Adjutant of 33rd had died as result of flu. A fine officer who could ill be spared. Spoke to Division re personnel attached to Transport detailed to Corps.

[Page 419]
Tuesday 14th May
Called on Col. Fry at 9th Field Ambulance. He is being evacuated today. His scars received from gas burns have turned septic and he will I expect be away for a month at least.
Gen. Birdwood called during morning and gave me details of alterations in command in the A.I.F. which will be given effect to at a very early date. He is to command 5th Army and take Gen. White with him as M.G.G.S. Gen. Monash is to command the Australian Corps and will have Col. Blamey as his B.G.G.S In order to salve McNicoll’s feelings I am not to be given command of 3rd Aus Div but Gen. Gellibrand is to receive the appointment. Concurrently however I am to be appointed to command of either 1st or 2nd Aus. Division, it has not been yet decided which. Major Weick is to go to 1st Aus Div as GSO I.
Col. Goddard is to command 8th Aus. Inf. Bde., and Col. Davis of 10th Bde. who is senior is to get his promotion to full Colonel and be posted for duty at the Base at Havre. Gen. Glasgow is to be the next Divisional Commander after my appointment. Quite a break up in the Australian family. Gen. Birdwood retains his appointment as GOC A.I.F. He tells me the C in C has promised that as far as circumstances permit the Australian Corps will always be part of his (Gen. Birdwood’s) army. Changes are waiting pending receipt of cable from Melbourne. Gen. Birdwood went around all Battalions with me. Men very cheery and visibly improving in condition. The bands play every day and their music is very much appreciated indeed.

Wednesday 15th May
Enemy artillery shelled Amiens at intervals through the night though not just in the area occupied by my troops. Also early this morning Boche planes dropped at least 50 bombs, large and small. These too luckily did not fall in our locality. Inspected Transport 34th Battalion. Very good indeed. Colonel Ross & Capt. Chermside came to dinner. Discussed with Colonel Ross the forthcoming changes. 3rd Div. Artillery moved back to Abbeville area.

Thursday 16th May
Inspected Transport of Bde H Qrs. and 35th Battalion. The former excellent, the latter only fair. Charger arrived from remounts. Seems suitable. Interviewed new officers joining Battalions for first time. With Col. Goddard interviewed Capt. Pearce and Lt. Findlay re their unsatisfactory service. Also with Brig. Grant interviewed two officers of his Battalion re certain mistakes made when last in the line. In the evening attended Pierrot entertainment. A number of bombs dropped during early night. No damage done to my troops.

[Page 420]
Friday 17th May
During morning inspected Transport of 33rd Battalion. A very good show generally, harness particularly being in excellent condition. In the afternoon visited Divisional HQrs. Met the Commander in Chief who congratulated me on the work of the Brigade during the last few weeks, and tendered his thanks. Afterwards attended the parades of 10th and 11th Brigade groups. They both made an excellent showing. With Divisional Commander talked over the new alterations in Commands. An approving cable is expected early from Australia, upon receipt of which Gen. Monash will at once assume Command of the Corps and the various other changes be given effect to. Major Weick has already gone to 1st Aus Div and Col. Blamey has reported to Corps HQrs.
Desultry shelling in our vicinity during the night, but causing us no damage.

Saturday 18th May
Tried my new horse in the morning. She seems a suitable animal but requires a good deal of attention. She appears very nervous and gives indication of having been roughly treated. Tests during afternoon carried out very satisfactorily with aeroplane panel strips. Major Priestman 2nd Army called. Attended guard mounting of 33rd and 34th Battalions. Very creditable indeed. Finals in football played off. The 9th Field Co. came out successful. Tomorrow there is to be a swimming carnival in the Somme. Further bombing and shelling during the early part of the night but no damage done as far as we are concerned. Mr. Cuttack called. Informed me of Beare’s intentions on visiting England concerning proposed new appointments. In my opinion very unwise. Very hot and trying day.

Sunday 19th May
With Col. White inspected billets and kitchen of 33rd Battalion. All in excellent order. Major Pain rode out to 4th Divisional Area to ascertain position re Brigade and Battalion HQrs. Conference of C.Os. at 11 AM. Brought to notice many irregularities on the part of Battalions. Informed them of our proposed dispositions on going in to the line, on date now decided to be 21st/22nd May. One battalion in line, one in support and one in Reserve.
Attended swimming sports in afternoon. A most successful show – plenty of competitors for each event and many hundreds of onlookers. The Somme near Amiens is exceedingly pretty, and this fact added to the fine day and the music of massed bands all made for a good show. There is to be another show tomorrow on a larger scale – at which we hope to secure the attendance of the official photographer.

[Page 421]
Monday 20th May
With Bde. Major, staff Capt. and Sigs. officers rode forward to reconnoitre new Brigade front immediately north of Villers Bretonneux which we are to take over from 12th Bde. tomorrow night. Called on Brigade HQrs., saw Gen. Gillebrand of 12th and Gen. Brand of 4th Brigades. I have not seen these officers for some months, both are very fit and well. Rode forward almost to line Battalion HQrs., inspected all Battalion HQrs. and found nearly all finished – deep tunnelled system. One of our planes came down in flames while we were in the locality. The pilot was so badly burned that he jumped out while the plane was still some thousands of feet up. A very sad death. Staff Captain arranged details re rear HQrs., Transport lines and location of "B" teams.
On my arrival at my HQrs. about 3 PM I was immediately rung up by my Divisional Commander and instructed to report to 2nd Aus Div and assume command from Gen. Smyth who has been ordered to assume command of 58th Division vice Gen. Clayton invalided. I was also instructed to hand over command of 8th Aus. Inf. Bde. to Colonel Goddard. This had been completed by 5.30 PM, at which time I left for 2nd Aus Div, calling on General Monash en route. Arriving at 2nd Aus Div HQrs. I at once went into details with Gen. Smyth and after dinner motored out to see his three Brigadiers. They are fortunately holding the line recently held by 3rd Aus Div, and therefore I know every inch of the country. Gen. Smyth leaves tomorrow morning.

Tuesday 21st May
Gen. Smyth said goodbye to his staff and left at 8.15 AM, proceeded to Corps HQrs. where he breakfasted then went on to 58th Division and took over command. In morning went through various matters with AA & QMG and GSO I. After lunch motored to my old Brigade HQrs. and there said goodbye to the assembled battalions and their officers, also to officers of 9th Field Ambulance, 9th Field Co., 9th ALTM Battery, ASC Company and the Brigade staff. In afternoon went through A & G papers, and generally took up the "threads" of command of 2nd Aus Div

Wednesday 22nd May
During morning went through many papers and maps. Camp Commandant rode over to General Smyth’s HQrs. and took his two horses over, bringing back two suitable for my weight.
In afternoon called on D.A.G. at Vignacourt and discussed with him various matters concerning promotion of officers, staff etc. On my return journey

[Page 422]
I called to see Gen. Foote, CE of Corps but he was out on duty.
American Brig. Gen. and Major of Staff together with a number of Junior officers called and are being attached to Brigades and Battalions. The General and his Staff officer dined with us and later in the evening I sent them on by car to General Wisdom with whom they are to spend a few days.
Gen. White called in my absence during the afternoon. Gen. Birdwood rang me up at 8 PM to ask if I had settled down comfortably in my new command, and to wish me well. Enemy planes overhead before midnight and many bombs dropped. Exceedingly hot day inclined to thunderstorm which did not eventuate. Called on Gen. Paton and met his Colonels.

Thursday 23rd May
In morning gave an interview to Dados re grievance concerning cars, and to Padre Smith Senior Chaplain re facilities given to C.E. Chaplains for C. of E. services. Interview with Gen. Foote (C.E. Corps.) and CRE re tunnelled Head Quarters. In late afternoon went for a ride on a horse named "Slip rail". This animal belonged to the late Gen. Bridges. Called on Gen. MacLagan at Allonville. Col. Miles visited 5th Aus Div re trench system adjoining us. Met Gas officer C.O. Trains APM and SSO [?]. Gen. White phoned me to say forward tanks were moving back temporarily because of gas shelling. Our troops suffered about 90 casualties early this morning from Yellow Cross gas. French Battalion Commander Stationed in St. Gratien paid an official call during morning.
Air service reports much traffic in enemy front system and movement of groups of troops each about 500 strong.

Friday 24th May
With ADC left D.H.Q. at 5 AM, called at 5th Bde H Qrs. for Brigadier and with him visited the whole front line of his Brigade front. Met three of his C.Os. A great deal of work has been done since the 9th Bde. left the area. Sanitation not sufficiently supervised, undercutting of trenches universal, much British equipment in front line requires salving. Called on Col. Raikes at Bde H Qrs. General White called at 12.30 PM and remained till 3 PM discussing various matters of policy. Gen. Birdwood called at 1.30 PM and discussed with me details re meeting C.Os. before taking up his new post as Army Commander on or about 30th inst. He informed me Gen. Paton was very perturbed over my superseding him. After leaving me he proceeded to Gen. Paton’s HQrs. to interview him.
Discussed details re Signals personnel with Major Watson C.O. Div. Sig. Co. Saw Col. Armand C.O. Pioneer Battalion with two candidates for direct commissions.

[Page 423]
Saturday 25th May
A.D.C to Abbeville to obtain balance of Gen. Smyth’s kit and to deliver same to him at Contay. Stayed at DHQ during morning and after an early lunch left with Col. Shepherd ADMS to meet General Birdwood at main Dressing Station. Here the General said goodbye to medical officers. Later I visited all Ambulance and inspected one Ambulance Transport. Fairly good only. Casualties in Querrieu to Labor Companies as a result of enemy shelling.

Sunday 26th May
Left DHQ with ADC at 5 AM Called for Gen. Wisdom and with him did his Brigade sector, returning to his HQrs. about 10.30. Then with Col. Raikes visited all Batteries of his Brigade. These batteries are to be relieved tomorrow night. Reached DHQ at 1 PM Gen. Martin and his BM of U.S. Army returned from attachment with 7th Bde. and lunched with us.

Monday 27th May
Stayed in during the morning. After lunch visited Col. Riggall’s HQrs. and with him commenced an inspection of 2nd Aus Div Artillery. I had visited two of his own 18 pr. batteries and one Howitzer battery when I received a telephone message recalling me to Divisional HQrs. to meet the Army Commander – General Rawlinson. With him discussed matters concerning the Divisional Front.
General Glasgow and Col. Raikes RFA dined with us.

Tuesday 28th May
General Birdwood during morning called at HQrs. of 6th, 5th and 7th Brigades to say goodbye to officers. He called at D.H.Q. at 1.30, where he met Divisional Staff, Gunners, Trains, Engineers and Army Medical Officers. Gave us details of his new Command which he takes over on 30th June, leaving us on 31st inst. He gave me a few words of advice when leaving and wished me success with my new Command.
In afternoon with Col. Riggall & Callaghan visited batteries of 4th AFA Brigade and 13th Battery of 5th Brigade.

Wednesday 29th May
In early morning went for an hours ride. After breakfast visited Pioneer Battalion and small arms section DAC. Harness and vehicles only moderately satisfactory. At 12 noon attended a demonstration near Corps HQrs. Scheme involved co-operation of French troops with British Tanks.

[Page 424]
Army Commander present, Commander 3rd Corps and numerous Divisional Commanders and Staff Officers. Col. Blamey called on me during the afternoon. Col. of 13th Battalion 4th Bde. dined with us, and his band gave us a very enjoyable musical programme. French troops together with ours swarmed around the band and thoroughly enjoyed themselves.
Boche attack on the Aisne commenced two days since not yet fully checked. They claim 15000 prisoners.
Col. Bennett from 5th Bde. came to see me re his application to return from line work.

Thursday 30th May
Lt. Col. Leane A.D.O.S of Corps called and discussed ordnance matters with me, Lt. Col. SoMerville also from Corps called re "Q" matters, and General White also from Corps called to say "Au revoir" as he takes up duty tomorrow with 5th Army as M.G.G.S.
General Johnstone CRA of New Zealand Division with his Brigade Major called and stayed to afternoon tea. Gave me details of work of N.Z. Division which is no longer under General Godley’s command in XXII Corps.
Germans still reported advancing near Soissons, total prisoners now claimed are 25,000. Very meagre details to hand so far. Have received many letters of congratulation from old Comrades concerning my new appointment. List of Australian "mentions" in the C. in C’s latest dispatches published today. I find I am included. This makes the 5th occasion.

Friday 31st May
General Birdwood rang me at about 9.30 to say his final goodbye – he was then moving off to his new command. General White called later also to say goodbye. Gen. Monash has assumed command of the Corps. With CRA visited wagon lines of DAC, 13th, 15th and 105th Batteries. Generally animals in good condition, and harness and vehicles in good order.
DAC HQrs. the only unit up to the standard I expected to see throughout the Division. The 6th Brigade relieved the 7th in Left Sector during the night.
Gen. MacLagan called during afternoon. The 4th Aus Div had many casualties at Allonville last night as result of enemy shell fire. Received official advice from Corps of my appointment to command 2nd Aus Div and of my promotion to Major General. DAC instructions received to send Capt. Jenning to London where he is to be employed as Court Martial Officer.
Major General Budworth called during afternoon and discussed artillery matters including details of artillery required for our proposed operation on the front of our right Brigade.

