Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales

Philip Gidley King - Private journal, in two volumes, 1786-1792. Vol. 1 titled: `Remarks & Journal kept on the Expedition to form a Colony in His Majestys Territory of New South Wales ...is Majesty's Ship Sirius ...', 24 October 1786 - 12 January 1789
Safe 1 / 16 vol. 1

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Sailed from Spithead 14 May 1787.
Landed Norfolk Id 5 March 1788
Settled at Sydney Cove 26 Jany 1788

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Remarks & Journal
kept on the Expedition
to form a Colony in His Majestys
Territory of New South Wales
Under the Command of
His Excellency Arthur Phillip Esqr
His Majestys Governor & Captain general
0f ye said Territory & its dependancies
Kept by
Lieutenant Philip Gidley King
Second Lieutenant of His Majestys Ship
Sirius.
Emplyed on ye above Expedition

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As I write this Journal for my own satisfaction, I do beg & request, that, into whatever hands it may fall, (in case of any accidents happening to me) To give or forward it into the hands of His Excellency Governor Phillip, or in case of his demise, to Lieut. William Dawes of the Marines, who I instruct to destroy it; if any of the materials can be of service to the latter he is perfectly welcome to them

Philip Gidley King

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His Majestys Ship Sirius of 20 Guns 612 Tons & 160 Men for which Ship I received my Commission as second Lieutenant, was commissioned ye 24th of October 1786 & ordered to be fitted out with the greatest despatch, as it was presumed that she would proceed on ye Service for which she was destined, early in December, Captain Arthur Phillip was appointed to the chief command of her as 1st Captain & Capt Jn Hunter was promoted from Master & Commander to ye Rank of Post Captain, by an order of His Majesty in Council & acted as second Captain. The first Captain who has likewise a Commission under ye Great Seal of Great Britain as Captain General & Governor of His Majesties Territory of New South Wales; (extending from ye 44th degree of South Lattitude to the 10 Degree of South Lattitude & from ye 135 of East Longitude to Ed. The Islands thereon dependant), he is supposed at all times to command ye Ship & when he thinks it expedient for the publick service is at llberty to embark onboard her. The other officers & names are expressed in the beg

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inning. The construction of a Kings Ship not being deemed proper for this Service the Berwick Store Ship was pitched on by the Admiralty & her name changed to the Sirius, so called from the bright star in ye Southern constellation of the Great Dog. She had been purchased on the Stocks by Government in 1781 & was sent once to America as a Storeship during ye War & once after the peace to ye Wl Indies since which time she had lay'n in ordinary at Deptford, till named for this Service, when She was taken in to dock & as the Yard people said, thoroughly over- hauld, however we have frequently had reason to think otherwise, in the course of our Voyage The Supply armed Tender of 170 Tons 8 Guns & 50 Men commanded by Lieutenant H.L. Ball; was formerly a Navy Transport her size is much too small for so long a voyage which added to her not being able to carry any quantity of Provisions & her sailing very ill

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renders her a very improper Vessell for this Service. The Transports taken up for ye Service are as follows, as well as their Complements of Seamen Marines &c Convicts embarked on board them at the time of our leaving England

Alexander, 452 Tons 30 Seamen 35 Marines 194 Convicts
Lady Penrhyn, 333 Tons 30 Seamen 3 Officers of Ms 101 Female D

Convicts

Charlotte, 335 Tons 30 Seamen 42 Marines, 86 Male & 20 Female
Scarboro, 430 Tons 30 Seamen 44 Marines 205 Male Convicts
Friendship 274 Tons 25 Seamen 40 Marines 76 Male & 21 Female D
Prince of Wales, 350 Tons [*] Seamen 29 Mars 2 Male & 47 female Cons
Fishburn, Victualler, & Agents Ship of ............ 378 Tons 22 Men

Golden Grove, D ............................ 335 Tons 22 Men

Barradale, D ............................... 275 Tons 22 Men

The terms of the Contract with the owners of the above Ships are 10 Shillings per Ton per month till their arrival at Deptford, except the Lady Penrhyn, Charlotte, & Scarboro which ships are no longer in the Service, when they are cleared of their Cargos in Botany Bay & from

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that time their contract ceases with Government & they begin a new one with the East India Company on whose account they go to China for a Cargo of tea to carry to England. Lieutenant Shortland of the Navy has the Appointment of Agent of Transports & is to return to England with the other three Transports & ye three Storeships, the instant, the Governor has no further occassion for them The transports are fitted up for the Convicts the same as for carrying troops; Except the security, which consists of very strong & thick Bulkheads, filled with nails & run across from side to side in ye tween decks abaft the Mainmast with loop holes to fire between decks in case of irregularities, The hatches are well secured down by cross bars, bolts & locks & are likewise nailed down from deck to deck with oak stanchions. There is also a barricadoe of plank about 3 Feet high, armed with pointed prongs of Iron on the upper deck, abaft the Mainmast, to prevent any connection between the Marines & Ships Company, with the Convicts. Centinels are

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placed at the different Hatchways & a guard always under arms on the Quarter deck of each Transport in order to prevent any improper behaviour of the Convicts, as well as to guard agt any surprize. Each Transport has onboard a Certain quantity of each kind of Utensils proper for agriculture, as well as a distrlbution of other stores for the use of the Colony, so distrlbuted that an accident happning to one Ship would not have those disagreeable consequences, which must be the case, if ye whole of one Species of Stores was onboard each Ship. The Victuallers are loaded with two years provisions of all species for the Marines, Convicts &c for two Years from the time of their landing in New South Wales The Sirius and Supply tender dropped from Deptford to Longreach ye 10th of December Be lay there till the 30th January waiting for the Alexander & Lady Penrhyn who were taking in their Convicts at Gallions, we anchored in the Downs ye 4th of February

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with the above two Transports & Supply tender, & were detained there till ye 19 by very heavy Gales of Wind at S.W. On the 20th We weighed with the Wind at N.E. & came to anchor on the Motherbank ye 22nd where we found the three Victuallers Scarborough & Prince of Wales Transports. The convicts were all embarked on ye 6th of March & ye Charlotte and Friendship from Plyrn with Convicts joined us soon after, It was not till ye 11th of May that the Governor joined us he having been detained in Town untill the Ministry had arranged & fixed the different orders settling a number of things so incident to ye great voyage we are about to undertake. On ye 12 The Ships Company was paid their two Months advance, & on the same day we were joined by His Majesties Ship Hyena. Captain De-courcy who was ordered to proceed with us as far as Capt. Phillip might judge proper. A disagreement now took place between the Seamen of the Transports & Victuallers, with the Masters of them, in which I think the Seamen had a little reason on their Side. They had been in employ upwards of seven Months, during

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which time they had received no pay except their River pay & one Months advance. The great length of the Voyage rendered it necessary that they should have more Mony, to furnish themselves with such necessarys as were really indispensable. But it became the Masters interest to withold their pay from them, that they might be obliged to purchase those necessarys from them on ye course of the Voyage at a very exorbitant rate; However our sailing, obliged some of them to return to their Duty, others compromised with the Masters, & ye Fisburn lost 5 Men which never returned The 14th at day break we weighed & ran thro' the Needles & by Noon got a good Offing with the Wind at E.S.E. May 15 at Noon we took our departure from ye Start, bearing N.E.b.E. 8 Leagues, had the Wind then at S.W. but in the Evening it shifted round to ye S.E. & ye next day to West where it continued till ye 21st when we parted Company with the Hyena returning the usual salute of three Cheers by her we sent our letters to dry land

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From the 21st of May till the 26th had variable winds from S.W. to S.E. with very fine Weather. The Thermometer since we left England has not been lower than 60 or higher than 64. Variation ye 26th by a mean of eight azimuths & one Amplitude 20.30' W1. May 30th saw ye Deserters bearing N 74 W. distant 5 Leagues By an altitude which Mr. Dawes took soon after we made ye Land & on deducing the true time of the time keeper from ye time at the Ship we find the Longitude of ye Eastermost Deserter to be [blank space] & by the requisite Tables the Longitude is [blank space]. In coming from ye NE, the Islands or rocks called the Deserters are very high & may be at first mistaken for Porto Sancto.
May 30th at noon I take my departure from ye Lattitude observed 32.18' N

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& Longitude by the Time Keeper 16.29' W. The Eastermost Deserter then bearing N 17 W distance 4 Leagues.

The 30th & 31st had ye Wind from W.N.W. to S.W. with Calms at noon of ye 31st June being then in Lattitude 30.47' N and Longitude [blank space] Wt per Time Keeper, the Supply was ordered ahead to make ye Land & at 1/2 past 3 P.M. she made the signal of having discovered it. By our Run from the Deserters, as well as our observations of to day & Yesterday, We find the exact Lattitude of the Salvages to be 30. 13' N. In most tables of Lattitude & Longitudes they are laid down in 30.00' which is undoubtedly a Mistake, by a private journal of Capt. Cookes he takes notice of the same error, Their Longitude by the Time Keeper is 15.56' W1. Took our departure from ye Grand Salvage at 4 AM. bearing NW W distant 5 Leagues had ye Wind at S.W. in which quarter it continued veering to ye Westward till ye 3rd at night when it shifted round to North & N.N.W. at Day light in ye Morning saw ye Island of Teneriffe bearing SWbW 15 Leagues, having very thick weather we could not distinguish ye peak or even the form of ye Land, the Eastern point is very high & bluff off which lye 4 high Rocks. We rounded this point Steering S.W. The Distance from this point to the Town & Road of Sta Cruz is about 4 Leagues.

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This side of ye Island, as well as ye others, does not give a flattering idea of a fruitfull & plentifull Island which it is in reality; altho the prospect of it from ye Sea, is no more than a heap of Rocks piled the one on the other; 8c cut into very deep ridges without the least appearance of any kind of verdure. At 7 o'clock came to an anchor & moored Ship off the NE end of ye Town of Sta Cruz which has a good appearance from ye Road. It is needless to try for soundings till you are within 1 mile of ye Shore when you have 80.F. soft mud the bank goes up steep & very near the shore there is not less than 7.F. We anchored in 15 F & moored Ship a Cable each way the proper way of mooring here is N & S. on account of the violent winds which often blow at NE & S.W. When moored ye Eastermost part of ye bay or Le Rocquet bore N 78 E. The Fort to the Southward of the Town S 45 W & ye Church of S1 Francisco S 73 W.

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distance off Shore about 1/2 a mile. It is necessary to have ye Cables floated With Corks to prevent their being nlbbed by the quantity of Ballast which is hove out here by ye Spanish Merchant men. this is a precaution not to be neglected. The Bay is open from E.N.E. to S.W. The anchorage good there are two Rocks in ye Bay the smallest lyes in 7 F close in with the Eastermost fort & has 14 feet water on it. the other bears SSE from ye Pier head & has 50 F. water on it, both of them are very small, a very good stone pier is run out for boats, where the water is conducted down, that Ships fill their Water cask in their own boats The next Morning June 4th I went on shore to announce Governor Phillips visit, with the officers of the Ship & Garrison to the Governor; at the same time to apologize for not saluting the Fort on account of our being so much lumbered with Cask &c on ye Gundeck. The Spanish Governor (the Marquis of Brance forte) returned

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the visit onboard the Sirius the next day accompanied by six of his principal Officers. His aid-du-camp came onboard just after with an invitation from His Excellency, to Governor Phillip requesting the pleasure of His Company & twelve of his officers to dine with him the following day. The Governor accepted the invitation & went accompanied by twelve officers amongst which number I was one. We were received & entertained with that Llberality & Elegance for which the Spaniards are so much distinguished. The Marquis de Brance forte (from whom we received the greatest attention & politeness during our Stay at this place) has resided here five Years as Governor of the Canaries, altho' the Seat of Government is at ye Grand Canarie where the Bishop resides as well as all ye Gens de droit. I believe the Inhabitants of this Island (Teneriffe) will meet a severe loss whenever he is recalled

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as Thousands daily experience his unbounded llberality & humanity. Amongst a number of publick spirited actions which has marked the whole of his Government is one which (ought to be made known to Europe at large,) & which does great honor to the head & heart of this estimable Nobleman. On the Day we dined with His Excellency after having taken our leave of him, we were carried by an English Merchant to see an institution formed at ye Expence of the Marquis. On arriving at ye Building which has been erected for the purpose, we found a number of Men Women & Children at work some weaving, knitting sewing & divers other employments, within this building (which serves as one side of a Quadrangle open at each corner) was another building in which he has established a Manufactory of coarse linnens & woollens, Rlbbans Tape &c which is performed by Children & Women from seven Years old to eighty, they are selected from among the poorest

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people on the Island; in short every female who is left an Orphan, or who is distressed, has only to present themselves, in order to partake of the humane benevolence of the founder, when we were there, The Number of the females were 120, from 7 Years old to 20; & 60 from 20 to 90. The sale of their work, maintains them, & ye surplus goes to a fund for portioning off those that has been there 7 Years, from ye age of 12; & to provide for those whose age &c may exclude from ye addresses of a suitable husband. The Town of Sta Cruz has a good appearance from ye road, The streets are wide but ill paved, there are some good houses here, which are augmenting daily, as this is ye center of ye commerce of all the Islands, with Spain & ye Carracao. There are two convents of Men. one Franciscans & ye other dominicans, both of which are poor, altho' their churches are elegantly decorated & are not wanting in a certain degree of Catholic beauty in their construction.

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During our short stay here, We made a party to visit Laguna & ye Country of which we had not formed a very favorable idea from ye appearance of the Island. Having provided ourselves with Horses, Mules, & asses each accompaned by his conductor, we sett of from Sta Cruz about eight in the Morning being fourteen in all, besides our numerous attendants, whose principal business it was to accelerate ye nature of the Cavalry, by means of long staffs pointed with Iron, & with which they also leaped with surprizing agility from rock to rock. The Road for the first Mile was very uneven with large loose stones & the country on both sides had very little appearance of cultivation. We soon passed a small redoubt erected on ye summit of the first hills which we were informed by an English Merchant who was with us was erected in the last War, intended for ye Garrison of Sta Cruz to retire to, in case of its being taken: However ye Spaniards might have saved themselves that trouble as a trench

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thrown across defended by 50 Men would stop the incursion of an enemy however formidable he might be. The scene was now changed & instead of barren burnt rocks the eye was agreably diverted by corn fields, Vineyards &c & the sourrounding hills covered with Thickwood. from the Fort, to Laguna, the distance is about 8 miles, thro' a very pleasant picturesque country, the beauties of which were much heightned by the harvest which they were at this time getting in. The City of Laguna stands in the centre of a large plain, bounded by very high Hills. The Streets are wide & well paved & the Houses are also very well built many of which have the air of hotels, with porte cocheres. The plain on which the Town stands was formerly a Marsh, but was drained, altho' not sufficiently to exclude very obnoxious damps & Fogs particularly in the Winter which renders this a very unwholesome place, and it is principally on this account that the Inhabitants are taking up their residence

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at Sta Cruz. From Laguna we went to the Summit of the Steep hills which surround ye plain on which the City stands, had it not been for the excessive heat we should have found our excursion exceeding pleasant. On one of these Hills we found a small plain, which is called ye plain of ye Wanches or original inhabitants of this Island; a number of large flat stones, were dispersed about, which had much the appearance of an Altar ruo loqual y cifircas na suneo a little distant from this plain on the side of a hill, we found the spring of water (which is walled round) which conducted thro' Wooden Trunks convey the water to Laguna & Sta Cruz. We returned down ye Hill about half way when we halted at a small chappel, where we found our provision Mule, waiting for us: from hence we had a fine coup d'oeil of Laguna on ye plain below us, & the Hills on both sides, & in front, covered with a beautifull Wood, tended to render our repast one of the pleasantest & most agreable I ever made. Nor did we forget our friends in Old England;

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whose healths we addressed with drinking, in some Porter which we had carried with us. at 6 in ye Evening we remounted our Cavalry & returned to Sta Cruz being much amuzed on ye Road with the singing & mirth of our Sunburnt guides. I could not learn that there is any remains of the ancient inhabitants Except their name. Soon after the Earthquake which was felt here severely in 1736 several Corpses were discovered in the interior Mountains in as perfect a state as the Egyptian Mummies The Method they had apparently taken, was by embowelling the bodys & sowing them in four different Skins of animals, so tight as to exclude ye air: they were then buried six feet deep, where they must have lain some hundred Years. The only fruit which was in season at this time were figs & Mulberries. Pumkins & Onions are in great plenty, poultry dear. Beef with which the Ships Companies, Marines & Convicts were supplied with daily, was very poor

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the Market price of which was 2 1/2 per lb. Wine is very Plenty at all times of ye Year, tho of Different prices there is but one kind of Wine which assumes different names & prices according to the number of times it is rack'd off & its age.8 the Contract price of ye Wine whilst we were here was 22d per Gallon. On ye 8th June two days before our departure from this place Joseph Powers one of ye Convicts onboard The Alexander, was was permitted to work as a Seaman, found means to put a boat from ye Stern During the night, he was missed about four hours after his evasion & was found among some rocks where ye boat had drifted. We found that he had offered himself onboard a Dutch Indiaman which lay astern of ye Alexr but was refused By several equal Altitudes of ye Sun we find the Longitude of Sta Cruz bay to be 16. 17'.30" West of Greenwich & ye Variation. The Transports & co. having compleated their Water &c on ye 10th We made ye Sigl for every Person of ye Fleet to repair onboard their respective Ships & unmoored; And ye next Morning

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we weighed with a light air at NNW which lasted just long enough to give us an offing when it fell calm with light airs from ye SW. nor did we clear the Island before the 13th when we got the N.E. Trade, from that day to the 18th we steered SW 1/2 S when being in Lattitude 18.44' S Longitude per T.Keeper 22.17' Ni. We steered S.S.W. at 3 P.M. & at 9 AM Saw ye Island of Sal Bearing NWbW 1/2 AW about 3 Leagues. The True Lattitude of ye South End of ye Isle of Sal By a Meridian observation is 16.51' N Longitude by the Time keeper 22.51' W in passing this Island we had Strong Gales & hazey Wr which is the General Weather among the Cape de Verde Steering S 1/2 E from Sal from which place we took our Departure at 11 A.M. we made ye Island of Bonavista at 2 P.M. on ye 19th. In rounding the Island which we did within 2 or 3 Leagues we had a good view of ye Reef which lyes off ye NE end it bears from [blank space] to [blank space] in length & is about two miles long, & spits off about 2 Miles. The Sea breaks very high on it

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I think Ships in making these Islands should always endeavor to make Sal. from whence a South Course will carry them well without the Ledge of Bonavista, & in sight of it. We ran that night (ye 19th) SWBS. till 12 when we made ye Sigl & brought too with our head to the Eastward till day light when we saw ye Isle of May bearing NWbW 4 Miles, at Noon ye East end of St Jago bore W.S.W. 2 Leagues. Ships bound into Port Praya may run close along ye Isle of May & steer over from thence West by Compass which will fetch about 2 Leagues to the NE of ye Port. If ye NE Trade blows fresh it will be best to keep close in with the Island till the Reef which lyes off ye Western point of Praya Bay opens, (which may be further known by the Isle of Quails which lye within it.) then luff close round ye Eastern point when the port & Flagg will open bring it to bear NW N the East point E S & ye West Point SWbW with which bearings you

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will have 7.F. Mud & Clay Those remarks I made when here in the Europe of 1783. At 1/2 past 12 Opned ye reef of ye Western point of ye Bay & had at that time a very fresh breeze at NBE but in hauling round ye Eastern point we were taken aback with the Wind at SW & soon after it fell quite calm with partial catspaws. We observed that the Wind blew right in, by a Portugueze Brig Riding in the Roads as well as by the Flagg The convoy came about us in a cluster & were likewise becalm'd A great Swell was running & had we persevered in endeavouring to get in I make no doubt but one of ye Vessells might have been disabled by carrying away a Boltsprit or some such accident which would have been a severe stroke to us as it was imposslble to replace any thing of that kind at this or any of the Cape de Verde, many of the Transports were not more than 1/2 a mile from ye Reef. There was no regular wind in the Bay, nothing

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but Catspaws & calms; The bay not being above 1/2 mile over from ye East point to ye Reefs & a great swell it was more than probable that some of the Ships might foul each other. Therefore however anxiously it might have been wished for, by many of us, Capt. Phillip in my opinion judged proper in ordering the Convoy to get an offing as soon as posslble, which was rendered a long task from ye Calms & cats paws with which we were surrounded; however at 2 P.M. we got into ye true Wind & proceeded on our Voyage. Ships never anchor at Port Praya during the Autumnal months but this is rather early to have ye S.E. Wind here, which we think must be rather uncommon. On ye 21st ye day after we left St Jago observed a boat passing from ye Alexander to another of the Transports, we made her signal & reprimanded ye Master for suffering visits at Sea which is a Custom that ought to

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be put a stop to, as it has been prooved to be of a most dangerous & sometimes fatal Tendancy without considering how much it retards a Voyage. We kept the N.E. Trade, steering South, till the 24th of this month (June), then being in Lattitude 9.02' N Longd per Timekeeper [blank space] W1 from this day to Ye 7th July had ye Wind in the SW Quarter seldom varying two points attended with frequent squalls of very heavy rain, Thunder & Lightning. Our run between those dates were seldom more than 45' a day & we generally found the observation 12, 16 or 18 miles to ye Northward of ye Reckoning each day & once 26 Miles; We also found by ye Lunar observations & Time Keeper that the ship had been sett in a like proportion to ye Eastward. On ye 7th of July when we got tne SE Trade we were then 4 degrees to ye Eastward of our reckoning being then in Lattitude 5.16' N Longitude by The Time keeper 18.57' W1 & by mean of 28 distances of Sun & Moon taken by

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Capt. Hunter Messrs Dawes, Bradley & self our Longitude was 18.36' W1 Longd by account 22.46' on this day we spoke an English Sloop of 40 Tons called the Remembrance from London bound to Falklands Islands she had been 12 Weeks from England & 5 from ye Isle of May; The Master of this Vessell informed us that he hath had ye Wind from ye SW for more than three Weeks. The Wind continued in light Breezes from ye SSE till the 12th July with fine pleasant weather from this date to our crossing the Equator on the 15th we found the Ship was sett considerably to the Westward of our reckonings. The Time keeper some days giving 30, 40 & even 50' a day more than the log would give by which means we crossed the line much farther to the Westward than was wished, altho' no opportunity was ever lost of getting Easting. We crossed the Equator ye 15 at 8 P.M. with a Moderate Breeze at S.E.b.E. & pleasant Weather. Our Longitude by Time keeper 26. 10 W. by

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Account 26.29' W Variation 5.20' W1 by a very good Azimuth which we had ye preceeding day. Nothing can be a stronger proof that the Currents about the Equator are entirely directed by the Winds than that we were set to ye NE dayly, while we were to ye North" of ye Line & had ye Wind from ye S.E. insomuch that on getting the SE Trade we were 4 to ye Eastward of Account & from the Time we get the S.E. Trade we were set so much to the Westward, that our Longitude by Timekeeper & Dead reckoning agreed very nearly on crossing the line. From ye 15th to ye 20th July had moderate Breeze & often a great head swell with the Wind from S.E.b.E. to Eb.N some days we were set 12, 18 & some times 22 miles per day to ye Northd & Southward alternately which I attrlbute to the head swell & not having distance enough given & perhaps a Current may have had some share in those Errors nor was the error confined to the Lattitude as we found the Ship constantly set to the

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Westward of Account. On ye 20th our Lattitude was 6.57 S. Longd per Time keeper 27.42' by Lunar observations Taken by Captn Hunter Messrs Bradly Dawes & self 27.09' W1 by Dead Reckoning 26. 12' From this date to the 29th the Wind continued well easterly accompanied at times with very heavy Squalls of Wind & Rain in one of which we carried away ye Main Topsail Yard in the Slings which was soon replaced with another. On ye 29th our Lattitude was 19.37' S Longitude per Time Keeper 3318' W1 Variation 3.30' E1. The Wind shifted round to NE with very fresh Gales & in general clear which Wind continued till We Made Cape Frio. The Morning on which we made ye Cape Augt 2nd at 3 P.M. we spoke a Portuguese Snow from ye Coast of Guinea bound into Rio de Janeiro, his bearing from Cape Frio was West 15 Leagues. Our Lattitude observed at Noon was 23.02' S Longitude by Time Keeper 49.31' W1 & by dead Reckoning 36.N at which time Cape Frio bore by the

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former N 83.35' W1 distant 21 Leagues, & by the latter N 88.36 Wt distant 96 Leagues. We then steered W N Till 3 in ye Afternoon when we made Cape Frio bearing WVaS 7 Leagues. We then ran WSW W till twelve at night when ye Cape bore NNW at which time we were abreast of it. our Course & distance at this time worked back to Noon was S 84 E distant 64'. from our getting within the Cape till ye 5th we were becalmed & had light airs off ye Land, & on that Evening we anchor'd within ye Isle of Raz which bore SbW 1 Mile The Sugarloaf at ye W1 Entrance of ye Harbour NW 1/2 N & Rodondo SWbS 2 Miles. The next day ye 6th at Daylight I was sent by Capt Phillip to wait on the Vice King at Rio de Janeiro & demand permission to enter the Harbour for Refreshments &c which being granted & having assured myself (as I was ordered) that an equal Number of Guns would be returned to our Salute, I returned onboard & a Sea Breeze springing up at 3 o'clock we

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Weighed & on passing the Fort of Sta Cruz saluted with 13 Guns, to which they returned an equal number, at 7 we anchor'd in 17 Fm all ye Convoy coming too at the same time. The next Morning we Moored Ship a Cable each way the Best Bower to ye SE & Small Bower to ye S.W. The Flaggstaff on Sta Cruz bearing S.E.b.S. ye Sugarloaf S1/4Et & ye Flagstaff on ye Isle of Cobres WbN. about IVa mile from ye Town. The next day The Governor Officers of the Sirius, Supply, & the Marine Officers went on shore to pay their visit to the Vice King & Governor Phillip was received on landing by the Captain of ye Guard & a Religieux who conducted him to ye Palace, (which is close to ye landing place) Where we waited about five minutes in the Audience Chamber when a Curtain was drawn which discover'd The Vice King in the Drawing room to whom we were introduced seperately by our Governor, from thence we retired into an inner room where the Vice King & Governor Phillip conversed together for some time after which we took our leave.

