Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales

John Hunter - journal kept on board the Sirius during a voyage to New South Wales, May 1787 - March 1791

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On the 25th: of October 1786 His Majesties Ship Sirius was Commission’d, & the Command given to Cap’n Arthur Phillip, the Supply Arm’d Tender was also Commiss’d & Lieut Henry Sidgbird Ball appointed to Command her --
It being the intention of Government at this time, to remove so great a Nuisance & inconvenience as the Country at present Sufford from the Goals being so exceedingly Crouded with Criminals who had been by the Laws Condemn’d to Transportation; the East coast of New Holland was the place determind, upon which to form a Settlement for this Salutary purpose; and the above Ships were intended as an Escort to the Transports which were to Convey the Convicts to that Country, and which were at this time fitting & in Considerable forewardnes for that Service. The East Coast of New Holland is that Country which was discover’d and Explor’d by Captain James Cook in his first Voyage round the World, and by him Calld New South Wales, Botany Bay the only place he enterd with the Ship which coud be Calld a Harbor, having been mention’d in the Narrative of that Voyage, as a Convenient place for a Settlement, Government fixd upon that place for the intended purpose.
The Sirius is a Ship of about 540 Tons exceedingly well Calculated for such a Service, she Mounts 20 Guns & has [indecipherable] over them, of a round full Built & is altogether a very capacious

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Capacious & Convenient Vessel. The Supply Armd Tender is a Brig, & was one of those Vessels which are Employ’d in Carrying Naval Stores from one of His Majesties Dockyards to another; she is a very firm Strong little Vessel, very flat floord & Capacious Mounts 8 Guns & has a deep Waist, which I fear will be found a very great, if not a dangerous inconvenience in so low a Vessel upon so long a Voyage. These two Ships were intended, after having performd the Service of Escorting the Convicts to the place of their destination, to remain there to be Employ’d as the Governor might find necessary for the Public Service untill relievd by other Ships from England --
I had some reason during the Equipment of these Ships, to think I might be Employd upon this Service in some way or other , and as Capt. Phillips was appointed Governor of the New Settlement, and of Cruise had much Business to Transact in Town, I frequently visited the Ship & sometimes receivd his direction in any thing that might relate to the fitting her, She was out of the Dock & the rigging in hand, when I first went on board. On the 9th Decm. the Ship being ready to fall down the River, We slipt the Moorings & saild down to Longreach, where we took in Guns & Gunners stores. On the 15th I receivd

received by letter from Mr. Stephens Secretary to the Admty. information , that there was a Commission Signd for me in that office, & desiring that I would come to Town to take it up. The Nature of the Service upon which the Sirius might be Employ’d in those seas to which she was bound, having been Consider’d, it was Judg’d necessary that an officer bearing a Certain Rank shou’d Command that Ship in the Absence of C: Phillip whose presence it was to be supposd woud be requisite at all times wherever the Seat of Government in that Country might be fix’d. In Consequence of Mr. Stephens letter I repaird to the Admiralty & receivd a Commission appointing me Second Captain of His Majs. Ship the Sirius with the rank of Post Captain, and with the Power to Command her Principal Captain, Subject nevertheless to his Control & to such orders & directions for any proceedings, as he might see occasion to give me for the Good of the Service. This appointment of a Second Capt. to a private Ship, being the first Instance in our Service, It cou’d not, Consistant with the Establish’d regulations of the Navy, take place, but by the interference of the Kings Order in Council, an Order from His Majesty in Council authorizing the Lords of the Admiralty to make such appointment was therefore given - On the 30th. of Janry. 1787. two Transports, one having Male the other Female Convicts on board, dropt down to Longreach But—

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But they having Business to transact with the Owners of the Ships relative to their Ships Companys, were permitted to proceed as low as Gravesend, where the Sirius joind them the next day and proceeded immediatly to the Nore where we Anchor’d the same day, & on the 4th. of February we arrivd in the Downes; before we left the Nore the Supply Arm’d Tender joind us - We were detaind by bad Wr. and strong Westerly winds in the Downes untill the 19th. when we put to Sea in Company with the Supply & Transports, and arrivd on the Motherbank the 21st: At this Anchorage the whole of the Transports, & Store Ships were directed to Rendezvous, the latter were already arriv’d, & whilst we lay there the other Transports from the Westward join’d us - On the 9th. of May, Capt. Phillip arriv’d in Portsmouth & the next day came on board & issued the Signals & other Necessary Orders to Lieut. J. Shortland the Agent for the Transports.—

On Sunday the 13th: We saild from the Motherbank in Company with the Supply Arm’d Tender and Six Transports having on board 600 Male & 200 Female Convicts, and those Store Ships carrying provisions & various other Stores; on board the Ships carrying Convicts, were Embark’d 160 Marines with their proper Officers. Major Robert Ross was the Commandant of the Batallion & appointed Lieut. Governor of the New Settlement: a Surgeon and three assistants were also Embark’d in the Transports with Medicine & Necessary for the Voyage - The Wind being Easterly we ran out at the Needles, & were accompanied by His Majs. Ship Hyaena Capt. DeCourcy having receiv’d orders from the Admiralty to see us 100 Leagues to the Westward. We had light Breezes with fair & pleasant Weather down Channel, but had the Mortification to find that two of our Transports saild exceedingly heavy, one of which the Hyaena tow’d for two or three days - On the 15th. at Sunsett the start point bore NE½E by Compas distant 7 or 8 Leags. & at Noon on this day which finishes the Nautical & begins the Astronomical day, the Longde. by Aus. was 5°0’1 Wt. of the Meridn. of Greenwich, & by a Time Piece made by Mr. Kendal with which the Board of Longitude had