[Page 425]
Saturday 1st June
Gen Monash called. Discussed with him and received approval for operations on our Right front also alteration to Divisional Boundary. Later saw GOC 7th Brigade and discussed the operation fully with him. In morning called on General Hobbs. He gave me particulars of his new machine gun emplacement. Received and answered many congratulations on appointment and promotion.
Col. Dodds called just before lunch and discussed many details. He stayed to lunch with us. He and Blamey both go up as Brigadier Generals. I am informed Gen. Monash & Gen. Gillebrand’s appointments are temporary only being affected by the possibility of 5th Army not remaining as such.

Sunday 2nd June
Wrote letters during the morning. In afternoon General Gorringe GOC 47th Division called and talked over sundry proposals affecting holding our front line on the boundary between his and my Divisions. GOC 4th Aus Div assumed command at 10 AM of "B" Divisional Area, 5th Aus Div becoming Corps Reserve.

Monday 3rd June
Very heavy shelling of Villers Bretonneux about midnight last night and during early morning H.V. gas and H.E. on Querrieu
With CRA inspected all major lines of 4th AFA Bde. also 14th Battery of 5th Bde. which I had not time to visit last Friday. Generally standard of harness particularly requires raising. Gen. Fraser BGHA of Corps called accompanied by his Staff Officer Major [indecipherable]. Discussed heavy policy generally. Arranged with Divisional paymaster for adjustment of pay book according to rates of pay for a Major General. Called on Gen. Gellibrand 3rd Aus Div at Glisy. London Gazette issued announcing King’s Birthday Honours list. I find I am included and have been awarded D.S.O.

Tuesday 4th June
Gen. Coxen G.O.C.R.A. called re forthcoming operation. Gen. Phillips and Col. Miles also present. Arranged that we shall have the use of 3 extra Artillery Brigades to cover our advance. In afternoon called on Gen. Wisdom and discussed details of proposed attack. Later visited 5th & 6th Bde H Qrs. in line and told the Brigadier of arrangements made.
Sent out about 20 letters of congratulation to my friends honoured in the King’s Birthday list. Glad to see many of my old gunner officers included.

[Page 426]
Wednesday 5th June
Early this morning the enemy put down an hour and 10 minutes bombardment on Left (19th) Battalion of Right Brigade in K.13.a, under cover of which a raiding force of nearly 300 men attacked our line with the object of obtaining identifications. The attack was a total failure. Over 25 dead Germans lay in front of our lines while 16 prisoners and 4 machine guns have been captured. None of our men are missing. Our total casualties from artillery fire and the subsequent fighting total 4 killed and 13 wounded. General Montgomery MGRA 4th Army called and lunched with us. Discussed proposed operations on our front also details of machine gun Battalion organisation and tactical employment. General Blamey also called.
The 7th Brigade relieves the 5th Brigade in Right Sector tonight.
Latest advices state the final total of this morning operation gives 21 wounded and unwounded prisoners, while 35 enemy lie dead in front of our lines. Wrote to Messrs. Cowlishaw and Lancombe re disposal of increased salary – copy of letter sent to my wife. All registered.
Gen. Montgomery informed me that Gen. Godley with 22nd Corps was coming in behind us. Mr. Cuttack called and gave me details of exploits of 12th Army Brigade in the recent fighting in vicinity of Estaires, also details of last operation of 1st Aus. Division. He informs me Gen. Leslie has handed over command of 1st Brigade.

Thursday 6th June
In morning visited 6th & 17th Bde H Qrs. Discussed details re forthcoming operations. Talked over Gen. Paton’s suggested return to Australia with him. He prefers to remain on for a couple of months longer. Later called on C.O. Machine Gun Battalion. In afternoon attended a conference at 4th Aus Div HQrs. Gen. Monash presided and all Divisional Commanders and G.S.Os. I. were present. Many matters of Corps policy discussed. Gen. Hobbs as the Senior Divisional Commander drew attention to the unique character of the Conference. All Commanders and their staff being for the first time in the history of the A.I.F. solely Australian. He paid a tribute to Gen. Monash and assured him of the loyal support of all Divisional Commanders.
This morning more American Officers have joined us for instruction, a GSO I. and a Captain being attached to our Divisional HQrs., the remainder going to Brigades. Boche made another abortive raid last night – and suffered casualties in so doing. Our posts in tact without losses. One dead Corporal gave us identifications.
Sixty dead Boche have now been located in front of our lines as a result of the encounter on morning of 5th inst. French on the south seem now to have held up the German advance. The 22nd Corps (Gen. Godley) now is behind us here. Expect to have an American Regiment with the Division about 15th inst.

[Page 427]
Friday 7th June
Interviewed Capt. Evans re his desire to return to Australia. Application withdrawn. G.O.C.R.A. called. Discussed qualifications of Cra. Gen. Budworth M.G.R.A. called re forthcoming operations.
Early in afternoon held conference at 7th Bde H Qrs. concerning proposed attack on our Right Brigade Front. Machine Gun Battn., Heavy & Field Artillery and Infantry concerned all represented. Final details settled. American Staff officer accompanied me, and hopes to be able to stay over the date of the operation now proposed for night of 10th instant. Afterwards called on Gen. Gorringe 47th Div. and with his CRA arranged for artillery support on our boundary line for a small operation to be carried out by 6th Bde. on night in question.
Corps Commander called at 5 PM. Discussed with him suggested appointments for command of 5th & 6th Brigades.
Artillery and projector gas bombardments successfully launched during night.

Saturday 8th June
With Brigadier inspected wagon lines of 5th Bde. Battalions. Generally horses looking very well – harness and vehicles fair only excepting 19th Battalion which was good. Gen. Phillips called re Artillery Barrage plan for night of 10th inst. Finally agreed upon.
American officers attached to us recalled tonight. Their Division is about to move southward. Received and answered many letters of congratulation.

Sunday 9th June
During morning inspected wagon lines of 6th Bde. Battns. Horses in good condition, harness and vehicles generally not up to standard. Had early lunch and motored off to Pont Remy near Abbeville to see a Review of the 4th Aus Div Artillery. Gen. Birdwood presented ribbons and medals. Also present Gens. Monash, Uniacke, Budworth, White, McLagan and Coxen. Artillery made a good showing. Later had afternoon tea with Gen. Burgess at his HQrs. and met again many of my old officers. Called on D.D.S.T., 4th Army at Flixicourt on my way home re a closed car for myself then on to Reinforcement Wing at Bertacourt.

Monday 10th June
Attended at Conference at Corps HQrs. taking with me CRE and Col. Martin 5th Bde. Gen. Birdwood presided – present Corps Commanders, Gen. White, Bishop Long, all Divisional Commanders, GOCs. Brigades, CRAs, CREs, etc. The conference had reference to a scheme of education for all ranks of the A.I.F.

[Page 428]
the better to fit them for their positions in State life after the war is over. Generally the scheme is to build up a first class teaching staff, run trial classes during the period of the war, and then have skeleton machinery thoroughly tried out and ready to deal with big numbers during the period of peace negotiations when armies must still be retained in the field and also during the time while waiting for necessary Transport to take all our troops back to Australia. The scheme was cordially supported.
Interviewed Capt. Agnew re his desire to return to Australia, on account of inability to stand shell fire. Army Commander called re tonight’s operations.
Operations by 7th Bde. against enemy trench system S.W. of Morlancourt commenced at 9.45 PM At the same time 6th Brigade carried out a raid West of Morlancourt.

Tuesday 11th June
After having been up all night I turned in at 5 AM and slept soundly till 8, incidentally found it desperately hard to again turn out at that hour. Last night’s operations eminently successful. All objectives were gained according to time table. Consolidation and C.T. work well advanced during the night. As a result of the major operation 310 prisoners were captured of whom about 61 were wounded. Our casualties, in the main consisting of very light wounds total about 350. Concurrently with the main attack which was carried out by 7th Brigade, the 6th Brigade raided a Boche trench, killing 30 of the Garrison, capturing 6 o.ranks and two machine guns, the whole party returning to our lines without casualty. An hour later a second raiding party from 6th Brigade attempted to "clean up" an enemy trench but met with stout resistance from an augmented garrison. A lively bombing encounter took place in which we inflicted heavy casualties on the Boche but had ourselves 18 men slightly wounded, all of which returned to our own lines safely. The whole night’s work was very creditable and today I have received appreciation and congratulatory messages from Gen. Birdwood, Gen. Rawlinson, Gen. Godley & Gen. Monash.
Our total captures for the night were prisoners 310, machine guns 23, Trench Mortars 1. Enemy suffered very heavy casualties from our artillery fire in addition to his losses in hand to hand fighting.
During the afternoon I called on all three Brigadiers and arranged details re further raiding operations, should such require to be undertaken by higher authority. Gen. Wisdom with 7th Brigade is doing all in his power to hand over our newly captured territory well consolidated to 5th Aus Div who will be taking over in a few days.

[Page 429]
Wednesday 12th June
This morning I interviewed Corps C.E. re "dug out" home for 2nd Aus Div HQrs. Decided to put same in hand at once on the site I had selected some little time since.
Called on Corps Commanders & discussed proposals for further minor attacks on this Divisional Front. Had 7 days leave to United Kingdom granted me, commencing from 13th inst.
Gen. Tivey, acting GOC 5th Aus Div, called re taking over on 16th inst. His G.S. officers also are in touch with mine.
Col. Armand commanding 2nd Pioneer Battalion called and discussed sundry matters concerning his command involving future policies. Authorised him to make arrangements for permanent running of a workshop.
Discussed with Gen. Paton details concerning Division during my absence. Gen. Wolfe, American Army together with other officers arrived and sent on to Brigades.

Thursday 13th June
In early morning motored to Boulogne accompanied by Lt. Col. James and Lt. O’Hara Wood. Called at No.2 General Hospital saw Matron Gray and with her visited a number of 7th Brigade men who had been wounded in the operations of 10th inst. They were all very cheery and doing well.
Arrived London in late afternoon. Gen. Griffiths had a car at Victoria Station to meet me – called at tailors thence to Whitehall Hotel.

Friday 14th June
Made sundry calls in London during the day – Horseferry Road, Army & Navy Stores, A.T. Sharp, Institute of Architects and Tailors.

Saturday 15th June
Spent some time at Horseferry Road, also at Commonwealth Naval office. Called on Commonwealth Bank and made arrangements for sum of £ 37.10.0 to be paid on 1st of each month to Nell in Sydney. Called at Wyman's re Gazettes – also Tailors.

Sunday 16th June
Wrote home letters during morning. Visited St. MARGARET’S Westminster and the Abbey during afternoon.

[Page 430]
Monday 17th June
Called at India Office Whitehall to see Gen. Cox. Called at Commonwealth Navy Office re leave for Charley to visit me in France. At Horseferry Road, at Tailors. Music at Whitehall in evening.

Tuesday 18th June
At midday visited Tidworth and spent the afternoon in visiting training unit of 2nd Aus Div Quite a good show.

Wednesday 19th June
Again at Tidworth and in afternoon visited Durrington Camp. Returned to London at 7 PM

Thursday 20th June
In morning called on Gen. Griffiths & Gen. Howse at Horseferry Road. Called on Mr. Hughes and Mr. Cook at their Hotel. The former absent, but I had a long talk with the latter, incidentally discussing the details of Gen. Birdwood’s appointment. Caught train from Charing Cross at 11.50 AM reached Boulogne at 5 PM and my HQrs. at COISY at 8 PM Many letters awaiting me.

Friday 21st June
Went through A.Q. papers and attended to correspondence. Gens. White & Monash called about 3.15 PM. Discussed intrigue re Gen. Birdwood, also with the latter outline of proposed forthcoming operation on our Corps front. Mess now sports a piano, so we have had some music tonight.

Saturday 22nd June
In morning attended Ceremonial Parade of 5th Brigade at Rivery where Corps Commander presented ribbons and addressed the Brigade. Gen. Montgomery 4th Army M.G.G.S. lunched with us and discussed with me proposed operations on our front. Attended sport of Div. Signal Co. and 2nd Machine Gun Battalion during afternoon also demonstration of 3" and 4" Stokes mortars and rifle grenades. In evening visited "The Green Diamonds" concert party of 5th Brigade at Rivery. They gave a most excellent show. Dined with Col. Martin and his officers.
During afternoon mentioned forthcoming operations to Brigadiers and also the details of London intrigue re Gen. Birdwood.