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During our Stay here Governor Phillip was always received at Landing by the Vice King's Guard. The Hospitality & attention to every person in our fleet by the inhabitants of this place of all Ranks, merits the warmest gratitude on our parts, & I am very happy that no improper behaviour of Soldier or Sailor gave them any reason to be sorry for their civility & attention to us. We got every thing here in great plenty & very cheap such as Beef (with which every person in the fleet was supplied with dayly) Mutton, Poultry; Oranges, Bannanas, &c Indeed I never recollect being in so good a port for Refreshments of all kinds. The Convicts & Marines were victualled with fresh beef &c at 3 1/2d per day. The water is very good & is filled in ye boats with a hose. In falling in with Cape Frio (which is an Island & makes like two hills) Ships should not risque getting in with the Land to ye Northward of the Cape, which runs into a deep bay & in which are

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several Islands & are called ye Islands of Ancora & St Ann But if a Ship should be forced in among them by a S.E. Wind, there is good Anchoring within the Isle of Ancora in 15 f"1 1 League from ye Island. As it is in General thick Weather about ye Cape, Great care should be taken in running for it to Keep the lead going as there are not soundings above 10 Leagues out where you may have 150 F If to the South" of the Cape you have a Kind of Yellow Mud; but if to ye Northward   [blank space] These soundings decrease gradually & the depth from ye Cape to the Isle of Raz is from 42 to 15 fm. The Harbours Mouth bears from ye Cape West 18 Leagues. Ships bound in should leave no opport- unity of getting in, as it often happens that the Sea breeze does not come in for days together tho' in general the Land & Sea winds are tolerable regular. We were four days before we got in after being abreast of the Cape. In standing to ye WHvard from Cape Frio Two Sugarloaves will be seen the Western of which is that at the Harbours mouth. In thick Weather strangers some times mistake ye one for the other

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the difference is easily known as ye Eastern Sugar loaf bilges out to ye WHvard, & ye Westward one bilges to ye Eastward Aw EA The Islands of Paya & Maya may be sailed round by a first rate so close as to touch her sides without any danger. If there is not Sea breeze sufficient to carry a Ship into the Harbour they may anchor within the Isle of Raz bringing it to bear South 1 Mile or nearer. The Isle of Rodondo & other Rocks & Islands to ye NW is a sufficient Shelter against every wind but the SE with which wind you may run into the Harbour. There is no danger but what is vislble in going in, or inside this Harbour, the Marks to sail in are to steer towards ye Sugar loaf till ye Church of Notre Dame de bon voyage is upon of the Fort at ye Right hand of ye Entrance called Sta Cruz opposite to which about 3/4 of a mile is ye fort of Lege, situated on a small rocky Island. When between these forts, which may be called the bar you have 6 F & not less, be carefull not to be got into either of

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the bights within those two forts. As ye Ebb sets strong into that of Lege & ye flood into that of Santa Cruz but of the two it is better to get into that of Sta Cruz where you may anchor, which is not altogether prudent to do on ye other side it being very rocky, from the forts run up [blank space] for ye Isle of Cobres & bring the Bearings on which I mentioned before for our Mooring. The ground is good; altho' rather poor from ye town, for ships which have to Water however Those who mean to remain here any time, go behind ye Isle of Cobres where the portugueze Men of War & ye Brazil Men lye on that Island are rings to heave down by. The Rock was blown up & the Rings put in by the Anna Pink & the other Ships of Lord Ansons Squadron which hove down by them in 1742. The Harbour is spacious & safe & ye largest I ever saw except Trincomalay. it is very well defended Yet I think ten sail of the line & 5000 Troops would give a good account of the Gold crosses with which their

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churches are well furnished, in a short time, if well conducted. The Tide flows here 2 1/2 hours full & Change & rises about 4 feet but this depends greatly on the winds as I once saw it rise 7 feet. There are forty Islands in the harbour the largest of which is called Governador, which would have been the healthiest situation for the Town. Its present site is very unhealty as the High Mountains round it entirely excludes the Sea breeze which renders it excessive hot altho' the Streets are wide There are some good buildings in the City the principal of which are the Churches Convents & ye Viceroys Pallace which is a very spacious & not inelegant building; it is situated close to the landing place near it are ye Vice Kings Stables. Opera. Mint Court of Justice &c. The Title of ye Vice King is Vice King & Captain General of ye Brazils by Sea & Land; His fixed salary is but £2000 per Annum however if he wishes to treble that sum he has it much

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 in his power. An Officer of the Rank of Lieutt Colonel who is stiled Adjutant des ordres is in constant attendance at the Pallace to give out orders & transact all the Military business, there are besides this Officer a great number of others who are likewise on Constant duty at the same place. The Troops are well disciplined & appointed & ye subordination is kept very high. There are now about 5000 Troops viz ye Regiments of Braganza. Estramodo & Moira. these 3 Regiments Came from Lisbon in 1768 & were to remain only 3 Years, however they are not yet gone or any likelihood of it. there are besides 2 Companies of Cavalry & 2 Companies of Artillery with 3 Provincial Corps The Town can arm 6000 trained Men. The Town contained according to a statement made in 1784 about 30,000 Souls but I am credlbly informed that is far short of ye Number. The Country about ye Town, as well as around ye Harbour is romantic & picturesque

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beyond description, & was it in possession of any other European Power excepting Spain, it might be made to produce every article. But the Portuguese content with ye natural riches of the country & their native indolence, prevents them from turning these Territories in this part of the Globe to account. The Present Vice King & a few publick spritied people particularly a Signer John Hopman has roused them from their lethargy, in ye Year 1700 all their Spirits, Corn, Coffee, &c &c came from Lisbon, but they are now so well improved at present that besides having a very ample supply for themselves & ships that may touch here they are enabled to export yearly 6000 Cases of Sugar at 1240 lb each 5000 Cases of Rice 36,000 lbs of Indigo 2000 pipes of Rum beside cochineal & Woods for dying & Building.

A Kings Ship comes here once a Year to carry home ye Diamonds & Gold. I could not learn ye Quantity or Value of

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the Diamonds which are sent to Portugal Yearly in their Rough state as no lapidary can polish a Diamond here under pain of Death The Quantity of Gold which is sent to Lisbon Yearly is 32,000 lbs or 3200 Arobes Beside Diamonds There is a Quantity of Topazes Amethystes & other precious stones found here with a Quantity of Medicinal Drugs particulary ye Balsam Capivi & Castor oil both which I am told is very good.

On our arrival here Governor Phillip got permission to Land Lieut Dawes of ye Marines with ye Astronomical Quadrant Clock Time Keeper &c on ye Island of Anchades10 an Island in ye harbour which bore from the Sirius per Compass N 50.24 W1 2 3/4 Miles Mr Dawes remained there till ye Day before we sailed but unfortunatly the Weather was always too obscure to observe the Eclipses of the Satellites. However by some tolerable distances of equal Altitudes he fixed ye Longitude to be 43.21' Wt of Greenwich.

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Having finished our business at this Port we saild September 5th & on our passing the Fort of Sta Cruz were saluted with 21 Guns, which was the last mark of attention & respect which we met with from Luis Velasque de Concierge Viceroy of the Brazils We lost sight of ye land on the evening of the 5th the 6th the Wind freshned & veered to the NE & ENE in which Quarter it remained till the 8th at Midnight when it shifted round to ye WNW & South with heavy squalls of Wind rain, Thunder, & Lightning, Lattde 25.54 Longitude per Time Keeper 39.39 W1 from the 7th to the 11th found a Current which sett us 12' to the Northd in ye 24 hours ye 12th had ye wind at ENE from whence it shifted round to North with a great Western Swell, had at times violent Squalls of wind & Rain 15th was Calm, almost ye whole day & tolerably clear which enabled Mr Dawes to take some good Altitudes by which we found our Longitude by Time Keeper was 31.39' Wl Lattitude 30.37 S from this day till the 20th had fair Winds On yc 21st ye Wind came round to SE with a Swell Septr 22 Moderate Breezes at 3h58'.33" Longd in per mean of 8 distances of O &

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By the Time Keeper 22.33' W1 Lattde 33.04' S & Variation 2.33' W1 - 23rd had ye Wind at NE with Squally Weather & the latter part had hard Gales with a great Sea running. The 24th the Wind shifted into the NW Quarter & blew with great force & often accompanied with heavy squalls of wind, rain, thunder & lightning. On the 27th Mr Dawes took 6 Altitudes which gives the Longitude per Time Keeper 9.2'.30" W1 by Dead ReckS - 8.31' W1 Lattde 34.26' S I have hitherto' omitted making mention of the Birds which are met with in these Seas, many of which are of the common kind such as Grey, Black, & White Gulls, ye brown & black peterels, Albatrosses & Pintada birds, the last we first saw in Lattde 32.10 & Longitude 25.25' Wt nor did they forsake us till our arrival at the Cape of Good hope, The Albatrosses were not so attentive yet scarce a day past without seeing one or two of them, among which some were very large, but as they are so well known shall not attempt any discription of them 28th Fresh Gales at NW our course EbS as it has been ever since we could lay

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it. Lattde 34.26' Longd 5.35' Wl by Time keeper Having had ye wind nearly aft for these some days past 8c a rolling sea, the Ship has labourd very much which obliged us to house the Guns & lash the ports in fore & aft. a discovery has also been made which tends to prove (if it is necessary) the extreem negligence of the Dock Yard Officers in not giving the Sirius the inspection they certainly ought to have done. It being found necessary to rip up the lead which lined one of the Scuttles, the Carpenter in doing it perceived a rotten piece of Wood, which was broke off from one of the Top Timbers, on inspection we found that not only the top Timbers were rotten, but also that many of the futtocks were in the same condition, which brought the follow- ing anecdote respecting the Ship to light. She was built in 178[*] n in the River & intended for an East country man but in loading she took fire & was burnt to her wales, Government being in want of a burthensome ship to send Stores abroad in, the Navy board

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purchased the bottom of this Ship, she was taken into dock & ran up with the refuse of the Yard, I have already said she went two voyages as a Store Ship since when she has had no repair as the late Surveyor of the Navy & Builder of ye Yard at Deptford reported her fit for the Voyage to which she is destined, Such is the Ship in which is embarked an Officer, whose reputation as well as that of the Nations, is concerned in the present arduous undertaking Septr 29th had Strong Gales at S.W. which veer'd round to SbE with a great sea, which obliged us to hand our Fore & Mizen Topsails but the weather moderating towards noon enabled us to set them again 30th The Wind continued in the S.E. Quarter At noon of the 1st of October ye Wind shifted to North, we steered SEbE being in Lattitude 33.54' S Longd by time keeper 20.27' Wl - The 2nd & 3rd had ye Wind in ye SW Quarter with light breezes. Lattde ye 3rd at Noon

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35.20' S Longitude 1.25' El Variation 12.08' W1 4th Moderate Weather Wind at NNE. the Supply informed us that the Convicts onboard the Charlotte were getting very sickly -

5th Variable Winds with drizling rain Lattitude 35.51' Longitude 30.55' 6th The same Winds. The Alexander hailed us & sent his boat onboard with the Master & Marine officer, who informed, that a plan had been laid by some of the Convicts & Seamen to give all ye former their llberty, for which purpose, iron crows, & other utensils had been furnished them by the Seamen The principals of ye Convicts were stapled to the Deck, & four of the Seamen were brought onboard the Sirius 7th & 8th had ye Wind at NE, with fine weather & smooth Water. ye 9th the Wind veered round to NW with fine Weather The Lattitude this day 36.28' S Longd in by Time Keeper Variation of ye Compass 16.45'Wt-

10th & 11th had fresh Gales at WSW with

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which we steered East - found ourselves both days 11' to the Northward of account Lattde ye 10th, 35.00' S Longitude - 12th had ye Wind from SSW to SSE Lattitude 34.28' S Longitude by Dead Reckoning 16.39' El by The Time keeper 16.59' El Variation 20.6' W1

13th The Wind the same as before at noon made ye Supplys Sigl to go ahead & look out for the land at 6 in ye Evening the Variation was 21.52' W1 The bearings of the Cape Town by Time Keeper N [blank space] E dist1 [blank space] Leagues by Dead Reckoning N [blank space] E [blank space] Leagues saw ye land at day break & at Noon the Lyons Rump bore EV&S 2 or 3 Leagues from ye time I mentioned ye bearings we have run East 59'

At 6 in ye evening of ye 13th, We anchor'd in Table Bay with all ye Convoy, in 6 Fathom & moord Ship with a Cable each way, ye Best Bower to the S.W. & small bower to the N.E - Robbin Island N 1/2 E. Green point N.W.VaW Flag-staff W.b.N. I went onshore to visit the Dutch Governor Monsieur Van de Graaf who received me with great politeness & assured me that our salute should be returned with an equal number of Guns & that all our

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wants should be supplied excepting Grain & flower, to which he could give no present answer on account of the great scarcity of Corn the last year. The Sirius saluted the Fort with 13 Guns to which an equal number was returned & the Signal was made that the Port was open. The day after our arrival I accompanied Governor Phillip to Monsieur Van de Graaf, who received us with great Politeness, The conversation turned on our Wants, which consisted of Cattle, Wine & Corn for ye Voyage & bread for daily use Monsieur de Graaf very readily assented to the two first articles; but respecting the corn he could give no answer till Governor Phillip should state in Writing (addressed to the Governor & Council) an account of what quantity he might want which Monsieur Van de Graaf requested might be done as sparingly as posslble nor could he promise the smallest quantity to us, the reasons for this restriction was, the great famine for the two preceeding years, he admitted that the present harvest promised much, but there was a great demand from the Isle of France & Batavia

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To the former he was bound in gratitude to send what quantity he could, as the Cape had been greatly assisted from thence during the famine; to the latter; (Batavia) they were obliged to send a quantity yearly & this was the first year out of 3 that he had a prospect of sending any. It was with great difficulty that he would consent to the daily bread being permitted to be sent off, nor was it till the Twenty third (ten days after our arrival) that an answer was given, when a letter was sent to Governor Phillip couched in very respectfull terms, according him every thing which he had demanded, which was not done till a number of spirited remonstrances were made on the part of Mr Phillip The Contractors were Petrus Dewit & Johannes Kerstan, whose integrity & probity ought ever to recommend them to Whoever may touch here in future. From having the honor of Governor Phillips confidence I am very certain of What I now assert, & I do firmly believe that a great sum might be saved government by employing these Young Men, provided

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those who employ them, keep their hands as clean as Mr Phillip did his The whole number of Sick in ye Fleet on the day of our arrival did not exceed Twenty & those few were perfectly re'established in three or four days after our arrival & continued so till the day of our departure, nor did we land etther Soldier or sailor at Sick Quarters, which is a very rare circumstance at this place The Cape Town is situated on an amphitheatre at the head of the Table bay, The Table hill, Devils hill Sugar Loaf & Lyons Rump forms the Amphitheatre which has a most picturesque appearance. The Streets are wide & drawn at Right angles & canals running thro' them The houses are all well built, commodious, & very clean, which with the appearance of the inhabitants, gives this place very much the appearance of a European Town. There are a number of Forts erected which are judiciously placed, but may all be [illeglble] The population was ascertained in 1784 to be [blank space] Whites [blank space] Blacks throughout all the settlements which the Inhabitans agree is a just calculation. The Inhabitants of the

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Town & Country are formed into a Militia, which is exercised twice a Year for which purpose they meet & are under a very tolerable discipline As this Militia are formed of true patriots who fight for every thing which is dear to them I think they would be found a very formidable opposition to the taking this place. Every person here is perfectly at their ease, as they are not suffered to enter into any kind of commerce except that of supplying the wants of passengers & that is subject to a duty paid to the Company, to whom this place belongs & from whom the Civil & Military Officers secure their appointments It is strictly forbid any Inhabitant to have a larger boat than two men can row or one man conduct in sailing Every article of refreshment is to be got here in the greatest plenty but very dear the following is a list of the prices at this time in Spanish Dollars & Sterling
. . a Cow 40 Sp. Dollars A Sheep 4 D Fowles 2s each - Turkies 8s each Geese 6s each Potatoes 19s a sack about 150 lb Cabbages 6s each Barley 3/3d a bushell Mutton or beef bought

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when killed 4d per lb & every other article in proportions. It is customary for every person that can be spared from the duty of the Ships that touch here to live onshore, as every house in the place are lodging & boarding houses which is conducted in a very agreable manner on the parts of those to whom they belong As I said before the houses are extreemly clean & commodious: for one person the terms are now 6s or a Ducatoon per diem, for which you have breakfast &c an exceeding abundant dinner & supper with good lodgings, the people of the house expect to buy every article their Guests may want; on which they charge a commission of 5 per cent & if they give mony for bills the discount is 8 per cent. The soil of the interior parts is very good, though only cultivated in plantations, which are in general very fertile. There are plantations at 100 Leagues nearly in Land but the plantations along the Coast are at a greater distance, the ground that all those different colonies take up would form an immense colonie if the

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different habitations were contigious to each other but as the Cultivator has chosen the best grounds & the fattest pasturages, they are very far from each other. The fertilite of the country 8c the number of their flocks, enables the inhabitant to live very cheap, which is by no means the case with foreign vessells. the Company having reserved to themselves the right of furnishing them with provisions & even workmen which are charged at a very high price, it is nevertheless very agreable to find on the extreeme point of Africa, a resting place where Dutch Industry has proccured every article necessary for the fatigued, scorbutic, Seaman, to refresh himself with before, he begins a long voyage after having performed one The Garrison consists of the Regiments of Gordon & the Regiments of Wurtemberg in all about 2500 Men & a very excellent Company of Artillery which are kept in high order. The Commanding Officer of the Troops is Colonel Gordon (of Scotch extraction) a Gentleman whose extensive knowledge, & great perseverance will enable him, one day, to favor Europe with an account of this Country which will do him

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infinite Merit I have seen his Charts & drawings which are exceeding fine, he has performed two journeys into the interior parts of the Caffres Country in which he has been above eight months each time & has penetrated above two hundred leagues, accompanied only by four chosen hottentots in whom he places an implicit confidence

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List of The live Stock which we embark at the Cape of Good Hope for
the use of the Colony destined for New South Wales. Mares 4 Stallion 1. 1 Stone Colt & 2 mare colts Cows 6. Bull calf 1. Bull 2 Yrs old 1 Ewes 120, Goats [blank space] fowles &c a great quantity

Having finished our business at the Cape we unmoord the 11th November & should have sailed the same day. but the Wind being at NW that & the following day, we did not sail till the 13th Novr at 2 in the Afternoon with a fresh breeze at S.S.E. on hauling round Penguin Island we spoke ye Kent of London who had been from England about four months out East from S1 Helena Bay, where she had got 40 Tons of Oyl & was bound to cruize to the East" of the Cape in quest of more Wales

The 14th the Wind continued still at S.S.E. with a great swell from ye Southward, This day the Officers & Men as well as Convicts were put on an allowance of 2 Quarts of Water per Day Lattde at noon 35. 14' S Long" by the Time Keeper 15.07 E1-

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15th Wind at South with fresh breezes, but towards noon light winds at 9 A.M. tacked to ye Eastward Lattitude 35.22' S Long0 Per T.K. 13.29' Variation 22.23' W1 found a Current which set us 12' to"the Northward of account in ye 24 hours 16th Wind the same at 8 P.M. tacked to ye Westward. Lattitude this day 35.43' Longd per T.K. - 12.37' we were this day 10' to ye Northd of Acct 17th Wind still the same with small rain. our Lattitude this day 36.40'. Longd per T.K. 11.42' El 18th Wind still at SSE with Moderate Breezes The Variation per Amplitude 21.03' W1 Lattitude 37.13'. Longitude per Time Keeper 10.43' Saw a great number of Whales & Grampusses The Longitude in per mean of eight distances of Sun & moon was 10.39' E'- the mean of Capt. Hunter, Messrs Bradley & Dawes was 10.49' which different observations correspond exactly with the Time Keeper which makes us   [blank space] to ye Wl of Account

19th The Wind veered round to E.S.E. the latter part of the 24 hours calm with a great Swell from the Westward: Lattitude this day 37.40' S Longitude by Time Keeper 10.21' E1 Variation per Azimuth 20.54' Wt This day at Noon Captain Phillip signified his intention of going onboard the Supply & proceeding with her, & the Alexander

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Scarboro & Friendship Transports, to the place of our destination; but in case the Transports (which are the best sailors of the Convoy) should not be able to keep up with the Supply it is his intention to leave them under ye care of Lieutt Shortland Agent for Transports, Who is furnished with very ample instructions in what manner to conduct the Vessells under his Charge. Captn Hunter is to be charged with making the best of his way with the rest of the Convoy consisting of the Sirius, Lady Penrhyn, Charlotte, & Prince of Wales with the Three Victuallers Capt. Phillip Lieut Dawes of the Marines, and myself are to go in the Supply with 6 Artificers. Major Ross & Lieut Long Adjutant of the Marines are to go onboard the Scarboro & Lieut1 Shortland removes from the Fishburn into the Alexander. The end proposed by this separation is, that the governor flatters himself that he shall arrive at the place of our destination (Botany Bay) a fortnight before the Transports in which time he will be able to make his observations on the place whether it is a proper Spot for the Settlement or not & in the latter case he will then have time to Examine Port Stephens before the arrival of the Transports on the

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Coast & Should Botany Bay answer our expectations he may have time to erect a Log Store house for the reception of the Provisions which will hasten the departure of the Store Ships & Transports. It being calm the Afternoon of this day the Sig' was made for The Transports to come under our Stern & some arrangements were taken in shifting water from the Alexander, to the Lady Penrhyn & Store ships, Some baggage was sent onbd ye Supply & Scarboro & some convicts artificers, were sent with our 6 Men onboard the Supply, at Sunsett every thing was ready for the intented separation, which was deferred till we should be 100 Leagues to the Eastward of the Cape of Good Hope

20th It continued calm all this day till eleven in the Morning when a breeze sprung up at N.E.bE. with which we Steered S.E. The constant Southerly Winds which we have had ever since we left the Cape have driven us considerably to the Westward our Longitude by Account being this day at noon 13.26' Et but by the Lunar observations of to day by ye mean of sight very good distances of the Sun & Moon it was 10.44' & by the Time keeper 10.21' Et which proves that we have had a Strong Western Current, Lattitude 37.38' South Variation 18.00 Wt 21st Wind increases gradually at N.b.E. with a following sea. our Lattitude 38.40'. Longd by Time keeper 12.57' E1 Variation 20.56' Wt

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22nd The Wind veered to WNW & NNW with fresh gales & a following sea, at Noon imagining our selves in a very good lattitude to make our Easting in The Course was changed to E.S.E. It is rather extraordinary that in our present Lattitude viz 39.00 we should still feel the effects of the Western Current particularly as our distance Run in ye 24 hours is 156 miles. Yet we find from some very good Altitudes taken this Morning that there is a difference between the Time Keeper & Run of 21' of Longitude, which places the Ship 21' to ye Westward of the Run. The Lattitude does not agree with ye run, being 12' to ye Southd of what the Log will give Lattitude at Noon 39.00 S Longd by Time Keeper 15.48' El Variation 20.03' Wl - many petrels, Albatrosses, & Whales about ye Ship

23rd Had very strong Gales & a great sea both which fell before 4 P.M. afterwards light winds. The Lattitude at Noon 39.08' S No Altitudes taken for ye Time Keeper. Wind NW from this day to the 26th at Noon had Moderate Breezes at Wl N.W. & SW. The 26th, I went onbd His Majesties armed Tender Supply, Lieutt Henry Lidgbird Ball Commander, with Governor Phillip & Lieut Dawes of the Marines, The other changes took place which I mentioned on ye 19th & at one o'clock we parted Company with the Fleet which at Sun sett were hull down The Wind fresh at West

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At Day light of ye 27th The Sirius & her Convoy were out of sight. A great number of black & Blue Petrells round ye Ship with a prodigious quantity of Whales. By Altitudes taken for ye Time Keeper (which the Governor has brot with him) we find the Ship has been sett between the 25th & 26th, 40' more to ye Eastward than what the Log gives, of which Current we have felt no other effect, except being 39' to ye Northward of our Account which may be owing to bad steerage & heave of the Sea. Lattitude this day 27th 38.08' S Longd by Time Keeper 27.03' E1 - The 28th at 11 P.M. The men on ye lookout forward called out rocks under the bows, on which the helm was put a lee & instead of rocks, were presented with the view of 2 very large Whales, & so close to the Vessell that I could have stept from the Gunnell on either of their backs. The Vessell was felt going over their tails by those below, had very heavy Squalls with fresh Gales all this day & a very high Sea running got no observation our Course still

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being E.S.E. having the Wind at NE & North The Brig labours much, & is very uncomfortable It must be acknowledged that ease & convenience were not our errand onboard this Vessell

29th In the Evening had Squalls of Wind & Rain, & one of the most confused Tumbling seas I every beheld, the Rain & squalls brought the wind round to WNW & the Sea abated much The latter part of this day had very pleasant & serene Weather, which in a Vessell of this kind is a very disirable circumstance if it were only to dry ones Things, as the Sea yesterday made fair breaches over her & many of them Wetted the head of ye Fore sail A great number of Albatrosses & pettrels round us, we passed thro' a long string of fish sperm of a sand colour Mr Dawes this day took some Altitudes for the Time Keeper, (which we have not been able to do before since ye 27th) by which we find our Longitude this day at Noon to be 34.18' Et which differs only 10' in the two days to the Eastward of the Run Lattitude 39.44 S When ye Wind blows worship the Echo! c'est bien a propos ce soir

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30th - Very fine Wr with the Wind at SWbS The mean of Variations in the Morning & Evening 30 Wt A great quantity of different birds amongst which were those called Petrels which are thus distinguished. The small birds of a sooty brown, & in flying trip one leg on ye Water is called ye Petterel or Mother Carys Chicken, ye large bird of ye same colour & form as ye small pettrel is called by the Seamen Mother Carys Goose; the small White Bird is also called ye Blue pettrel it having a blue spot on its back. It is rather singular that in our Voyage from Rio de Janeiro we were accompanied quite across by the Pintadoe bird or Cape Pettrel, which we have not seen since our departure from the Cape altho' we have daily a great abundance of Albatrosses, Gannetts, Pettrels, & Gulls -