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had Supply’d us, it was 4°..59W. We had Variety of Weather at this time ’till the 21st. when being in Latitude 47°..52’ N. & Longitude 12°..1’4’ W. Capt. Phillip had his dispatches on board the Hyaena, she saluted us with three Cheers & parted Company; the wind was now and had been for some days past in the SW quarter, with hazey Wh., our progress to the Southward was therefore very Slow; much attention was requisite on our parts to the State of Sailing of the different Transports, in order to prevent Separation -- at this Time a report was made from one of the Transports by the Commanding Marine Officer on board her & the Master of the Ship, that a discovery had been made of an intended insurrection among the Convicts in that Ship, in which if they succeeded they were to have quitted the Fleet in the night & afterwards to have made such use of the Ship as they shou’d upon further Consideration of the matter determine amongst themselves. Captain Phillip had very Humanely a few says previous to the Scheme, directed that the Irons with which most of the Male Convicts had hitherto been

been confined, be taken off them generally, that they might have it more in their power to strip their Clothes off at night when they went to rest, & also more at their ease during the day have the farther advantage of being able to wash & keep themselves clean; this indulgence had no doubt left it more in the power of those who might be dispos’d to exert their ingenuity in so daring an attempt to carry their plan into execution with a greater probability of Success; but I am thoroughly convinc’d that so strict an attention to duty, was paid by the whole of the Marines Employ’d upon this Service that such an attempt wou’d have terminated in the destruction of those who appeard foremost most active in it; Two of the principals were brought on board the Sirius severely punish’d & sent on board another Transport properly secured in Irons ----
On the 23rd. the wind inclined to the NW & after heavy rain settled in that quarter, by the power of this Change we proceeded to the Southward at the rate of between 70 & 100 Miles in the 24 hours. 26th. the wind came to the No.Wd. & from that to NE our Latde. at this time was 42°..1’0 No. & Longde.11..36 W Variation of the

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of the Compass 20°..;19’W-----
On the 29th. in the Evening, as we intended making the Islands of Porto Sancto & Madiera being but a small distance from the former and the Weather very hazey, we shortn’d Sail, to prevent the Convoy from falling suddenly in with the land in the night. At day light the next morning saw the Desertas of Madiera bearing WSW 5 Leags. distant, we had passed the Island of Porto Sancto in the night having steard to pass about 8 or 9 leagues to the Eastward of it; We found the Ship at this last 24 hours 12 Miles to the Southward of the Log ---- At Noon the SEmost Desertas bore by Compass N17°:W. by which we make its Latitude 32°:2’9 No. & its Longitude is by the Time keeper 16°..3’8W of Greenwich, the S Varn. of the Compass was here 17°.:0’0W. from hence with a light Breeze from the No.wd. steered S½W pr. Compas and at 5PM 1st.June we made the Salvages, which was rather sooner than we expected by the distance we had run from the Desertas of Madiera, & the Latid. Observ’d the preceding Noon, by which we Judged ourselves not less than 17 Leagues from them At.

At Midnight we were exactly in their Parallel saw them very distinctly by the Light of the Moon which was very Clear, their Latitude deduced from the preceding as well as following Meridn. observations is 30°: 1’2 No. which is 12 Miles to the No.ward. of what they are generally plac’d in, either in Tables or Charts - Their Longde. determind by our Time Keeper is 15°..53’ W.
I had never seen those Rocks before, and always understood them to be small inconsiderable Spotts, but the largest is so high as to be seen at the distce. of 7 or 8 Leagues, & appears to be about a Mile & half in length from NE to SE, there are a few Scatterd rocks appear above water to the Wisd. of them & I have been told that a reef of Considerable extent stretches out from to the Westward.
From the time of our passing those rocks until the Evening of the 3rd. We have had very light airs & Variable but mostly from the SW quarter, & every day found we were Effected by a Southerly Current of Ten or twelve Miles in the 24 Hours. The wind now Sprang up from the No.wd. & we Steerd for the Island of Teneriffe directing our Course by the Longde. determind from the Time Keeper, the Account being 1°..0’4 to the Westward of it, and our Lunar Observ.d within

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within 3’of it, at Day light in the morning we saw the Island of Teneriffe & at Noon Point de Naga or NEp! bore SWbS distant 5 Leagues, some of the Convoy being considerably astern we [indecipherable] too, In the afternoon there being a fresh of wind at the NE, bore away & made Sig.l for the Convoy to make all the Sail possible, in order, that as we were Strangers to Santa Cruz Road, we might save daylight to the Anchorage which we Effected & had the whole Convoy in before Dark. at ½ past 6 in the morning we anchord in 15 fm. soft ground, (a Mixture of Sand & Black Mud) We moord with the Bower Anchor, & had the Church of St. Francisco S 73:00W. Eastermost point in sight calld point Requit (from a small rock which lays a little detachd from it) N70.00 E & a Fort to the SW of the Town S45°.0’0W -- distant from the nearest Shore about 2½ Cable length, The ground all over this bay is said to be foul, we therefore Buoy’d up our Cable, but had no reason upon examining the Cable afterwards to believe that there was any foul ground where we lay.
The next Morning after we anchord, Capt. Phillip sent an officer to wait on the Governor with the usual information of whom we were & our business at

at that Island; but before we anchord the Master attendt. & some other officers were on board the Sirius for this very purpose, a Ceremony which I believe is seldom neglected; When the officer returnd he brought a very polite reply from the Governor, signifying his Sincere wishes that the Island might be capable of Supplying us with such articles as we were in want of, & assurances that every refreshment the place afforded we shoud certainly have. C. Phillip then waited on His Excellency, accompanied by Major Ross, Myself, & several other officers; we were most Politely received by him, when he repeated his Hope that Teneriffe might afford every refreshment which we had occasion for –
Two days after this Visit, the Governor who is Marquez Branseforte & is Captain General of the whole of the Canary Islands, notwithstanding he had the day before returnd C. Phillips Visit by an officer, came on board himself attended by several officers, he stayd about an Hour on board, and askd many Questions respecting the Extent of our Voyage, & Situation of the place we were going to settle upon, all of which we explaind to him by a general Chart of the World. In a day or two after this Visit