[Page 431]
Sunday 23rd June
During morning attended Ceremonial Parade of 6th Bde. at Querrieu. Gen. Monash presented ribbons and afterwards addressed the parade. Gen. Paton later visited HQrs. 4th Aus Div re forthcoming operations. During afternoon wrote usual weekly letters. Gen. Paton & Col. Martin dined at "A" Mess.

Monday 24th June
In early morning Major Waddell went off on leave accompanied as far as Boulogne by Gen. Wisdom whose eyes required treatment.
With Corps Commander attended sports of 6th Bde at Querrieu.
In late afternoon with Capt. Boddam visited Campagne. Capt. Boddam went on to Boulogne while I remained at Campagne.

Tuesday 25th June
Gen. Wisdom and Capt. Boddam called for me at Campagne at 10 AM. Arrived at Coisy at 1 PM. At 2 PM attended conference at 5th Bde H Qrs. at Rivery of all Commanding Officers and discussed many matters of Divisional interest. Later in afternoon played tennis with 5th Bde H Qrs. At 7 PM with Corps Commander attended performance of 7th Bde. Concert party. They have an excellent orchestra.

Wednesday 26th June
With APM and Capt. Boddam visited HQrs. 3rd Aus Div at Glisy. Had a long talk with Gen. Gellibrand and later with Gen. Grimwade. I urged the latter to transfer to command of an Infantry Brigade with a view to future Divisional Command. He is about to go on leave. Col. King late of 4th Aus. Div Arty will act as C.R.A. during his absence and while covering the 2nd Aus Div Interview with Major Walker in Col. Martin’s presence at Rivery.

Thursday 27th June
During morning visited 3rd Squadron A.F.C Capt. Knox whom I first met at "[indecipherable]" Parramatta" showed me round the Aerodrome. Altogether I spent a very interesting and instructive morning. In afternoon DHQ cricket team journed to Abbeville to play No. 3 Gen. Hospital. We were beaten by about 45 runs, but had a thoroughly enjoyable game. Stayed to dinner, left at 9.30 PM. Met Col. Taylor Lang at the Hospital. I had not seen him since 1912 in Sydney when we both had boys entering Osborne for the Royal Navy. Col. Purdy late CO. has been returned to Australia.

[Page 432]
Friday 28th June
Stayed in all day and dealt with many papers. Col. Durrant and Col. Shepherd left for Boulogne on leave to England. Major Officer called re an officer to take Major Bushell’s place. Agreed to take Capt. Cruikshank from 3rd Aus Div Also discussed possible Claims and Court Martial Officer. Arranged for Lt. Fielding of 3rd Aus. D.A.C. to come for 1 month’s trial.

Saturday 29th June
Divisional HQrs. moved to Glisy, the 7th & 15th Brigades having taken over the line in the Sector. Command passed from Gen. Gellibrand to myself at 10 AM Conversation with Gen. Gellibrand re McNicoll. My opinions confirmed. Very comfortable quarters, but deep dugouts still rather damp and require improved ventilation.

Sunday 30th June
At 6.30 AM left DHQ with ADC, met Brigadier of 7th Bde. at Villers Bretonneux and with him walked round his line. Generally fairly good. Boundary with French held by a joint post – our men seeming to enjoy being associated with French troops. Arranged for small advance North & South of main East and West road at old Hangars to be carried out at the same time as forthcoming operations of 4th Aus Div Met Brigadier Left Brigade at 10 AM and with him inspected his front line, returning to D.H.Q. at 12.30 PM. In afternoon wrote letters and just before dinner with my ADC. played General Grimwade and his ADC. three sets tennis, out of which we emerged victorious.

Monday 1st July
At 10 AM left DHQ and called on French Corps Commander at Dury – General Toulorge. Spent a half hour with him discussing our front generally. At 12 noon left for Taques there to attend the special sports organised by Canadian Corps. They had a magnificently arranged show. The Duke of Connaught was present, Gen. Horne & Gen. Birdwood as Army Commanders and no end of Divisional and other Generals. Our Corps Commander was unable to attend so I acted as his Deputy. Was introduced to Sir Robert Borden, Canadian Premier.
Discussed with GSO I. and CRA final orders for our co-operation with 4th Aus Div attack, now fixed for morning of 4th inst.
Gen. Birdwood informed me permanency of 5th Army was very indefinite. A new German offensive may mean British Divisions and Corps may have to be broken up to ensure establishment of others being maintained.

[Page 433]
Tuesday 2nd July
In morning accompanied by O’Hara Wood and French Liaison Officer called on Commander of 37th French Division (Gen. Simon) adjoining us on the south. Generally discussed situation on our front. While with him his Corps Commander, Gen. Toulorge, called.
During afternoon attended parade representation of 2nd Aus Div at which Mr. Hughes, Prime Minister of Australia, and Mr. Cook, Minister for Navy gave addresses.
Gens. Birdwood & Monash present as also Press Representatives etc.
Army Commander called to see me during afternoon and later called on GOC 6th Aus. Inf. Bde. At night interviewed Gen. Paton and ascertained for his attack on morning of 4th inst. everything fully prepared, and there was no further assistance I could render him.
6th Brigade relieved 5th Brigade in Left Sector during the night preparatory to attack.

Wednesday 3rd July
Final preparation for attack tomorrow morning. Corps Commander called and discussed details of attack and possible future operations south and East of Villers Bretonneux.
In late afternoon visited Front line troops. First entered 4th Aus Div trenches, saw troops of 4th Bde., American troops and our 6th Bde. all in liaison. All of these troops also including the 7th Bde. on left in specially good form, very eager for tomorrow’s attack and very confident. Heard from Nell of Mrs. Cowlishaw’s death.

Thursday 4th July
American Independence day and quite a fitting time for American troops to be with us in Battle. Attack commenced at 3.10 AM and continued uninterruptedly till all Brigades had gained all objectives. Altogether the advance represents about 1½ miles in depth by 4 miles in breadth, and includes VAire Wood and village of Hamel.
It is not yet known definitely how many casualties our Corps has incurred but from my Division our casualties are under 200, with killed being only 2 officers and 39 other ranks. Total captures of prisoners will total nearly 1500 and many machine guns. So far our 6th Bde. has captured 3 officers & 201 other ranks also 24 machine guns and one anti tank gun. The 7th Bde. has captured 90 prisoners and 5 machine guns.
I visited both Brigade HQrs. about 10 AM to congratulate the Brigadiers and discuss their defensive dispositions. Arranged to place 1 Battalion of 5th Bde. at disposal of 6th Brigade in case of serious counter attack.

[Page 434]
At 11 AM General Simon commanding 37th French Division called on me and discussed liaison arrangements affecting our junction on Front line.
At 12 noon visited our Main Dressing Station at Amiens. Col. Sir Vincent Welch informed me most cases had gone on to CCS I therefore motored on another 16 kilometres and saw some 3 or 4 hundred Australian wounded from all Divisions engaged. The men were extraordinarily cheerful, and my later news concerning the final capture of all objectives with such a good bag of prisoners, delighted them all. Among the wounded I saw two young American Subalterns and a few privates. They spoke in glowing terms of their experience and were very proud to be wounded in such an action on the glorious 4th July.
All wounded spoke in high praise of the Artillery barrage given to them. Col. Martin promoted full Colonel and Temp. Brig. General. Had an interview with him and congratulated him. Lieut. Longstaff our official Artist presented me with a water colour sketch of Main Dressing Station Querrieu.
Received letter from Sir G.C. Wade, NSW. Agent General, sending me a cable message from the New South Wales Government congratulating me on my promotion.

Friday 5th July
Remained at DHQ all day. Col. Miles visited new front line. Instructed 6th & 7th Bdes. to advance certain parts of their line tonight.
Gen. Blamey called and discussed proposals for further advance to include Monument Wood. Gen. Toulorge GOC 31st French Corps made a formal call. Some of our men played a team from 5th French Division at Soccer, and were successful. Great excitement among the onlookers.
Up to 8 PM last evening total captures resulting from yesterday’s operation were officers 40, other ranks 1467. Final figures not yet arrived at.

Saturday 6th July
In morning visited Transport lines of 7th Brigade. Generally an attempt is being made to get up to a good standard, but only a very few vehicles and sets of harness were satisfactory. Visited Pioneers saw mill on the way back to HQrs. Interview with Gen. Martin re promotion of his Brigade Major. Corps Commander called at 5 PM discussed recent operations and new proposals for further advance on this Divisional front. The 5th Brigade tonight relieves the 6th Brigade in Left Sector.
Late in the afternoon attended a Rugger match between a team from 5th Brigade and one from 5th French Division. Our team won by 18 points to 14. I met the Divisional Commander, General de and a number of his officers. Man of 6th Brigade today captured 1 officer and 12 other ranks from an advanced post.

[Page 435]
Sunday 7th July
The French President M. Clemencau yesterday wired that he would like to call in person and congratulate in person the Australian troops who recently took part in Hamel offensive.
Accordingly he arrived at 4th Aus Div HQrs. at 1.15 PM accompanied by many distinguished Generals. All the Australian Divisional Commanders with the Brigadiers and officers taking part in the attack were presented to him and I personally had an interesting talk with him. The Army and Corps Commanders were also present. Later the President gave a very inspiriting and touching address to about 400 of the rank & file who had been in the battle. His remarks were warmly appreciated and when three cheers were called for France coupled with the name of the President, our Australian fellows gave full vent to their feelings.
Corps Commanders discussed possible future operations with me. I am instructing my two line Brigadiers to do all they can under the present disorganised and demoralized condition of German defences to extend our front Eastward.

Monday 8th July
In morning visited Transport lines of 6th Brigade to inspect Field guns, machine guns, trench mortars etc. captured by them on 4th inst. During afternoon Major General Montgomery called and discussed possible future operations, especially with reference to Monument Wood. During the day 7th Brigade advanced their line capturing enemy trench system from Railway to main Villers road – about 300 yds. on a frontage of 1500 yds. and including 17 prisoners and 1 machine gun. Asked Corps Commander to give us authority to go on with operations at Monument Wood.
In evening visited Fancy dress ball of 6th Field Ambulance at the Main Dressing Station Amiens. Quite a good show.

Tuesday 9th July
In morning visited vicinity of La Motte to select parade ground for presentation of ribbons to men of 6th & 7th Brigades. Later visited HQrs. of 5th & 7th Brigades in line and in conference with Brigadiers discussed our future advancement opposite Villers Bretonneux and defined their limits of operations. Patrol of 7th Bde. during the day captured enemy front line system on western edge of Monument Wood and penetrated into the wood but were held up by snipers and machine guns. Hope to improve the line further during the night. Last night the 5th Brigade also advanced its line considerably and captured machine guns, range finders,

[Page 436]
minesweepers, rifles, etc., and killed a number of enemy. Gave Corps Commander full details by telephone at 5.20 PM so that he might give the Army Commander latest information at a conference held at 5.30 PM
Called on General Paton re amending his list of military medals for operations of 4th inst. He is very unwell, and is at once putting in an application for return to Australia. I have informed the Corps Commander accordingly. GSO I in morning conferred with GSO I of French Division re positions of International Posts and location of trench to be occupied as main line of resistance. Proposals submitted to Corps. Halford called on return from leave. Received word from Corps that His Majesty the King had awarded the V.C. to Sergeant (now 2nd Lieut.) Ruthven, 6th Brigade in connection with Ville Sur Ancre operations.

Wednesday 10th July
Stayed in all day and dealt with a great deal of office papers. In morning inspected HQrs. Transport at D.H.Q.
Mr. Noyes of Melbourne who is actively employed in the interests of Australian recruiting called and discussed the matter of reinforcements and A.I.F. generally. I sent him on to see some of our batteries. Received letter from Gen. Paton asking for return to Australia. Gen. Robertson has been wired for to come over and assume command of 6th Brigade.
Some further small advances made by 5th and 7th Brigades.
Completed arrangements for personnel of DHQ to be definitely organised as a company for purposes of training. Major Borwick to take training in hand. Interviewed Gunner Hobson & Driver Harvey of 5th and 4th AFA Brigades re suggestions for their further advancement.

Thursday 11th July
With Col. Ralston interviewed Lt. Lilly of 2nd Div. Machine Gun Battn. who has been adversely reported on by the Col. Promised Lilly to get him transferred to another Division, the 3rd if possible. Inspected Transport of Div. Signal Company. Generally far below the standard I expect. Also inspected Transport lines of mobile echelon of 5th Brigade. In this case conditions were much better. Conference at Corps HQrs. during afternoon re proposed operations in vicinity of Monument Wood. Present Army & Corps Commanders, MGGS & MGRA Army, RAF Brigades and Tank Brigade Commanders also Col. Miles & self. Details discussed – date left unsettled pending ascertaining what the French are prepared to do further south of our immediate boundary.
Saw Gen. Gellebrand & Col. Blacklow re giving Lilly a chance with 3rd Machine Gun Battalion and made satisfactory arrangements. Forwarded V.C. recommendation for Corporal Brown.