Decr 1st Fresh Gales accompanied with Squalls of Wind & Rain, at 21h.55'.ll" found ye Longitude to be, by ye mean of four Distances of ye 0 & d Centers 38.52' E1 Longitude by the Time Keeper at the same time 38.37' E1. Variation 29.23' Wl. Lattitude at ye time of observation 39.45' S The 2nd, 3rd & 4th had Strong Gales & a heavy Sea from ye West which veered round to NW & N.b.E. & from thence shifted suddenly on the Afternoon of ye 4th to SbE & SSE with rain

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which made it so very cold that Many of the people were affected so much by it, that some were obliged to quit their duty, particulary the Man at the Helm John Breedon, who was affected with a kind of Stupor. I have observed both in our Run from the Brazils to the Cape of Good Hope & on this run that the Wind commences after a Calm to blow at West & NW from whence it Veers round in Squalls of Rain to North & SW but never recollects its veering round ye contrary way The 5th Moderate breezes at WSW with a great Western swell 6th Wind from E.b.S. to N.E.b.N. with very heavy rain & Thick foggy Weather with distant Thunder in the SW Quarter had no Meridian Altitude this day -

7th Wind Moderate in ye NW Quarter the most part of this 24 hours a Thick Fog, which renders our present situation rather perilous as no Ship ever ran in this parrallel of Lattitude before, so far to the Eastward The Lattitude by a Meridian Altitude this day at Noon gives 41.13' South, its being rather cloudy all the Morning could get no Altitudes for the Time Keeper

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8th Fresh Gales which veered from NW to NE & back again to NW with a great Sea our distance ran by the log 158'. The Lattitude observed 41.01' Variation 33.00, but as the Brig has much motion I do not think it correct, on the contrary should apprehend that it decreases instead of increases as we go to the Eastward at 10 AM Lieut1 Ball being on deck perceived (as he thought) a Rock on ye Larboard bow, but soon after we percieved it was a Combat between a Whale & a very large Thresher which could not be less than twenty feet long. As ye Whale swims along the Thresher watches when the Whale is going to Spout, at that time he throws himself out of the Water & falls with the greatest force on the Whales head or shoulders The Whale defends himself by endeavoring to strike the Thresher with his tail

From ye 8th to ye 14th The Wind has generally been fresh in ye NE quarter our distance run each Day about 160' keeping in ye Parrellel of 41.30' Lattitude in the 14th At Noon 41.41' Longd by

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Time Keeper. This day we crossed ye Meridian of ye Island of St- Pauls, with a Fresh Gale, at SW & Clear Wr The Birds which we have seen for these some days past have differed much to what they were before, instead of having so many Pettrels about us we have an immense quantity of very large Gulls & enormous Albatrosses, also a large bird, which is quite Brown except a White spot on ye Extremity of its Wings the Tail is Fan tailed like a Pidgeons We have also passed a quantity of Rock weed which may be accounted for from our vicinity to The Island of St Pauls which bears this day at Noon by the Timekeeper & my reckoning (which agree within two miles of each other) N 14 Wl distant 79 Leagues Variation 26.08 W1 - From the 14th to the 17th had fresh Gales of Wind from the SW to NW making each day about 160' Variation on ye 16th 23.00' W1 Lattde at Noon Longitude by Time keeper brought on from ye 14th, 88.00 E1

"On ye 17th the Time Keeper was not thought of till about 6 oclock
"in the Evening, when it was found to have been down about an hour,
"it soon after was wound up & sett a eoina; & the next forenoon
"some very good Altitudes were taken, from which the

[Page 65]

Longitude of "the Ship was found (supposing that the Time keeper had not stopped)
"to be 107.31'.5"
"But the Longitude of the Ship brought on by ye
"log from ye last observations on ye 14th at
"21 h. 29' is .............................. 90.05'.5"
difference turned into time
5 17.26 .0
3 3.29.2
"shews how long the Time Keeper stopt 1 .09 .44
"And that being added to what the time keeper
"would have been too slow for mean time at
"Greenwich on the 18th at Noon 24'.40 .91"
"Gives what the T.K really was too slow for Gn
"at that time 1 .34.24 .91"
"From the 18th at noon mean time at Greenwich the rate will be
"continued as before 3.17
"Longitude made from ye 14th Noon to ye
"17th Noon 9.10'.8"

Extract from Mr Dawes's Journal

19th at 5h.51'.ll" Longitude by mean of 4 distances of Sun & Moons Centers .......... was .......... 93. 3'.45 El

D by Mr Dawes's mean of 5 Distances - 91 .01 .30
......................................... Mean ............. 91 .02 .35

Longde brought on for the Time Keeper 91 .58.00

As the above distances were very good ones I think it is very probable that the time between ye Time Keeper & ye Lunars ought to be divided, wherefore, I shall call the Longitude at this time 91.30'.30" East

[Page 65a]

From ye 18th to the 24th Had very strong Gales of Wind from ye SW to NW with a very heavy Sea running which keeps this vessell almost constantly under water & renders the Situation of every one onboard of her, truly uncomfortable The Squalls during this time were very violent 8c great quantitys of rain, Sleet, & large hail stones, & when the Wind is to the Southward the Cold is as extreem here as in England at this time of ye Year, altho' it is the height of Summer here; Great Numbers of Albatrosses, Pettrels, & Port Egmont hens about us & a quantity of Rock weed, On ye 24 (Natural day) at 9h.0'.0" observed the Eclipse of the Moon but as the Weather was extreemly cloudy could not see the ending the Longitude given by this eclipse gives

From ye 24th to ye third of January had the Wind constantly in the NW Quarter Lattde by a Meridian Altitude on the 2nd was 44.06' South Longitude in by Time Keeper 142.23' E1 Variation by mean of a number of Azimuths was 36' East. In the Morning of this day had very heavy Gales & a Tumbling sea from ye NNW. which obliged us for the first time since we left England to furl the Topsails. The Brig labours very much

[Page 66]

& Ships a great quantity of Water. Third of January had little Wind from ye NW to West with a very great Sea & in the Night dark Cloudy weather with fierce forked lightning; at  1/2 past 10 in the Morning we were satisfied with seeing Van Diemans Land its extreems trending from NNE. to EbN & at Noon the SW Cape bore E&N, Nomans Land, NbE & ye Southermost Land EV4S - Lattde in by Mer. Alt. 43.39' E1 & Longitude in by some very good Altitudes taken for the Time Keeper gives 144.51' E1. This day at Noon Mr Dawes took several Distances of the Sun & Moon Centers
The Result of which gave ............................ 145.16'.34"

Longitude of ye SW1 Cape by Capt. Cook 146 .07 .00
The Difference ............................................ 50 .26

turn'd into time shews how much less than
lh.09'.44" ye time Keeper was down - Oh.03'.21.7"
Therefore the Time Keeper was down 1 .06 .22.3

Therefore 50' must be added to the Longitude found by Time Keeper since ye 17th when it went down The Land about here is of a good heighth but very uneven, being obliged to make ye best use of the Westerly Wind which then blew, we could not explore this part of the Coast more than Capt Cook has already done. We steered ESE & at 6 PM on the 4th The Mewstone bore NW W

[Page 66a]

5 Miles & ye South Cape NE 1/2 E & at 8. The Eddistone bore NE N 7' or 8' It continued fresh breezes & Clear all night the Wind veering to NNW & North & at 8 A.M. ye South Cape bore W'/2 S 9 Leagues of which we lost sight at noon Lattde by MeX Alte 43.33' Longitude by Time Keeper 148.35' Et Variation next day 5.5' Et. JanY 5. had Moderate breezes & Clear from ye Northward found a Current which had sett us 21' to ye SE 6th Wind continued from NbE till 8 in ye Evening when it shifted suddenly to S.W. in a very heavy Squall which gave but little Warning Lattd this day at Noon 41.39' S Longitude by Time Keeper 151.17' E* which gives 17' to ye Eastward of the Log

7th wind mostly from ye NbE Variation by 57 good Azimuths & Amplitudes gives 10.00 E1 Lattde at Noon 40.44' S Longitude by Time Keeper 150.26' E1 found a southerly Current of 10' in ye 24 hours

8th had in general light Winds from the Northward, & Foggy Weather Lattde 40.05' S Longitude by Time Keeper 149.41' E1 Variation 10.30' E1 17' to ye Eastward of what ye logg gives Sounded frequently with 120 fathom but could get no ground.

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9th had fresh Gales from ye Northward Lattd at Noon 40.4' S no altitudes for the Time Keeper the Variation was 10.08' E1. 10th had Moderate breezes from North veering round to ye Westward with a great head sea from ye Northd. Lattd at Noon 39.17' S Longitude by the Time Keeper 152.00' El found we had been sett 48'

to ye Eastward of what the logg will give since we had the last Altitudes on ye 8th.

11th The Wind still the same in ye P.M. of this day we saw a Turtle

13th Had ye Wind from ESE veering round to NNW with pleasant Weather, at 1/4 past 9 Saw the Land extending from N 36 W1 to S 67 W* at Noon, Were about 5 Leagues from it Lattde by a very good Meridian Altitude was 34.48' S & an eminence on the Land (which is high & tolerable even) bore at this time W 1/2 S 4 Leagues which we take for a mountain ressembling a hatt which

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Capt. Cook takes notice of & places it about 9 miles to the NW of Red point, before dark it was thought proper to shorten sail & lay her to or stand off & on till the Morning, it soon after came on to blow hard from the S & a great Swell we continued standing off till 12 at night where we were & stood in again, at 2 A.M. put too with her head off shore till day light when we made the Land bearing from NbE to WNW, which in appearance ressembled an Island, but we soon after found it to be a projection of the Land, which was Chalk Clifts & its ends ressembled the North & South Foreland, at Noon our Lattde by Meridian Altitude was 35.14' S which is 26' to ye Southd of our Yesterdays observation notwith- standing we ran 22' to the Northward, & according to our calculation we had made 6 miles Northing since we brought too. all which shews that there is a Strong Current or tide setting to the Southward, which is also taken notice of by Capt. Cooke; at Noon Cape Long nose bore NW 14 miles ye Southermost Land in sight West & ye N Point of ye Land which we made in the Morning, NNW we could discern

[Page 69]

The Land further to the Eastward but it being very Cloudy could not determine its extent - ye Longitude by Time Keeper at 9h was 150.43' E1 & Lattde by two Altitudes at ye same time 35.01 S.

at Noon of ye 14th it fell calm & soon after a breeze Sprung up at SbE We made sail immediately & steered NNW & by l/2 past four, finding the Breeze was not sufficently strong to rundown ye Distance to Botany Bay

15th Throughout this 24 hours had Fresh Gales from North to NNE. with a little Swell at 1/2 past 12 Tacked & stood in shore till four in the Evening we could plainly perceive that we were set very much to the Southward at 4f Tacked & stood of till 7 when we stood in again till 8 then Tacked & stood of till 9 in the Morning then tacked & stood in again at Noon found our Lattitude by Meridian Altitudes was 35.58'. The Logg gives with every allowance, a due East course, since Yesterday at Noon, wherefore we have had a Current which has sat us 44' to ye Southward in 24 hours, f bearings of Cape Longnose at 4 PM NbW 5 Leagues

16th In ye beginning of this 24 hours the Wind was Moderate still blowing from ye North, at six it encreased so much as to oblige us to hand our Topsails & Ballance reef the Mainsail at 6 we were & stood to the Eastward. A great Sea running & Cloudy dirty Weather at 9 in the Morning it Moderated a little which enabled us

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to sett our close reefed Topsails & Main stay sail our Lattitude this day by a tolerable Meridian Altitude was 36.17' South which agrees very well with the run

17th Wind & Weather much ye same as Yesterday except it being very Squally in the Night with some heavy rain & lightning to the Northward, our Lattitude this day at Noon by a very Good Meridian Altitude is 35.39' ye Log will not give more than 16' Northing wherefore we have had a Northerly Current at ye rate of 21' in ye 24 hours. Longitude in by the Time Keeper 152.52'.30" El Longitude by D.R. brought on from ye Lunar Observation & Time Keeper on ye 15th when in sight of Long nose gives 151.35' Et which gives a difference of 72' to ye Eastward of Account

18th The First part had fresh breezes from ye North West & at Midnight it shifted round to S.W. at 6, P.M. by a Meridian Altitude of the Moon found our Lattitude to be 35.01' S which is 7 Miles to ye Northd of ye Logg, at 8 in the Morning we discovered ye Land from WSW to NW & at the same time saw ye Hill ressembling the Crown of a hatt which bore W S we stood in NNW & NW till within about 3 miles of ye Shore

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when we steered North, The Shore along here is steep & a surf beating on it. The hills are cloathed with a verdant Wood with many beautifull slopes, at Noon observed our Lattitude by a very good Meridian Altitude was 34. 14' at the Same time a very high Chalk clift which rose perpendicularly from the Sea bore NWbN & the Northermost Land in sight bore NNE. This Chalk Clift is mentioned by Capt. Cooke in his first voyage but he has neglected remarking that there are five of those Chalk clifts the Northermost of which is just at ye Commencement of the Land which forms Botany Bay, As it is imposslble to Miss this place with Capt. Cookes description before one I shall remark nothing of it, but that, we we hauled in for the harbour at a quarter past 2 in ye Afternoon of ye 19th when abreast of Point solander we saw several of ye Natives running along brandishing their Spears & making towards the harbour we came to an anchor on the Northern side of the Bay, that the Ships which were following

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might not miss the harbour, when moored Cape Solander bore Point Sutherland & ye Bare Island at 3 the boats were hoisted out & Governor Phillip & some Officers belonging to ye Supply with Lieut Dawes & Myself, landed on ye North side of ye Bay & just looked at the face of the Country, which is as Mr Cook remarks very much like the Moors in England, Except that there is a great deal of very good grass 8c some small timber trees, we went a little way up the bay to look for water, but finding none we returned abreast of the Supply where we observed a group of the Natives, we put the Boats onshore near where we observed two of their Canoes lying, they immediately got up & called to us in a Menacing tone, & at the same time brandishing their spears or lances, however the Governor shewed them some beads & orderd a Man to fasten them to the stem of the Canoe, we then made signs

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that we wanted Water, when they pointed round the point on which they stood & invited us to land there; on landing they directed us by pointing, to a very fine stream of fresh water, Governor Phillip then advanced toward them alone & unarmed, on which one of them advanced towards him, but would not come near enough to receive the beads which the Governor held out for him, but seemed very desirous of having them & made signs for them to be lain on ye ground, which was done, he (ye Native) came on with fear & trembling & took them up, & by degrees came so near as to receive Looking Glasses &c, & seemed quite astonished at ye figure we cut in being cloathed & I think it is very easy to conceive ye ridiculous figure we must appear to those poor creatures who were perfectly naked, we soon after took leave of them & returned onboard N.B This is ye evening of ye

[Page 74]

18th Natural day, which I shall carry on 19th at day light we went on shore to haul ye seine on ye North side, but caught very few fish, just as we were going onboard the Natives came down & were much more confident than they were the night before; at eight o'clock, we were very agreably surprized with the appearance of ye Alexander, Scarboro & Friendship coming round point Solander. they anchored about 10 o'clock When Major Ross ye Lieutenant Governor came onboard; As preperations were made in the Morning to explore & examine all ye North side of ye Bay. Major Ross was added to our party which consisted of ye Governor, Lieuts Ball, Dawes, Long & myself in three boats, & left ye Brig, at 11 o'clock. A Shoal which lay a long way off stretching near ye middle of ye Bay towards ye upper end of ye North side of ye bay

[Page 75]

prevented our Keeping near the shore, but its edge directed us to the opening of ye River at ye NW side of ye bay which we went up for about 6 miles, finding the Country low & boggy, & no appearence of fresh water, we returned down again & ran along ye upper part of ye bay, to ye entrance of ye first inlet on ye SW side of ye bay which in this part is very wide, here we went onshore & eat our salt beff & in a glass of Porter drank ye healths of our friends in England, we walked some little distance along shore, & could find but one little rivulet of fresh Water we saw several huts & lances but no natives at 6 in ye Evening we returned onboard again

20th at 8 in ye Morning we were again gratified with seeing the Sirius & all her convoy coming round Point Solander, & they anchored in the Bay at

[Page 76]

1/2 past 9 Thus this long voyage has been compleated in [blank space] Weeks from our leaving England, having lost only [blank space] Men [blank space] Women [blank space] children during ye Whole voyage, of this time we have been 9 weeks in port, The fleet on arriving here had only [blank space] sick & no accident of any kind has happned to any of ye Ships of ye Convoy at 10 o'clock the Governor, Lieut Governor, & Capt Hunter went over to the south side of ye bay a little within point Sutherland, & I was ordered with Lieut Dawes of the Marines, to explore all ye South side of ye Bay, & trace the two inlets on the South side as high as posslble. I ran up the Southern shore till I rounded [blank space] point off which lies a long shoal which is in many places quite dry at low water we ran up the first inlet about a mile when we came to the head of it, I returned down

[Page 77]

again & crossed over to a point which from what happned there I gave it the name of Lance point perceiving that it was the highest hill here about, I imagined it was probable that we should find some good water there; on landing, I ascended the hill & found ye soil an exceeding fine black mold, with some excellent Timber Trees & very rich grass, arrived at ye top of the hill we perceived a red fox dog, & soon after discovered a number of ye natives who halloo'd & made signs for us to return to our boats, having only three Marines with me & Lieut Dawes I adavanced before them unarmed presenting some beads & Rlbbands, two of the Natives advanced armed, but would not come close to me, I then dropt ye beads & baize which I held out for them & retreated, they took it up & bound the baize about their head they then in a very vociferous manner desired us to begone & one of them threw

[Page 78]

a lance wide of us to shew how far they could do execution, the distance it was thrown was as near as I could guess about 40 Yards & when he took it out of the ground where it struck; it required an exertion to pull it out, as I took this for a menace that more could be thrown at us if we did not retreat & being unwilling to fire amongst them, there being twelve of them, I retreated walking backward till I came to the brow of the hill, where I halted & again offered them presents which they refused, on descending the hill they showed themselves on the top of it & were ten times more vociferous & very soon after a lance was thrown amongst us on which I ordered one of the Marines to fire with powder only, when they ran off. with great precipitation, I embarked & governor Phillip joined me from the South side of ye Bay where he had

[Page 79]

found ye Natives very sociable & friendly we relanded on Lance point & ye same body of natives appeared brandishing their lances & defying us however we rowed close in shore & ye Governor disembarked with some presents which one of them came & received thus peace was re-established much to the satisfaction of all parties; they came round ye boats & many little things were given them, but what they wanted most was ye great coats & Cloathing, but hatts was more particularised by them, their admira- tion of which they expressed by very loud shouts, whenever one of us pulled our hatts off, when they found us so very friendly they ran up to the man who had thrown ye lance & made very significant signs of their displeasure at his conduct by pointing all their lances at him & looking at us

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intimating that they only waited our orders to kill him, however we made signs for them to desist & made the culprit a present of some beads &c. Governor Phillip then went up another branch & I followed the one we were in, & soon perceived that the natives were following us, we soon came to the head of this inlet where we perceived the same party of Indians, wading over, we rowed up to them &c many of them came up to the boat, we made them a few more presents, but found it necessY to put a stop to our generosity as they were increasing fast in numbers & having only a boats crew with me I was apprehensive that they might find means to surprize us as every one of them were armed with lances, & short bludgeons I gave two of them

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a glass of Wine which they had no sooner tasted than they spit it out, we asked them the name of a number of articles, which they told us & repeated our words & had already learnt so much English, as to express their want for any thing by putting their finger on it gently looking me in the face & saying "No"? I must do them the justice to say that I believe them to be concientiously honest. When they found we were not disposed to part with any more things, they entered into conversation with us, which was very fully interpreted by very plain Signs they wanted to know of what sex we were, which they explained by pointing where it was distinguishable, As they took us for women, not having our beards grown, I ordered one of the people to undecieve them in this particular when they made a great shout of Admiration,

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& pointing to the shore, which was but ten yards from us we saw a great number of Women & Girls with infant children on their shoulders, make their appearance on the beach, All in puris naturallbus pas meme la feuille de figeur those natives who were round the boats made signs for us to go to them, & made us understand their persons were at our service; however I declined this mark of their hospitality but shewed a handkerchief which I offered to one of the women, pointing her out, she immediately put her child down & came alongside ye boat & suffered me to Apply the handkerchief where Eve did ye Fig leaf, the Natives then set up another very great shout & my female visitor returned on shore As ye evening was coming on fast & we were twelve miles from ye fleet it was time to

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return, we wished the natives, good be wi'ye which they repeated, we got onboard about midnight when we found the Governor preparing to go the next Morning at day break in some long boats to explore broken bay & port Jackson, he that night ordered me to pursue the service that he allotted me in exploring coves at the head of the bay, & to sett out next Morning
21st At 6 in the Morning Governor Phillip Capt Hunter & ye Judge Advocate with the Masters of the Sirius & Supply & some petty officers, set off in three boats to examine Port Jackson & Broken Bay & Mr Dawes with myself & a petty Officer went away in two boats to explore the upper part of ye Bay in which we found some very large & deep coves & some extensive lagoons but no fresh water we returned onboard again at about eight in the evening, & on the 23rd in the Evening Governor Phillip &c his party returned, orders were immediately given to get the Transports & Victuallers in readiness to sail, As Port Jackson

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was judged a very proper place to form an establish in. the 24 in the morning two Strange Ships were discover'd to ye Southward of Cape Solander & we soon after discover'd that they were French one of which wore a Chef d'escadres pennant from which we conclude them to be La Boussole & 1'Astrolabe under ye orders of Monsieur De la perouse on discoveries, but the Wind blowing strong from NNE prevented their getting in, or our going out at four in ye Afternoon they were out of sight & at day light on ye 25 we weighed in the Supply having received a Company of Marines & 40 Convicts onboard, The wind blew so strong from ye SSE that we were obliged to anchor & wait for the Ebb tide & at Noon we weighed & turned out of the harbour In running a long shore we observed a number of steep Rocky clifts & after having run about 3 Leagues we were abreast of some high sand Clifts at the Northern extremity of which the Land of ye Entrance of Port Jackson commences & the entrance is soon discoverd lying between two steep bluff heads, there is no danger in entering the harbour but what is vislble, & when within the heads a rock lies in the

[Page 85]

Mid channel ye shoal of which extends a cables length round, this rock is just covered at high Water, when in ye inside of the harbour ye Larboard arm leads to the place where the Settlement is formed which lies about 6 miles from ye entrance of the harbour, we anchored there, ye same evening at about 7 o'clock, being obliged to turn up The next day at Day light the English colours were displayed on shore & possesion was taken for His Majety whose health, with the Queens, Prince of Wales & Success to the Colony was drank, a feu de joie was fired by the party of Marines & ye whole gave 3 Cheers which was returned by the Supply, at Sun sett The Sirius & all the Convoy anchored here. Capt. Hunter informed the Governor that the French Ships had entered the bay just before he left it, & that they were la Boussole & 1'Astrolabe commanded by Monsieur De La Perouse on discoveries The next Morning JanY 27th A great part of the Troops & Convicts were landed, & the latter was immediately sett to work clearing away the ground, ready for ye encampment

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The Place on which ye settlement is to be made is at the head of a Cove at ye head of which a small rivulet empties its self. The Shore on each side is bounded by rocks, within which there is a very fine soil & full of trees which will require some time & labour to clear away, the Marines & Convicts are to be encamped on ye West side & ye Governor, & Staff with his guard & a small part of the Convicts on ye East side of ye Rivulet
On ye 28th All ye Marines & Male convicts were disembarked from ye different Ships & encamped, the Females were kept onboard till the ground was further cleared. The Stock was also landed this day on ye Eastern point of ye Cove. I should have mentioned before that from ye time of our sailing from England to our arriving here we have lost only 32 people including Marines Seamen & Convicts but were so unfortunate as to loose a part of our Stock, we landed only, 4 Mares & 2 Stallions - 4 Cows 1 Bull & 1 Bull calf [blank space] Ewes, a good stock of poultry & 3 Goats with [blank space] Hogs, which are ye Property of ye Governor &

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Government, the Officers private Stock has been tolerably well preserved

29th A Great deal of work has been done in clearing away but much remains to be done some Carpenters preparing for fixing the Governors Portable 115 House & a number of ye Convicts digging up ye Ground for a garden

30th A Number of Plants belonging to the Governor was landed & put into ye ground

31 In the Evening had some very severe Thunder & ye quickest & fiercest lightning I ever saw. We have observed that at Botany Bay & at this place many of the Trees are, burnt from top to bottom; singed as it were, which makes us apprehinsive that it is caused by ye lightning, as no fires of ye Natives could scorch them so regularly. On ye 2nd FebY in a very severe Storm of Thunder a Tree was Shivered by the Lightning, close to ye Governors Guard & ye following night another tree was

[Page 88]

split to pieces & [blank space] Sheep & [blank space] Lambs were killed by ye same cause, however it is to be hoped that when ye Country is cleared this calamity will be much lessned

Feby 1st This day His Excellency Governor Phillip signified his intention of sending me to Norfolk Island with a few people & stock to settle it. Lieut Ball of ye Supply was ordered to receive the Stores onboard necessary for that purpose & the following day at 2 in ye Morning Lieut Dawes of ye Marines & myself sett off in a Cutter for Botany Bay, to visit Monsieur De La perouse on the part of Governor Phillip & to offer him whatever he might have occassion for, we got down to ye harbours mouth at day light, finding a light air from ye Southward, we were obliged to row all ye way & arrived onboard ye Boussole at 10 o'clock in ye Morning where we were received with the greatest politeness & attention by Monsieur de la perouse & his Officers, after delivering

[Page 89]

my Message to him, he returned his thanks to ye Governor for his attention to him, & made ye same offers which he had received, & added that as he should be in France in 15 Months & having Stores &c enough onboard for three Years he should be happy to oblige Mr Phillip with any that he might want Monsieur De La perouse informed me that a number of ye Convicts had been to him & offered to enter but he had dismissed them with threats; & gave them a days provisions to carry them back to ye settlement. As ye Wind came on to blow fresh from ye Northward I yielded to the sollicitations of ye French Commodore & consented to dine with him & stay the remainder of ye day & return to Port Jackson next morning. In ye course of my conversation I found that he had touched at & been off ye following places viz. Madeira, Teneriffe, Sta Catherina, he had run down ye Coasts of Chili & California, been at Kamschatka, where he replaced the wooden Inscription near Capt. Clerke's Grave, with a Copper one for which I thanked him in ye name of the Corps, from Kamschatka he went to Macao