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Visit, C. Phillip receiv’d an invitation to dine with him, & to bring as many of the principal officers a cou’d be spar’d from the Ships; We Waited on him in a party of about twelve, & were very Hospitably & Politely entertaind; In Short on the Whole, I think I never mett with so Polite, so pleasant a man on any Foreign Port I have ever Visited.—
During the time we lay in this Road, the Ships Company, Marines & Convicts, were every day Supply’d with fresh provisions of which there appear’d to be great abundance in the Island; Vegetables & fruit were Scarce at this time, Potatoes & Onions only were to be had, and those but in small quantity’s; It was Capt Phillips intention when we arriv’d here, to have stay’d only a few days, (about three or four) But we found that the Watering of the Ships was a business which cou’d not be completed in so short a time; during the time which the watering the Ships was our principal Consideration, it was often found unavoidable to be employ’d in this necessary business on board the transports after dark, the Watering place being only contrivd to load two Boats at a

a time; a Convict one Evening, whilst every body were Employ’d in Clearing a Boat of Water, contrivd to Slip into a Small Boat, & dropt away from the Ship unperceiv’d, when he had got some Considerable distance off, he then exirted his oar & got on board a Foreign East India Ship which was laying here, and offerd himself as a Seamen, but was refus’d; finding himself disappointed in his Hope of getting off in that Ship, he Judg’d it necessary, knowing that he wou’d very soon be Missed and Search made after him; to quitt that Ship, he landed to the Wes.d of the Town, but on a place where there was a good deal of Surf, & where the Rocks behind him were inaccessible. The officer of Marines on board that Transport, having Muster’d the Convicts as was usual at Setting the Watch for the Night, when they were always order’d below, Missed this Man and gave immediate information of it to Capt. Phillip, who the next morning sent an officer from the Sirius to the Governor, requesting his assistance in recovering the Deserter; orders were immediately given by His Excellency for that purpose; But in the Morning Early, Boats were dispatch’d from the Ships to row along shore to the Westward to endeavour

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endeavour if possible to recover the Boat he had taken away; a little way to the Westward of the Town they discovered the Boat beating on the Rocks, & rowing in to pick her up, they discovered this fellow Concealing himself in the Clifft of a Rock not having been able to get up the precipace behind him, the officer presented a Musquet at him & threatned, that if he did not immediatly come down & into the Boat, he wou’d Shoot him, the fellow Complied rather than hazard being shott, & was taken on board, punish’d & put in Irons untill we saild, when he was liberated as the rest----
Before we were ready to put to sea, a party of us had determin’d to make a Short Excursion into the Country, where we had no doubt of finding its aspect much more inviting than the prospect we had from the Ships: We for this purpose set off one morning very Early, accompanied by two British Gentlemen Merchants here (Mr. Little & Mr. Armstrong) who had shown us upon every occasion much

Much civility & Attention, those gentlemen had previously provided Horses, Mules, provisions etc. We directed our Journey to the City of Laguna, which was, & is still Calld the Capital of the Island; it is said to be but three of four Miles from Santa Cruz, but whether from the badness of the road, which is certainly the Worst I ever saw in any Country, or the slowness of our progress from that Cause, I thought it not less than twice that distance.
When we arrivd at Laguna, we walkd thro’ many of the Streets which are very regular & cross each other at Right Angles, the Buildings in general are good, & some of the Streets are wider than you generally see them in any of the Spanish or Portuguise Towns; they have two Parish Churches which have Short Square Steeples, but they appear above all the other buildings there are two Nuneries & three or four Convents, which are Built in a quadrangular form & have good Gardens, in the Middle of the Town there is a Conduit which Supplys the inhabn. with water. This City Stands on a plain of Considerable extent, over part of which we rode

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Rode, until we came to the foot of the hill from whence the Town is supplied with water, we ascended the Mountain and trac’d this stream to its fountain head where we found it flowing from Cavitys in several parts of the Hill , and was Conveyd down the declivity in Stone troughs and received on the plain by troughs of Wood supported about Seven or Eight feet above the ground by props, thro this Aquaduct the water is carried to the Center of the Town, over the plain from a distance of four or five Miles.
The plain on which Laguna stands is pleasant and fertile, it was now the height of their Harvest, many people appeard employd in Cutting down the Corn, with which this plain seemed to be well planted, there were also many pleasant gardens here and the Soil in general appead Rich.
This Plain is surrounded with very high Mountains, down the Sides of which in Rainy Seasons, for their rains are periodical,Vast torrents of water run

Run, from which Cause I apprehend its unhealthiness must proceed, for I was told when remarking how thinly the Town of Laguna appears to be inhabited, that very few who had it in their power to choose their place of residence would Continue in Laguna, the Governor who has a Pallace here, generally remains in S.ta Crux and this City once the residence of great Authority is now quite deserted by people of any distinction. I saw nothing of the Lake from which this Town derives its name, but I understood that it was now a very inconsiderable piece of water, probably the account given of there having been a great Lake here may have originated from the plain being quite a Swamp during the fall of the heavy rains - we returned to Santa Crux the same evening very much pleasd with our excursion. I regretted much that the time propos’d for Settling our business here would not admit of a visit to the Peak, a Mountain so much Spoken of by all who have Visited this Island, for its

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its wonderful height -- The Bay of Santa Crux is defended by many Small Batterys of four or five guns each which are placed at certain distances from each other round the Bay and Close to the water Side, which exposes them much to the annoyance of Ships, but their principal fort is near the landing place and is a strong work, but the water being deep very near in, are all exposed to the Attack of Ships; on the whole it is said they mount near one Hundred pieces of Cannon.
The town of Santa Crux is very irregularly Built, the principal Street is broad and has more the appearance of a square than a Street, the Governors House stands at the Upper End, it is but a Mean looking building and has more the appearance of a Country Inn than the Pallace of a Governor. At the Lower End of the Street there is a Square Monument Commemorating the Appearance of Notre Dame, to the Guanches, the Original inhabitants of the Island; the outskirts of the Town has more the Appearance of a place deserted and in Ruins than a place of Trade, for many of the Houses there

there, are either left half built, or have fallen to decay from some other Cause and the Stone walls, which are their principal fences are all broken down and in Ruins.
On the 9th in the afternoon the Transport having Completed their Watering, the Signal was made from the Sirius for every person of our fleet to repair immediately on board their respective Ships and the 10th in the Morning we put to Sea with a light air of wind from the land. -----
Isld. Tennriffe - Lat:de observ’d in the Road 28°..29’..50”N determined by T.Keeper 16..18..08W