[Page 437]
Friday 12th July
Stayed in all day and dealt with office papers. The 7th Brigade and 5th Brigade seem now to be hard up against the Boche and further "peaceful" advance seems impossible. We are therefore now consolidating on our final line, and any further advance will be properly supported by Artillery etc.
French made a good advance just south of us on about a 6000 yd. front. Captured Castel and high ground West of MOREUIL together with over 500 prisoners. Had a game of tennis during the evening between 6 and 8 PM. Gen. Blamey called re proposed future operations. Our own Artillery will now be brought into the area to cover us.

Saturday 13th July
Parade near La Motte representative of the Division at which Corps Commander presented ribbons. Gen. Simon commanding 37th French Division together with his staff attended. Special display made of trophies captured in recent operations. Official photographer present and took a number of pictures. Lt. Ruthven V.C. presented with his ribbon and a storm of applause greeted the reading of the official recommendation submitted by me. Gen. Monash gave a fine address and afterwards spoke to the officers alone. In afternoon attended soccer match between a Divisional team and a team from Zouan Regiment adjoining us. Our team successful. Proposals for alteration of front line of resistance adjoining French approved by French and Australian Corps. O’Hara Wood promoted Captain.

Sunday 14th July
The 7th Brigade still further advanced its line today, taking Stamboul and part of Syria trenches also the whole of Monument Wood. Major Borwick left for course at Camiers.
With Capt. Boddam inspected Transport of Machine Gun Battalion during morning. Condition of horses and vehicles good – harness very fair. In afternoon inspected all three Field Companies. Fair only tho’ it is evident they are commencing a new system to a new standard. New rail head established at La Motte in lieu of Poulanville. This will economise motor Transport and save a big mileage.
French having a gay day. Our fellows assisting them by playing them soccer and incidentally beating them. About 16 of Gen. Paton’s officers dined with the officers of one of the Zouan regiments. Gen. Paton himself much better.

[Page 438]
Monday 15th July
At 6.30 AM with Capt. McCall visited Brigade HQrs. Discussed with both Brigadiers our final objectives. With Gen. Wisdom went round the whole of his line including his recently captured trenches and Monument Wood. This recent advance has robbed the Boche of splendid observation and we now have the advantage over him. Left Brigade sector very quiet.
Corps Commander called during afternoon and with him I discussed the line for our final objective giving my reasons, and also suggestions for our helping the French on my right in order to improve and shorten our line. He approved my suggestions, conferred with the Army Commander at 5 PM and later phoned me full approval of my suggestions. I am to place myself in direct touch with the Divisional and Corps Commanders of the French troops beside me, and mutually arrange our programme.
Fresh Boche offensive opened East and West of Rheims but so far has been well held. I am informed by the French that their secret service had obtained full information concerning the enemy’s complete plans of attack and in consequence the allies were quite ready for this new threat.
Instructions forwarded to Brigades giving definite final objectives.

Tuesday 16th July
Our line advanced considerably during night, though unfortunately one party had a bad time in a combat, having an officer and 8 other ranks killed and 9 wounded two of which latter it is feared were not brought back to our lines.
During morning called on Divisional & Corps Commanders of French troops on my right and very successfully completed arrangements for our help to them in advancing their line to conform with ours. I anticipate in a few days to have a nicely straightened line – and the French will have ditto.
Very heavy thunderstorm early this morning and the day is exceedingly muggy and trying. Informed Corps Commander of arrangements I had made with the French Division on my Right. General Robertson arrived.

Wednesday 17th July
Line on 5th Brigade front again slightly advanced during last night and prisoners & m.guns captured. Heavy enemy gas shelling of our forward Divisional area resulting in approximately 50 gas casualties.
During morning inspected Transport of all three Field Ambulances. That of 6th was excellent in every way, 5th fair and 5 4th very poor. ADMS accompanied me. Major Dunlop of 9th Brigade who is ordered to Egypt called to say goodbye to me.

[Page 439]
[Note at top of page written by the Principle Librarian, W.H. Ifould]
Written up to Sept 20 by Capt P. O’Hara Wood ADC to Gen Rosenthal, then to Oct 7 by Lieut Pope ADC. Then again by Gen R.
Gen R. had been shot in the right forearm. WHI 4/3/31

General Paton took General Robertson round all units of 6th Brigade, introduced C.O.’s & officers to the new Brigadier, and generally gave Gen. Robertson current details concerning 6th Brigade. Both Brigadiers dined with us at night at Divl. Headquarters, & this opportunity was taken to officially say good-bye to Gen. Paton and welcome Gen. Robertson. Gen. Paton very much improved in health during the last few days.

Thursday 18th July
Gen. Paton left for England 9.30 a.m. calling at Corps Headquarters en route. Gen. Robertson with his staff spent the morning around 7th Brigade Front, which 6th Brigade takes over tonight. During the afternoon, the Corps Commander brought to Divl. Headquarters the members of the French Mission, who are about to visit Australia. Their Chairman M. Metin, speaks English fairly well, & asked for letters of introduction to my family, which I gave him. Another very picturesque member of the Mission is Genl. Pau, who served as a General in the 1870 Campaign, and at that time lost his right arm. Army Commander called at 4 p.m, & discussed our Divisional Front generally. He expressed himself as very gratified with the further exploits of the Division since July 4th.

Friday 19th July
Gen. Robertson & his Brigade Major breakfasted with me at 6.30 a.m., and at 7a.m. we went forward together to the right Brigade sector. We reconnoitred Monument Wood and our new trenches in the locality, then moved along behind our new line of posts to the western end of Railway Mound East of Villers Bretonneux. We had been warned that sniping was severe at the Eastern end of this Mound, so we proceeded

[Page 440]
no further than the Western end. From this vantage point, we spent some ten minutes in thoroughly examining enemy territory. Just as we were about to leave, a Boche sniper succeeded in locating me, firing only one shot, with the result, however, that my right thumb was shattered, & the bullet deflected into the flesh part of the fore-arm, severely lacerating nerves, flesh, & artery, and making its exit on the outer side of the fore-arm. Luckily with the exception of the bones of the thumb, no others were damaged. Owing to a considerable loss of arterial blood, I felt rather groggy, and then decided to rest where I was for a little time. However the Boche artillery at this time commenced to land 5.9"s uncomfortably near us. We therefore decided to take our rest later on, & walked across to the R.A.P. of the right Battalion, where the Medical Officer properly dressed the wound. I then took car back to Divl. Headquarters, spoke to the Corps Commander on the telephone, & arranged for Gen. Wisdom to carry on during my absence. I gathered a few things together, had a light lunch, and with the A.D.M.S. & Capt. Boddam came to the Main Dressing Station at Amiens, where Col. Sir Vincent Welch re-dressed the wounds, and sent me on to No. 5 C.C.S. at Coury. Fearing that I might be evacuated to England, I arranged with D.D.M.S. 4th Army that I should be transferred to No. 3 A.G.H, Abbeville, but on arrival at this latter Hospital, I discovered that they had no Officers’ Ward, and accordingly did not accept officers as patients. I then got into touch with the D.D.M.S., L. of C., and obtained permission to remain here. At 5 p.m. Col. Taylor-Young & Major Matthews put me on the operating table, and spent two hours in thoroughly patching me up. I came out of the anaesthetic at 8 & had a fairly good night ’s sleep.

[Page 441]
Saturday 20th July to Thursday 1st August
Between the above dates I have remained under treatment at No. 3 A.G.H. On the 21st July, the surgeons operated for the second time and finding the wounds progressing favourably they were finally sutured. Thereafter my arm has been dressed every second day, and it has been gratifying to see the progress made, especially the damaged thumb. On the morning of 31st July the surgeons removed 8 stitches and on the 1st August, 13 others were removed, leaving only 4 remaining, which it is proposed to remove on 2nd inst. The surgeons have given me two X-ray prints, one before & one after the operations. They show the surgical work has been well done. During this period, my A.D.C. has visited me daily, bringing private & official correspondence, and keeping me posted in Divisional matters. Gen. Wisdom is commanding the Division in my absence. On 29th inst., Surgeon-General Howse visited this Hospital, & very emphatically declared that it was my duty to go at once to England to ensure receiving the best electrical & massage treatment. In deference to his wishes, I leave here on Aug. 2nd for London to consult three leading specialists, and specially at the Corps Commander’s request & in full accord with my own feelings, I am returning to the Divn., on 5th inst., being promised at a later date any special leave I may require for perhaps getting massage treatment. During my stay here, I have been visited by the Army & Corps Commanders, G.O.C. R.A., and many other friends. I have been exceedingly comfortable & thoroughly well looked after. During the above period, the Boche offensive in the South has not only been held up but chiefly owing to a brilliant counter-thrust on the line Soissons-

[Page 442]
Chateau-Thierray, not only has the Boche been forced to give up his gains, but he is now himself in "Queer Street". Our own Australian troops have been meanwhile harassing him on our Corps Front: the First Division doing ditto at Merriss & Meteren, and further early operations may be looked for.

Friday 2nd Aug.

With Capt. Boddam left Abbeville in early morning for London arriving Victoria Station 2.30 p.m. Here met Genl. Birdwood, Genl. Griffiths and Col. Anderson adms. The latter made arrangements for me to visit Wandsworth Hospital tomorrow morning and have my arm dressed.
General Griffiths kindly provided us with a car and we went straight to White Hall Hotel, Guildford St. Felt very tired and went to bed at 8.30.

Saturday 3rd Aug.

Stayed in in the morning while Capt. Boddam carried out sundry commissions and attended opening ceremony of Australia House by His Majesty the King. Most excellent show and I saw many old friends there. Guard of honour was particularly good. After lunch when out to Wandsworth and had arm dressed getting on quite well. Again went to bed early.

Sunday 4th Aug.

Immediately after breakfast went to Wandsworth Hospital and had arm dressed again. A Specialist surgeon Capt. Raymond Johnston, after examining my arm told me there was no reason why I should not go back to France immediately provided facilities existed for frequent dressing.

[Page 443]
He stated it would probably be a month before any electrical or massage treatment could be complied. Saw Col. Moseley at Wandsworth, he is getting on well and is very cheery. Had intended to attend service at St. Pauls but was detained too long at Wandsworth. Attended open air service in the afternoon in Hyde Park, service being conducted by the Bishop of London. Met General Ryan in Rotten Row and he kindly promised me a set of his Gallipoli photographs and also arranged to take my photo in colours at Horseferry Rd. tomorrow morning.

Monday 5th Aug:

Called on General Ryan at Horseferry Rd. in the morning also saw Colonel Maudsley. Col. Ryan took photo as promised drew pay at Pay Office called on Genl. Griffiths also saw Genl. Birdwood who was with him. Genl. Howse then took me to see Lt. Col. Sir Hugh Rigby another specialist and after examining my arm endorsed the opinion of the Wandsworth surgeon of yesterday. He anticipates it may take six months before I regain full use of hand and fingers. During the afternoon again went to Wandsworth and had arm dressed and on the return journey called at Queens Club to see O’Hara Wood play but unfortunately he had just finished.

Tuesday 6th Aug.

Left Charing Cross for Folkestone at 11.40 and arrived at Boulogne about 5. Gave Col. Stephenson a lift back with us in the car called at No. 3 AGH and had arm dressed reached Glisy about 9p.m. Took over command from Genl. Wisdon he returning to his Brigade. All arrangements complete for attack on the morning of the 8th inst.

[Page 444]
involving the Canadian Corps on the South, Australian Corps in the Centre and Third Corps on the North. On our Corps front the attack is to be carried by the 2nd and 3rd Divisions, the 5th and 4th going through them to continue. The 7th Bde. on the right and the 5th on the left are attacking on this Divisional front.

Wednesday 7th Aug:

Visited all Brigadiers during the morning and found all arrangements well in hand and in afternoon went through files of operation orders with Col. Miles as well as Q. arrangements for ammunitions and supplies generally. Visited Headquarters 5th Aust. Divn. & met Genl. Burstall G.O.C. 2nd Canadian Divn. and later visited 6th Brigade. General Birdwood visited Divisional Headquarters and wished us T well on next days operations later visiting all Brigadiers.

Thursday 8th Aug:

Attack commenced at 4.20 this morning. Both Brigadiers gained their objectives to time table our own casualties very light prisoners captured about 1600 and a large number of field guns, machine guns and trench mortars besides large quantities of military stores. The 5th Division advanced to their final objectives through us and were equally successful in fact all Corps employed had a very successful day and the French who attacked on the South equally so.
During the day all Brigades were reorganised and Divisional Headquarters move arranged to move to Villers Bretonneux tomorrow morning. I am keeping complete files of the operation which speak for themselves.

[Page 445]
Friday 9th Aug:

Divisional Headquarters moved to Villers Bretonneux, the attack continued throughout the day the first Division on the right, 2nd in centre and third on left again pushing forward capturing more prisoners, guns etc. The 3rd Corps on the North have had difficulty and could not maintain themselves on their final objective. They had to retire some distance and American troops are being sent to their assistance. Canadians and French on the South have made good progress. I should have mentioned on the 8th that Armoured Cars, Tanks and Cavalry splendidly cooperated with the infantry.