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ye Phillipines, Sandwich Islands, Isles des Navigateurs discovered by Bougainville, Friendly Islands & Norfolk Island from which last place he came on this coast. At the Island of Maouna (one of ye Isles des Navigateurs in Lattitude 14.19' S Longitude 173.23'.20" East of Paris) he was so very unfortunate as to lose Monsieur De langle, Captain of L'Astrolabe 8 Officers, 4 Men & 1 Boy who were massaccred by the natives, besides a great number wounded he relates the Story as follows. The two Ships had been some days at this Island, & had been on very good terms with the natives, who had furnished him with every article of Stock in ye greatest profusion, for barter, but he found it very necessary to be on his guard, against a treacherous disposition which he discovered in them, when every thing was ready for their departure, & ye Ships were under weigh, De Langle, requested Perouse Would permit him to get another turn of water, which he De La perouse, consented to with as much reluctance as De langle seemed sollicitous to obtain his request. As the Long boats were not hoisted in

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They were ordered on this service, with 2 other boats to attend them, under ye orders of ye un- fortunate De Langle. The Ships were lying too, & a strong Current sett them round a point out of sight of ye place where the boats landed, On landing they were surrounded as usual by the inhabitants who did not immediately discover any hostile intentions. The people in the Long boats had let them take the ground, & in using means to get them afloat again, the Natives were very troublesome & pressed close in upon them, De langle gave orders to the rowing boats to be ready to fire, but not to do it without his orders, some little altercation happening in consequence of their pressing so very close on ye French, which might have produced a blow from one of ye Natives, which was taken as a signal by the rest & ye Massacre began The natives were armed with short heavy Clubs by which means they rendered the Fire arms useless, orders were given to fire the Swivels but it was too late altho' the Natives fled the instant they were fired on dragging the bodies after them it was supposed that 30 of ye Natives were killed. Those belonging to the long boats, which

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had escaped, swam off to ye rowing boats & were carried onboard ye Ship, many of whom had received violent contusions on their heads as all their blows were aimed at that part, de La Perouse thought proper to quit the Islands immediately, after endeavoring to regain his long-boats which he found the Natives had destroyed. He represents the Inhabitants of these Islands as a very strong, & handsome race of Men scarce one among them less than 6 Feet high, & well sett, The Women have a certain delicacy of features not common among the inhabitants of the Islands in those Seas. Their Canoes houses &c are all well constructed, & they are much more advanced in internal order & policy than any of the Islands in the Pacific Ocean, but like the rest of them they are surrounded by a coral reef, but Boats may land with great ease. In a Letter to Mr Phillip, which he charged me with he recommends these Islands to his attention, for the great quantity of Stock with which they abound Excepting the above unfortunate disastre, they have not lost a single man since they left France, when he leaves this place it is his intention to go round New Ireland [contd after next 2 pages]

[Page 93]

The Astrolabe & Boussole were fitted out with the greatest llberality, Monsieur de la perouse told me, that ye King told him to get whatever he wanted & he added that if he was now at Brest & had to equip his Ships for ye remainder of his voyage, that he could not think of any article that he stood in need of. Besides ye Astronomer Monsieur Dagelet. he is provided with a very capital Botanist from ye Jardin du roi called de la Martinniere also a draughtsman, in every line, I saw his collection of Natural History which is very compleat. An Abbe who is also on the expedition as a collector of Natural Curiosities appears a Man of Letters & Geniality

[Page 94]

This Abbe + has under his care a great number of Philosophic instruments & the Astronomer has also every instrument necessary, each Ship has 3 Time keepers, which are hung on gimbals made by Berthand & goes with a short pendulum, they are rather complicated as an allowance is to be made for ye degree of heat, for which purpose a small Thermo- meter is kept in each of ye boxes. They have also a dipping needle which was with Capt. Cook, lent them by ye board of Longitude. They had not been more attentive to their Time keeper than we were to ours as they had been let down three times on bd both ships

+ He died at Botany Bay soon after we left port Jackson to go to Norfolk Island, & was buried near where the French had their observatory, an inscription carved in Wood was put near his grave which the Natives tore down on wh occasion Govr Phillip repaid the Kamschatka

[Page 95]

to ye Moluccas, & Batavia from thence to ye Isle of France, Cape of Good Hope, & Europe where he hopes to arrive in about 18 Months
After dinner I attended ye Commodore &c other Officers onshore where I found him quite established, having thrown round his Tents a Stoccade, guarded by two small guns in which he is setting up two Long boats which he had in frame, An observatory tent was also fixed here, in which was an Astronomical Quadrant. Clockes &c under the Manage- ment of Monsieur Dagelet Astronomer, & one of ye Acadamie des Sciences at Paris he has fixed the Lattitude to be 33.59".1' & Longitude 1 East of Greenwich Monsieur De La perouse informed me that at every place where he has touched at or been near that he has found all ye Astronomical & Nautical works' of Capt. Cook to be very exact & true & concluded by saying . . . "Enfin, Monsieur Cook a tout fait qu'il n'a me rien laisse a faire, que d'admirer ses oeuvres" In the evening I returned onboard ye Boussole & was shown all ye Drawings made on ye Voyage & ye next Morning at 5 I took leave of them, but did not arrive onboard ye Sirius

[Page 96]

7 in ye Evening having been obliged to row all the way against the wind & a great swell Between ye 7th & 13th my time was wholly employed in sending the Stores, Provisions &c (onboard the Supply) which I was to carry with me to Norfolk Island, consisting of six Months provisions, & tools & utensils of all kinds, on ye 13 I embarked ye Officers & people destined to go with me who were Mr James Cunningham Masters Mate Mr Thos Jamieson Surgeons Mate

Mr Roger Morley an Adventurer, had been a Master Weaver Two Marines & one Seaman belonging to ye Sirius 9 Male Convicts & 6 female D

I that morning received my Commission from the Governor together with my instructions; by the commission; I was appointed Superintendant & Commandant of Norfolk Island. As my stay at Port Jackson was very short I am not able to give account of it, at least satisfactory to myself but as a future occasion may present itself shall pass on to my departure from thence in his Majesties armed Tender Supply which happned at 7 in ye Morning on ye 15th FebY with a very fine breeze at WSW we got down to ye harbours mouth at 8 when we found

[Page 97]

that it blew very fresh without, & as we got off from the Land it came on blow a perfect Hurricane with a most tremenduous Sea, several of which broke into ye Vessell. The Gale kept up with great violence all this day & I very often thought the vessell was in a critical situation At 2 in ye Morning of ye 16th the Gale veered round to SbW & mod- erated but a heavy Sea was Still running at Noon ye Gale & sea both decreased Gradually found our Lattitude at Noon was 32.22' S Longitude 154 In ye Evening of this day a Flying fish flew onboard, which is rather an extraordinary event in such a high Lattitude On ye 17th had Fresh breezes with a few Squalls. Wind in general from ye S.E.

18th at Daylight Land was discovered bearing ESE & as we thought only 18 miles & took it for two small Islands, at the time we first discovered them we were standing to ye Northward with ye wind at ESE at 8 in ye Morning we tacked towards them but it being light winds we made no great progress towards them, at Noon had a very good Meridian Altitude which gave us 31.10' 55" S at that time ye largest hill bore S 60 E1 & ye smallest one South 70 E1 At ye close of Evening the largest of

[Page 98]

ye two bore E 1/2 S & at Midnight (being near full moon) it bore EbN. in ye night ye wind shifted to NebN On ye 19th at 4 in ye Morning having neared the Island considerably, we perceived a pointed Rock right ahead & at some distance from ye Island; on which the Mn Topsail was hove to the Mast & we sounded with 120 fathoms but no bottom The highest hill bearing NEbE at Day light we made sail & found the two Islands or hills that we had seen the day before, were two immense high rocky mountains, on ye South point of an Island, extending from N37 E1 to N 55 E1 & this side of it forming a deep bay in which appeared to be good Shelter from ye NE. All ye Land except the two high Mountains appeared to be cloathed with Wood, at Noon we had a very good Meridian Altitude by which our Lattitude was 31.40' S & ye Center of the Island at that time bore from us N 30 W1 about 6 miles, consequently we place the Island in 31.35' S & by some very good distances of Aldeberan from the Moon, at 8 this Evening ye Island being in sight, we make its Longitude 160.36' East of Greenwich & by Dead Reckoning 159.ll' E1. The form of ye Island appears to be a crescent & is very narrow, at 1 oclock we were between

[Page 99]

ye South end of ye Island & ye high Rock which lie from each other NW 1/2 W & SE 1/2 E about 13 miles asunder & I dare say are both quite steep too. This singular rock rises perpendicularly from ye Sea in the form of a Pyramid, to a very great heigth, we saild in a direct course from it 22 Leagues when we could plainly see it. There are some Rocks which spitt off from ye south W side of this rock; at about a miles distance, but the most dangerous rock is a single one which lyes nearly in the same direction from ye Pyramid, that ye pyramid does from ye Island, it is about 9 mile off & as the whole appears a kind of ridge. I think it is highly probable that there may be some sunken ones between, however the Sea appeared quite clear all round it, a Small Island lies off ye Eastern point of ye Large Island, to which Lieut Ball who was certainly the first discoverer of it, has given the Name of Lord Howes Island & to ye small one, Lidgbird's Island & to ye Pyramid we have given it the name of Balls pyramid On ye 20th at Noon we lost sight of ye Island & Pyramid in the haze after having run 22 Leagues from it in a straight direction. I think that in clear

[Page 100]

Weather it may be seen at 25 Leagues distance The Lattitude & Longitude of this Island is 31.36' S & 160.36' E1 of Greenwich, the first was determined by a mean of 4 very good meridianal Altitudes & ye latter by eight very good distances of ye star Aldebaran from ye moon both on ye 19th.

From ye 19th to ye 24th had very pleasant Wr & smooth Water ye Wind from E.S.E. to E.N.E. with little of it: in ye Lattitude of 31. we saw several tropic birds & flying fish of a large size we have every day an immense number of Gannets Pettrels & other Sea fowl From ye 25 to ye 29 had Strong Gales of wind & Squally Wr mostly from ye ESE, with a high cross sea running

The 28th the Wind veering early in the Morning to SW & imagining ourselves by our reckoning to be about 15 Leagues to ye Westward of Norfolk Isle at 7 in ye Evening we hove too & next morning at day light made sail steering East, the great number of birds round us, & ye Clouds hanging so very thick to ye Westward, indicates our being near ye Land, but it was not till eleven in ye forenoon that, we made ye largest of

[Page 101]

the two Isles which lye off ye S.W. end of Norfolk Isle bearing [blank space] & to which I have given the name of Phillip's Isle, in honor of His Excellency Governor Phillip. at one we made Norfolk Isle point Howe or ye North point bearing [blank space] & ye south point, or point Ross. At 4 in ye Afternoon we rounded Point Howe, soon after hove too off a Cascade which lies near about ye middle of ye Eastern side & down which a very fine fall of water fell with great force & noise. The boat was immediately hoisted out, in which Lieutt Ball & myself went, to examine if it was posslble to land near ye cascade, but found it imposslble as ye Shore was lined with high pointed rocks & ye surf broke so very violent on them that a landing could not be attempted in ye finest Weather. At Sunsett we returned onboard & ye boat was hoisted in, Stood off & on all night the Wind moderate from S.W. March 1st Early in ye Morning Lieut Ball & myself went in a boat to examine ye Isle whether we could find a landing place

[Page 102]

from ye Southermost (or point Ross) to ye NW point, or Point Howe, which is with the present Wind WN.W. ye Lee side of ye Isle. Arrived at point Ross we observed a large sandy bay which was near P/a mile from point to point but it appeared so compleatly surrounded by a reef of rocks, that MARCH Landing was imposslble, round ye Eastern point of this bay lies another bay which goes in deep but the beach which is a very small one is covered with a very large round stone on which ye surf breaks with great violence, which renders Landing here very dangerous not only for ye boats, but also for ye people, we rowed along the shore but could find no place to land, & could we have landed it would have been imposslble to have climbed ye steep cliffs with which the Isle is surrounded off ye NE part of ye Isle lie a great number of very large rocks, behind which Capt. Cook landed in 178 but found landing here imposslble on account of ye Surf & Rocks

[Page 103]

Altho' this may not be the case in very fine weather in ye Evening we returned onboard without having set our feet ashore this night had light winds at SW which with a current in ye Morning had sett us a great way from ye Isle, which at day light bore [blank space] miles, we did not get under ye Lee of ye Isle again before 3 o'clock in ye Afternoon of ye 3rd, when we came to an anchor in 18 fathom sandy bottom, in a bay in which lie the rocks, behind which Capt. Cooke landed, & to which bay I give the name of Buncombe Bay, after ye Member for Yorkshire, point Howe ye No[r]th point bearing from us E 1/2 N & a large Rock which forms ye other point WSW At 4 oclock Lieut Ball & myself landed in ye bay on a large rock, but with great difficulty being obliged to watch an opportunity to jump on ye rock after ye surf had broken we had then to drop ourselves down from ye inner part of this rock, which lay in the wash of a great surf, which broke on the

[Page 104]

shore with violence, it being covered with large round stones. as it was near evening when we landed, we very soon returned onbd again with a quantity of sorrell, which we had found near ye shore. The Wind blew strong all night & had veered round to ye ESE. March 3rd at Day light Lieut Ball & Mr Jamieson, went onshore to , ,. . nrji examine whether any thing could be landed, where we landed last night, for ye use of ye settlement. Myself & Mr Cunningham went in ye Supplys largest boat, at ye same time to make a circuit of ye Isle going round point Howe ye Western side being now ye Lee part of ye Isle, we rowed round this side, till we opned Phillip's & Nepeans Isle of ye south point of Norfolk Isle but found it blew too hard & too great a sea running to pull the boat ahead, on this side ye Isle there is only one landing place which is in a deep bay just round point Howe. The bottom of it is a fine sandy beach

[Page 105]

but ye Surf broke on it with such violence as to put Landing out of ye question at two in ye Afternoon we returned onboard, where we found Messrs Ball & Jamieson returned just before us, they giving it as their opinion that Buncombe Bay was by no means a fit place to settle at, independant of ye difficulty of landing there, (which is only practicable for a man without any incumbrance) it is not posslble to get a cask up a Clift which leads to a deep ridge down which a torrent of water falls, in the rainy season, & the Hills on both sides are quite steep & so very full of underwood as hardly to be penetrated. As it blew fresh all night next Morning I resolved to go across ye Isle towards ye sandy bay, which I had seen Yesterday, by which means I should be enabled to form a little oppinion of ye Country & see if landing was practicable in this sandy bay, to which I have given ye name of Anson Bay, after ye Member for Litchfield

[Page 106]

Unfortunately Jn Jay one of ye Supplys Quarter Masters, was drowned in attempting to catch a Turtle, altho' desired to desist. The next Morning, March 4th at 7 o'clock, myself Messrs Jamieson, Cunningham, & Callam Surgeon of ye Supply with 1 Marine landed on ye rock, & ascended ye Northern hill which is very steep, we found ye Woods so very thick & so much underwood which was rendered still worse by a large kind of supple jack which formed an impenetrable net work thro' which we had to cut our way, the ground was quite free of any kind of herb or plant whatever, & ye soil every where rich & good this I attrlbute, to the thorough exclusion of sun & air which prevents this kind of vegetation. The pines which are very numerous are of an incredlble growth, one of them which had been blown down, or fell by age, measured 140 feet & several others which we measurd were 27 feet in circumference they grow

[Page 107]

quite straight & not an exuberance of any kind whatever on them from ye top to the bottom. Another large tree (of which we saw a great number) greatly resembles ye Maple At 11 we found ourselves on ye opposite side of ye Isle just above ye Sandy or Anson's bay a part of which we could perceive thro' the Trees, we found our road must be down ye hill which is perpendicular & quite full of a large kind of Iris, which was a providential circumstance for us as they served us to hold by, when we were all falling & had they not presented them selves we must have fell down a depth of 90 feet, We were too much pleased & thankfull for our escape, to put our trust in a second attempt as every part seemed ye same at this time it was one o'clock, I proposed returning to Buncombe Bay where ye Supply lay, by making a small circuit to ye Southward, we had not gone far before

[Page 108]

we discovered a spring of very fine water which ran in a direction towards ye North end of ye Isle, which we traced to its source its direction was almost on a level & its spring or source, was at ye foot of a very large tree where it rose out of ye earth. This discovery, had ye appearance of causing an unlucky accident, as we lost ourselves so compleatly that we did not know which way to turn us, each of us had a different opinion & we all misled each other, however at length I took ye resolution of keeping to ye NE knowing that, that direction must lead us to that side of ye Isle, where ye Supply was at anchor, we were so thoroughly bewildered in impassable woods &c deep hollows that we had no other prospect than that of sleeping all night in these dreary woods. At 6 in ye Evening we were near ye Summit of a very high hill, but the Woods was so thick that it was imposslble to see thro' them, Mr Cunningham got into a tree & climbed to the top of it, from whence

[Page 109]

he saw ye Supply bearing NbE from us, by which we knew that we were on Mount Pitt (which is ye Name I have given to ye highest & only mountain on ye Isle). We immediately made ye best of our way to gain the bay. Our road to which lay down a water way between two very steep hills, fortunately at this season there is but little water in it. we met with a great many perpendicular rocks or water falls, down which we could perceive that the water fell with great force at times, at about seven we got to the end of ye water fall & saw ye supplys boat waiting for us. we rested here for ye surgeon of ye Supply who had not been able to keep up with us I sent ye Marine to look after him, who on hallooing was answered by Mr Callam soon after ye Supply made ye Signal for her boat to return onboard, I called the Marine & we embarked & got onbd ye Supply, thoroughly exhausted & fatigued

[Page 110]

with our excursion. The boat was immediately sent after ye Surgeon, but it being dark, he did not choose to answer, the person who went to search for him. It seemed the next morning when he came onboard, that he found himself much tired & exhausted & coming to a place where there was a number of dried leaves, & fearing he should not meet a better bed further on he laid himself down; It was not so far but he might have got to the boat in four minutes, but he recollected how very difficult it would be to get into the boat, at such a late hour, he therefore thought it would be more prudent to stay where he was, he saw nothing in the night; but heard something nlbbling the leaves, like a hare or rabbit & heard the very distinct cry of yaho! ye same as one man calling to another, we heard this before we got to the boat & answered it, imagining some of ye people, belonging

[Page 111]

to ye Supply was onshore & wanted to join us. During this Excursion we have not seen a leaf of flax or any herb or grass whatever the ground (altho a deep rich soil) being quite bare; which is rather extraordinary as Capt. Cooke in his voyage says, that the Flax is more luxuriant here than at New Zeeland, how- ever it is very posslble that we have not been on that part of ye Isle where he saw it Perroquets, parrots, Doves, & other birds we saw in great quantitys & so very tame that they might have been knocked down with sticks, we every where saw large pieces of Pummice stone, a proof that this, as well as ye other Islands in those seas, has been the production of a volcano, or some great shock of nature. As ye sandy bay, or Ansons bay has not been explored to my satisfaction Lieut Ball proposed going round there

[Page 112]

in ye Brig, & endeavor to land, which if at all posslble, must be effected now as the Wind is at ENE. March 5th at daylight we weighed & ran round to ye bay, when Lieut Ball & myself went in a boat but found ye surf too violent to land, I now began to think it was imposslble to land on ye Isle; As I have nearly made a circuit of it & found no place where there is a posslbility of landing. The only prospect remained which was to search if a passage could be found through the reef which runs along Sidney Bay (which is ye name I give to the Bay on ye SWt side of ye Isle) we went there & ye Master was sent in ye Boat to examine it & on his return he informed us, that a landing was very easy, as a small break of ye Reef (large enough to admit two boats) was formed between two parts of it & boats might land on a sandy beach

[Page 113]

On his report, Lieut Ball & myself went to examine it, & found it just as he had reported, We landed on a fine sandy bay or beach without any difficulty whatever above this beach lay a bank ye edge of which was surrounded by ye large kind of Iris, on peering thro' it we found a fine piece of ground, altho' well wooded (as is every other part of ye Isle) here I resolved at once to fix, & felicitated myself on having found a place out where I could make a commencement, I had no doubt but water would be procured & that at no great distance, as it was very late in ye Evening We returned on board & ye Supply was brought to an anchor in 20 fathom sandy bottom. I employed this evening in getting every thing ready & arranging all my business for ye ensuing day March 6 at Day break I left the Supply with 2 Boats, having in them

[Page 114]

all ye people belonging to ye settlement (except ye Women) the Tents, a quantity of each kind of provisions & ye most usefull tools, which we landed with great ease & ye people were instantly set to work clearing away ground enough to erect the Tents on & ye Colours were hoisted, before sunsett every thing & person belonging to the settlement were onshore & their Tents pitched, before the Colours were hauled down, I assembled all ye settlement & Lieut Ball present I took possession of ye Isle drinking "His Majesty" "the Queen" "Prince of Wales" "Governor Phillip & success to ye Colony" after which three Cheers were given March 7th it blew so very hard all day & so great a surf that no boat could land this day I employed the people in clearing away a piece of ground for sewing some seed. The ground which I am clearing is on ye West side of the bank where I am

[Page 115]

encamped, the Hill has a tolerable easy ascent, & the soil is rich & deep. I therefore have resolved to grub ye trees up on ye side of this hill, which I think the best spot for gardens & other grounds. We soon after our landing found a very fine spring of freshwater at about three minutes walk from us, ye neighbourhood of which is very convenient, as it may be made to overflow a piece of flat ground which is at the foot of ye hill & would make a very good rice ground. The Isle is so very thick of Wood & underwood, that my progress will be but slow for some time to come with the few people which I have with me. It is rather extraordinary that we have not yet found a single plant of flax ye ground having ye same appce on
ye South side ye Isle, that it has on ye North, with this difference that
it is more accesslble on this side than the other

[Page 116]

Week days
-Mo day
-Winds
-State of ye Surf
-Fish or Turtle caught.
-Seeds sown
-Seeds come up

March 1788
Saturday
2d day of landing
-8
-E.b.S.
-The surf ran very high till 9 in ye Morning at which time ye Supply's boat landed
-A few large blue fish which eat very tough & hard

Sunday
-th 9
-E.S.E
-Very good landing all day
-Two Green Turtle of about 100 lb each

[Page 117]

Transactions on Norfolk Isle & state of the Weather

This day had Strong gales & Cloudy Wr at 9 in ye MornS hoisted ye Colours with a weft as a signal [to] ye Supply that her boat might land, at 11 received ye last of our baggage, provisions, & stores from ye Supply & hauled our boat up, at 4 in ye Afternoon Lieut Ball came onshore to know if I had any further occasion for the Supply, & not having any, he took leave, & soon after returned onboard, at Vz past 5 sailed hence for Port Jackson, His Majesties armed Tender Supply, by Lieut11 Ball I sent my publick letter & Journal of my proceedings since we made ye Isle with my private Letters. The people (viz. 10 working men,) were this day set to work clearing away & grubbing up trees for a garden

Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr at 11 in ye Morning assembled all ye people in my tent & performed Divine Service after which my Commission from his ExcellY ye Governor was read. I this afternoon discovered that there were Turtle on ye Isle, by seeing four basking themselves on a sandy beach which lies at ye Eastern side of this bay, close under point Hunter, I immediately went away with some people & turned 2 of them which I brought to the Tents for publick use, all round this beach we saw a great number of Turtle swimming about

[Page 118]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-State of ye Surf
-Turtle or fish caught
-Seeds sown
-Seeds come up

March 1788 Monday
-th 10
-EbS
-Good landing all day -
-Nothing caught. Killed one Turtle for ye use of the Settlement

Tuesday
-th 11
-ESE
-D very little surf
-Killed one Turtle. No fish caught

Wednesday
-th 12
-D
-D
-No Fish caught.
-Opned 1 Cask of Bread 1 D of Pease 1 D of Flour & 1 Tierce of beef Contents 40 double pieces.

Thursday
-th 13
-EbS
-D
-D

Friday
-th 14
-East ENE
-D
-Turned 3 Turtle of about 100lb each
-Potatoes Yams Turnips onions Lettuce Spinnage parsley Cabbage

Saturday
-th 15
-SE SSE South SW
-good landing but more Surf than Yesterday
-no fish Killed 1 Turtle

[Page 119]

Transactions on Norfolk Isle & State of ye Weather &c

Fresh breezes & Cloudy Wr the heat very moderate The people were this day employed clearing away the ground for a garden, but ye roots of ye trees being very large & running a great way under ground renders it an arduous task. I this day began serving ye Commissarys provisions of which I have 6 months

Fresh breezes & pleasant Weather, In ye afternoon had a few showers of rain, the people were employed cutting, carrying away & piling up ye Timber off ye Garden ground. Died one of ye Ewes.

Moderate breezes & Cloudy Wr people enclosing ye garden ground, delving & clearing it of rubbish

D Wr ye people were employed as yesterday.

D Wr in ye Afternoon cloudy & an appear06 of rain, at noon finished delving & inclosing ye garden, its size is 87 feet square the soil very rich & deep, began Squaring it out & sowing ye Seeds as marked in ye Column, at 4 in ye Afternoon I went with the people to ye Turtle bay & turned 3 which we brought here very day at low water we see three or four lying on ye beach asleep in ye Sun, but when it is cloudy they never land

In ye Morning had fresh breezes with heavy rain In ye Afternoon very fresh Gales & heavy rain which came in strong Squalls, at 9 ye wind veered round to SW with heavy Squalls of. Wind & rain at 1 1 more Moderate & calm Weather. No work done to day -

[Page 120]

Week days
-No days
-Winds
-State of the Surf.
-Turtle or fish caught
-Seeds Sown
-Seeds come up

March 1788 Sunday
-th 16
-S.W. West W.N.W.
-Landing not so good as some days past.
-a few fish.
Killed one Turtle.