We steered to the SW until we were near the Meridian of the Island of Sall ( the N.most of the Cape de Nord Islands) then shap`d our Course so as to fall a little to the Eastward of it; at 10 PM of the 10th being at no great distance from the Island, made Signal for the Convoy to Shorten sail, the dist.ce being not Sufficient to admit of our Carrying sail during the Night ;at 9 in the Morning Saw the Island bearing NWBW 4 leagues distant, I make the lat: of the No. end 16°..48’ and its Longitude determined by the T.Keeper is 23°:03’W the South End

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End is in 16°.39 No. We steerd from abreast the Midle of this Island S½E Compas, which carried us about 3 or 4 Miles, Wide of the Reef which Extends from the NE part of Bonavista and runs from the Shore in a SE direction 3 or 4 miles, it was about 2 oclock in the Afternoon when we made the Island Bonavista,so that we had a very good opportunity of Seeing this Reef, from which I observe that Capt. Cook says in one of his Voyages he was in great danger and that it lays off the SE part of the Isl.d which is certainly a Mistake;We ran down the east side of the Island at the distance of 3 miles from the Reef and Make its Lat. and as follows :-
Isl.d Bonavista - No.end Lat. - 16°;..1’3No.
By T.Keeper - 22..51W
So. End. Lat - 16..00No.
Var.n of the Compas - 11..19W

At 12 at night having an intention of Anchoring at Port Praya Isl.d St.Iago, we made the Signal and [indecipherable] too till daylight, then made Sail the W eather very hazey which it generally is

is amongst these Islands; We ran close round the South End of the Isle of May, & stretchd over for the South End of St. Iago, but when we opened the Bay of Port Praya, we were Suddenly taken aback with the wind from the NW and every
Ship appeared to have a different wind in this Situation it was thought that any attempt to gain the Anchorage under such unfavourable Circumstances, might be attended with the danger of some of the Ships getting on board each other; it was therefore determined to give up the intention and the Signal for Anchoring was hauled in. The Object for which we Endeavoured to get into this Bay was, a Supply of fresh Vegetables for the Ships Comp.ys & Convicts, an article with which we had been but Scantily provided at Tenriffe.
21 June.
We now took our leave of these Islands & steered to the Southward intending to Cross the Equator if possible two or three degrees to the Eastward of the Meridian of St. Iago.We had a fresh G ale from the NE until we were in the latitude of 10.30 No. the NE trade now became faint and Variable and in 9°:3’0 No. had frequent Calms

[Note in margin]
Port Praya Lat. - 14°:54 N.
Long from Greenwich - 23°:37 &W

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Calms with dark cloudy W. and heavy Showers of rain, Squalls were soon rising in every point of the Horison and appeared to threaten much Wind, but seldom Contained any thing but torrents of rain, the Breezes which were very light, were generally from the Southward which very much retarded our progress towards the Line. In Lat. 0°.30No. the wind fixed in the SW quarter, rather an Extraordinary Circumstance in these Latitudes and blew a fresh Gale, with which we stood to the Eastward, but as it was generally far Southerly we were soon in Long. 18.26W by the T:piece, on which we had more reliance than on a dead reckoning, for here we found a Current Setting Considerably Strong to the Eastward. Our Lunar Observations which we never failed to make every opportunity, Constantly confirmed the Truth of the watch. Finding no prospect of a Change of wind by Continuing to stand to the Eastward, We tacked in the Above Longitude and Lat 6°.40 No. and Stood to the Westward, for the wind appeared now fixed between the SW and So. a Steady Gale with a large Sea from

from the Southward. Many of the Cnvoy Saild so heavy & were so Leewardly, that to gain ground thus Circumstanced was impossible, we had therefore only to Hope, that by standing off to a greater distance from the Coast of Africa, we might find the wind incline from the Eward of the South; we kept working in this manner for twelve days, in the Course of which Time our Reckonings were 4 degrees to the Westward of the North, occasion’d by the Strong Easterly Current. In the Lat of 4°..30No. & Longitude by T.Keeper 19°..40W. The wind began to incline from the SSE which gave us some reason to hope that the SE trade was at no great a distance, it continued increasing between SbE and SE until we had got another degree to the Southward, when it Settled at SE a Steady Breeze, but the Easterly Current which would now have been an advantage to us by keeping the Transports to Windward, had Ceas’d and we found a Strong Westerly one running for Several days, from 30 to 45 Miles in 24 hours, by which our Account was brought back to its Original agreement with the T.Keeper and [indecipherable] Observat.s the greatest Velocity of the Westerly Current was between Lat 3°..00N. & the Line and its direction appears to

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Appears to have been W:’nearly, for we never found our Observations for the Latitude [indecipherable] Effected by it; the same was the Case with the Easterly Current, which may Account for Ships from the Northward bound to the Coast of Brazil, who may have no other way of determining their Longitude but by their account, scarsely having been sensible of any Current, so very nearly does the Westerly still counter act in the passage that to the Eastward. On the 14th July in the Evening we Crossed the Equator in Longitude 26°.10W’y with 5°.00 of West Variation; the SE Trade made us now Ample Amounts for the failure of the NE, for it blew a fresh & steady Breeze from ESE to E. which I believe is rather uncommon when the Sun has no great North Declination, If the wind had not favor’d us so much we must have fallen in with the Coast of Brazil far to the Northward which with this Convoy would have been attended with much loss of time & some degree of Danger, However with this favourable Slant, we Carried all the Sail possible, & were enabled to keep at a distance from the Coast, but not so far as to be able to make

Make the Island of Trinidada, which it was Cap’ Phillips intention to have done, had the wind favor’d, we pass’d its parallel 4°.30’ to the Westward of it, & had for several days kept a look out for an Island which the Portuguise Call Ascencao, & is said to lay between Trididada & and the Coast of Brazil, but the Existence of which there is much reason to doubt, We did not see anything until the 3rd of August when we made Cape Trio; at 12 at Night we were right abreast of it & had it bearing N ½ W 5 or 6 Mls.
*Its Longitude by the Time piece is 41°..40W of Merid’n of Greenwich, & its Latitude is 22°..58’ So. (This Cape is an Isl.d detach’d 2 or 3 Miles from the Mainland) We had very light Airs & Var.le between the Cape & Rio Janiero, which is a distance of 18 or 20 Leagues, we never approach’d the Shore nearer than five or Six miles, at which distance we had 30 fathoms soft bottom, and at four Leagues distance had 42 & 43 fath.s the same sort of ground. On the 6th a light breeze from the Sea carried us within the Islands which lay off the Harbor, where we anchored for the Night with the Convoy in 14 Water, Clear soft ground, the Island Raz. (a low flat Island) bearing SbW 2 Miles, & Rodondo (a Highround Island) SWbS---
[*Note at foot of page - But it will be appreciated that we have not had the true rate of the Watch, and consequently that the above Longitude is not Correct ] - The next