Saturday 10th Aug:

Still further advances today the 5th & 7th Brigades moving forward under very effective barrage. Tanks also assisting. The 3rd Division on the North in attempting to push forward met with heavy casualties from artillery and aeroplane bombs and were accordingly held up. Their left Brigade however after stiff fighting made a very useful advance and captured some hundreds of prisoners. During the morning with GSO I called on Brigadiers and also Tank Brigade commander at Warfusee. Enemy vigorously bombing at night.

Sunday 11th Aug:

Front line now more or less Stationary and Boche resistance hardening. At 2.30 p.m. at First Aust. Divn. Headquarters the Corps Commander and all Divisional Commanders met the C in C and General Wilson the British representative at

[Page 446]
Versailles. The C in C had come specially to thank the Austn. Corps for the good work and paid a grateful tribute to the ability of the Corps Commander. A little later a conference was held of all Divisional Commanders at 1st Divn. Headquarters when the future policy was outlined. The 2nd Aust. Divn. Headquarters had been selected as a meeting place at 3 p.m. for the Army Commander his three Corps Commanders and in addition the Cavalry and Tank Corps Commanders. The French Premier M. Clemencau together with his Minister for Finance attended this meeting specially to thank the Army and Corps Commanders for their work the previous few days. The King is to visit Corps Headquarters tomorrow afternoon and arrangements have been made for a representative parade of Australian troops and a fair proportion of the captured trophies guns &c. to be collected and grouped for this parade.

Monday 12th Aug.

During last night the 6th Brigade took over from the 5th and 7th in the line the two latter being withdrawn so that the men might get some well earned sleep.
2nd Div. Artillery also came into the line to cover us. I should have mentioned that on the 11th inst. Genl. Wisdom was asked for to assume command of a mixed force of Australians and Americans, known as the Liason Force, to operate North of the Somme. The King this morning visited the high ground East of Corbie and later came through Villers Bretonneux. Divisional Commanders were invited to meet His Majesty at Corps Headquarters at 2.30 p.m. and were duly presented. The Corps Commander and S. Major Genl. O’Keefe

[Page 447]
DMS of 4th Army were knighted the former as K.C.B. and the latter as K.C.M.G.
After the King’s departure a conference of Divisional Commanders was held and details for proposed operation on the 15th inst. were decided. On this Corps front the attack will be as follows. On the right 5th Divn. thence northward 4th Divn., 2nd Divn., 17th Divn. (recently allotted this Corps) and north of the Somme the Liason force. Only the 5th, 4th and 2nd Divns. will be actually employed in the attack the others maintaining their present line. Boche planes again active bombing during the night. The 6th Brigade by patrol activity considerably advanced its line and captured prisoners and machine guns.

Tuesday 13th Aug.

The 17th Division now allotted to the Corps and has relieved the 3rd Aust. Div. on our left. Their patrols have pushed out East from Proyart. Corps Commander called and discussed forthcoming operations. Corps Headquarters moved to Glisy balance of Divisional Headquarters personnel to Villers Bretonneux. Boche active tonight bombing front lines.

Wednesday 14th Aug.

6th Brigade advanced its line West and SouthWest of Herleville capturing prisoners and machine guns. Divisional front side slipped 500 yards southward last night. Army Commander called during the afternoon asked me to give him details of 2nd Div. operation and expressed his keen appreciation of the work done by the Division. Director of Army Signals G.H.Q. and General Montgomery 4th Army

[Page 448]
also called. During the morning a conference was held at 1st Aust. Divn. Headquarters present Corps Commander all Aust. Divisional Commanders Genl. Robertson commanding 17th Divn. G.O.C. R.A., B.G.H.A., Genl. Courage, 5th Bde. Tank Corps and all G.I.’s. Corps Commander informed us it was now decided to postpone operations for the 15th inst. and make a redistribution of Divisions. A proposed jumping off line for future operations was given us up to which we were instructed to advance as opportunity offered. The 17th Divn. is leaving the Corps immediately and being replaced by the 32nd Divn.

Wednesday 24th Aug. Thursday 15th Aug.

6th Brigade again advanced its line West of Herleville experiencing little opposition. In afternoon visited Abbeville. With the DADVS & Capt. Boddam called at Remount Depot re future requirements of the Division in mules. Called at No. 3 A.G.H. Electric treatment applied to arm & redressed. Took down for the Matron one of the 12" railway gun shell cases. 4th Aust. Div. tonight relieves 1st Aust. Div. in the line.

Friday 16th Aug:

In the morning called on GOCs. 17th Divn., 1st & 4th Aust. Divns. The 32nd Divn. is to relieve 2nd Aust. Divn. on nights 17th/18th and 18th/19th. Divisional Commander, Genl. Lambert and Staff called re details of reliefs. Enemy H.V. gun fired a few rounds into Villers Brettoneaux.

Saturday 17th Aug.

Genl. Lambert and Brigadiers visited the front line accompanied by Capt. Menzies. 6th Brigade slightly advanced

[Page 449]
its line on its right front in conjunction with the 4th A. Inf. Brigade capturing a machine gun and some prisoners. Received letter from Genl. Burstall GOC 2nd Canadian Divn. with reference to participation of troops of 2nd Aust. Div. in the capture of Marcelcave.

Sunday 18th Aug:

Reserve Brigades of 32nd Divn. last night relieved our 5th and 7th Bdes. Early this morning carried out a minor operation under an artillery barrage for the purpose of advancing our line close to the western edge of Herliville. Right and left battns. gained objectives without trouble but centre battn. met with determined opposition and as a consequence suffered a good many casualties and it is feared lost prisoners to the enemy. In afternoon visited hospital Abbeville and had arm treated. Major Matthews returned with us to Villers Brettenneaux and as the 6th Field Amb. Masseur who has been some time at Abbeville returned to Divn. Headquarters with necessary electrical outfit.

Monday 19th Aug.

Major Embleton took Major Matthews too out in the morning for a tour of our battle front of August 8th/11th. Genl. Lambert GOC 32nd Divn. assumed command at 10 a.m. although it was not known to me prior to handing over. The Boche had attacked our front in the vicinity of Herleville temporarily stoving in our line our positions however were restored immediately by counter attack. Divn. H Qrs. moved to Allonville. Major Matthews returned to Abbeville.
Matthews Masseur commenced electrical treatment on arm.

[Page 450]
Tuesday 20th Aug.

In the morning went through war diaries of Brigades of and battalions for the month of June and July. In reply to a letter fro of congratulation from Genl. Birdwood on the work of the division during the last month I forwarded copies of our reports of operations during that period. In afternoon visited all three Brigade Headquarters and conferred with GOC’s. French 10th Army commenced their attack between Soissons and Compaingne so far reported very successful.

Wednesday 21st Aug:

Reports to hand of French operations show they have made an advance of 5½ Kilm. and captured 10000 prisoners and many guns. British third Army also attacked between Arras and Albert and are reported to have reached Achiet-le-Grand and main North and South railway. British troops yesterday occupied Merville on the North and have advanced towards Estaires. Canadian Corps has been withdrawn from our right and are evidently being sent northward. French troops have taken over their late line. During this afternoon attended acquatic sports at Pioneer Bn. at Blangy-Tronville. Col. Shepherd and Major McColl went off on 10 days leave, the former to Bordeaux the latter to Tronville.

Thursday 22nd Aug.

In morning with Major Waddell and Mr. Pope called at 4th Army Headquarters. Saw Genl. Gillespie DD of S & T who promised to provide us with a new closed or open Vauxhall in lieu of closed Daimler to be evacuated. Saw Genls. Holman & Budworth

[Page 451]
and arranged that we should retain for use of Brigades two electric light sets captured form the enemy. Went on to ParisPlage saw Genl. Garratt D. & R. re mules for 2nd Aust. Divn. Lunch ParisPlage returned 3rd AGH Abbeville 3 pm watched cricket match between 2nd Div. H Qrs. & hospital. easily won by latter. Had arm dressed and with others remained to dinner at hospital.

Friday 23rd Aug.

1st Divn. made a very successful advance capturing Churgnolles & Chuignes and about 2300 prisoners together with a great deal of material including a 15" naval gun which had been rendered useless by the Boche. Later in the day by further exploitation this division again advanced its line to a considerable distance. 3rd Army attack on the North progressing favourably, Behagnies & Sapigny being in our hands while N.Zealanders are reported on the western edge of Bapaume.

Saturday 24th Aug.

Advance of 3rd Army still continuing troops being now on the Western edge of Mory Croisilles. 3rd Corps now occupy Tara Hill and Mametz and pushing out towards Maricourt. 3rd Aust. Divn. occupied Bray. In afternoon had conference of Brigadiers & C.O’s.

Sunday 25th Aug.

In morning with Genl. Hobbs attended a conference at Corps Headquarters. Corps Commander informed us of new divisional boundaries divisions from South to North being as follows 32nd, 5th, 2nd, 3rd Aust. He also

[Page 452]
outlined future policy which was to the effect that the Corps objective is to be the line of the Somme from Peronne southwards divisions will be expected to remain in the line for some little time and will employ only one Brigade for the whole divisional front leap frogging remaining Brigades through as the advance continues. Went on from Corps to Daors where I met brigadiers and staffs and informed them of future role. 6th Bde. is to move forward tonight and take over line tomorrow night from 1st Aust. Divn. In afternoon went to Abbeville had arm dressed. Major Matthews will not allow splint to be removed during day. Saw Genl. Burgess and his staff at hospital. Stayed to dinner. 6th Bde. bussed forward and came under orders of 1st Division. Boche planes bombed Bertangles aerodrome inflicting 60 casualties.

Monday 26th Aug.

In morning attended conference at Corps Headquarters Genl. Birdwood being present. Corps Commander definitely allotted tasks to 2nd and 5th Divns. immediately after conference went on to 1st Divn. Headquarters while Major Borwick went to Brigade H Qrs. Genl. Birdwood to tea at Allonville at 4.30 bulk of divisional staff moved from Allonville to 1st Divn. headqua rters at just south Sailly Laurette. 6th Brigade moved into line and 5th Brigade group bussed forward to area vacated by the 6th Brigade. Command of divisional sector passed from G.O.C. 1st to 2nd at 10 p.m.

Tuesday 27th Aug.

At 10a.m. with Major Borwick went forward to Brigade H Qrs. and discussed situation generally with Genl. Robertson.

[Page 453]
With him and Genl. Martin walked forward on to the high ground West of Cappy from which point a good view is obtained East and North East. Line advanced considerably on the left front during the night and still further advanced today a few prisoners captured. Genl. Budworth MGRA 4th Army called.

Wednesday 28th Aug.

During the day 6th Brigade continued its advance being for a time held up on the extreme left by enemy located in Frise and the trench system immediately East of this village. Eventually the village was mopped up resulting in the capture of 50 Boche 10 Machine Guns, 1 Trench Mortar and 1 Anti Land Field Gun. Fontaine les Cappy and Dompierre also Becquincourt were captured and at 8 pm a line was established midway between Dompierre and Herbecourt. At this hour the 5th Brigade passed through the 6th immediately South of the Somme Canal on a 2000 yard front. The 6th Brigade was ordered to push forward during the night to the Herbecourt trench system. Conference was held at our Divisional Head Quarters of all Divisional Commanders with Corps Commander. General Montgomery also present.

Thursday 28th Aug.

Acting on last night’s instructions the 6th Brigade during the night advanced and captured Herbecourt and the trench systems running North and South. In addition they advanced their line another 2000 yards, which advance included the capture of Hancourt. At 7.30a.m. the 7th Brigade moved through the 6th and reached the Somme by the afternoon. The advance was held up several times by machine gun fire and in the capture

[Page 454]
of Biaches and La Chapelette sharp fighting took place resulting in the capture of prisoners of 2nd Guards Division together with a number of machine guns. Meantime the 5th Brigade on its front had also advanced to the Somme opposite Halle. A conference of Divisional Commanders with the Corps Commander was held during the afternoon at 5th Divisional Head quarters and as a result of Army policy, deflecting the advance of Australian Corps from an Easterly to a North-Easterly direction, Divisional boundaries were somewhat altered, a larger frontage being allotted to the 32nd Division on the right, which is to adopt a more or less passive role, while the 5th, 2nd and 3rd Aust. Divisions, which are to carry on the advance, are given reduced frontages. To-night it is hoped to secure crossings across the Somme and if successful, adjustments of Divisional boundaries will made tomorrow. The allied forces North and South of us have made substantial advances. O’Hara Wood returned from London.

Friday 30th Aug.