Monday
-th 17
-W.N.W. West
D
-The surf along ye reefs break with great violence but yet a boat might land atV& tide or low water
-D
-Potatoes Beets Early Cabbage o cauliflower + cress + Mustard o Slb. Brocoli o Fennel o Thyme o Marjoram Shalott o Sorrel + parsnips parsley + Carrots Corn-sallad + Lettuce onion Indian Corn + French beans garden beans rhubarb 5 Coconuts.
-Turnips radishes Cabbages & Lettuces are out of ye ground

[Page 121]

Transactions at Sidney-Bay on Norfolk Isle & state of ye Weather

Fresh gales & heavy squalls of wind & rain at 11 performed Divine service. In ye evening more moderate Weather. Two Convicts who I permitted to make an excursion into ye Country returned at sun-sett - Their account of it does not differ materially from what we saw of it in our excursion on ye N side of ye Isle, they did not see any flax but met with a quantity of water & a very good soil everywhere, but the Woods inpenetrable. they brought 4 parrots of a very large kind

Moderate & Cloudy Wr. I this day employed 6 of ye People to clear away a piece of ground to ye right of ye Garden & above it, for to move ye tents to or erect houses on it as ye present situation of ye people is very uncomfortable & much exposed to ye weather. 3 Men were employed digging a saw pit. felled a pine near it, to saw into planks & scantling its length is 115 feet & 2^ 3* diameter about breast high. Finished sowing seeds in ye Garden, leaving a square piece to transplant on. This day, I discovered that ye Flax-plant which Capt. Cook takes notice, of is no other than that plant which I have hither to called ye larger kind of Iris, with which ye Isle abounds, but it in no manner resembles ye Flax of Europe its appearance being more like Flags - a bundle of it was tied up & put into a pool of Water to soak intending to try it after ye European method of preparing ye Flax

[Page 122]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-State of ye surf & Landings
-Turtle or fish caught
-Seeds sown
-Seeds come up

March 1788 Tuesday
-th 18
-SSW
South SE
-a great Surf breaks on ye Reef.
-No fish
-sowed 3 Gotten seeds on ye top of ye hill -
-Lettuce

Wednesday
-th 19
-ESE
SE SSE
-very good Landing
-Several Fish
-
-Spinnach

Thursday
-20
-EbS ESE
-D
-A few Fish
-The cape cress which was sownye 17th is come up the English cress sown ye same day is not yet come up

Friday
-st 21
-ENE
NE
-D with little or no Surf
-A few fish
-
-Cress & Mustard from ye English Seed

Saturday
-22
-NE N.E.bN
-D
-D
-
-onions. French beans & garden beans

Sunday
-rd
23
-ENE
East EbS
-D
-D
-
-Indian Corn

Monday
-th 24
-WNW West WSW
-The surf rises landing good
-D
-put some sugar Cane into ye Ground as I think it does not do well in the Tub left 2 Stalks in ye Tub
-Potatoes just appearing -

[Page 123]

Transactions on Norfolk Isle & state of ye Weather &c.

Fresh breezes & Cloudy Wr 6 men employed clearing away ye ground round ye Garden. 3 about ye saw-pit & one making a pen for ye Ewes & hogs - in ye Even'g thick hazey Wr

Moderate breezes & Cloudy Wr in the Afternoon finished ye Saw-pit & began sawing a 12 foot length of ye pine into Scantlings for to erect a Store house ye other people employed as Yesterday -

Moderate breezes & cloudy with a few showers of rain, at times. People all employed as yesterday, in the Afternoon very pleasant weather

Light breezes & Cloudy Wr people employed falling & clearing away ve timber, began framing ye Storehouse. Sawyer & another man sawing up ye pine into Scantlings & uprights &c for ye Store house -

Fresh gales & Cloudy Wr ye people employed as before P.M. Strong gales with heavy rain -

Fresh breezes & Cloudy with drizling rain at 1 1 A.M. performed divine Service. P.M. Strong Gales with heavy rain I do not observe that there is any great sea running in the bay on ye contrary I think it is smooth water. I observed that it is high water here at full moon at 9 o'clock & ye tide flowes 7 feet per.

Fresh gales & Cloudy, heavy rain all night. In ye Morning it cleared up with a few flying showers 2 Men employed sawing Scantlings 1 Man framing a Store house, 2 Men building a hutt & 4 Clearing away ye ground. 1 Cooking & 1 Sick the Women dragging away ye boughs.

[Page 124]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-State of Surf& LandS
-Fish or Turtle caught
-Seeds sown
-Seeds come up

March 1788 Tuesday
-th
25
-SW
South
-Landing very good
-very few Fish, no Turtle has been seen on ye beach since ye 14 when we turned 9
-Opned a Cask of Bread.
-Shalots Carrots -
Cut some
Cress

Wednesday
-26
-SW D
WNW
-D & very little surf
-
-
-Cauli-flower

Thursday
-th
27
-West.
-D
-

Friday
-28
-WNW
-good land but a great surf on ye reef
-No fish caught

Saturday
-th 29
-West.
-good landing but little surf
-D
-Raddish B.S. Raddish

Sunday
-30
-West
-Landing posslble
at Low water
-
-
-Cut some cress & Mustard for ye People left some for seed -

[Page 125]

Transactions on Norfolk Island. State of ye Weather &c

Very fine pleasant weather with Moderate breezes The people disposed of & employed ye same as Yesterday except breaking off one Man from Clearing away the wood to assist in framing ye Store house, at 4 P.M. ye Store house was framed & ready for boarding it, began boarding it up - 2 Men sick -

DO YVr The People employed as Yesterday. As ye Man who assists ye Sawyer is not very expert, our progress in boarding ye Store house up is much retarded the Wr has been much warmer to day than it has been since our arrival here - 2 Men sick -

D Wr Employed as before. 1 Man Sick -

Fresh Breezes & Cloudy, in ye Night had some heavy rain; but little wind toward ye evening. The people empd as Yesterday 1 Man sick

Mod1 & Cloudy Wr had a few showers of rain in the Morning. The people all employed as before 1 Man sick -

Fresh gales & Cloudy Wr at 11 A.M. performed divine Service. The Surf breaks with more violence & farther out, than I have observed it to do since our Landing here. A Westerly wind always makes a great Surf on ye reef 1 Man Sick

[Page 126]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-State of the Surf & Landing
-Turtle or Fish Caught
-Seeds Sown
-Seeds come up

Monday
-st
31
-West S.W.
-Landing posslble at low water A very great Surf on the Reef
-

April 1788 Tuesday
-st
1
-SW
-No landS all day A very high Surf all along ye Reef & breaks with great Violence
-

WednesY
-nd 2
-S.W.
South SE-
-D

[Page 127]

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c

Strong Gales & Cloudy Wr with Squalls of Wind & rain, the people distrlbuted & employed as follows - 2 Men Sawing 1 boarding up ye Store house & 6 Clearing away ground, Women burning ye Rubbish. In ye evening very heavy Gales of wind & thick Cloudy Wr with Squalls of rain -

D Wr at times very heavy gusts of Wind & a great Sea running without - Employed clearing away the Wood off ye ground where ye Tents are to be removed to - Began clearing away ye ground, on ye N.E. side of ye hill, to sow Corn & Barley in. The Plants & Vegetables has received much damage from ye heavy Wind which blowing directly from ye Sea, has hurt them particularly the French beans & Young onions. At Sunsett ye Storehouse was finished - in ye evening very heavy Gales & thick cloudy Wr Strong Gales & Rain during ye night -

Strong Gales of Wind & Cloudy Wr with a few showers of rain People employed for ye most part of this day, as Yesterday - at 9 A.M. shifted the Provisions & Stores from the Commandants & Store-tents into ye Store -house at 8 P.M. ye Wind shifted in a gust to ye SE - In ye Evening still fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr In the night Strong Gales - Every thing which was coming up quite flourishing in ye Garden is quite blighted & dead with the Wind. I was this day so unfortunate as to discover that the Rats had eaten a number of ye Indian Corn Shoots, close to ye ground -

[Page 128]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-State of Landing &Surf
-Fish or Turtle Caught
-Seeds sown
-Seeds come up

April 1788 Thursday
-rd
3
-SE
ESE
-Much less Surf & decreasing fast landing good at low water
-

Friday
-th
4
-D
ENE
-very little
Surf
the Landing very good -
-
-Three Quarts of wheat to try how it will thrive in the Garden ground

Saturday
-th 5
-D
-D
-several Turtle
has been seen in
the Bay but none came on shore

[Page 129]

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of ye Weather &c

In ye Morning, Fresh Gales, but much more moderate than it has been since the 29th of last month, the Gale having blown with great violence during four days & nights, & has destroyed almost every thing that was growing in the Garden, the people employed clearing away ye Timber off ye ground destined to erect their tents on. Sawyers cutting Timber to erect the houses with & 2 Men clearing ye ground on ye N.E. side ye hill

Moderate & Cloudy Wr ye people all employed as before. As ye vega-tables which were sowed in ye Garden has been quite destroyed (except a few Cabbage plants, Raddishes, Yams, & potatoes) by the late S.W. wind & not knowing how frequently they may occur during the winter months; I do not intend sowing any more garden seed in it, but have this day sown 3 Quarts of Wheat in a patch of it for a trial - 1 Man sick -

Moderate breezes & Cloudy The people employed as Yesterday In ye Afternoon shifted the Tents to the place which has been cleared for them In ye Evening very pleasant serene weather 1 Man sick

[Page 130]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing & state of ye Surf
-Turtle or Fish caught.
-Seeds sown
-Seeds come up

April 1788 Sunday
-th 6
-ENE
-very good landing the Surf moderate
-4 Turtle has been seen in the bay but none on shore

Monday
-7
-ESE
-D
-Opned a Cask of beef & 1 of Pork

Tuesday
-8
-D
-D
-

WednesY
-9
-D
-D
-saw 1 Turtle onshore in the bay but did not disturb it

Thursday
-10
-ENE NNE
-
-

Friday
-th
11
-D
WNW
-
-
-Transplanted some young bannana Trees & Lime trees into larger tubs which are kept under a Tent in ye garden which is opned in ye day time for them to receive the Sun -

Saturday
-12
-West
-
-

Sunday
-13
-D
-
-

[Page 131]

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of the Weather &c.

Moderate & Cloudy Wr at 11 A.M. performed Divine service after which caused some orders & regulations to be read for ye preserving good order, regularity & cleanliness in the Settlement - 1 Man Sick -

D Wr The people distrlbuted as follows, 5 Men clearing away the NE side of ye Hill 2 Men clearing away from the Ground where ye Tents are pitched on, to the fresh water stream - Sawyers at work as before -

D Wr The people all employed as Yesterday

D & pleasant Weather - Employed as Yesterday. The Sawyers finished sawing ye plates &c for My house Carpenter & one Man employed in framing it

D Wr people employed as before, in ye night Rain

In the Morning strong Gales & thick cloudy weather, with very heavy rain till '/a past 4 in ye Even? when ye Wind came suddenly round to West & it cleared up people employed as before - in ye Night pleasant Weather.

Fresh breezes & Cloudy Wr at 10 in the Morning came on a very strong Squall of Wind & rain - It being too wet & dirty to employ ye people clearing on the NE. side of the hill, I employed them all clearing away from the Tents to ye fresh Water -

Fresh Gales & Cloudy at 9 in the Morning came on a Squall the same as Yesterday, after which had moderate & pleasant Weather at 11 performed Divine Service, after which caused the orders & regulations to be read - opned a Cask of butter & Cask of bread -

The Rats have destroyed every grain of Wheat & barly which were coming up, & ye Grubs have destroyed all the potatoes & other vegatables which were also coming up, except the Yams which they have damaged. On first discovering the Rats to be so numerous I fitted up ye empty Bread Casks as Traps in which I caught 20 of them which were killed & thrown about the Garden, to deter the living ones, but they soon grew too cunning to be caught in the Cask & too bold to be intimidated by their dead companions. The only means I had left was to pound some glass fine & mix it with oatmeal, they destroy a quantity of this every night but I fear very much it will not remove them. To destroy the Grubs I have try'd Ashes - lie of Ashes, & urine but all without Effect they are so numerous that it is imposslble to thin them by picking them off.

[Page 132]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-State of Surf & Landing
-Turtle or fish caught
-Seeds sown

April 1788 Monday
-th
14
-W.S.W. S.W.
-A very great Surf all along the reef no landing

Tuesday
-th 15
-South
-Less Surf Landing good at low Water

Wednesday
-th 16
-West W.N.W.
-very little surf landing good
-A few fish served Yz allowance of pease.

Thursday
-th
17
-West
-D

[Page 133]

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c

Strong Gales & heavy Squalls of wind & rain, & a great Sea running without. The people disposed of as follows. 4 Men Clearing away as before 2 making a Thatched house for 6. 1 Man working under y6-Carpenter, who is rendered incapable of working himself, having cut his hand across in a dangerous manner. 1 Man making a fish pot & Sawyers employed sawing boards -

More moderate than Yesterday but no rain, The People all employed as before. Died on of ye Ewes three only remains the rest being destroyed by the Scab notwithstanding the greatest care was taken of them - 1 Man lame -

Moderate breezes & Cloudy. The people all employed as before & ye Women burning away the vine Tendrils which want clearing on the NE side of the hill -

Moderate breezes & Cloudy Weather. This Morning detected Jn Batchelor Marine in my Tent stealing Rum out of a Barreca, in which it was kept, As the Allowance of y6 Officers & Men belonging to the Sirius, which I kept in my Tent not having a more secure place to put it in. An Attempt of ye same sort was made on the 2nd Instant but at that time I could not fix on the Thief - In the Afternoon I assembled the people together & punishd him with 1 Dozen lashes for quitting his work, one dozn lashes for breaking into ye Kings Stores, & 1 Dozen for Theft, on measuring ye remain!? Rum in ye barreca I find it 7 pints Short, ordered his allowance to be stopt till ye deficiency is made good.

[Page 134]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing & state of Surf &c
-Turtle or fish caught &c
-Seeds sown
-Observations on Seeds &c

April Friday
-1788 th 18
-N.W.
-Landing good
-

Saturday
-th 19
-West.
-AM good Landing P.M A great Surf
-
-The Yams are now thriving very well & seem to bid fair to be out of ye reach of ye rats or Grubs, but I Still have my fears that the cold Southerly Winds will blight them notwithstanding I have sheltred them very well by a close fence -

Sunday
-th 20
-WSW
-The surf runs very high
Landing not posslble
-
-The Southerly Winds are now become cold & raw which induces me to call this about ye commencement of ye Winter -

Monday
-st
21
-SW South
-D
-

Tuesday
-nd
22
-SE
-Very little Surf
-

[Page 135]

Transactions on Norfolk Island. State of ye Weather &c.

Fresh gales & Cloudy the people all employed as before In ye night had a few showers of hard rain -

D Wr at times Strong Squalls. In the Morning got the frame of my house in its place & put it up, its dimensions is 24 feet long. 12 feet broad & 7 feet high people employed as before. The Sawyers has sawed up 898 foot of fir into Sleepers, Weather boarding, & quarter stuff for My house since ye 13th -

Fresh Gales & cloudy Weather & a great sea running without, at 1 1 A.M. performed divine Service. In ye afternoon Charles Mac Lennand a boy of 14 yrs old was discovered stealing Rum out of the Surgeons Tent, punished him with 3 Dozn lashes. I have great reason to suppose some others were concerned with him, but not having sufficient proof against them, I forbear taking any notice of it, being determined & having assured the people that the next person which I detected in any theft whatever would be made a severe & dreadfull example of -

The Wind still blows hard & a great Surf, people employed as follows 3 Men clearing away on the N.E. side of the hill. 3 Clearing away towards the Fresh water. Carpenter & one Man assisting him in building my house & 2 Men employed Sawing - The women employed burning away the Rubbish

Moderate Breezes & pleasant weather The people all employed as Yesterday

On ye 27th I discovered a great quantity of plantane trees, which grow close to the Stream of fresh Water which runs through the Valley which is in this part of it dry & not swampy as it is opposite the hill on which the Settlement is, & below it - The Valley is also very wide & bordered by some Small hills, which are as thickly covered with Wood as any other part of ye Hand but the Valley might

[Page 136]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing & state of ye Surf
-Turtle or Fish caught
-Seeds sown
-Observations on Seeds Sec

April 1788 Wednesday
-23
-NE
-Landing very good
Scarce any Surf
-

Thursday
-24
-North
-D
-

Friday
-25
-NE
-D
-

Saturday
-26
-N.W.
-D
-

Sunday
-th
27
-D
SW SSE
-A great Surf landing imposslble
-

[Page 137]

Transactions on Norfolk Island, state of ye Weather &c -

Little Wind & clear Weather. On digging about 2 feet under my house, I find the bottom is sand & a loose sand stone I therfore dug a cellar under a small part of it but the deeper I went I found the bottom dryer & judged it to be a very proper place to put the provisions in, as it will be both safe & dry & will add much to the security of the provisions in being under my immediate care & inspection & will prevent the building another Store house, for a considerable time I therefore broke two men off from clearing away on ye N.E. side of the Hill & began digging a cellar under the house the whole length & breadth of it viz. 24 feet by 12, & 5 feet deep.

Little wind & very pleasant weather, the middle of the day rather sultry. The People all employed as YesterY

D Wr employed as before s~

In ye Morning Fresh Gales & Cloudy with Showers of rain In ye Afternoon moderate with heavy Showers of rain The people all employed as before. In ye Evening pleasant Weather -

At 2 in the Morning the wind shifted round to S.W. in a very heavy Squall & blew with great violence till 7 when it veered round to SSE & continued blowing hard all day with showers of rain. At 11 A.M. performed divine Service - Sawyers have sawn 866 feet of Wood since last Sunday - We have caught 40 Rats this week but they are very numerous still -

easily be cleard, or at least a sufficient part of it for ye purpose of sowing Grain Gardens &c which it will produce abundantly if the Rats do not destroy it The Plantane trees grow close to the Water & are so thick that they choak each other besides the very great quantity of other small aquatic shrubs & the bear-bind with which they are interlaced must necessarily retard their perfection, I therefore as soon as a man can be spared intend clearing a spot round them & transplanting some of ye suckers into dryer ground. I shall send Mr Altree to stay there & build a house - I have no doubt but this Valley would produce an immense quantity of Grain as it can be so easily overflowed -

[Page 138]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing state of Surf &c
-Turtle or fish caught
-Seeds sown
-Observations on Seeds &c

April 1788 Monday
-28
-SSE
-Towards ye Eveng. little Surf, & Landing good -
-

Tuesday
-th 29
-D
-Very little Surf
-

Wednesday
-th 30
-NE
-No surf landing good
-

May
Thursday
-st 1
-NNE
-D
-

Friday
-nd 2
-NW S SE
-Surf increasg.
-

Saturday
-rd 3
-SSE
-A great Surf
-

Sunday
-th 4
-South
-D
-

Monday
-th
5
-SSW
Et
NNE
-Very little Surf landing good
-

[Page 139]

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of ye Weather &c

Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr the people distrlbuted as follows - 2 Men digging a Cellar under my house for the reception of Provisions or other Stores 3 men clearing away on the NE side of the hill. 1 Man making a Killock to side ye boat & one Man Assisting ye Carpenter. Sawyers Employed & women burning the rubbish

Moderate breezes & Cloudy the people employed as Yester. In ye Evening ye 2 Men finished digging the Cellar & ye Killock was also finished -

D & pleasant Weather 4 Men clearing away on ye NE side of ye hill & ye rest a before. 1 Man sick - in dysentery

Fresh breezes & Cloudy people empd as before - latter part of ye day moderate & Cloudy 1 Man still sick

First part light winds with dark Gloomy Weather, with heavy rain.
No work done to day
^i

Fresh breezes & Cloudy Weather with some heavy Showers of rain. In ye Intervals the people employed as before

D & hazey Weather with a cold raw air at 11 A.M. performed divine Service 1 Man sick his complaint is a dysentery. Upwards of 50 Rats have been caught this last week. I was this day so unfortunate as to lose one of my sows. I imagine she was poisoned.

Moderate & dark cloudy weather with frequent showers of rain ye People distrlbuted as follows. 4 men clearing away on ye N.E. side of the hill. As I have every reason to suppose that the sow which died Yesterday had eaten something poisonous, I therefore have begun a hog pen made of slates* to confine the rest in altho I much fear that they will not be so well fed as before Sawyers & Carpenters ye same 1 Man sick. *cf. HRNSW II "stakes".

[Page 140]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing state of ye surf
-Turtle or Fish caught
-Seeds sown
-Observations

May 1788 Tuesday
-6
-NNE ESE
-Very little Surf landS good
-

Wednesday
-7
-East
-D
-

Thursday
-8
-NE
-D
-

Friday
-th 9
-East
-D
-

Saturday
-th 10
-ENE East Variabl
-D
e
-

[Page 141]

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of ye Weather 8cc.

AM Little wind & a thick fog. P.M clear Weather The people all employed as before ye sawyers assist. & one Man sick
#

Little wind & very serene pleasant weather. The people employed as before one Man sick

D Wr ye people employed as yesterday - In ye Evening of Yesterday the Sawyer his assistant & ye Carpenter was poisoned by eating some beans which had a very tempting appearance much like ye broad Windsor bean, they have been so ill as not to do any work to day - 1 Man sick

D Wr The Sawyers & Carpenters unable to do any work, ye rest employed as before. The hog-pen was finished, began making a catamaran, to go off to the boat which I intend mooring to a killock in the middle bay where she will ride securely & in very smooth water, which is the only method we can take to catch fish. In ye Evening ye Catamaran was finished. 3 Men sick

D Wr in ye Morning heavy clouds & rain at 11 o'clock came on a deluge of rain which lasted about 10' minutes launched ye boat & Catamaran moored ye boat to ye Killock - +Punished Charles McLennan Convict with 3 Dozen lashes for uttering some very seditious & threatning words. In ye Evening very pleasant serene weather - 2 Men sick -
+ If there were more convicts here, they would not submit to having their salt provisions stopped where a quantity of fish were caught by them.

[Page 142]

Week days
-Mo Days
-Landing state of ye
weather
-Turtle or Fish caught Landg & Surf
-Seeds sown
-Seeds came up
-Observations

May 1788 Sunday
-th 11
-S.E.
East.
-DC-No Surf
-

Monday
-th 12
-ESE
-D D
-

Tuesday
-th 13
-SW West
-D
-

Wednesday
-th 14
-Variable
-36 fish
-The boat returned without ye Grapnel & rope. ye people not being able to clear it of ye rocks

Thursday
-th 15
-NW NE SW NE
-very good landing no salt meat issued
-

Friday
-16
-D
-D
-op'ned a Cask of Pease & one of Flour

[Page 143]

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of the Weather &c

Little wind all day, with dark Gloomy weather, at 1 1 came on a Torrent of rain which lasted the same time as Yesterday - after which had passing showers of rain at 11 A.M. performed divine service. 2 Men sick -

D Wr with such heavy & incessant rain that no work could be done, the wind was very faint throughout the day - 1 Man sick

Moderate breezes & pleasant weather, till the Evening then very Gloomy Weather & heavy rain but no wind 5 Men Grubbing up & Clearing away on ye NE side of the hill. 1. Man employed in sundry jobs about ye boat &c Sawyers sawing up boards & Carpenter finishS ye Commandants house - 1 Man sick -

Light airs & Cloudy Wr in ye Afternoon sent ye boat with the mate in her to fish without ye reef, at Sunset she returned with 36 very fine large fish 1 Man sick

D & sometimes Squalls (but not violent) with dark gloomy Weather & incessant torrents of rain, with distant Thunder & lightning. No work done to day 1 Man sick -

Moderate breezes & pleasant weather, people employed as before, broke two men off from clearing away on the N.E. side of ye hill to assist Mr Altree in removing his things to the plantane plantation where I have ordered him to reside in order to take care of those trees & cultivate the adjoining grounds which may be cleared away in a short time - 1 Man Sick -

* As ye rainy Weather is now become incessant, & there is every reason to suppose it will be so for 2 or 3 Months to come which will endanger the peoples health by remaining in the Tents, as the weather is also cold, I have adopted the plan of clearing the Storehouse & lodging the provisions & stores in ye Cellar, & on ye top of my house & letting ye 5 men & three women (who are unhoused) have the Store-house till a house can be conveniently built for them, which will place the whole under Shelter; except ye Surgeon & Mate, a house for whom will be immediately begun

[Page 144]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-Surf & landS
-Fish caught
-Seeds sown
-Observations

May 1788 Saturday
-th
17
-S.W.
-28
Fish
-Landing good

Sunday
-18
-D
-served Vz allowance of pork
-D

Monday
-th 19
-D
West
-
-D

Tuesday
-th 20
-SW

-A great Surf Landing at LoV Water.

Wednesday
-21
-SW
-
-A very great Surf all along the Reef

[Page 145]

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of the Weather &c.

D Wr with heavy rain. The Commandants house was this day finished in ye Evening brought a quantity of ye provisions from ye Storehouse & put into ye Cellar sent ye boat outside ye reef to fish - & search for the Grapnel rope - at 3 in ye Afternoon she returned with 28 fish but could not find ye buoy or Grapnel rope 1 Man sick -

Moderate breezes & Cloudy - at 1 1 A.M. performed divine service - 1 Man sick -

D Wr 4 Men clearing away on the NE side of the hill shifted all the provisions & Stores from ye Storehouse into my house & placed them in the cellar & on the loft* Carpenter fixing a loft to the Store house & Sawyers sawing plates for ye Officers house - 2 Men sick The * is King's; see facing page.

Strong Gales & Cloudy the People employed as before & one making a Crab to heave the boat up by In felling a Tree it fell accidentally on one of the Turkey hens & killed it - 2 Men sick

Very Strong Gales of Wind & Cloudy Weather in the morning had some heavy Squalls of Wind & rain. Sowed 2 Quarts of Wheat in ye Garden ground but am tearfull the rats will destroy the seed. People employed as before In ye night had some very heavy Squalls of wind which drove the boat from her mooring & forced her onshore on ye Sandy beach, where she received no damage. I do not intend to launch her till the Crab is ready for heaving her up 1 Man sick

[Page 146]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Fish caught
-Seeds sown
-Observations &c

May 1788 Thursday
-22
-South SSE
-A very high Surf
-

Friday
-rd 23
-ESE
East
-Less Surf landing better than before
-
-3 Quarts of Wheat

Saturday
-th
24
-ESE
-little Surf landing good
-

Sunday
-th 25
-East
-a great Surf
-

Monday
-th
26
-D
ESE
-Less
surf
-

Tuesday
-th
27
-
-Very little
Surf landing very good
-

[Page 147]

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of ye Weather &c.