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The next morning an Officer was sent to Town to wait on the ViceRoy, & give him information who we were, & for what purpose we had visited that Port - In the Afternoon with a Breeze from the Sea, We Weigh’d & with the whole Convoy Saild into the Harbor, as we passed Forte S:ta Cruz we Salluted with 13 guns, which was returnd by an equal Number from the Forte; We anchord off the Town in 17 ½ fathoms water good soft Bottom, & Moord with Best Bower to the SE & Small to the W- Took S:ta Cruz S36.00E the Sugar Loaf S7.00E & the Flagstaff on Island Cobres N78.00W distance from the Town one & half Miles.*
[* Note in Margin - In going into this harb.r there being very little wind some of our Convoy were alongside each other & were drifting in with the tide, at which the Master of the Port expressed much uneasiness, he was told that our Seamen knew well how to manage their Ships & that there was no danger. The Portuguise will not allow more than one Ship at a time in the Narrows.]
The Ships in general have been remarkably Healthy; the whole Number Buried since we left England is Sixteen, Six only of that Number have died between Tenriffe & this place, which is certainly a very trying part of the Voyage, to people who have not been accustom’d to Warm Climates, & being fed wholly on Salt provision; many of those whom we have lost since we left Portsmouth, had been long lingering under diseases with which they were much aflicted when they Embark’d, consequently

Consequently little hope cou’d be entertaind of their recovery in such situation, & under such Circumstances. On our Arrival here, there were but four out of the whole number in Fevers, a few others with Various but trifling Complaints, & between 20 & 30 in whom some Simptoms of the Scurvey had lately appeard, the Seeds of which it is to be hop’d & expected, will be effetually Eradicated before we leave this place. Fresh provision was immediatly upon our arrival provided for & serv’d to the Ships Companys, Marines, & Convicts, Vigitables were also provided, of which they will Continue to have a proportion serv’d with their other provision every day we remain here; Oranges & other Tropical fruits are in vast Abundence at this time, the Convicts have also had a proportion of Oranges with their other provision, they are in such great plenty that the Expense attending the purchase of a few to each individual each day is too inconsiderable to be Notic’d. It is no uncommon thing to see the Country Boats in their way to the Market, as they pass the Ships, throw in a Shower of Oranges amongst the people. -- We had not been Ten days in this Harbr.

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this Harbor before we found every Ship much more Healthy than when we left Spithead. - Much pains were taken by some, who, from whatever Cause, were averse to this Expidition, to make the World believe, that we were [indecipherable] laying at the Motherbank, so very Sickly as to Bury Eight or Ten every day, and that a Malignant desease rag’d with great Violence on Board the Transports, How far those reports were true will best appear by the [indecipherable] which will no doubt be sent to England from this place. Amongst such a Number of people Confin’d in Small Ships, to have no sick on board was not to be expected, but the reports spread by some industrious people, exceedingly Exaggerated our Number. - I may without a probability of being much Mistaken, Venture to say that there are few Country Towns in the Island of Great Britain, which contain 1500 inhabitants, (the Number which the Ships Employ’d on this service had on board) which have not frequently as many sick as we had at the very time that it was given out we buried such Numbers daily.
We meet with at this place, every thing that is Civil and Polite, a day or two after our arrival The

The whole of the Officers were introduced & paid our Respects to the ViceKing, who seem`d desirous of making the place as Convenient & pleasant to us as possible, Consistant with his Instructions relative to Foreigners from the Court of Portugal. It has ever been a custom here, that when any Foreign Ships are in the Harbor, a Guard Boat rows Constantly Night & day & when any Boat belonging to such Foreign Vessel goes on shore, a Soldier is put into the Boat & continues on board her during her day on shore, this Custom is intended to prevent Smugling, a Crime which is punished here with the utmost severity; and when any Foreign Officer lands, an officer from the Guard is order`d to attend him wherever he goes; this restraint which would certainly have been very ill relish`d by us, however necessary it might have been, for our own Convenience to have Complied with it –was not even in the beginning offer`d , but every Officer permitted to Walk where he pleas`d except into the Fortes, a liberty never granted to Strangers, nor was any Centinal ever plac`d in any of the King boats at landing, nor even into those of the Transports, an Extraordinary Mark of Civility & Confidence - and of which every

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Every officer in our fleet was perfectly Sensible-
During our Stay here, we were permitted to Erect a Tent upon this Island Enchado`s, a Small Island about 1 mile & half farther up the Harbor than where we lay with the Ships; this Tent was for the purpose of landing a few of the Astronomical Instruments which was necessary for Ascertaining the Rate of the Time Keeper; they were put under the Care and management of Lieut. Dawes of the Marines, a Young Gentleman very well qualified for such a business & who promises fair, if he pursues his study’s to make a respectable figure in the Science of Astronomy.-
The weather was rather unfavourable during the Time the Instruments were on shore, but as Constant attention was paid, every opportunity which offer`d was made use of, and the Watch was found here to be losing 2”:27 which is near a second more than was found to be its rate at Portsmouth -
The 21st. of August being the Anaversary of the Prince of Brazils Birth day, at Sunrise in the morning, we display`d the Flag of Portugal at the Foretop g`mast head and that of our

Own Nation at the Main & Mizzen; half an hour after 10 in the forenoon the ViceKing receives Comp.y upon that Occasion, All the Officers from our Fleet which cou`d be spar`d from Duty on board, landed and in a Body went to the Pallace to make our Bow upon this public day; His Excellency upon this as well as every other occasion, Shew`d us particular attention; We were the first Com.y admitted into the Levee room, then the Clergy & Military, after which the civilians and some of the Military promiscuously; when we enter`d the Room, a signal was made from the Pallace, and the Forte began to fire, Orders had been left with the Commanding Officer on board the Sirius to begin to Sallute, after the Forte had fir`d two Guns,which was particularly attended to, and the Sallute of 21 Guns was given; it is rather uncommon upon such public occasions, for an English Ship of war to Sallute at so Early an Hour, but certainly the greatest Compliment which we cou`d at such time pay them was to observe in this Case, the Custom practis`d by their own Ships --
On Monday 3rd Septr