Both Brigadiers found it impossible to provide crossings over the Somme during last night, marshy ground being the chief hindrance. The 7th Brigade has tried all day to get across South of Peronne, but without success. The 5th Brigade was brought back a short distance and made a crossing of the Somme at Feuilleres and joined forces with the flank of 3rd Aust. Division who early in the day captured Clery. By 11.30 p.m. the 5th Brigade had established a line some thousand yards East of Clery and of about 2000 yards frontage. It was evident that Clery had not been mopped up by the 10th Brigade, for our advance in the evening was seriously hampered by enemy machine gun fire. The 6th Brigade remains in reserve at Feuilleres while the 8th Brigade is deployed along the western bank of the Somme South of Peronne.

[Page 455]
The Army and Corps Commanders called during the afternoon and discussed proposals for the capture of Mont St. Quentin; the Army Commander being specially interested because of having operated in this area with 4th Army during first battle of the Somme.

Saturday 31st August
At 5a.m. this morning the 5th Brigade launched its attack against Mont St. Quentin. Adequate artillery support was available, but a formal barrage was not laid down. Instead a system of area shoots was arranged to assist the advancing Infantry. Mont St. Quentin was reached at an early hour and the village of Feuillaucourt was taken. The total casualties in the attack up to this time was 80, while about 1000 prisoners was taken. Later in the day Mont St. Quentin and Feuillaucourt were heavily shelled, forcing our withdrawal to the western edge of those villages. Meanwhile the 14th Brigade of 5th Aust. Div. who were to capture the high ground South East of Peronne, passed through our territory, it having been found impossible to establish bridges across the Somme in their own area. The 6th Brigade had already crossed and formed up in the vicinity of Halle as support Brigade. The 14th Brigade was unable to force its way round the North and North East of Peronne. Tonight found us with the 5th Brigade holding a line Feuillaucourt-Mont St. Quentin-Anvil Wood with the 6th Brigade in trench system immediately East of Halle, with 14th Brigade in rear. The exploit of the 5th Brigade was worthy of the highest praise. During last night a crossing was completed at the Canal du Nord, both tasks being carried out under a good deal of 5.9 shell fire. At night a conference was held at 6th Brigade Head Quarters and all details arranged between Staff, Gunners,

[Page 456]
and Infantry for a further advance tomorrow to be carried out by the 6th Brigade.

Sunday 1st September
At 6 am the 6th Brigade launched its attack, the objective being the trench system about 1500 yards East of Mont St. Quentin. Again very heavy fighting was experienced, but at nightfall, though we had not gained our selected objective, we had established a strong line in a trench system East of Mont St. Quentin and running almost to the Western outskirts of Allaines. On our right flank the 14th Brigade made preparations for an attack tomorrow morning. The Army Commander and M.G.G.S. called just after lunch and tendered their congratulations on the Division’s success. A wire was also received from General Birdwood in similar terms. During the afternoon I visited a German heavy gun near Chinques. A very interesting piece of ordnance which has been badly destroyed, apparently by explosives. At Corps Commander’s request, visited Corps Head Quarters at Mericourt to discuss with him our operations for tomorrow morning, designed to form a defensive flank on ridge running North East from Mont St. Quentin for the flank Division of the 3rd Corps. On my return to the Division discussed details with General Wisdom who is to carry out the task and C.R.A. operation to commence at 6a.m. The 5th Division have arranged to attack East of Anvil Wood at 6a.m. My right flank moving up in sympathy with their advance.

Monday 2nd September
The 7th Brigade attacked this morning under artillery support, captured Haut Allaines and maintained touch for a time with the 74th Division. The Boche however in counter-attack drove back the 74th Division, thus compelling us to refuse a flank to our left about 1000 yards

[Page 457]
East of Haut Allaines. On the Right flank the 5th Division has had heavy fighting, but is now established East of St. Denis, with our troops linking up with them. Again there has been heavy fighting today and many enemy killed, while our prisoners since the 31st total about 1300. The 6th Brigade remains in its battle position of last night, while the 5th Brigade is concentrated and resting at Halle. General Budworth called this afternoon. Late this evening General Wisdom reported about a battalion of the 74th Division was located in his area. He has arranged to use them in the consolidation of his line tonight, with the approval of their Divisional Commander and they will rejoin their own unit tomorrow morning.

Tuesday 3rd September
In morning attended conference of Brigadiers at Head Quarters 6th Brigade. It is evident that the men are very tired and require a good rest. At the conclusion of conference, received word from Divisional Head Quarters that certain alterations were pending affecting Divisional boundaries, which will work out to our advantage. Called on Corps Commander at noon and he then told me definitely that the 74th Division is to extend Southward and the 5th Aust. Division to extend Northward, thus pinching out the 2nd Aust. Div. Our relief is to take place on the night of the 4th. During afternoon entertained to afternoon tea visiting newspaper proprietors and journalists from Australia. The Corps Commander accompanied them and had already described to them in detail on the ground the opening and succeeding phases of the battle of August 8th. On my maps I showed the visitors the progressive advances to, and the capture of, Mount St. Quentin.

[Page 458]
Wednesday 4th September
The 5th Division still continued to have heavy fighting at Flamicourt. Our own troops have maintained touch with the 5th Division at St. Denis and with the 74th Division North East of Haut Allaines. Reliefs carried out during the night, the 231st Brigade of 74th Division relieving the Northern sector of our front and the 8th Brigade of 5th Aust. Division relieving our Southern sector. Before handing over, however, General Wisdom pushed out his North and South flanks very appreciably in conjunction with flank Brigades. Command of their respective new sectors passed to the G.O.C’s. 5th Aust. and 74th Divisions at midnight. Early in the afternoon the 5th Brigade moved to billeting area in the vicinity of Frise, the 6th Brigade following later to their area near Cappy, while the 7th Brigade after relief, moved to the western bank of the Somme opposite Halle & bivouaced. Divisional Artillery also came out of the line and moved to the vicinity of Bray.

Thursday 5th September
The 7th Brigade moved to its billeting area, near Eclusier. The whole Division is now in rest. The three Brigadiers dined with us at Divisional Head Quarters and Colonel Miles and Colonel Corlette returned from leave. Corps made a request for a working party of 500 Pioneers to assist in urgent Railway operations in connection with opening the permanent way to Peronne.

Friday 6th September
In morning Colonel Miles and O’Hara Wood and myself motored through Herbecourt, Omiecourt, Clery, and Feuillaucourt to Mount St. Quentin. We roamed over the Mount and along the spine running North Easterly, that was captured by the 7th Brigade on the 2nd instant. Looking from

[Page 459]
the Mount westward a good view is obtained of the trench system and wiring, constituting the defences of this prominent feature. One appreciates to the full the difficult nature of the task and the gallant work done by our infantry on the 31st August and 1st September. We returned to Divisional Head Quarters through Anvil Wood, Halle, and Biaches. The enemy is now rapidly falling back to the Hindenberg Line and our troops are, to-night, some 12,000 yards East of Peronne. The Corps has three Divisions in the line; the 32nd on the Right, 5th Aust. in Centre, and 3rd Aust. on left. The 1st and 4th Divisions are being bussed up by groups and are following on the 5th and 3rd Divisions to the objective of the Hindenberg Line. I received a cable from my father to-day saying that the mater died on the evening of Wednesday the 4th.

Saturday 7th September
In the morning in company with C.R.E., Capt. Boddam and O.C. French Mission, visited Mont St. Quentin and selected a suitable sight for a memorial in connection with the capture of this Mount by the 2nd Aust. Div. O.C. French Mission promised to see Peronne authorities and have the selected area dedicated to the Division. After wards went through St. Denis to Aizecourt, thence to Bussu, to high ground close to Lincourt, back to Doingt, thence through Peronne, which is very badly damaged, and back to Divisional Head Quarters via Biaches and Herbecourt. Saw General Cannan at his Head Quarters in Bois de Flacques on the way to Lincourt. Very fine open country and in good order, though the Boche seems to have burnt all the villages. Colonel Miles and Major Borwick visited the Mont St. Quentin battle-ground with the Brigade Majors of 5th & 6th Brigades in order to ensure complete and accurate details for the report of the battle, which is being prepared

[Page 460]
Sunday 8th September
Received word today that owing to inability of General MacLagan to attend Allied Tank School at Fontainebleau, it has been arranged by Corps that I am to take his place. Discussion with Corps re the proposal to transfer Captain Grant to this Signal Company and Captain Linkler to Corps Signal Company, when Major Watson goes to Australia on furLough. Informed Corps I could not agree to both C.O. and 2nd in Command being taken from the Div. Signal Company at this juncture. Arranged with General Robertson to assume command of the Division during my absence at Tank School.

Monday 9th September
In early morning left for Fontainebleau in company with Colonel Miles and Captain O’Hara Wood to attend Allied Tank School. On the way down we traversed the old French Somme battlefields at Fay Estrees and Ablainecourt to Chaulnes. Thence via Roye and Lassigny to Noyon. This latter town is very much damaged, the fine old Cathedral particularly so. From Noyon we attempted to journey to Soissons but found the bridges over the Oise had been destroyed and new ones not emplaced, so deflected our course to Compiegne which also has been much damaged by bombing. Thence via Senlis to Paris. Called at Military Hospital Val de Grasse, and made an appointment to see a nerve specialist Doctor Kouindjy for 10 am on 14th inst. Lunched at Cafe de Parisin Avenue de L’Opera, and later in the afternoon continued the journey to Fontainebleau, reporting to the Lower Major at 4.30 p.m. Captain O’Hara Wood made necessary Hotel arrangements, billeting us at Hotel de France et d’Angleterre, while our meals were arranged for at Hotel Francois Ier. The School programme

[Page 461]
provides that we leave Fontainebleau each morning at 8 AM for Recloses, a village some 8 kilometres from the town. Mornings are to be spent at practical demonstrations of French and English Tanks, while the afternoons are to be devoted to lectures.

Tuesday 10th September
Very heavy rain set in during the morning and quite spoilt the work of the day. General Estienne the French Tank Corps Commander opened the proceedings by a short address in which he welcomed the assembled officers and then briefly explained the organization and tactics of Tanks. Later in the morning we were shown the new French Renault Tank together with British Mark V and Mark V star Tanks. Very heavy rain however forced a discontinuance of the day’s work at Recloses but after lunch the C.O. of the British Tanks came to Fontainebleau and gave the afternoon’s lecture there. The weather cleared about 4 pm. so we took the opportunity of motoring round and through the Fontainebleau Forest – the many excellent drives giving us an ample opportunity of seeing a great deal of this famous wood.

Wednesday 11th September
This morning’s programme provided for illustrations in attack of both French and British Tanks, while in the afternoon the lecture was on the organization of the French Tank Corps. After our return to Fontainebleau, we went through the famous old Palace, which was full of interest. One wished one could have seen it in all its splendour of Napoleon’s days. Purchased some booklets of views to send home.

[Page 462]
Thursday 12th September
In the morning a scheme was given effect to illustrating cooperation of French and British Tanks including Whippets. Opportunities were given members of the course to take a ride in Whippet Tanks. The afternoon lecture referred to lessons from recent Tank operations and also gave an outline of the operations for to-morrow. In the afternoon we motored to Chateau Thierry via Nangis Mormant, Rozoy, Coulommiers and La Ferte, returning via Rebais, Saint Just, and Nangis. The Marne River both at La Ferte and Chateau Thierry is a very fine stream and the hilly country very beautiful. Chateau Thierry itself, which I had expected to find in ruins, has really not been badly damaged, probably 75% of the buildings being intact. It was interesting to note that the population had returned and the shops apparently doing good business. On the journey from Nangis southward, we saw numerous coveys of Partridge and after dark while passing through wooded country, dozens of rabbits dodged across the road in front of the car.

Friday 13th September
The morning was devoted to an interesting scheme, providing for the assistance of French Tanks actually with the Infantry in attack being preceded by British Mark V Tanks, while British Whippets were employed in exploitation into enemy country. In this and previous schemes, American and Italian troops were employed. The afternoon was spent in visiting the French Workshops at Bourron. Here we saw Renault, Chamond and Schneider tanks being repaired and overhauled, the two latter types being now, however, obsolete. The method of loading and unloading the Renault Tank

[Page 463]
on motor lorries was practically illustrated and later the German Tank "Elfriede" was inspected and its construction explained. The course concluded about 2.30 p.m. Among those present were French and Portuguese Italian Generals and officers of other Ranks, also Belgian, American and British Officers, among the latter being General Vaughan a Brigadier of the Ulster Division. In the afternoon returned to Parisvia Chapelle la Reine, Milly, La Ferte-Alais, and Arpajon then by main Orleans Road. Stayed the night at the Hotel Edouard VII.

Saturday 14th September
At 10a.m. visited Val de Grasse Hospital, where Doctor Kouindjy examined my arm and had electrical tests applied. He informed me that the arm was progressing quite satisfactorily and that I should regain full use of it, at the same time ordering me to cease wearing the splint. He promised to send me later by post the results of his tests and suggestions for future treatment. Lunched at Cafe de Parisand left Parisat 2.30 p.m. for Cappy, via Luzarches, Creil, Clermont, Saint Just en Chaussee, Montdidier and Rosieres, reaching D.H.Q. at about 7.30 p.m.