Fresh Gales & Cloudy Weather, the Sawyer was taken ill & could not do any work sent his assistant out to help Mr Altree in clearing away at the Plantation - the rest of ye people employed as before. The weather for these two or three days past has been very cold & bleak 1 Man sick

Moderate & Cloudy people employed as before As I shall have a sufficiency of Garden ground clear against the spring, I have this day caused the remaining part of the Garden ground to be turned up & Sown with Wheat. 1 Man ss -

D Wr In the Morning had some heavy Squalls of rain. The Carpenters & Sawyers assistant employed in making a framed Shed to cover the Saw pit that it may be posslble for ye Sawyers to work in Rainy Weather - Sawyer Sick -

Fresh breezes & Cloudy Weather, the air very raw & cold at 11. A.M. performed Divine service -

D Wr with Squalls of rain people employed as follows 5 Men clearing away the ground on the NE side of the hill & burning ye rubbish 1 Man making a crab to heave the boat up by Sawyers & Carpenter employed as before

Moderate & pleasant weather all ye people employed in felling a large pine-tree, which over hangs a part of the Hill which we are clearing, but contrary to our intentions it fell down hill, where it must remain which is of no great consequence as ye heart of it is unsound. 1 Man sick opned a Cask of Beef -

[Page 148]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Fish Caught.
-Observations &c

May 1788 Wednesday
-th 28
-North
-D

Thursday
-th 29
-NE NW West South
-Very little Surf

Friday
-th 30
-ESE SE
-D

Saturday
-st 31
-ESE SSE
-D

June
Sunday
-st
1
-West SSW SW
-D
-36 Fish
No Salt Provisions Issued

Monday
-2
-North
NNW
West
-D

[Page 149]

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of ye Weather &c -

Moderate breezes & pleasant weather, people employed burning up the rubbish of ye N.E. side of the hill 2 Men levelling the Ground, to erect the surgeons house on - Carpenter & Sawyers employed as before

Fresh breezes & Cloudy with two very heavy Squalls of Wind & rain from ye West. The People employed as Yesterday - during the night strong Gales of Wind

Moderate breezes & pleasant weather, people employed as before - Carpenter Framed ye Surgeon & Mates house -

D Wr finished the Crab brought the boat down from the middle beach & hove her up. the people employed as before. In ye night had hard rain, opned a Cask Pork

D Wr at day light sent the boat without the reef to fish at Vz past eight she returned with 36 very fine fish at 11. performed divine service at 2 in ye afternoon I went out in the boat & went round Nepeans Isle on ye S.W. side of which is a very fine sandy bay but the surf was too high to land on it, which I imagine may be done in fine weather & a N.E. wind, the Ground appears very fine & free from underwood, there is a very good passage between Nepeans Isle & Point Hunter. I sounded close to the Island & found 10 fathom Returned at sunsett -

D Wr people employed as before & as follows. 5 men burning up the rubbish which was collected on the NE side of ye hill. ye rest of the people employed as before sent out 2 Sugar canes & an assortment of every kind of seeds to ye Plantation to be sowed there which was done. Sawyers have sawed since the 17th 1479 feet of boarding.

[Page 150]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Seeds Sown
-Observations &c

June 1788 Tuesday
-rd
3
-NNW North
-No Surf at all-
-
-As I am provided with only 5 months bread & flour & having only 3 Cask of each left, which is 2 months provisions at whole allowance & ye rest of the provisions being for 6 months. I this day put every person in the settlement to an allowance of 2/3 of each article; letting ye Women remain at their original allowance of 2/3

Wednesday
-th
4
-NW
-D

Thursday
-th
5
-WNW
-D
-Served Vz allowance of Pork
1 Peck of Wheat

Friday
-th 6
-W.S.W. S.W.
-A
great Surf

Saturday
-th
7
-South SSE
-D
-2 Pecks of Wheat -
-(

Sunday
-th 8
-SE
East.
-D

[Page 151]

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of the Weather &c.

Very pleasant serene weather the people all employed as before 12 plantane suckers were transplanted from ye rivulet into the plantation I also sent there the bannana trees, as well as the lime trees, which I brought with me - not doubting but they will thrive - opned a Cask of bread & one of flour

Fresh Gales & Cloudy, began breaking up part of the Ground on the NE side of the hill to sow wheat. At sunrise hoisted ye Colours, in observance of the Anniversary of His Majesties Birth Day & gave each of the people some liquor to drink His Majesties health & at their request excused them from any work in the Afternoon

Strong Gales & Cloudy - Sowed about a rood of ground on ye N.E. side of the hill with wheat & began turning up another patch. In ye Morning sent the boat just without ye Reef to fish - she returned with 30

D Wr with heavy Squalls of wind & rain, people employed as before sent a part of the stock to the plantation

Fresh Gales & Cloudy. Employed as before in the Afternoon sowed a rood of ground with 2 pecks of Wheat as I have great reason to suppose that the seed is bad 1 Man lame

D Wr at 11 in the Morning performed divine service In the Afternoon Squally with rain -

[Page 152]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Seeds sown
-Seeds up

June 1788 Monday
-th 9
-East
ENE
-A
great Surf
-one
Gallon of Wheat

Tuesday
-th 10
-D
-landing very go6d
-3 Peck of Wheat
-Most of the seeds which were sow'd at ye Plan" are out of the ground

Wednesday
-th 11
-DC-
-D

Thursday
-12
-East
-D
-IPeck of Wheat

Friday
-th 13
-D
-DC-
-1 peck of Wheat

Saturday
-th 14
-D
-
-Vz a peck of Wheat.

Sunday
-th 15
-But
little Surf
&the landing very good.
-

[Page 153]

Transactions on Norfolk Island, state of the Weather &c.

Fresh Gales & Cloudy Weather, people employed burning off & sowing ye Cleared Ground on the NE side of the hill - Sawyers sawing boards & the Carpenter building a house for the Mate & Surgeon. 2 Men Sick -

Strong Gales & dark Cloudy Weather. People employed turning up & sowing the ground on the NE side of the Hill, the Weather is cold & Bleak. 2 Men sick -

D Wr people employed as Yesterday one man lame

D Wr People as before, in the Evening more Moderate 1 Man lame.

D Wr Squalls as Yesterday, people employed as before in the Afternoon more moderate, with pleasant weather at 4 P.M. sent the boat without the reef to fish at 5 she returned with only 6 - hove the boat up. 1 Man lame Carpenter sick -

Moderate & Cloudy people employed as before 1 Man lame & the Carpenter sick -

Moderate breezes & very pleasant Weather, at daylight sent the boat with the Mate & 4 Men without the reef to fish, at 9 made the signal for them to return. In passing the point of the reef, the fineness of the Weather & there being little or no surf, threw them so much off their guard, that the boat ship'd a sea, which filled her & wash'd Jn Batchelor Mar[ine] overboard, who was drowned, the boat with the rest of the people drove in among the rocks to the Westward of the landS place, where they were with great difficulty saved having received violent contusions, got the boat round to the land & hove her up, found her much damaged, having 5 planks fore & aft on each side stove in lost ye killock & 20 feet of Rope, 3 fishing lines hooks &c. 1 hand line 2 lines & the Rudder

[Page 154]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Seeds sown
-Seeds up
-Observations &c

June 1788. Monday
-16
-E.S.E.
-But
little Surf Landing very good -
-

Tuesday
-th 17
-N.E.
-D
-Two Quarts of Wheat

Wednesday
-th 18
-D
-scarce
any Surf
-

Thursday
-th
19
-D
-D
-

Friday
-th 20
-North West WSW
-D
-IPeck of Barley

Saturday
I
-st 21
-S.W.
-No Landing
-Via peck of Barley

Sunday
-nd 22

-South
-A very great surf
-

Monday
-rd 23
-SSW
-D
-

[Page 155]

Transactions on Norfolk Island, state of the Weather &c.

Moderate Breezes in the night very hard rain, in the Morning pleasant weather 4 Men Turning the ground up on ye NE side of the hill. Sawyer & one Man who were in the boat unable to work 1 Man lame.

Little wind & pleasant weather, people employed as before. P.M. got a piece of Timber on the pit, to saw into planks to repair the boat with. Sawyers have sawed since yelst 877 feet of Boards &c - 1 Man lame.

Fresh Gales & Cloudy Weather. People all employed as before 1 Man lame.

D Wr with very heavy rain. No work done

Fresh breezes & Clear. In ye Afternoon hard rain, people employed as before finishing turning up ye ground on the NE Side of the hill

Excessive Strong Gales of wind, accompanied with very heavy Gusts & torrents of Rain during the whole night. A.M. ye Corpse of Jn Batchelor Marine, who was drowned on the 15th, floated & came onshore put the Corpse into a Shell & interred it near the Flagstaff. Finished turning up the cleared Ground ground* on the NE. side of the hill & sowed it with Barley. 1 Man lame. Sawyer sick *Sic

Strong Gales & Squalls of rain at 11 A.M. performed divine service Sawyer sick & one Man lame.

D Wr 4 Men employed turning up my garden ground on the S.E. side of the hill. 1 Man repairing the boat Sawyer sick & one Man lame.

[Page 156]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Seeds sown
-Seeds up
-Observations &c

June 1788 Tuesday
-th 24
-NE
-A very great Surf
-

WednesY
-th 25
-SW.
-D
-

Thursday
-th 26
-S.W.
-D
-

Friday
-th 27
-S.W. South.
-Less Surf
-

Saturday
-th 28
-South
-D
-

Sunday
-th
29
-SW
S.S.E.
-A
great Surf
-9 grains of Indian corn at the Plantn

Monday
-th 30
-East
-D
-

July
Tuesday
-st 1
-D
-D
-

Wednesday
-nd
2
-ENE
North
-Little
Surf-
-

[Page 157]

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of ye Weather Sec-

Moderate with frequent showers of very heavy rain, in the intervals people employed as before Sawyer sick & one man lame

In the night very heavy gales with torrents of rain during the day fresh Gales & Cloudy Sawyer sick & one man lame -

In the night had very heavy Squalls of wind, with hail, Thunder & lightning, during the day had fresh Gales & Squalls of rain 4 Men employed clearing away Garden ground, the rest of the people employed as before Sawyer & 2 Women sick & 1 Man lame

The same weather as last night during the day fresh Gales towards Evening more moderate. People all employed as before - & ye Sick as YesterY

Moderate Gales & Cloudy Weather, the people employed as before. Sawyer & 2 Women sick & 1 Man lame

Fresh Gales & Cloudy at 1 1 A.M. performed divine service, the \Veather during the last Iveek has been very raw & cold -

D Wr 5 Men Employed clearing away garden ground on the side of the Hill, 1 Man repairing ye boat Sawyers & Carpenters as before 2 Women sick

Strong Gales & very Gloomy Weather. People as before.

Very heavy Squalls of wind & rain during the night & fore part of the day. In ye Afternoon people empd as before -

[Page 158]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf

-Seeds sown
-Seeds up
-Observations &c

July 1788 Thursday
-rd 3
-North
-Little Surf
-
-\

Friday
-th
4
-Van able
-No surf
-

Saturday
-th 5
-D
-D
-The mdian corn which was sown on ye 29 tn is come up. I mean this for a trial only
-Wheat which was Transplanted this day was reaped Decr llth& yielded 3 quarts

Sunday
-th 6
-NW West
-D
-

Monday
-th
7
-S.W.
-D
-4V2 Peck of Barley Turnips & Carrots in the Lower Garden -
-Barley Reaped Novr 23rd

Tuesday
-th 8
-S.S.W.
-More Surf
-

Wednesday
-th 9
-S.W.
West
-Scarce any Surf.
-

Thursday
-th 10
-S.W.
-D
-

[Page 159]

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of the Weather &c.

Fresh Gales & gloomy rainy weather, but very little work done on account of the great rains -

Strong Gales & heavy rain no work done to day

Squally weather with constant heavy rain. I this day transplanted all the wheat that is come up. (viz 260 blades) into a piece of Ground by itself to reserve it for seed - The Man who was repairing the boat taken ill -

Very heavy ram all night. In ye Morning fresh Gales with heavy Squalls of wind & rain at 1 1 A.M. performed Divine Service
Squally Weather with passing showers of ram during the night & very fierce distant Lightning from S.E. to S. Sawyers as before 3 Men turning up my Garden Ground & 3 Men sowing barley in the lower Garden & on the N E. side of the Hill where the Wheat was sown one Man sick -

Fresh breezes & pleasant Weather, people all empd as before

Moderate with passing Showers of very heavy rain, finished turning up the Garden ground the size of which is [blank space]Carpenters & Sawyers as before

D Wr with very heavy ram. In the Afternoon fair weather people employed raising a close fence of Timber round the Lower part of my Garden to break the force of the South & S.W. Winds

[Page 160]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Seeds sown
-Seeds up
-Observations &c

July 1788 Friday
-11
-SW South S.S.E.
-Scarce
any Surf.
-

Saturday
-12
-SE.
-D
-

Sunday
-th
13
-East
-D
-

Monday
-14
-NE
-D
-
-The Barley & turnips which were sown on the 8th coming up very thick

Tuesday
-th 15
-NE
-D
-

Wednesday
-th 16
-D
-A great Surf
-

Thursday
-th 17
-North.
-Less Surf
-
-Carrots English Seed which were sown on the 8th in ye old Garden ground -

Friday
-18
-NW
-D

[Page 161]

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of the Weather &c.

Moderate Weather at 8 in the Morning had a very heavy Squall of Wind & Rain, after which had very pleasant Weather. People as before 1 Man sick

Moderate breezes & pleasant Weather. People empd railing in the new Garden Ground, this day the Officers house was finished - 2 Men sick -

D & very pleasant Weather at 11 A.M. performed divine Service

Moderate breezes & pleasant weather. People employed fencing in the Garden. Carpenter & Sawyer, sawing up Wood to erect another house for the People -

Fresh Gales & Cloudy. People employed as before Op'ned the last Cask of Beef & the last of the Pork which will last 44 days longer at full allowance Therefore I intend putting myself, Officers, & people to Va allowance on the 28th of this Month in case no supply of Provisions arrive here" before that time.

Strong Gales with constant heavy rain & thick Weather, the People unemployed on account of the Weather

Very heavy Gusts of Wind during the night & all the day with constant heavy rain - Several trees were blown down. This Gale of Wind is the most severe which we have felt here, as it blows a perfect hurricane at 4 P.M. the wind veered to North & Moderated

Strong Gales & constant heavy rain. The people have done very little Work these three days past on account of the very heavy rains -

[Page 162]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Seeds sown
-Seeds up
-Observations &c

July 1788 Saturday
-th 19
-SW
-Good Landing
-Turnips in the new Garden Ground.

Sunday
-th 20
-W.S.W.
-D

Monday
-st 21
-South
-A
very great Surf
-Turnips ......... gathd in Octr Carrots Lettices's of 3 sorts ......... D leeks Parsley ......... Septr Celery Cabbage 5 sorts ..... Octr Corn & Sallad Purslain. Artechoks Fennel, Bazil

Tuesday
-22
-NNE
-A
little Surf
-2 Quarts of the Never came up Provision Pease P/2 Peck of Barley

WednesY
-23
-WNW
-Scarce any Surf
-Planted 500 Cabbage plants from the Plantation in the New Garden & mountain spinnage

ThursdY
-24
-D
-D
-Planted 200 Cabbage plants & 200 lettice plants. Sowed Beet seed Turnips

Friday
-25
-DC-
-A very great Surf
-

[Page 163]

Transactions on Norfolk Island & state of the Weather

Fresh Gales & Clear with flying showers. 3 Men fencing in the Garden 3 Turning up Ground to sow Barley 'in & 1 Man repairing the boat -

Moderate Gales & very pleasant Weather, at 1 1 A.M. performed divine Service -

D Wr with a few Squalls of Rain in the Morning 3 Men Employ'd turning up Ground to sow Barley 3 Men fencing in the New Garden ground 1 Man repairing the Boat & Women burning the rubbish turn'd up & sow'd a part of the Garden with the Seeds as per Column Sa[w]yers & Carpenter as before

D Wr sow'd I'/a Peck of Barley next the old Garden in the afternoon every Person Empd getting the Butt of a Pine on the saw pit ye greatest part of which is to be saw'd into 3 Inch Plank for Port Jackson, turn'd up a part & sow'd a patch of the New Garden ground with Pease. 1 Man repairing the Boat

D Wr at Noon came on a very heavy Squall of Rain 4 Men Empd clearing away the Ground behind my House to sow Barley & two Men making a fence round the new Garden

Fresh Gales & Clear Wr with two very heavy Squalls of Wind & Rain 4 Men turning up the Ground behind my house to sow Barley & 2 Men making a fence round the New Garden

Strong Gales & passing Squalls of very heavy Rain People empd as Yesterday

[Page 164]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Seeds Sown
-Seeds up
-Observations on Seeds

July 1788 Saturday
-th
26
-WSW
-A
very great Surf
-l>/2
peck of Barley
-Cabbage Plants appearing

Sunday
-th 27
-SW
-less Surf landing not good
-
-Barley coming up which was sowed the 22

Monday
-th 28
-SSW
-D
at Noon very good landing
-

Tuesday
-29
-SSE
-But little Surf
-

WednesY
-th
30
-SSE
ESE
-Scarce any Surf

[Page 165]

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of the Weather

Strong Gales & Cloudy Wr sow'd the Ground behind my House with Barley at 1A pt 5 in the afternoon His Majesteys arm'd Tender Supply hove in sight coming round Point Ross. She pass'd between Phillips Use & Nepeans. I imagine she is gone to Leeward of the Island to ride the Gale out

D Wr & very Squally at 11 AM perform 'd Divine Service at 3 P.M. Messrs Waterhouse & Parker arriv'd here with my Dispatches from His Excellency the Governor they having landed in Balls Bay

D Wr at Day light the Midshipmen returnd to Balls Bay to go on bd the Supply & Mr Cunningham with them People empd removing some large stones from the landing place & making a rolling way for the Casks Sawyers Sawing boards for Port Jackson

Moderate & pleasant Weather People Empd clearing & fixing my Cellar for the Receipt of the Provisions serv'd full Allowance of Bread & Flower, at 8 am Messrs Cunningham & Waterhouse returnd from on bd the Supply with a message from Lieut Ball that, as the Wind remain 'd South^Y he meant to anchor under the NE part of the Island

Modt Breezes & squally 2 Men turning up ground to sow grain, Sawyers sawing up plank for Port Jackson in the afternoon the Boat was finished. I sent a man over the Island to find out the Supply with a letter

[Page 166]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-Landing
&c
-Seeds
sown
-Seeds up
-Observations &c

Thursday
-st 31
-South
-Scarce any Surf
-The Rats having destroyd all the Peas which were sown the [blank space]sow'd more putting them much deeper in the ground

August Friday
-st
1
-SSE
-A
great Surf
-

Saturday
-2
-SW
-Bad
landing
-

Sunday
-3
-South
SSE
NNE
-very good landing
-At noon of this day the Man whom I sent to find the Supply out returned much exhausted & fatigued having lost himself & had nothing to eat for two days.

Monday
-th
4
-NE
-D
-

[Page 167]

Transactions &c on Norfolk Island

Fresh Gales & very squally at Vz past 11 the Supplys boat arriv'd here with a boar & sow & some other light articles, in her came the Carpenter to offer his assistance to build a convenient boat for this place which I accepted he began work immediately at Va past 12 the Supplys boat return'd to go on board the Supply being at anchor off the Cascade

Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr the Carpenter of the Supply & his servant with a Man to assist him & Sawyers sawing up plank Empd building a boat of the Coble kind 15 feet in length & 5 in breadth, two Men Empd turning up ground to sow Wheat I shall get from the Supply

Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr Carpenter of the Supply Sec empd as before. People empd hedging round a patch of Barley

Little Wind & Cloudy Wr at 8 am saw the Supply under weigh at about 3 miles Distance working to the Stnward but having little wind & a whole tide against her she will loose ground the Supply remain'd shut in with Nepeans Isle the remainder of the Day.

Light rain & Cloudy Wr the Carpenters &c & Sawyers Emp" about the Coble at Sunsett the Supply came round point Ross and Anchord in the Bay made a large fire on the shore

[Page 168]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Seeds sown
-Seeds up
-Observations &c

August Tuesday
-5
-NE
-landing not prudent
Good landing
-

WednesY
-6
-WSW
-At daylight landing good but the tide flowing at Vz p1-7 made a great Surf till l.PM after which had very good landing

[Page 169]

169

Transactions &c on Norfolk Island

Fresh Gales & Cloudy with heavy Rain at 8 A.M. made the Sigl to the Supply that her boats could not land, at 2 P.M. made the Sig1 that Boats could land launch'd the Jolly boat & sent her off recd part of the provisions & stores from the Supply The Carpenter return'd on board pr order of Lieut Ball to stock an Anchor hove the1 boat aft

At Day light Fresh Gales & Squally, hoisted the Coulours being the Sigl that a boat might land at 7AM hoisted the Colours half staff being the Sig' that landing was dangerous the Surf having considerably increas'd with the flowing tide at Vz p 7 the Supply weig'd, & soon after hove too & hoisted her boats out haul'd down the Sig^ that landing was dangerous, & on the boats approaching the shore hoisted to Sigl again, that landing was dangerous. Fearing that if that boat persisted in coming in some accident might happen to her (as the Surf ran very high) I launch'd our boat & sent her with the Mate & four Men giving him positive orders not to go without the smooth water under the point of the Reef in order to be afloat & ready to give assistance to the Supplys boat in case of any accident our boat being swept to the W'ward by the tide & in endeavouring to get under the point of the Reef again, she was imprudently left broad side in a heavy surf which gave a very sufficient

[Page 170]

170

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Seeds sown
-Seeds up
-Observations &c

August WednesY
-6
-
-
-

Thursday
-th
7
-SW
SSW SE
-landing good
-
-
-punish 'd Chas M'lennan with 3 Dozn lashes for stealing Eggs

Friday
-th
8
-SE
-Not good landing
-
-
-The Carpenter of the Supply, return'd on shore, to finish the Coble if posslble before the Supplys departure from hence

[Page 171]

171

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of Weather &c.

Warning; Unfortunatly it broke into the boat & oversett her, the Mate & Wm Westbrook Sawyer - Tomlinson Seaman belonging to the Supply & Wm Williams Convict were drown'd & one man sav'd with great difficulty, the boat drove out to sea & was lost - about 10 Minutes after the Supplys Jolly Boat landed safely, with 3 Casks of Flour & one of Rum - another of the Supplys boats were coming on shore observing she did not see the Sigl, fir'd musquets &c on which she return'd on board. Soon after the Supply bore up, & ran to leeward of the Island at 1 P.M. there being much less surf, the Supplys boat went off very safely & ran to leeward of the Island to get on board her

Fresh Breezes & Cloudy People Empd clearing away the ground behind the store house to sow the wheat in which is on board the Supply

Moderate Breezes & pleasant Wr at Day light the Supply standing into the Road, made ye Sig' that Anchoring was good Vz past 7 the Supply came too & sent her boats with provision & Stores, after the boats return made ye Sig' that Landing was dangerous with the Flowing tide at 4 P.M. made the Sig^ for Landing & reced more provisions, at Sunsett the Supply weighed.

[Page 172]

172

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-Landg &Surf
-Seeds sown
-Seeds up
-Observations &c

August 1788 Saturday
-th
9
-E.S.E.
E.N.E.
East
-In the Morning good landing.
-

Sunday
-10
-N.E.
-Good landing
-

Monday
-th 11
-D
-D
-Beans of diff1 sorts. 2 kinds of Pease 60 Gotten Seeds. Strasburg ) Deptford ) onions W Spanish )

-
-C'tait bien singulier que je n'ai t honor d'une visite de Mons. Bail ni aucun de ses officiers depuis que la corvette est ici. Je crois q'ils ont peur d'attrapper quelque mal epidemique.*
(It is very singular that I hve not been honoured with a visit from Mr Bail nor any of his officers since th ship has been hre. I believe that they are afraid of contracting some bad pidmie.)

[Page 173]

173

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of Weather &c

Moderate Breezes with dark cloudy Weather at Day light the Supply standing into the Road, made ye Sig that landing was good received two turns of Provisions & Stores, at Sunsett the Supply weighed & stood out to the Southward -

D with very pleasant Weather, at Day light the Supply standing into the Road, made the Signal that Landing was good. Reced the last of our Provisions & Stores, all landed in perfect safety. The Supply stood over towards Phillips Isle & at 2 in the aftn, anchored in Sydney Bay at Sunsett she weighed & stood to the Southward.

Strong Gales during the night, at 9 A.M. saw the Supply a great distance to the S.E. at 9 she came into ye Road, made ye Signal that landing was good, at Vz past the Jolly boat landed, Sent off the Carpr & My good friend Harry Waterhouse. with my dispatches for his ExcellY the Governor, the Supply hoisted her boats in, & made sail for Port Jackson. People employed turning up ground to sow Wheat on.

[Page 174]

174

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Seeds sown
-Seeds up
-Observations &c

August 1788 Tuesday
-th 12
-N.N.E N.W. W.N.W.
-Scarce any
Surf
-Deptford ) Strasburg ) onions W.Spanish ) Cress & Mustard.
1 Peck of Wheat

WedY
-th 13
-WSW
-D
-3 Kind of Beans. Round & prickly Spinach with Salmon Lettuce.

Thursday
-14
-D
-good landing till flowing tide then a very high Surf.
-Short top Raddish
Spinach
Beans.

[Page 175]

175

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of ye Wr &c.

Very Strong Gales of Wind during the night with very heavy rain. In the Morning & Course of the day had fresh Gales & Squalley, at Sunrise hoisted the colours in observance of the anniversary of the Birth day of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. Sowed 1/2 Rood of Ground with Cape Wheat received from Port Jackson by His Majs Armed Tender Supply.