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On Monday the 3rd of September, the Watering of the Convoy and every other part of their refitting being Completed, the signal was made from the Sirius, for every person to repair immediately on board their respective ships and at same time the Sig.l for unmooring was shown; On Tuesday morning with a light breeze from the Land, We Weigh`d with the Whole Convoy; When the Sirius had got within about half a Mile of Forte S:ta Cruz, that Castle Saluted with 21 guns, which was Answerd by us with the same Number, a very high and uncommon Compliment & such I believe as is Seldom paid to any Forriegner, but was no doubt Meant as a Suitable return to the Attention paid by His Majesties Ship to the Birth day of the Prince of Brazil. We carried wind enough out to run us Clear without the Islands before night –

The Harbor of Rio de Janeiro may be known when you are off it, by a remarkable Hill at its Entrance, Calld Pao d`Asucar, from its resemblance in Shape to a Loaf of Sugar, but there is a hill to the SE of the Harbor which is Calld by some The False Sugar Loaf, but which as you View it from the Eastward I think, has more the appearance of a Church with a Short Spire Steeple, this Hill

points out the Harbor to Ships at a distance much better than Pao d`Asucar - the land to Westw.d of the Harbor is High and Broken, & is commonly so Cover`d by Cloud, that you cannot discover the true make of it - Right off the Harbor lye several Islands, all steep too or nearly so, a few rocks project a very small distance from some of them but which cannot be considerd dangerous, as no person possessed of common prudence would ever take a ship so near the shore as they lay; within those Islands ( if you have not wind to carry you into the Harbor) You may Anchor, the best Berth for getting under way with any Wind, is to bring Island Raz (a low Island) to bear South or S½W one Mile distant, in 14 or 15 fm Water soft bottom, their is nothing in the way between this Anchorage and the Harbor; you will observe in the Entrance a small Island or rock, Fortified, calld Laze You sail about Mid chanel between this Island and Forte S:ta Cruz, observing that the Tide of Flood setts upon S:ta Cruz point and the Ebb upon the Island; the soundings from the outer Anchorage decreases from 14 fa:ms where we lay, regularly till near abreast the Sugar Loaf, where it is 6 ½ from this depth you

[Page 20]

You drop Suddenly into 12,14 & 16 fms - Run up & anchor off the Town in 17 or 18 fm. Clear soft ground.
Latitude of the Town (St: Sebastian) 22 °..54’..13” So.
Longitude deduc`d from our T.Keeper - 42..44 Et. of M.Green:ch and which agrees with that laid down in the New requisite tables, but which is certainly not Correct. determined by two sent from Portugal for that & other purposes - 43°..18’..45” W
Longde. by an Eclipse of Jupiter 3d Satellite by Wm. Dawes on I:d Enchados -
43°..19’..00”W By a Mean of several distances of Sun & Moon taken by me at the outer Anchorage - 43°..11’15” W
Do. By Lieut.Bradley - 43:33:00W.
The Tide flows here at full & Change of the Moon NEbN & SWBS & rises between 6 and 7 feet -
The Harbor is very Extensive and Commodious there are many Convenient Bays in it, where a vast many Ships may be laid up in perfect security from any bad Wr. - The Town is large, well Built & Populous, but ill Situated for the Health of its inhabitants; it Stands upon

Upon low Ground which was formerly Swampy and is surrounded with Hills of an immense Heigth, which entirely exclude the benefit of the refreshing Sea and land breezes, so that in the Summer time, it is really Suffocating hott, and of course very unhealthy; The Streets some few of them are pretty wide, the rest in general rather Narrow, they mostly intersect at right angles - the Square or Parade opposite which the Boats land, is large, & the building round it are good, the Vice Roys Pallace stands on the South side of this Square -
The Churches at this place are very good Buildings and their decorations are exceedingly Rich, they seem to have excellent Organs in them, all those which I saw here, as well as at Tenriffe had what in a large Church I conceive to be a considerabale improvement, and it is what I never have seen apply`d to any of our Organs, even in the largest churches in England; Each Pipe of the Organ has a treble which projects from its lower part in a horizontal direction, & is Wide at the outer end like a Trumpet, those Tubes throw every note distinctly into the Church and prevents what I have frequently observ`d in many of our Organs, some of the tones being almost lost in the Body of the Instrument -
I Observ`d here that the different Mechanicks carry on

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(36 - 37)
Carry on their Business in distinct parts of the Town, particular Streets being set apart for particular trades, You find one filld with Taylors, another with Shoemakers, a third with Carpenters &c. &c. As far as many Fortes & Guns can be said to give Strength to any place, the city of St.Sebastian may be considered as strong, the Island of Cobres which over looks & lays close to the Town, has a Strong Work upon it, the East End of it is rather low & there is good depth of Water off it, so that Ships of large size may come very near in, & there are many Hills very near, which Command the Town & most of the Works which defend it - I think had the city been built on the Island Calld Governor Island which is very large, it would certainly have been more healthy, as it would have been expos`d to both the Sea & land winds, and in case of an Attack coud certainly have been longer defended, as there are no rising ground near, from which it cou`d have been annoy`d with any Considerabale Effect, nor cou`d their Communication with the Country, in the upper part of the Harbor have been very easily Cutt off. The Exports

The Exports from Rio de Janeiro Annually are, 3200 Arobes of Gold, sent to Portugal, of which the King has a tenth part, 6000 Cases of Sugar, each Weighing 40 Arobes - 5000 Cases of rice - 1500 cases of Rum, each Cask containing 80 Almudas *
[* Note in margin - An Arobe is 32lb; An Almuda - 4 ½ Gals.]