Sunday 15th September
Stayed in during the morning writing letters and in the afternoon visited sports ground. During our absence Brigades have carried out their Brigade sports and Divisional sports are arranged for the whole day 16th inst.

Monday 16th September
Went to the Sports Grounds at 10a.m. and remained there throughout the day, luncheon being provided on the ground. We were fortunate in having beautiful weather and both competitors and

[Page 464]
onlookers appeared to thoroughly enjoy themselves. Divisional War Bonds sweeps were inaugurated, each sweep being for 1000 francs and during the day no less than four were drawn, while the fifth was almost fully subscribed. Among several other visitors General Birdwood and General Monash attended, also Matron and Nurses from No. 41 and No. 5 C.C.S’s. The Matron, late in the afternoon, presenting the prizes to the prize winners. The Sports Committee with General Robertson as President are certainly to be congratulated on their efforts in organizing such a fine show. The official Photographer took a number of photos. A party of 1914 personnel from this Division, in all 16 officers and other Ranks left for 6 months furLough to Australia including Captain Boddam, the Camp Commandant and Major Watson, O.C. Signals. As the former is to be married, while in Australia, the officers of Divisional Head Quarters subscribed and handed him 300 francs, for the purchase of a wedding present, as a reminder of his pleasant associations with the officers of D.H.Q. Lieut. Pope is being appointed Personal A.D.C. and Captain O’Hara Wood assumes the responsibilities of Camp Commandant.

Tuesday 17th September
Particularly heavy thunderstorm at 2 a.m. During morning with Colonel Miles and Major Borwick went through final draft of report concerning operations of the Division up to and including the capture of Mont Saint Quentin, embodying certain corrections agreed upon between G.O.C’s. 5th and 6th Brigades concerning certain aspects of their operations. In afternoon visited Hospital at Abbeville and told Major Matthews and Colonel Taylor-Young of the Parisspecialist’s report on my arm. Hence

[Page 465]
on to G.H.Q. at Montreuil, where I made arrangements for permission for Charles to visit me here during his forthcoming leave. Went on to Campagne and stayed the night there, while Pope went on to Boulogne.

Wednesday 18th September
Lieutenant Pope returning from Boulogne picked me up at Campagne at 11 AM. W e returned to Cappy via Theronanne, Arras, Bapaume and Albert. Fourth and First Divisions this morning carried out a very successful attack towards the Hindenberg Line. All objectives gained and over 3000 prisoners. In the evening attended concert run by Divisional Concert Party, which has been recently organised. Quite a good show and very well put on. Appointment of Major McCall as Brigade Major 6th Brigade and Captain Bazeley as G.S.O. III at Division have been approved by G.H.Q. and were yesterday notified to Division.

Thursday 19th September
Interviewed General Robertson, Colonel Duggan and Lieut. Smitheram regarding the latter’s inefficiency. Decided to recommend his return to Australia. General Foote called re proposed organisation Corps Engineer Motor Transport. In afternoon interviewed Lieut. Dunkerton in the presence of his Battalion Commander and General Wisdom. This officer has been superseded many times during the last 2 years and now asks to be returned to Australia. As he is not fitted for command I am forwarding and recommending his application. At 5 p.m. attended a conference at Corps Head Quarters. Present Corps Commander and Staff and G.O.C’ s. 2nd, 3rd and 5th Divisions

[Page 466]
with their G.S.O’s I. Corps Commander foreshadowed possible forthcoming operations, with an idea of their nature. Details later. It has now been decided to at once re-organise Brigades on a 3 Battalion basis. The 7th Brigade will lose 25th Battalion, the 6th the 21st and the 5th either the 17th or 18th. Final decisions in the latter case awaiting wire from General Martin who is in England. New car returned from column after having been painted. A very poor job made of it.

Friday 20th September
At 10a.m. held a conference at Divisional Head Quarters. Present Brigadiers, C.R.A., O.C. Train, O.C. Machine Gun Battalion, A.D.M.S, G.S.O. 1., AA & QMG and C.R.E. and O.C. Signals. Outlined proposals for future operations of the Division. Training during the next few days to be specially directed to fitting the troops for open warfare involving possibly a considerable advance. Mr. Box, Commonwealth High Commissioner’s Secretary in London together with several journalists arrived and lunched with us. The operations of the Division from the 25th August onward were described to them with the aid of a map and later Captain Bazeley conducted them via the Omiecourt crossing of the Somme to Mont Saint Quentin, thence via Perronne and Herbecourt to Chinques, where the party inspected the destroyed Boche 15" gun. Arranged with Corps Commander for visit to Base at Havre and Australian Sections 3rd Echelon at Rouen leaving here tomorrow and returning 24th inst. Report on Divisional operations between 26th August and 4th September completed and will be issued to-morrow. Bishop Long called re appointment of Divisional Education Officer.

[Page 467]
Saturday 21st September
In the morning with Lieut. Pope left for Havre & Roeun travelling via Abbeville (where I saw Major Matthews & gave him the Parisian specialist’s report on my arm), Neufchatel, Longueville, Doudeville, & Goderville to Australian General Base Depot at Harfleur. Called on Major Bates at the R.F.A. & R.H.A. Depot & dined with him, afterwards going to the A.G.B.D., where I found Col. Davis the Commandant ill in bed. Stayed the night at his Headquarters.

Sunday 22nd September
A very wet day. In the morning discussed reinforcements matters generally with Col. Davis afterwards visiting Col. O’Donnel of the Infantry Base Depot & Col. Burston of the Convalescent Depot. Made arrangements that men of good character within the Division who are so war worn as to be unable to stand up against present enemy artillery fire should be given an opportunity to have up to four months stay at the Base Depots & be there employed. After lunch motored to Roeun via the direct road on the northern banks of the Somme, an exceedingly pretty trip, though the rain rather prevented our seeing the country to full advantage. Called on Col. Griffiths at Headquarters of Australian Section 3rd Echelon G.H.Q. & with him discussed details concerning base records. Stayed at Grand Hotel de la Poste, Rue Jeanne d’Arc, a very comfortable Hotel indeed though expensive.

Monday 23rd September
During morning went through Base Record matters with Col. Griffiths. Before lunch

[Page 468]
visited No. 1 A.G.H at the Racecourse immediately south of Roeun. Col. Dick the C.O. showed me round. There I met Col. Springthorpe who is over from England on special duty & as he was very anxious to visit General Monash I gave him a seat in my car. Left Roeun at 4 p.m. & returned to Cappy via Gournay, Crevecoeur & Amiens, arriving at D.H.Q. at 8.30 p.m. During my absence it had been decided that under the new scheme for re-organisation of Brigades, the 19th Battalion of 5th Bgde. should be the one disbanded.

Tuesday 24th September
10 a.m. called on Corps Commander taking with me Col. Springthorpe who later in the morning went forward with General Monash, lunched with him & caught the 6 o’clock train at Amiens for Paris. A party of Journalists from England arrived at 11.30 a.m. & Capt. Beasley was detailed to show them round the Mont St. Quentin battlefield. In connection with the re-organisation of Brigades General Robertson informed me that he anticipated trouble with the 21st Battalion, he asked me to speak to the officers & N.C.O’s. setting out the circumstances which necessitated this re-organisation. Later in the afternoon I spoke to the whole Battalion. During the morning the 37th Battalion of 10th Bgde. which was to be disbanded refused to march to their new units & the Corps Commander himself spoke to their officers & N.C.O’s. but without result. There appears to be an organised effort to defeat the orders given & to save the Battalion concerned.

Wednesday 25th September
General Robertson reported to me that the 21st Battalion refuses to march over to its new units. Attended a conference at Corps

[Page 469]
Headquarters at which the G.O.C. A.I.F. was present, also Divisional Commanders of 3rd & 5th Divisions. It was decided that owing to the pending battle it was inadvisable to force situation & it was agreed that re-organisation be deferred till the conclusion of the ensuing battle. Brigade Commanders were accordingly so informed. Training with Tanks carried out by 5th & 7th Brigades. General Montgomery called in the evening. Interviewed Major Thorne.

Thursday 26th September
Attended conference at Corps Headquarters commencing at 10.30 a.m. & continuing till 1.45 p.m. In addition to Corps staff the Commanders of the 27th & 30th American Divisions with their Corps Commander, Divisional Commanders of 2nd, 3rd, & 5th Divisions & G.O.C’s., there were present Cavalry, Tanks, Armoured Car, & R.A.F. representatives. Forthcoming operations were discussed in detail with the exception of the tasks for the 2nd Aust. Div. which has not yet been finally decided upon. While the proceedings were in progress the Commander-in-Chief with some of his staff arrived. The C in C addressed the conference & wished all Commanders the "best of luck" in the ensuing battles. It has been decided that 2nd Aust. Div. to-morrow night moves up East of Peronne but for the present Divisional Hdqts. will remain at Cappy. Visited General Wisdom re Major Thorne.

Friday 27th September
A training with Tanks carried out yesterday by 6th Bgde. Orders received from Corps & passed on to units for the move forward of Divisions to Mt. St. Quentin, Doingt, Le Messil areas because of the necessity of maintaining secrecy these moves are carried out after dark. Divisional Headquarters

[Page 470]
remains at Cappy until to-morrow. Informed by General Tivey that 60th Bn. of 15th Bgde. on disbandment moved over without hitch to their new battalions.

Saturday 28th September
Brigade Groups completed their moves during last night & to-day D.H.Q. moves to Doingt. On the way forward called at Corps Headquarters & discussed the situation with Corps Commander. Received orders from Corps & passed on to Brigades for Groups to move forward to-night, 5th Group in vicinity of Villers Faucon, 6th Group in area Roisel, Tincourt, 7th Group in vicinity of Templeux la Fosse. Operations by the 27th & 30th American Divisions carried out last night in order to square up jumping off line for operations timed for morning of 29th. The 27th Division on the left not successful. Met Sir F. Conan Doyle at Corps Headquarters.

Sunday 29th September
Brigade Groups early last night had completed their move to the new areas. Attack launched on the Hindenburg Line by the 27th & 30th American Divisions with 3rd & 5th Divisions following through them. While Bellicourt was captured & the Hindenburg Line definitely broken over the tunnell the operations were not as successful as anticipated. The 30th Division on the right failed to mop up their territory with the result that the 5 th Division in passing through them had more or less to fight their way. On the left the 27th Division for a time advanced but later fell back to their jumping off line having lost their barrage. The 3rd Division were unable therefore to pass through them. Some 2000 prisoners & a few guns were captured. The 5th & 3rd Divs. are endeavouring to establish a definite line. During the morning visited all Brigades & Hdqts. of 3rd & 5th Divisions. Dined with Matron at 41st CCS

[Page 471]
The morning opened very foggy & immensely suited the attack, the day remained fine until the afternoon when heavy showers fell, to-night it is very cold.

Monday 30th September
Situation on the front more or less obscure, American troops being scattered everywhere. These two Divisions have not shown up too well. The 5th & 3rd Divisions are now to push forward to the line Joncourt, Estrees, Mt. St. Martin & American Divisions are ordered to be withdrawn. Col. Miles visited Brigadiers & gave them the latest war news. Bulgaria has asked for peace. British, French & Belgian troops are making good progress in the north, having captured Moorsleade, Polecappelle Wervik & Comines while Cavalry are pushing on towards Poulers & Lille, Canadian troops are in the western suburbs of Cambrai, while the New Zealand Division has crossed the canal south of the town & is enveloping the town from the South East.
The troops of the 9th Corps on our right have crossed the canal & are well Eastward & captured Magny la Fosse. Palestine captures now total 50,000 while the Allied bag for the week exceeds 100,000 prisoners besides a big number of guns. Visited Corps during the morning & discussed situation with the Army & Corps Commanders, met Sir Joseph Cook there, he was just returning to England. This evening orders were received for the Division to move forward, Groups have therefore been instructed as follows commencing at 9 a.m. to-morrow. 5th Bgde. Hargicourt, 6th Bde. Villeret, 7th Bde. Templeux-le-Gerrard. Confirmation received of Bulgarian request for peace terms & an Armistice has been granted them with a view to settlement.

[Page 472]
Tuesday 1st October
Orders received for 5th Bde. to relieve 5th Aust. Div. in the line from Swiss Cottage to Mint Copse, this is in process of being carried out to-night. On completion of reliefs Brigades will be located as follows. 5th Bde. line, 6th Bde. trench system south of Nauroy, 7th Bde. in the Catelet-Nauroy line north of Nauroy. Corps Commander called during the afternoon stated that Division would probably attack in a north-Easterly direction instead of Easterly. The 9th Corps on the south & the 15th Corps on the north co-operating.