Moderate Gales & very pleasant Weather. Every person employed Clearing away Ground to sow ye remainder of the Wheat in, Reced by the Supply. In the evening the Corpse of Jn Williams floated & came onshore, put it into a Coffin & interred it.

Fresh Gales with frequent Squalls of very heavy rains. People employed clearing away Ground to sow Wheat on, on the SW. Side of the Hill - I much fear that the other 3 Corpses are gone to sea by which means I shall be deprived of the satisfaction of rendring the last Christian Offices to the Deceased.

[Page 177]

[Written across double page]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &c
-Seeds sown
-Seeds up
-Observations &c

August 1788 Friday
-th 15
-SW S.S.W.
-Good Landing.

Saturday
-th 16
-West
-Not the
least Surf.

Sunday
-th 17
-WSW.
-A very great Surf.

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of Weather & c.

Fresh Gales & Cloudy The air sharp & rather cold. People employed turning up a piece of Ground to sow the remainder of the Wheat in received by the Supply.

Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather. Sowed 1 & Vz Rood of Ground with Wheat received by the Supply - Opened a Cask of Beef & one of Flour, the latter of which had a large Rats nest in it & several dead young ones. This Cask came by the Supply & wanted 50 lbs of the weight -

Strong Gales of Wind & very heavy rain during the night, with very fierce Gusts of Wind, which continued all day at 11 A.M. performed divine Service -

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of the Weather &c.
August 1788 Moderate Breezes & pleasant Weather the people employed Clearing Monday 18 away % of an acre of ground at the Plantation to sow Indian Corn Winds SSE in. At daylight I sett of with Mr Morley & 2 Men to examine Balls Bay, & the Rock to the Westward of the Cascade, (recommended as a good landing place by Lieutt Ball) I left orders with the Surgeon to keep the people employed clearing away the Ground &c. After climbing & descending a number of Steep hills & some extensive flatts, we arrived at a Gully to the Wtward of Balls Bay, at 11 o'clock from thence we walked round to it by the Sea Shore The Bay is large & Deep & the beach is covered with a large loose Stone which runs out (as near as my situation on shore would permit me to judge of it) about one hundred Yards below low water

[Page 179]

[Written across double page]

mark & nearly on a flatt when it goes off very steep, There is very little surf at present as the Wind is right off the land, & what little there is, breaks on the beach or Stones, The only practicability of making a good landing place here is, running a pier out, which is a work that will demand a number of hands & some person conversant in an undertaking of that kind, Stones are ready & of an excellent kind, I should suppose forty Men might make a very lasting pier in six Months; where boats might land with the greatest ease, & from Whence Masts &c might be sent off & Ships of the Line launched from it if ye pier is made of a sufficient breadth. Within the Stony beach is a flatt of about 20 Yards to the ascent of the hills which are very Steep a very fine run of Water empties itself on the beach which is supplied by a small Cascade, which cascade is also supplied by a very fine Rivulet of Water which is deep & runs over a pleasant level ground on the top of the Hill, which is very difficult of access, but a good winding road may be made to it. I dined pitched our tent & lay there, this night. There has been scarce any Surf, but a boat would be much injured in landing on those Stones.
Very pleasant & fine Weather, at 5 in the Morning there

[Page 181]

[Written across double page]

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of the Weather &c.
parts of the Island difficult we therefore kept along ye sides of the Clifts nearest the Sea, where we found our way extreemly difficult & perplexing from the entangled state of the Woods which are of an almost impenetrable thickness, which joined to the very Steep hills or rather Mountains which we had to ascend & decend rendered our journey very fatiguing, it was not till 4 oclock in the Afternoon that we arrived at the rock, I cannot see that it would answer any other purpose than that of clearing a Vessell of any thing she might have to get onshore, With every posslble exertion or contrivance I think they must remain there; as the Shore from the inner part of the rock to a Stony beach to the Eastd of it (& which is at the End of the Valley) is craggy & inaccessable. The Stony beach is quite open & of course a very heavy Surf rolls on it. The Valley is low & ye hills on both sides are almost perpendicular getting any thing of the Timber Kind off from hence is quite out of the Question. I went up to the Cascade which is beautifull but at the same time tremenduous we had to ascend some perpendicular rocks by going from the branches of one tree to another, when arrived at the Summit, we found a very pleasant levell piece of Ground watered by the Rivulet, which supplies the Cascade & which is large & deep -
Wednesday 20th Winds West
At day light sett off on our return to Sydney Bay where we arrived in four hours. I returned thro' the Center of the Island, which we in general found level. The Three first hills which we passed after

[Page 183]

[Written across double page]

leaving the Cascade are all surrounded by the same rivulet which waters the Cascade & would be a very Good situation for Cultivation. The Island is every where wooded the same & the Soil rich & fertile I do not think that there is 3 acres of unprofitable ground on the whole Island, When the Ground is turned up for sowing a part of the India Corn in, I intend sending every person to clear a way thro' the Stones on the beach in Balls Bay which I have marked out it is to be 10 Yards broad & to be cleared away as far as posslble below the low Water mark, which is the only effort I can make towards rendring landing practicable in this Bay, which is very much to be desired.

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing & Surf
-Observations &c

Thursday
-st 21
-NNW g.l
-
-The Wheat which I received by the Supply is coming up I have sown a great number of the different English seeds received by the Supply, but none of them are stirring.

Friday
-nd 22
-North g.l

Saturday
-rd 23
-NW

Sunday
-th 24
-WSW S.S.E.
-
-very good landing till noon then a very heavy Surf -

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of the Weather &c -

Moderate Breezes & Cloudy The people employed Turning up Ground for sowing Indian Corn on & Rice. Carpr & Sawyers Sawing Plank for roofing their house with

D Wr People all employed as YesterY

Fresh Gales & very heavy Weather afternoon had heavy rains People as before.

Mod & Cloudy at 1 1 AM performed divine Service -

[Page 185]

[Written across double page]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

August 1788 Monday
-th 25
-SSW SE
-A very heavy Surf without & a great Surf along the Reef.

Tuesday
-th 26
-D East
-An Exceeding high Surf and A very great Sea without

Wednesday
-th 27
-East
-D

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of Wea'

Strong Gales of Wind but clear Weather, with some showers of rain at day light sent away the Surgeon Mr Morley & 6 People to Balls Bay, to endeavour to make a landing place, which I have marked out they arrived there at Vz past eight & soon after began work - They carried four Tents. & a Weeks provisions for each man.

D Wr The Carpenter employed building a house for himself, & one Man with the Women & Boy burning up some rubbish at the Plantation, sowed a number of Grains of Indian corn there, as also some pease & transplanted a number of Cabbages $cc.

D Wr the People here employed as before, I this day at day light went to Balls Bay, where a very good commencement had been made, but they have been much retarded on account of the Neap tides, & the Wind being Easterly which throws a great Surf into the Bay which has made landing here imposslble. I find the present undertaking will be too laborious for the few hands I have here I therefore mean to clear away as far as posslble till the Spring tides when I shall be the better able to judge of the practicability of its succeeding.

[Page 187]

[Written across double page]

Week days
-Mo Days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c.

August 1788 Thursday
-th 28
-ENE.
-Scarce any Surf

Friday
-th 29
-N.E.
-D

Saturday
-th 30
-N.N.W.
-D

Sunday
-st 31
-NW
-D

Monday
-st 1
-SSE
-Very bad
landing in Sydney Bay

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of Weather &c.

Moderate breezes & pleasant Weather, Sowed some Indian Corn, Pease, & one Peck of oats with a quantity of beans.

D Wr there has been less Surf here to day than I have ever observed here.

D & very Serene pleasant Weather At 4 P.M. the People returned from Balls Bay. Scarce any Surf at all, along the Reef, Spars or any other thing might be sent off with the greatest ease, which has been the case these three days past. 2 Men lamed.

Very Serene & pleasant Weather, at 11 A.M. performed divine Service.

Fresh breezes & rainy Weather during the night, at Day light sett off with Mr Morley & four men to see what further could be done in Balls Bay arrived there at l/2 past eight, found the tides of Yesterday had thrown in a great quantity of middling Sized Stones into the Cut which had been made. As the tide ebbed, I employed the people in clearing away a number of large Stones which lay in the Cut, & at low water removed all the Stones as far out as posslble this I finished at 5 in the evening. The Cut is about 3 feet deep & at half tide

[Page 189]

[Written across double page]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations & c

September 17. Monday
-88
st 1
-South
-Very little Surf in Balls Bay.

Tuesday
-nd
2
-N.W.
-Good landing some part of the day.
-A Turtle came on the beach - but it soon went off again without being disturbed

Wednesday
-rd 3
-NE.
-An increasing Surf
-The Turtle staid 2 or 3 hours on the beach to day

Thursday
-th
4
-East
-A
very great Surf
-The Turtle which we turned to day had his back pierced thro' as if done by a peg.

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of Wr &c

there is upward of six feet water at the Entrance, With any other Wind than between SW & NW There is a Surf on the beach which sometimes breaks with so much violence as to render landing dangerous independ-ant of the damage a boat would receive by beaching. Spars might be sent off from hence with great ease I think (with some trouble) a convenient Situation might be made here for launching Vessells of any Burthen, but it will be necessary to clear away a rolling place on the Side of one of the amazing steep hills with which this Bay is Surrounded. As I find nothing more can be done here with the few men that I have, I intend returning to Morrow.

Fresh breezes & Cloudy Weather at Vi past 10 returned to Sydney Bay with the People leaving four Tents pitched in Balls Bay.

Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather, People employed assisting each other in getting their gardens cleared & Turned up Carpenter employed building his ho'use. 2 Men lame

Moderate & Clear with very pleasant Weather, People employed as before - one Man Sick & one Lame. As I have only observed one Turtle on the Beach 8c not imagining there are more in the Bay, I sent hands & turned it, brought it to the Settlement -

[Page 191]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

September Friday
-1788. th 5
-E.N.E.

-good Landing.

Saturday
-th 6
-North
-Scarce any Surf.
-Killed the Turtle & served a part of it, in lieu of Beef

Sunday
-th
7
-N.E.
-D
-No Salt Provisions issued Served Turtle.

Monday
-th 8
-D
-D
-The Indian Corn sown on the 26th is all come up

Tuesday
-th 9
-D SW.
-D
-Transplanted a Number of Cabbages &c Served half allce of Beef.

Wednesday
-th 10
-D
-A very heavy Surf

Thursday
-th 11
-SSW
-No Landing.

Friday
-th
12
-South
-Very good Landing
-Sent Mr Morley to Balls Bay to look at the landing there who reports it to be very good, & ye place cleard away, in much the same Situation as when left. I find a Number of plantanes damaged in my Garden by ye East Sea Winds NotwithstandS it is so well sheltred by a plaine

[Page 192]

Saturday
-th 13
-East
-D

Transactions &c on Norfolk Island. State of Wr &c.

Moderate & Clear with very pleasant Weather. The People employed turning up, & Clearing away each others Garden Ground. Carpenter building his house.

D Wr The people all employed as before, one Man sick, & one Man lame.

Fresh Breezes & dark Gloomy Weather at 11 A.M. performed Divine Service, during the night strong Gales & hard rain. 1 Man lame.

Fresh Gales & heavy Gloomy Weather with constant rain - No work done to day. 1 Man lame.

D & very hazey. The People employed as before Carpenter Sick.

Fresh breezes & Cloudy Weather. People employed Clearing away & Turning up the Ground for the Surgeons Garden - 1 Man Lame.

Fresh Gales & Cloudy Weather, in the Evening the People finished turning up the Surgeons Garden Ground Carpenter Sick.

D Wr People employed turning up & making Gardens for each other. Carpenter & one Man sawing up boarding for their house &c.

Moderate Weather with flying Showers of rain People all employed as before.

[Page 193]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

Sunday
-th 14
-D
-D

Monday
-th 15
-East
-D
-I this day at 6 o'clock in ye Morning went with Mr Morley along ye sea coast to ye Western point of ye Island, found ye coast all along inaccesslble & the woods in much more entangled state than in any other part of ye Island Return'd at sun sett - 3 Turtle on the beach -

TuesdY
-th 16
-NE
-D
-Opened a Cask of flower One turtle on the beach

WednesdY
-th 17
-NNW
-D
-During those last six days there has been scarce any Surf at all

ThursdY
-th 18
-SE
-Surf increasing but very good Landing
-Sowed one peck of English barley receiv'd by the Supply, at the plantation Transplanted the few Blades of oats which came from that sown ye 28th Aug1.

[Page 194]

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c.

Fresh Breezes & Cloudy, with Showers of Rain, at 1 1 AM. performed divine Service
Moderate Breezes & very pleasant weather, People employ'd turning up ground for sowing Indian Corn on -

D Wr People turning up Ground for sowing Indian Corn which was finished & sowed in the Evening

D Wr People employ'd turning up another piece of ground to sow the remaining Oats on in the Evening, sowed a peck of oats very thick as few of them will grow, In the Evening hard rain - Carpenter finish'd his house.

Very heavy during the night, every person employ'd clearing away the timber & making an opening to the Water side - sowed the remaining part of the oats at the plantation in order to save as much of the seed as posslble -

[Page 195]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

Septr 1788
Friday
-th 19
-SSE South
-Scarce
any Surf

SaturdY
-th 20
-SSW South
-D

Sunday
-st 21
-SW
West
-D Surf increases as ye Wind becomes Westerly.

Monday
-nd 22
-SW
-Scarce
any Surf
-A Wale & Thresher were Close into ye back of ye reef for upwards of an hour fighting -

TuesdY
-rd 23
-SE
-A very heavy Surf less towards Evening

WednesdY
-th 24
-East
-good Landing

[Page 196]

Transactions on Norfolk Island, State of ye Wr &c

Moderate breezes, & very pleasant Wr The People employ'd clearing away the Timber & makeing a larger opening to the Water side -

D Wr People all employ'd as before & Carpenter making a Trough for the Grindstone

Little Wind & very pleasant Weather, at 11 AM perform 'd Divine Service. In the Evening Moderate Breezes & Cloudy Wr 1 Man ss

Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather People employ'd making a larger opening to the sea side. In the Evening had very quick distant lightening to the SE - 1 Man ss

During the night had very heavy Gusts of wind & severe hard rain - all the day Strong Gales. In the Evening much more Moderate. People Employ'd as before, 1 Man Sick

Moderate Gales & very pleasant Weather Finish'd clearing away to the Water Side -

[Page 197]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing & Surf
-Observations &c

Septr 1788
ThursdY
-th
25.
-East
-A very heavy Surf &a great Sea without

Fridy
-th 26
-East
-The Surf continues very high & a great Sea without
-The Barley is in most of the patches, shooting out the ear the difference
Observe between that sow'd in April & that sowed in June & July, is very triffling except that the first is stronger & has more Stalks -

SaturdY
-th
27
-ENE
NE NW
-Surf decreases but not good Landing

SundY
-th
28
-D
Calm
-Scarce any Surf

MondY
-th 29
-South SSE ESE
-D
-A very senslble attract" is found in the Weather as ye Days are more very hot tho' not Sultry The Evening and Morning are rather Cold -

[Page 198]

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Wr

D Wr Four Men employ'd Digging a Cellar under ye Surgeon House for the Reception of the Provisions, Expected by the Sirius, Carpenters have than Soling Plates &c for a Gravery & Mr Morley & co are then Making Shingles -

Moderate Gales & Clear Weather. 6 Hands employ'd digging out a Cellar under ye Surgeon House, Sawyers sawing plates for a Granary 2 Men making Shingles to Cover it with -

In the Morning Fresh Breezes & Clear at Noon & the latter part of the day, little Wind. In the afternoon the people finish'd the Cellar & Carpenters finished sawing the plates for the Granary - no Shingles

Little Wind with very pleasant Wr at 11 AM performed Divine Service In the Evening Gloomy Weather and very dark towards the S.W. -

D Wr & very pleasant Wr Carpentr & 1 man sawg flooring for ye Granary 4 Men employ'd Cutting posts & carring them to ye Ground where ye Granary is to be built 1 Man Makg Shingles - 400 - In ye Evening dark Gloomy Weather to the SE -

[Page 199]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c -

Septr 1788
TuesdY
-th 30
-East ESE
-good Landing

Octr
WednesdY
-st 1
-D
-D

ThursdY
-nd 2
-NNW NW WNW
-Good Landing on the ebb tide

FridY
-rd 3
-WSW SW
-D
-During the heavy rain which we had last night the Barley is much lodged -

[Page 200]

SaturdY
-th
4
-D SW S
-Very good Landing

SundY
-th 5
-SSW
-A
great Surf

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of Wr &c

Fresh Breezes & Clear Wr Carpenter as before 3 Men & the Women clearing away the Ground on the Side of the Hill to sow Grain on for next Year. 2 Men making Shingles.

Light winds People all employ 'd as before & one Man making an inclosure to keep the poultry in

Fresh Gales & dark Gloomy Wr Carpenter began framing the Granary, the rest of ye people employ'd as before - Very strong Gales & hard rain during the night

Fresh Gales & Cloudy, Towards the Evening Moderate Weather. People employ'd as before -

D Wr at 6 AM had a very heavy Squall of Wind & rain, people employ'd as before - at 6 P.M. & the remainder of the Evening very Squally Wr with rain -

Strong Gales & Cloudy Weather with some Squalls of Wind at 11 AM Performed Divine Service

[Page 201]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

MondY
-th
6
-ESE SE
East Variable
-D

r
TuesdY
-th
7
-Variable
North
-D
-The Weather as been Colder to day then I have yet felt it here - I this day discover 'd the Grubs had distroy'd a great Quantity of ye Indian (Corn at the Plantation) which is now near 8 Miles high, Employ 'd ye spare Lands in picking the Grubs out of ye holes & in the Evening water'd every Shoot & Sprinkled them with Wood Asshes, which is the only means with picking them off daily, that we know of rid ourselves of this distinctions. I saw a great Quantity of the Barley has been blown down by this Gale -

[Page 202]

WednesY
-th 8
-North
-Not the least Surf

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of the Wr

In the night wind Shifted to S.East & Moderate Breezes & Cloudy Wr The people Employ'd sinking the posts for the Granary to be directed on. In the Evening dark Gloomy Weather -

Variable Wr with thick Gloomy Clouds, In the Evening light rains -3 Men Cropping the Wheat & Clearing away on the SE side of the Hill & 2 Men assisting the Carpenter in erecting the Granary, one Man sick -

Very strong Gales of Wind with dark Cloudy Wr Sawyer erected the Granary, its dimensions are 17 Feet, by 12, & 7 Feet high began closing it, in with Cabbage Trees - 3 Men Clearing away the SE side of the Hill Women burning up the Tops of the Trees, 2 Cropping the Wheat & three Assisting the Carpenter. 1 Man so employ'd picking off Grubs from about the Indian Corn at the Plantation

[Page 203]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

Octr
1788
ThursdY
-th 9
-NNW
-D
-There has been as good Landing here as Posslble -

Friday
-th 10
-Variable Calm
NW
-D

SaturdY
-th 11
-Calm
Variable
-A
very high Surf
-The Surf has rose during the last night remark 'd high altho' there is much less wind which I think must be owing to the great Sea Occasion 'd by the late NW wind -

[Page 204]

204

SundY
-th 12
-West
-Scarce any Surf-
-

Transactions on Norfolk Island, State of the Wr

Very strong Gales of winds with heavy rain all the day long - One Man drawing down the Shingles for roofing the Granary, & the rest picking the Grubs from about the Indian Corn. In the Evening Moderate Weather -

Light Winds. 2 Men bringing a Cabbage Trees to erect the Granary with 4 Clearing away a peice of Swampy Ground to sow Rice on & the rest employ'd picking the Grubs, worms from amongst the India Corn - Carpenter Sick -

Light winds & very close Wr the air very heavy & much obscured with thick Mist. People all employ'd as Yesterday. Carpenter return'd to work building the Granary.

Moderate Breezes & Clear Serene pleasent Weather at 1 1 AM Performed Divine Service -

[Page 205]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

Octr 1788
MondY
-th 13
-SW
Variable
E.NE
-Very good Landing
-The Grub Worm has eat away upwards of 50 heads of the Indian Corn & where the Mischief will end I cannot tell. Notwithstanding 1 use every means to prevent their bad effects. The rats have also begun distroying the Barley half of which is lodged by the heavy rain , & late gale of Wind Sent off by every boat a quantity of planks Spars &c on Governments Accounts The Coble with 3 of the Convicts Empd discharging the Golden Grove

TuesdY
-th 14
-D
-D

[Page 206]

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Wr &c

Light Winds & very pleasant Weather at Daylight perceived the Golden Grove at Anchor in the Roads, hoisted the Colours. In the Course of the day receiv'd on Shore The party of Marines all the Convicts, (Except four left onboard to help discharge the Ship) and almost all the Stores, with some Provisions The Carpenter of the Golden Grove caulked our Cobles one Man ss

D Wr Receiv'd on shore 56 Casks of Flower and 18 Casks of Provisions beside a Quantity of other stores, one Man ss Turned a turtle of near 200 lb The Golden Grove's long boat Anchor'd close in to the back of the Reefs loaded with Provisions cleared her by the other boats

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

Octr
1788
WednesY
-th
15
-NW West SW
Variable
SE
-Not the least Surf The Whole Day

[Page 207]

-No Boat could reach the shore after the Flood began to make at 2 O 'Clock The wind Blowing strong & the tide running very rapid it being full Moon YestY. During the last 3 days a boat might have Landed in great Safety loaded to the Gunwale

ThursdY
-th 16
-ESE
-Very good Landing

[Page 208]

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Wr

Till Noon had very pleasant serene Wr after which had flying Squalls with rain at 2 The Wind came to SE & had a dirty appearence. During the Morning Receiv'd on shore [blank space] Casks of Provisions at l/2 past 2 the Coble returned with 4 more Casks, soon after which the Golden Grove losed her fore Topsail Sigl that she was going to lye on & off all night, Sawyers sawing Boards for Port Jackson 8 Men cutting spars for D & 6 Men Clearing away & Grubbing up Ground for sowing Seeds on

Fresh Gales & Cloudy, people Employ'd Cutting spars Sawing Boards & Clearing away ground for Port Jackson, Landing has been very good all day but the Flood tide running all the Morning & the Wind to the Estd has prevented ye Golden Grove from working up in ye Afternoon she fetched point Ross but the Eastwd Tide Making she was sweep to Leeward

[Page 209]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

Octr
1788-
Friday
-th 17
-ESE
-Landing posslble but not adviable

SaturdY
-th 18
-SE
Variable ESE
SSE
-Scarce any Surf
-Killed the Turtle & issued it to the People in lieu of to day, & a part of to morrows Salt provisions. 3 lb of Turtle for 1 lb of Beef

[Page 210]

Transactions on Norfolk Island, State of ye Wr

Moderate Gales & Cloudy. At Daylight the Golden Grove Standing into the Roads, at 7 she Anchored, The Surf was not so very bad as to apprehend any Accidents, but did not make the Sign' for Landing, at 3 in the Afternoon I sent off the Coble & the Surf encreasing made the Sigl for her to be hoisted in the Golden Grove weighed & stood off & on, The people employ'd Variously & Sawyers sawing up Plank for port Jackson

Light Winds & very Sincere pleasant Weather The Tide of Flood running strong & ye Golden Grove not being in sight Suppose she cannot work up, the wind being variable at 11 our Coble came on shore, &c at 2 The Golden Grove came into the road & Anchor'd sent ye Coble off & receiv'd on shore 18 Cask of Flower & 5 officers The other people Employ'd as before

[Page 211]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

Octr
1788
Sunday
-th 19
-NW
-but
little Surf
-

MondY
-th 20
-D West
TuesdY
-st 21
-Wt
-D
-

[Page 212]

Transactions on Norfolk Island, State of ye Wr

Moderate Breezes & clear Sincere Wr. Receiv'd on shore 63 Casks of flower & pease 2 Cask of seed Wheat &c. at 11 AM performed Divine Service 2 Men Sick

Strong Gales of Wind & Squally Wr with rain Empd Turning up Ground at the plantation in Arthurs Vale Receiving the Remainder of the provisions & stores from ye Golden grove & in good order & very safe, & the Boats unhurt NB 3 Hds of Rum not yet come, being oblidged to have it brought onshore in small casks.

Fresh Gales Sc Squally Wr. Made ye Signl twice during ye day that Landing was good, but there being a short sea, without & ye Golden grove sighting her Anchor as the occasion no boats came before 6 in ye Evening at 4 sent the Coble off with 3 Empty Cask ye Rum came in made ye Sign* to ye Golden grove to hoist her in & haul'd up ye Jolly boat as neither of them could get on shore or onbd before night reced one Quarter Cask of rum by the Jolly boat people Employ'd as Yesterday

[Page 213]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

Octr
1788
WednY
-nd
22
-SW
South
SSE
-Bad Landing till Evening then good Landing
-The Golden grove [sailed] at 10 P.M. & was not her own length to Windd of ye Rocks of ye SE part [of] Nepean Island in passing it

ThursdY
-rd
23
-SSE
ESE
-Landing good on ye Ebb-

[Page 214]

Transactions on Norfolk Island, State of ye Wr

During the Night had very strong Gales of wind with some very heavy Gusts at day light perceiv'd the G.. Grove had left the road, Imagine she is gone into Cascade Bay, Sawyers sawing for Port Jackson, 10 Men Clearing & turning up Ground in Arthurs Vale & the rest variously Hard Gales all the Day sent round to Balls Bay, where the Landing is as safe as posslble 3 Men sick

Fresh Gales & pleasant Wr people employ'd bringing Timber to ye pitt & others Grubbing up Trees & Clearing away Ground for sowing Indian Corn on sowed 1 rood of Indian Corn

[Page 215]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

Octr 1788
Friday
-th
24
-NE NW WNW
-Not the least break without the Reefs

-Reced by the Golden Grove Mr H. Donovan Mid a Serj Corporal & 6 privates 21 Male Convicts 1 1 Female D 2 Years provisions & a quantity of Stores

SaturdY
-th
25
-WNW
-Not the
Least Surf-
-

[Page 216]

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Wr

D Wr with some showers of rain at Noon the Golden Grove anchor'd in the road, sent the Jolly boat off with a Logg of pine, the Coble came on shore The Carpenter of the Golden Grove employed repairing her & fitting some Timbers & knees into her, sent off another Logg of Timber & the G: Groves Fore 'Yard

Moderate Breezs & Cloudy after sunrise very pleasant sincere Wr The G. Grove at day light standing into the roads. Made ye Sign^ that LandS was good she soon after came to Anchor Employ'd all day in sending off Balks-planks-spars &c 6 Men clearing away at the plantation ye Carptr of ye G. Grove repairing our Coble, punished Leonard Dyer Convict with 4 dozen lashes for Mutinous Expressions & daring Language to Mr [indecipherable]

[Page 217]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

Octr
1788
Sunday
-th
26
-WNW
-Not any Surf.
-

Monday
-th
27
-West
WNW
-D
-

Tuesday
-28
-D
-An
IncreasS Surf.
-As there is not much Wind here, I imagine the alteration in the Surf is owing to [blowing] Weather to ye South.