Before we left this Port, we took on board the following Seeds & Plants (viz)
The Coffee Plant and Seed
Cocoa seed
Orange Lime & Lemon trees
Guava Seed
Prickly pear with the Cochineal insect upon it.
and Rice for Seed

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(38 - 39)
Not transcribed

[Page 1]

(40 - 41)
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(42 - 43)
We had light & Variable winds for the two first days, then it Vier`d round to the NE and freshen`d, it was sometimes as far to the No.w.d as NE, we Steerd off ESE & SE.
In Latitude 25.50 S. The Weather became dark & Cloudy with much rain & lighning all round the Horison, which Shifted the Wind to the Southward, and the Weather cleard up - On the 19th we saw several Pintada birds -
On the 29th having had thick hazey Weather during the Night, Some of the Convoy had been inattentive to the Course, and were found at Daylight Considerably Scatterd & to Leeward; We bore down & made the Signal for Closing.
Nothing worth relating happen`d during this passage, On the 12th Oct as we were expecting every hour to make the land, the Weather being hazey with a strong Westerly wind, at Midnight we made the Signal and brought too; at day light bore away & made Sail, and at 6 am Saw the land distant 10 Lgs - at Noon the Entrance of Table Bay bore East 9 Leags. At the distance of 7 or 8 Leag. from the land, the Supply Tender was Order`d to Wait for the Sternmost of the Convoy: Lieut. Ball took that opportunity of Sounding, & at the Above distance had 115 fms. Black sandy bottom, & at 5 Leag.s distance, he had 90 fms Sand with Small Stones - the Water -- appeard

appeard at a Much greater distance considerably discolour`d, from which I think there is reason to suppose that the Soundings from this part of the Coast run farther off to the Westward, they were all this time in the parallel of 34°..0’0 S --
14th. at 5 in the Evening we Anchored with the Whole Convoy in Table Bay, & at Sun rise in the morning Salluted the Forte with 13 guns, which was Answer`d by the same Number.
By Altitudes taken this Morning for the time Keeper, it appears, that we had not had sufficient time at Rio Janeiro for Ascurtaining the true Rate of the Watches going, having ditermind, what we have allow`d during this passage (viz) 2”:93 from a very few observations & those not to be relied on, the Weather having been unfavor.ble - for by the difference of Time between Merid`ns of Rio de Janeiro and the Cape, both which places are well ditermind the Watch has lost at the rate of 3”..17 which we shall hereafter allow to be the true Rate; and as a proof of that’s having been really its Rate all along; if we allow it from the Time of our leaving Portsmouth until our arrival at Rio de Janeiro, we shall have

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(44 - 45)
have the Longitude of that Place 43°.. 30’:30” Wt. of the Meridian of Greenwich, which is 45’..45” to the Westw.d of that laid down in the New requisite tables, & which agrees vry nearly with the Observations made upon the Spott. --
As Table Bay was the last Port at which we cou`d touch for refreshments during our Voyage; such Articles as we were in want of, both for present Consumption & for Stocking the intend`d Settlement were applied for in such quantitys as we cou`d find room for on board the different Ships; but Eight or ten days Elaps`d before any answer cou`d be obtain`d from the Council, what necessarys & in what quantitys they cou`d Supply us, this delay occasiond our taking more time here than was at first expected or intended. A few days before we sail`d, having completed such articles of provision &c. as we wanted, We Embarked on board the Sirius 6 Cows with Calf, 2 Bulls, one of which was a Six or Seven Month Calf, a Number of Sheep, Goats, Hogs & Poultry of different kinds; On board one of the Transports were put 3 Mares, each having a Six Months Colt, & a Young Stallion, a quantity of live Stock of different kinds were also put on board the Store Ships, so that the Whole on Government Account I think amounted nearly to what is marked in the Margin.
[Note in margin - 1 Stallion, 3 Mares, 3 Colts, 6 Cowes, 2 Bulls, 44 Sheep, 4 Goats, 28 Hogs]
The officers on board the Transports who were to Compose the Garrison, had each provided themselves

themselves with such live stock as they cou`d find room for, not merely for the purpose of living upon during the passage, but with a View of Stocking their little Farms in the Country to which we were going, Every person in the fleet were, With that View ditermind to live wholly on the Ships provision in Order that as much live Stock as possible might be landed upon our Arrival --
Having on the 12th November completed all our business here, we made preparation for Sailing, and on the 13th we Weighd with the whole Convoy & stood out of the Bay --
During the time we had lain in this Bay, I took a Considerable number of Lunar Observations by a Mean of which I make the Cape Town in Longitude 18° 24’..30” Et. of the Merid.n of Greenwich: Lat:de Ob: in the Bay 33°: 5’5 So. & Var.n of the Compas Observ`d ab.t 18 Leag.s to the Westward was 21°:5’2 W: --
We had fresh gales from SSE & SE sometimes at South for the first Eight days, which with a large head Sea so very much Distressed our Cattle, that we were very apprehensive we should lose some of them -
On the 25th being then in Lat 38°..48 So. & Long 25°..0’5 E Capt. Phillip embarked on board the Supply, in order to proceed Singly in that Vessel to the Coast of New South Wales, where he had no doubt of Arriving a fortnight or three weeks before us, as some of the Convoy saild very heavy; He took with him from

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(46 - 47)
From the Sirius, Mr. P:G:King 2nd Lieut. L. Dawes of the Marines, who had hitherto kept an Account of the Time Keeper, Which he also took with him; several Carpenters, Sawyers, & Blacksmiths, were likewise put on board the Supply, in Order, if they arrived in Sufficient time to Examine the place attentively, & the Governor had fixd on the most Eligible spot for Building upon, there to Erect some temporary Store Houses for the reception of the Stores, when the Convoy Arriv’d; but as a Number of Working people would be much wanted in Carrying on such Service, three of the best Sailing Transports under the Comm’d. of Lieut. Shortland the Agent, were also directed to quit the Convoy & make the Best of their Way to Botany Bay, Major Ross of the Marines (the Lt. Gov.n) Embarked in one of those Transports; the remaining transports and the three Store Ships were left under Care of the Sirius.
The next day after parting Company, the Supply was in Sight from the masthead & the three Transports were about 7 or 8 miles from us, but the wind having shifted to the SE in the night of the 27th We stood to the Southward & saw no more of them -
I was at this time of Opinion, that we had hitherto kept