Wednesday 2nd October
Divisional Hdqts. moved to Quarry near Templeux-le-Gerrard & command taken over from 5th Aust. Div. at 9a.m. The Corps Commander verbally instructed me that we should now definitely attack north-Easterly on the morning of the 3rd. Our objectives being the whole of the Beaurevoir line from Swiss Cottage to Guisoncourt[?] Farm, Prospect Hill, Beaurevoir & Ponchaux. Ten Bdes. of Field Artillery are allotted for the operation, 16 Heavy tank & 8 Whippets. Conference held at D.H.Q. during morning of all Commanders concerned & final arrangements completed.
While the conference was sitting Corps boundaries & objectives were slightly altered, but with the exception of the inclusion of Wiancourt plans were not seriously affected. B.G.G.S called & went through details of the attack with me. Zero hour fixed at 0605. Attack to be carried out by 5th Bde. on right & 7th Bde. on left, the dividing line between Bdes. being Tolemprise farm, [indecipherable]. 7th Bde. takes over its part of the line to-night. General Charles commanding 25 Div. called at night & informed me his Division of 13th Corps was detailed to relieve my left Bde. on conclusion of operations to-morrow. The 48th Div. on our right & the 50th Div. on our left are attacking to-morrow

[Page 473]
with us. The G.S.O. 1 of 46 Div. & G.S.O. 2 of 50th Div. have mutually arranged with us as to barrage time table & to operations generally. During the day & night the quarry system in which our D.H.Q. are situated intermittently shelled by H.V. gun causing a few casualties to personnel & horses 1 car destroyed & all the others excepting my own damaged.

Thursday 3rd October
At 6.5 a.m. this morning 5th Bgde. on right & 7th Bgde. on left attacked the Beaurevoir line from immediately East of Gouy to Wiancourt, a total of 6500 yards with village of Beaurevoir as their objective. Tanks were to assist, but of the 8 heavy allotted to each Bde. front only four crossed the front line & amp; only 1 on each front succeeded in making a good penetration. 8 Whippets allotted to assist in cleaning up Beaurevoir ditched themselves in the Beaurevoir line. Both Brigades had fighting & as a consequence the village of Beaurevoir was not reached our line at nightfall being on the western face of the village, while the whole of the allotted trench system was thoroughly cleaned up.
Towards evening two battalions of the 6th Bde. reinforced the line of the 5th Bde. on the right. Our casualties for the day were about 675 for the day while prisoners captured total of over 1200 & in addition over 800 dead Boche lie on the field of battle. Arrangements are complete for a Brigade of the 25th Div. to relieve a Brigade sector to-night & to attack Beaurevoir early to-morrow morning. In conformity with this attack this Division is to swing up into left flank. General Charles G.O.C. 25th Div. called & I agreed to his

[Page 474]
request that our artillery should provide his barrage owing to his artillery not being yet organised. General Blamey called & gave me details of & boundaries for an attack to be made on this Divisional front on Montebrahain on morning of 5th instant. Corps Commander advised me that 30th American Division would relieve us on the nights 5/6 October.

Friday 4th October
The attack of the 25th Div. on our left against Beaurevoir took place this morning but was unsuccessful, my left flank however was thrown forward as had been arranged, but owing to the failure of the 25th Division, we have had to form a left defensive flank. Watched the attack from a balloon of the No. 6 Balloon Section.
Visited all three Brigadiers discussing recent operations with them, & with G.O.C. of the 6th discussed the forthcoming operations of to-morrow morning, visited the A.D.S. General Lewis of 30th American Division together with his Chief of Staff called & arrangements made for our relief on the night 5/6th. Corps Commander has instructed the representatives of staff & fighting units of this Division shall remain behind for a day or two with the relieving American Division in order to assist them in further projected operations. H.V. gun again shelling D.H.Q.

Saturday 5th October
6th Bgde. this morning attacked Montebrahain with the assistance of the Pioneer battalion & two battalions as reserve 1 each from 5th & 7th Bgdes. Tanks assisted. After heavy fighting the village was captured

[Page 475]
& all gains securely held. Total prisoners up to to-night 11 Officers 560 O.R. as well as a number of machine guns & other material not yet counted. Our casualties between 250 & 300. Attack by 25th Div. on Beaurevoir & Punchaux unsuccessful though our position is improved. A further attack was to be made this evening but result not yet known. One civilian evacuated from Montebrehain who states that there are about 30 others in the village, while yesterday from Ramicourt 26 civilians were obtained.
The 6th Division is to-night relieving 46th Div. on our right, the G.O.C. General Maiden this afternoon called with his G.S.O. I. in order to affect Liason with the 30th American Division. B.G.G.S called & outlined proposed attack for Americans for morning of the 7th. The attack will be on a broad front affecting 2 Armies. Long range guns again shelling to-day but all falling beyond D.H.Q. Army Commander called during the afternoon & I gave him details of to-days operations. General Monash left for London on leave. Advice received last night that Turkey had surrended & wire received to-day informed us that the Boche was withdrawing from the Hindenburg Line for some 15,000 yards north of us.

Sunday 6th October
30th American Division (General Lewis) during night relieved our front, relief being completed by 2.30 am. Our Brigades withdrew to intermediate area pending entraining on the 7th for rest area. Following Officers are remaining with American Division to assist them in forthcoming operations, myself, G.S.O. I, A..A & T.M.G., Bombing Officers, Medical Officers, O.C. signals & some personnel. During afternoon went to Corps & arranged with a/G.O.C.

[Page 476]
for a few days leave to Pornic & Paris. There informed that Germany & Austria had asked for an Armistice. Called at D.H.Q. at Doingt & there found that Capt. O’Hara Wood had just received advice of the death of his Major brother of the R.A.F. At 5 p.m. saw Brigadiers & Battalion Commanders at a conference re forthcoming re-organisation of Brigades. Out total of prisoners for yesterday’s operation was 606.

Monday 7th October
American Division made an attack this morning with a view to establishing a straight jumping off line for a major operation to-morrow. They succeeded in their task & captured about 160 prisoners. Brigade Troops & Headquarters moved off to their rest areas. Army Commander called & said good bye to us on leaving the line. All arrangements completed for an operation to-morrow involving a front of several Corps with a prospect of the Cavalry Corps breaking through.

Tuesday 8th October
[Diary entries continued by Gen. Rosenthal]
General attack launched this morning by 4th and 3rd Armies. All seems to be going well and good progress being made. At 9.30 AM myself and other members of Divisional Staff who had remained behind to assist the American 30th Division departed for our HQrs. at Belloy West of Amiens.
During afternoon interview with ADMS and Col. Welch re evacuation of our wounded in recent operations. Not satisfactory. Granted 6 days leave to Pornic and Parisand left by car at 3.30 PM travelling via Gournay to Les Andelys where I stayed for the night at the Hotel de Franc.

Wednesday 9th October
Commenced my journey at 6 AM and passed through Evreux, Alencon, Le Mans, Angers, Nantes

[Page 477]
[General Rosenthal resumes writing diary himself]
to Pornic which I reached about 5 PM Called on Mon. Plouvier and arranged for my room at the Hotel – while everyone also are to be taken with the Plouviers.

Thursday 10th October
Spent the day in Pornic. Called on the second Plouvier family. A very pretty watering place much frequented by Parisians, but at this time of the year deserted of tourists.

Friday 11th October
Motored from Pornic to Mindin where we crossed with car on ferry to St. Nazare – a town bristling with American activity – thence on to Le Croisic a pretty headland. On the return journey in the afternoon visited watering places of Batz la Bank and Pornichet of which places I obtained books of views. Dined with 2nd Plouvier family.

Saturday 12th October
In the morning walked around the Pornic Esplanade, and lunched at the house of [indecipherable] Piver a wealthy Parisian lady. In afternoon left for Nantes, reaching there about 5 PM and staying at Hotel de Paris.

Sunday 13th October
Left Nantes at 7.30 AM and motored to Chartres passing along the Loire river and Valley and through the towns of Tours and Orleans. In both towns I visited the Cathedral. American troops everywhere. At Chartres stayed at Hotel de Franc.

Monday 14 October
At 7 AM visited the famous Cathedral now [indecipherable] its fine coloured glass which has been removed for safe keeping. Proceeded to Parisand arrived at Val de Grace Hospital at 10 AM. Consulted Dr. Kouindjy re my arm. Left Parisat 11.30 and reached Belloy via Pointrose at 3 PM. Much correspondence awaiting me. Found that re-organization of battalion had been carried into effect wi thout trouble.
A feature of my trip has been the wonderful colouring of the autumn leaves, Wallnut, Poplar, beech, chestnut and elms. Virginia creeper is in abundance and glorious in colour.

[Page 478]
Tuesday 15th October
With ADC Pope left Belloy at 7.30 AM and caught leave boat at Boulogne at 10.30. Reached Folkestone at 1 PM and London at 3.15 PM Went straight to Whitehall Hotel.
Excellent war news coming in. The Boche seems genuinely to want peace and I think we shall soon see him out of Belgium and France.

Wednesday 16th October
Called at Horseferry Road. Saw Gen. Ryan, Col. Mandely and Col. Anderson re my arm. Arranged that tomorrow I go to our Hospital at Harefield for specialist tests and advice. Arranged for all my correspondence to be sent to Whitehall until further orders. Wrote home letters. Allied advance continues. Splendid advances made in Belgium and before Lille which must soon be ours again.

Thursday 17th October
In morning left for Harefield Hospital. Had my arm and hand tested. Apparently progress satisfactory. Lunched with medical staff, and later visited many of our men in various wards. Returned to London at 4 o’clock. Decided to arrange tomorrow for galvanic treatment in a convenient London Hospital. News received that Lille and Ostend have been occupied by allied forces consequent on Boche retirement.

Friday 18th October
Spent the day in calls. Saw Gen. Dodds and Corps Commander at Horseferry Road also Col. Millard and Anderson re electrical treatment. Saw Col. Fianchi and Major Matthews. The former leaving for Australia. Gave him my wife’s address and asked him to call on her. Corps Commander has been made a Grand Commander of the Order of Couronne, Belgium and also given The Croix de Guerre of that Country. In tonight’s paper an announcement is made that a Canadian Major General has been killed in action.
War news still continues good and indications point to Belgium and France soon being free of the Boche.

Saturday 19th October
A miserable wet day. Remained in all day. Went to theatre at night with Major and Mrs. Resborough.

Sunday 20th October
Again an unpleasant wet day. In afternoon called on Miss May Butler George at Ponsonby Hall. Found her an interesting woman, small of stature, and very well indeed informed on subjects other than the art she seems so wrapped up in.

Monday 21st October
Spent the morning at Horseferry Road among other things trying to finalise arrangements for my treatment at Hospital. In afternoon called on Miss Cowlishaw at Inverness Terrace. She is still far from strong as a result of her recent illness and operation. Arranged to visit Cambridge.

Tuesday 22nd October
Spent the morning at Horseferry Road area making purchases at Army & Navy Stores. Stayed in during afternoon and evening.

Wednesday 23rd October
Left for Senior Staff Course, Cambridge to which body I am to lecture. Provided with quarters at Caius College.

Thursday 24th October
In morning prepared map illustrating advance from Cappy to Mt. St. Quentin and lectured on the operation. It appeared to be appreciated. In afternoon under the guidance of the Bursar of Caius College visited all the College of the University and Kings College Chapel. All exceedingly interesting. A [indecipherable] Autumn – the colouring of foliage is magnificent. Returned to London at night. Found letter from France awaiting me, informing me that I had been awarded the French Croix de Guerre for services before [indecipherable] in July. Translation of Army order published by Gen. Debeney 1st French Army follows:-

[Page 480]
Au Q.G.A. le 12th Octobre 1918
1st Armee
Etat-Major Ier Bureau
No. 9553

Ordre General No. 150

Le General Cdr. la 1st Armee cite a l’ordre de L'Armee les officiers generaux de L'Armee Britannique dout les noms suivant:-

M. Monash John
M. Rosenthal Charles Major General Commandant la 2nd Division Australienne
"A Commander de la maniere la plus brilliante le 2nd Division Australienne, en laison avec la gauche de L'Armee francaise pendant le mois de Juillet 1918. A ete blesse pendant une reconnaissance qu’il executant su point de junction des Divisions francaise et Australienne."
M. Sinclair MacLagan Ewen George
M. Glasgow Thomas William

Le General de Division Debeney Commandant la 1st Armee
Pour Ampliation – Signe Debeney
Le Chef d’Etat Major
Signe Hucher – Copie Conforme
Au Q.G. le 13th October 1918

Friday 25th October
Spent the day making calls in London. Saw Admiral Howarth Booth, A.G. Sharp, Mr. Larcombe, now graded as a Major of Comforts Fund, and Army & Navy Stores. Longstaff the portrait painter is to do a picture of me, and accordingly sittings to him are to be arranged commencing tomorrow.

Saturday 26th October
Walked through Regents Park to the Longstaffs and spent the morning sitting to him.
At night went to theatre at night with Major & Mrs. Resborough. Saw Pigeon Post.

Sunday 27th October
Writing letters all the mor