WednesY
-29
-NW
sw
-Landing posslble often easy.

[Page 218]

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Wr

Strong Gales & some very heavy rain during the Night at Daylight made the Sigl that Landing was good. Sent off Plank Spars &c inbd ye G.G. at 11 A.M. performed Divine Service

At 9 in the Morning had a very heavy Squall accompanied with heavy distant Thunder. Sent off Spars, Plank, &c. People employed falling pines &c.

Moderate Breezes & Cloudy thick Weather, at Daylight made ye Signal that landing was good, at 7 the Golden Grove Cutter came on shore, perceiving an increasing Surf did not send her off. The Surf continuing suspicious hauled the Boat up people Employed clearing away Ground & digging a New Sawpit &c

Moderate Gales & thick Wr with almost constant rain at 7 AM. the Golden Groves boat retd onboard & at 8 She weighed & made sail for Port Jackson. Empd digging a new Sawpit & repS the old one. 6 Men clearing away at ye Plant

[Page 219]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c.

October 1788 Thursday
-th 30
-SW.
-Good Landing on the EbbS tide
-Turned a Turtle of about 160 lbs weight

Friday
-st 31
-South East
-Scarce
any Surf.

November Saturday
-st
1
-East.
-D
-Killed the Turtle & issued it in Lieu of to day's Salt provisions 2 lbs of Turtle for 1 lb of Beef

Sunday
-nd 2
-ENE
-D
-

Monday
-rd 3
-North
-Not the least Surf.
-

[Page 220]

Transactions on Norfolk Isld state of the Wr &c

Fresh Gales & Clear Weather. 8 Men digging another saw pit, & repairing the old one. 3 Men building a Roof over the Coble. 4 Men Making & Drawing Shingles, 8 Men Clearing away Ground.

Fresh Breezes & Cloudy Lower Sawpit at Work on a piece of pine for under cover for the Roof of the Granary. 3 Men digging & fixing the other Sawpit. The rest of the People employed as before

Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Serene weather. People all employed as before

D Wr at 11 AM. performed Divine Service 1 Man ss

Fresh Gales & Clear serene Weather, The People who arrived by the Golden Grove employed in clearing away Ground for their Gardens & Houses except the 2 Sawyers & Blacksmith. Sawyers sawing boards for the roof of the Granary & Carpenters fixing the rafters Purlines &c 4 Men Clearing away at the Plantation 2 Men ss One of the Sawyers sick

[Page 221]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

November 178 Tuesday
-8
th 4
-NNW
-Not the least break of a Surf on ye Reef.
-

Wednesday
-th 5
-West South SE
-A
great Surf.
-

Thursday
-th 6
-SE ESE
-Landing posslble.
-

Friday
-th
7
-SE
-Very good Landing.
-

Saturday
-8
-SSE
-A
very heavy Surf.
-

Sunday
-th 9
-SE
-D
-

[Page 222]

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of Wr &c

Strong Gales & very Cloudy Close Weather after 3 PM. had constant Heavy rain. The People all employed as Yesterday one Man sick at 2 P.M. sent the Coble out to fish at 5 she returned without having caught any.

Moderate Gales & Clear Weather. People all employed as before. One of the Sawyers sick & 2 of the Coble Men.

Strong Gales & Cloudy. People employed as before. One side of the Granary finished ready for Shingling 1 Man sick & one lame.

Fresh Gales & Clear, People All employed as before. One Man Shingling the Granary, at 9 A.M. sent the Coble without the Reef to fish at one made the Sig^ for her to return, found they had caught 26 fish distrlbuted them among the People. 1 Man sick

Very Strong Gales of Wind. People all employed as before. 1 of the Sawyers Sick The Weather is as cold, as in the Month of June.

The Weather more moderate but still Fresh Gales & Cloudy. At 1 1 A.M. performed divine Service. 1 of the Sawyers Sick. Boards &c sawed this Week 791 feet.

[Page 223]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

November 178 Monday
-8
th
10
-SW
-good Landing.
-

Tuesday
-th
11
-South
-Landing posslble but not advisable
-

Wednesday
-th 12
-South
-A
very heavy Surf-
-

Thursday
-13
-SSE SE
-D
-

Friday
-th
14
-SSW
-Less Surf but landing dangerous
-Landing these 4 days past has been very bad & the Wr almost as Cold as in the depth of Winter

[Page 224]

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of the Wr &c

Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr 13 Men employed. Clearing away Ground, burning up refuse wood & making Shingles 2 Men Covering the Granary with Shingles, Carpenter fitting Lockers &c to the Coble. & Sawyers Sawing up roofing. The Marines Clearing away ground for themselves One of the Sawyers Sick & one of the Labourers

D Wr with distant Thunder & Lightning, In the fore part of the day very heavy rain, at 4 P.M. Had a very heavy Squall of Wind. The Weather is very raw & cold. 2 of the Sawyers & another man Sick The people employed as before.

Strong Gales & very heavy Squalls of Wind & Rain. People all employed as before 2 of the Sawyers & 2 Laboures sick

Fresh Gales & Squally. People all employed as before; 2 of the Sawyers & 1 Labourer ss. Roof Began Shingling the other side of the Granary

More Moderate & pleasant Weather. People all Employed as before, in the Evening finished Turning up a part of the Ground which is clearing & sowed it with Indian Corn.

[Page 225]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

November Saturday
-1788 th 15
-SW
-Very good Landing.
-

Sunday
-th 16
-WNW
-D
-

Monday
-th 17
-West SW
SE
-D
-

Tuesday
-th 18
-SE
-A Very heavy Surf
-

[Page 226]

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of Wr &c

Strong Gales & Clear Pleasant Wr. The People all employed about their own Grounds &c. One of the Sawyers & one of the Labourers Sick.

Moderate Gales & pleasant Weather. At day light sent the Coble without the Reef to fish, at 11 She returned with 52; issued them out to Officers & People at the rate of 4 lb per man for which one pound of Meat is Stopped from each Person, at 10 A.M. Performed Divine Service. 1 of the Sawyers & one Man ss.

Fresh Gales & thick Cloudy Wr with a few showers of rain. 12 Men Employed Clearing away at the Plantation, both Sawpits at Work, Blacksmith making Nails out of Iron Hoops for Shingling 2 Men Drawing & Shingling the Granary & 2 building a House for Mr Dunavan Sett off for the Cascade Bay at 6 AM. & returned from thence at 3 PM. after having staid 2 Hours there. Thick Wr with rain all night

Moderate Breezes & Cloudy Wr People all employed as before women making pegs for Shingling one Man ss.

[Page 227]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

November Wednesday
-1788 th 19
-ESE
-A very Great Surf.
-

Thursday
-th 20
-East
-Surf decreasing
-

Friday
-st
21
-NE
West.
-Scarce any Surf
-

Saturday
-nd 22
-D
-Very good Landing.
-

Sunday
-rd 23
-SW
-D
-At 11 AM. performed divine Service

[Page 228>]

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of Wr &c

Moderate Gales & very Cloudy Wr People all employed as before 2 Men sick

Little Wind & Cloudy Wr The People all employed as before, broke off 4 Men from Clearing away, to reap the barley which was sown on the 7th July. 1 Manss.

Light Winds & very serene pleasant Weather. People all employed as before. Sent the Coble without the Reef to fish at 12 She returned with 26 Fish issued them out to the Officers & people, for which Vz a pint of pease was stopped from each man, for 3 lb of Fish. 1 Man ss. & one Man Lame. Finished Shingling the Granary.

Moderate Breezes & Clear Serene Weather. The People all employed clearing away their Garden Grounds &c. I went out in the Coble & sounded between Point Hunter & ye North Side of Nepeans Island found a very good channel of 4 fathoms water, close to the Point & to ye Island & 8 Fathoms in the mid-channel. The shore of the Island is Steep all round, 1 Man Lame & one Man ss

Moderate breezes & dark cloudy Wr with drizling rain at daylight sent the Coble out to fish at 9 she returned with 20 fish & one Shark issued them in lieu of Vz a pint of pease, 1 Man lame & 1 ss.

[Page 229]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing & Surf
-Observations &c.

November Monday
-1788
th 24
-SSE
-Very Bad Landing.
-

Tuesday
-th 25
-Soutl
-i D
-

Wednesday
-th 26
-D
-DC-
-

Thursday
-th 27
-SW.
-Good Landing.
-

Friday
-th 28
-SSW.
-D
-

Saturday
-th 29
-NE
-Not the least Surf
-The Indian Corn planted in ye 27th August is just Tasselling & has a very promising appearance.

[Page 230]

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of Wr &c

Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather. 9 Men clearing away Ground in the Vale. Both Sawpits at Work & Carpenters Employed about the Granary. 2 Men reaping & Threshing Barley The Coble Men, Gardners & another man Clearing away ground for themselves to build their houses on one Man sick & one Lame.

Fresh Breezes with a thick clouded air. The People all employed as Yesterday. 4 Men sick.

Moderate Breezes & Clear Weather. The people all employed as Yesterday. 4 Men ss

Moderate breezes & very Sultry Warm Wr People All employed as before at Daylight sent the Coble without the Reef at noon she returned with 46 Fish issued them to the Settlement at 6 lb of fish for one lb of Meat 4 Men ss

D Wr People all employed as before. At day light she returned with 26 Fish distrlbuted them among the People. 7 Men Sick

D Wr The people all excused from Work to cultivate their Gardens &c at 9 AM I went out in the Coble & landed on Nepeans Isle which I found a lump of entire Sand which is kept together by a border of rocks Notwithstanding the deep sand, this Island produces near two hundred very fine Pines. There is no fresh water at all on the Island 4 Men ss.

[Page 231]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

November Sunday
-88. 30
-NE
-Not the least Surf.
-I this day changed the Working hours on account of the great heat of the Weather, viz. To go to Work at Day light l/2 past 7 to breakfast, eight to work till eleven, at Vz past 2 to Work again till sunsett by which means the people are off Work three hours & half in the heat of the day.

December Monday
-1788
st 1
-D
SW
Variable
-D
-

Tuesday
-nd 2
-North
-D
-

[Page 232]

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of Wr &c

Light Winds & very pleasant serene Weather at 10 A.M. performed Divine Service 1 Man ss.

D Wr At day light sent the Coble to fishing, at Noon she returned with 39 fish issued them in lieu of beef at the rate of 3 lb of fish for !/2 a pound of beef. Sawyers sawing Plank &c for the Commandants house & the rest of the People all employed clearing away Ground. In the afternoon I sounded round Nepeans Island & the Channel between it & Point Hunter

D Wr People all employed as before. At 6 AM I went in the Coble to Phillips Isle where I landed on a rock in Collins's Bay at Vz past 7 & Climbed up the Hills which I found a fine rich red Clay. A Valley in the form of a half Moon runs round the Hills over Collins's bay & is as well as the Hills Wooded but not thick I do not suppose that there is above 150 pine trees on the whole Island most of the Hills are covered with a thick entangled Kind of Reed which only wants burning to clear away 100 acres of Ground which would make a fine Wheat land if not too dry, As I saw a number of Pidgeons & Parrots
[continued from facing page]
&c I imagine there must be some fresh water on some part of the Island, having satisfied my self with respect to the Soil & the face of the Island I returned to the boat & left Collins's Bay at 10 clock & landed in Sydney Bay at 1 PM At 2 sent the Coble fishing, in the Eveng she returned with 30 fish Issued them 3 lb for a lb of Beef.

[Page 233]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c.

December Wednesday
-1788
rd 3
-NW
-Not the least Surf
-On the 8th I housed all the Barley which has been raised off an acre of Ground sowed in June & July During its growth it had a most promising appearance; but when the ear was shot out & nearly filled in September, some very heavy rains laid a great part of it down which drew the rats & quails, to it, & the devastation they made in a fortnight was very great indeed, having destroyed upwards of 2/3rd of what had every appearance of Yielding us 50 bushels at least, the whole quantity gathered in is, 10 Bushells. The grain is plump & fine a Bushell weighing [blank space]lbs. 116 Ears were produced from one grain of Barley. There is a small patch of barley growing in the Garden at ye Vale which is quite covered with caterpillars they are picked off dayly but come on in the night, as thick again. This patch is entirely destroyed by them. Sowed Marrow put pease & dwarf speckled French beans & a few long pods raised here.

[Page 234]

Thursday
-th
4
-Varble
-D
-

Friday
-th 5
-East
-D
-

Saturday
-th 6
-ENE
-D
-

Sunday
-th
7
-East.
-D
-

Monday
-th 8
-SE
-D
-

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of the Wr &c

Fresh Gales & Close Sultry Wr People all empd as before at day light sent the Coble without the Reef at Noon she returned with 60 small fish issued them at the rate of 4 lb of fish for Vz a pint of pease 2 Men ss

Little Wind & very Close Sultry Wr People all employed as Yesterday Coble Men clearing away the Rocks for running the Skids lower down at the upper Landing place 3 Men ss.

D Wr People all employed as Yesterday 3 Men ss

D Wr The air very close & Sultry. People working for themselves, at day light sent the Coble outside the Reef to fish at Noon she returned with 30 fish issued them 4lb of fish for 1/2 a lb of Pork. 14 Men unserved 2 Men ss.

D Wr Clear Serene Weather, at Daylight sent the Coble to fish at 8 she returned with 10 Fish & one Stingray weighing upwards of 100 lb at 11 A.M. performed divine service 2 Men ss.

Fresh Breezes & Clear Wr 12 Men Employed Clearing away in the Vale, Upper & lower Sawpits working 2 Carpenters employed about the Commandants house in. raising it higher. 1 Man thrashing out Barley. Coble men variously employed & Marines creating a temporary Guard house. 3 Men ss & 1 Man lame 1 Marine & blacksmith cutting wood for making charcoal

[Page 235]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

December 17 Tuesday
-88
th 9
-SE
-Very good landing
-Near the Sea side the air is as Sharp as it was with this Wind 4 Months ago In the Vale it is very warm & sultry, during the last 12 days landing has been as safe as at a Wharf in the Thames. A Vessell might have been launched from hence with great ease & safety & lain these 12 days in the Road in perfect smooth Water

Wednesday
-th 10
-D
-D
-

Thursday
-th 11
-Variable
-The surf bad Landing good.
-

Friday
-th 12
-D
-LandS very good
-

Saturday
-th 13
-D SE
-D
-

Sunday
-th
14
-East
-D
-

Monday
-th 15
-SE South
Variable
-D
-The 260 Ears of Wheat has yielded 3 full Quarts of a very fine full grain

Tuesday
-th 16
-South SW
-D A heavy Surf-
-

[Page 236]

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of Wr &c

Fresh Breezes & Cloudy Weather. People all employed as before, at day light sent the Coble without the Reef to fish As I was apprehensive the surf might increase with the flowing tide I made ye Signal for her to return at 10 oclock having caught but 7 fish there being a Sea running in the Bay 2 Men ss & 1 lame

D Wr People all employed as before 1 Man ss. & 2 Lame

Little Wind & very warm Weather People all employed as before 1 Man Lame

D Wr People all employed as before. Sent the Coble out at Noon she returned with 29 fish issued them at the rate of 4 lb of Fish for one lb of Beef. 1 Man lame 2 Men sick.

Fresh Gales & Cloudy Gloomy Weather. The people all employed Working for themselves.

D Wr & very cool, at 10 In the Morning performed Divine Service. One of the Sawyers lamed dangerously.

Moderate Breezes, & very pleasant Serene Weather 2 Carpenters & 4 Sawyers Empd for the Commandants house 12 Men Clearing away 4 Making & drawing Shingles. 1 Man assisting the Surgeon Clearing away Ground for a Garden. 1 Man lame.

Light winds in the Morning, at 7 sent the Coble out fishing at 10 Came on Fresh Gales from the SW & a rising Surf made ye Signal for the Coble to return which she did not observe till too late for them to pull up agt the ebb tide made the Sigl for them to go to Balls Bay Went round there with some people & hauled her up. at Sunsett returned with all the people

[Page 237]

Week days
-Mo
days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

December Wednesday
-1788
th 17
-SW South
-A
Very heavy Surf.

Thursday
-th 18
-SW
South WSW
-A Very heavy Surf
-

Friday
-th 19
-WNW
-Less Surf but still very high
-

Saturday
-th 20
-South ESE
-Less Surf
-

Sunday
-st 21
-Variable North
-Surf Decreasing
-

-As I find it very necessary to have two or three trusty people settled there I sent three people there with orders to Mr Altree who has the direction of them to employ them building houses for themselves & clearing away Garden Ground. & if posslble to get an acre of ground cleared away by the end of May for sowing Wheat
I intend sending every person on the 26th when it will be high tides to make the Channel on the beach deeper & to clear away if posslble more stones from without I also intend erecting a Crab there as soon as Convenient, for the better heaving the boat up whenever She may be obliged to go round there or when it may happen that it would be necessary to heave any Ships boat up.

[Page 238]

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of the Wr &c

From Midnight till 3 AM had a very heavy Storm of Wind, Rain, Thunder & Lightning after which had very heavy Gales of Wind & Cloudy Weather. People all employed as before.

Very heavy Gales of Wind in fierce Gusts & very heavy Sea running. At Daylight Sent Mr Altree Thos Webb & Jn Anderson Convict, to Ball Bay to Settle there sent eight Men with them to carry their Cloaths, Beds, &c. at 4 PM. The People returned, the Landing in Balls Bay is very good & here the Surf rolls very high indeed 1 Man ss & 1 Man lame. Began unroofing the Commandants house to put a new Roof on as the old one leaked all over much to the endamaging the provisions &c stored in the Cellar.

Strong Gales & dark Gloomy Wr with heavy Squalls of Wind & Rain. Carpenters & people all employed as before 1 Man ss & 1 Lame.

Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr People all employed working for themselves. 1 Man ss. & 1 Man lame

Little Wind & very pleasant Weather, at 10 AM performed Divine Service.

[Page 239]

Week Days
-Mo Days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

December Monday
-1788
nd 22
-East
NE
-Very good Landing.
-

Tuesday
-rd 23
-ENE
-Scarce any Surf.
-

Wednesday
-th 24
-North
-An increasing Surf.
-

Thursday
-th 25
-East
-Very good Landing.
-

[Page 240]

Transactions on Norfolk Island state of the Wr &c

Moderate breezes & Clear Sultry Weather. Sawyers Sawing up Boards &c. Carpenters at Work on the Commandants house. 9 Men clearing away Ground for sowing Wheat &c on. 5 Men clearing a Road from hence to Ball Bay & 4 Men Making Shingles. The Coble returned from Ball Bay at 2 P.M. sent her back again with a part of the Baggage belonging to those who are settled there.

D Wr People all employed as before. The Coble did not return from Ball Bay before eleven They did not land there last night till dark. In the evening hauled the Seine in the middle bay, but caught no fish. Cut the Wheat which was sowed August 11th

Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Weather with frequent Showers of rain. People all employed as before at 2 P.M. sent the Coble out, but there being a Great Swell she was obliged to return not having Caught any fish-

Moderate Gales & dark Cloudy Weather at Sunrise hoisted the Colours in observance of Christmas day. & gave the Convicts double allowance of Pork & half a pint of Rum. at 11 A.M. Performed Divine Service.

[Page 241]

Week Days
-Mo i Days
-Winds
-Landing & Surf.
-Observations &c.

December
Friday
-1788
th 26
-East
-good Landing A great Swell in the Road.
-The Weather since the 16th has been changeable & very violent, & the air as sharp & Cold as in the Winter months. I really think the Wind has blown a perfect Hurricane

Saturday
-th
27
-SE
SSW South
SE
-Landing very dangerous.
-

Sunday
-28
-South
-D&a
very great Sea running
-At 5 PM of this day the bad Weather began to moderate

Monday
-th 29
-SE Calm
-The great Sea going down & the Surf much decreased
-Master Carpenter & 2 Men employ'd about ye Commandants House.

Tuesday
-th
30
-Variable
-Landing very good
-

[Page 242]

Transactions on Norfolk Isld State of the Wr &c

Strong Gales & Cloudy with heavy Squalls, at 7 A.M. Sent the People to Balls Bay to enlarge & deepen the Channell for the Boats landing this being Spring tides. Sawyers & Carpenters employed as before

Very Strong Gales of Wind & heavy Squalls of Wind & Rains. The Air is as Sharp & cold as in the Winter Months, Near the Sea, but in the Valleys it is very pleasant Warm Weather. The People employed working for themselves in their Gardens &c.

D Wr & Squalls very violent, at 10 A.M. performed Divine Service. 1 Man ss

Moderate breezes & very hazey with hot sultry Weather. Sawyers sawing boards Scantling &c for their own houses. 12 Men Clearing away Ground for sowing Wheat on next Year, 3 Men Making an inclosure for the Stock in the Vale, & one Man & Woman reaping the Wheat that was sowed 18th August Carpr sick

Light winds & very hazey Sultry Weather, at 6 A.M. sent the Coble out to fish at 1 P.M. she returned per Signal with only 6 fish. Sent the Coble with the rest of the Baggage round to Ball Bay where she was hauled up, as they would not be able to reach this before dark People employed as before.

[Page 243]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c.

December 17 Wednesday
-88 st 31
-East.
-A
great Surf
-Having Six Musquets, besides the Marines Arms, I judge it proper to instruct all the Free people on the Island (being Six) In the use of Fire arms In case of the Marines being sick or any other exigency wherefore I gave orders to the Serjeant & Corporal of Marines to exercise them regularly every SatY Morning As well as the Marines when the former are tolerable expert, I mean that they shall fire half a dozen rounds once a Month which is putting the Island In the best state of defence in my power

JanY 1789. Thursday
-st 1
-East
-D
-

Friday
-nd 2
-East ENE
-Not the least Surf.
-

Saturday
-rd
3
-East
-D
-

Sunday
-th 4
-D
-D
-

Monday
-th 5
-D
-D
-

[Page 244]

Transactions on Norfolk Isld state of the Wr Sec

Strong Gales of Wind & sharp cold Weather Cut the Wheat which was sown 16th Augt People all employed as before. 1 Man ss.

Fresh Gales & a great Sea running. AM the people all employed as before, at Noon hoisted ye Colours in observance of New Years day. & excused them from Work in the Aftn gave each of the Convicts a l/4 of a pint of Rum. 1 Man ss.

Fresh breezes & Cloudy. People all employed as before 1 Man Thrashing out Wheat at 7 AM sent the Coble Men to Ball Bay to bring off the Coble at 2 She landed here not having been able to catch a fish on account of the Swell.

D Wr People employed Working for themselves one Man Thrashing out Wheat. 2 Men ss.

Moderate Breezes & Clear Wr at 10 A.M. performed Divine Service at daylight sent the Coble out to fish at Noon she retd with 21 Fish issued them out to the people 3^D of Fish in Lieu of Vz a lb of Pork each man 21 Men not served

D Wr B[oth] the Sawpits at Work 12 Men clearing away ground in the Vale Carpenters about ye Command ts house at day light sent the Coble out & compleated YestY serving, at 1 P.M. I went afloat & examined the Wt & North sides of the Island, landed in Anson Bay & returned at Sunsett.

[Page 245]

Week days
-Mo days
-Winds
-Landing &Surf
-Observations &c

JanY 1789 Tuesday
-th
6
-East
-Not the least Surf
-It appears to me hitherto, that the Westerly Winds are the reigning Winds during the Winter Months & Easterly during the Summer But I do not mean its being uniformly so on the contrary I think the Winds here are equally as variable as they are ten degrees further beyond the Tropics

Wednesday
-th
7
-Variable
-An increasing Surf
-

Thursday
-th 8
-D
-Good Landing.
-

Friday
-th 9
-East
-An increasing Surf.
-

Saturday
-th 10
-D
-good Landing.
-

Sunday
-th
11
-D
-A great Swell has rolled in these Bay these some days past notwithS the Wind has been moderate

Monday
-th 12
-D
-A
very heavy Surf
-

[Page 246]

Remarks on Norfolk Island State of Wr &c

Little Wind & Clear Sultry Weather People employed as before, at 7 AM sent the Coble out to fish at noon she returned with 86 issued them in Lieu of llb of Salt beef at 10lb of Fish each man. at 2 P.M. sent the Coble to Ball Bay with some things where she was hauled up.

In the Morning Mod1 breezes & dark gloomy Weather, with a few heavy Showers of rain Housed the remr of ye unthrashed wheat before the rain came on P.M. People all employed as before one man Thrashing out Wheat 1 Carpenter ss

Light winds with a Swell, people all employed as before. 1 Male Child born. Norfolk.

D Wr People all employed as before.

Strong Breezes & Cloudy Wr People all employed working on their Gardens &c.

Moderate breezes & Clear Warm Weather at 10 A.M. performed Divine Service

D Wr people all employed as last Week a very heavy Surf rolls in which is rather extraordinary as there has been very little wind & that blows right in to Ball Bay where there is smooth water.

[Page 247]

gave ye Carpenters orders to obey J. Livingstone Novr 22nd 1788.
Livingstone Employed about the Granary from that time to ye 30 Novr then began about my house which was finished
160 Cobbs of Indian Corn sowed four Acres of Ground in Augt 1789

Cook discovered N. I. 10 Oct. 1774
Nepean Id visit'd Nov 29/88
Landg rock point ) Cascade Aug 19 & 20/88
Lieut Ball ) Ball Bay Wendy Aug 27/88
Phillip Id Dec 2/88
Bananas & Limes planted 3d June/88
Winds &[ca] Jan 6/89