Kept in too Northerly a parallel to insure Strong & lasting westerly winds, which ditermin’d me as soon as C: Phillip shou’d leave the Fleet to Stear to the Southward & keep in a higher Latitude - We had the wind from the NE with squalls & hazy Weather untill the 29th when it backd around to the Westward again & the Weather became fair --
After the Time Keeper was taken from the Sirius, I kept an Account of the Ships way by my own Watch which I had found for a Considerable time to go very well with Kendals, I knew it cou’d be depended on Sufficiently to carry on from one Lunar Observation to another without any Material error, for altho its rate of going was not so regular as I cou’d have wishd, yet its Variation wou’d in a Week or ten days not have amounted to any thing of Consequence - It was made for me By Mr. John Boockbank of Cornhill upon an improv’d principle of his own - The Lunar Observations which I never fail to take every opportunity, & which Lt. Bradley also pays Constant attention to, gives me reason to think by their near agreement with the Watch, that it Continues to go well - On the 1st of Dec:m our Long.d by Account was 36°..42E by the Watch 36°..48’Et: and by

[Page 26]

and by distance of Sun & Moon 36deg;.. 24’E Lat 40°..05’ So.Vart:n of the Compas 29°..40’W for three Successive days both Mr. Bradley & myself have had a Variety of distances by which our Account seems to be very Correct----
I now determind, never (if I cou’d avoid it) to go to the No.wd. of Lat 40°..00’ but to keep between that par:l and 43°..00 or 44°00 after the 3d I found by Altitudes taken for the Watch that we went farther to the Eastward, than the Log gave us, No opportunity Offer’d for getting A Lun.r Observation to Compare with it, until the 13th when both Mr. Bradley & I got several good distances of Sun & Moon by which our Longitude was 70°..22’E. by Watch 70°..07’E and by Acct. 67°..37’E:
On the 14th. the Weather being very clear, We had another sett of distances, which gave our Longitude 73°..06’E by Watch 73..09E & & by Acct. 70°..34’E,
Again on the 15th, Observ’d with two difft. Instruments, one by Runnden the other by Dolland, the results agreed within 10’ of the mean was 75&..18’E. by Watch 75°.16’E and by Account 72°..49’E: Mr. Bradleys mean was also 75°..18’E, that as I’ve already Observd the

the Ship seems gaining on the account, but there is no reason to believe, that in the Middle of this very Extensive Ocean we are over Subject to much Current I therefore atribute this sett to the Eastward, to the the large following sea, which has constantly attended us since we have taken a more Southerly parallel, the Variation of the Compas continued to increase pretty fast, until we were as far to the Eastwd. as 39°..00’E when we found it 31&.00’W. from that Longitude to 54°..30’E it increas’d very Slowly to 32°:00W which was the highest we had, during all that time between the parallels of 40°..00’ & 41°.00’So., We have seen many Whales of a very large Size during this part of our passage but very few birds;
on the 16: saw a quantity of Sea Weed, Which I suppose may have come from the Island St. Paul as we are now near its Meridian & not more than Sixty Leagues from it ---- We have at present every prospect of an Excellent passage to Vandeimans land, for altho’ the wind does sometimes shift to the NE. it seldom Continues more than a few hours, then backs round again to the NW. & SW, between which quarters it seems to blow as a

[Page 27]


as a trade wind, from NNE to the Westward and round to the SSW, is in general limits, we have frequently hazey Wr. but not so thick as to be called foggy, the wind in general very fresh ---
Whenever there is an appearance of hazey Weather coming on, to prevent those Transports which sail heavy, from the Risk of being separated from the Sirius, the Signal to Close is always made, and the Convoy kept in as Close order as possible
20th. the Wind increases and is steady between WNW & SW. We seldom sail less than 50 Leagues in the 24 hours, frequently more, the NW winds we generally have foul Wear. but whenever it Changes to the SW quarter it Clears up & becomes pleasant - It seems to be exactly the reverse of the effects produced by the Winds in the Northern Hemisphere, Where, it is well known to Seamen, that Southerly and SW. Winds are generally attended with hazey & foul Wear. often Accompanied by strong Gales - it is exactly so here with the Wind from the NW - We know by Experience when in the open Ocean at a

at a distance from Land, in either Hemisphere, that the winds which blow from those quarters of the Compas next the Elivated Pole are generally dry & clear, & from the opposite, commonly Wett & hazey ---
Jan:y 1788 1st:
On the 1st. Jan.y We had a very heavy Gale of wind from NNW to WNW attended with frequent & very Violent Squalls or Gusts & hazey Weather, the Convoy in General were brought under a Ruft Foresail, & the Sirius carried her three Storm Staysails, so that the Transports shou’d not find it necessary to attempt carrying more sail than was consistant with Safety, the Sea was very high and irregular & broke with great violence on some of the Ships, the rolling & labouring of our Ship --- exceedingly distressed our Cattle, which were now in a very weakly state, and the great quantity of Water which we ship’d during this Gale, agravated their distress much, the poor Creatures were frequently thrown with much violence off their Legs, and exceedingly bruis’d by this fall, alltho’ every means which cou’d be Contrivd for their care & Comfort was practis’d the Ship was very ill fitted for such a Cargo, and the very lumber’d Condition she has constantly

[Page 28]

[Duplicate page]

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Constantly been in render’d it impossible to do more for them, except by putting Slings under them, a Method which when propso’d, was rejected by those to whose care and Management they were intrusted, from an Idea, that they wou’d intirely lose the use of their Legs by such means, although it were only practis’d in bad Weather ---
We perceive the Sea now in the night spread over with luminous Spotts, much resembling so many lanthorns floating on the Surface, whether this appearence proceeds from the Spawn of fish which may swim in small Collected quantitys, or from that Animal of a Jelly like Substance, which is known to Sailors by the name of Blubber, I cannot tell but believe the latter, as we have seen in the day some of a large size; We have also now many Sea Birds about the Ship, such as Albatrosses Gulls of different kinds, and a large blackish Bird which in the motion of its Wings, has much the appear:ce of a Crow but its neck and Wings are longer than that Bird, and altogether rather larger,
On the

On the 4th. Jan.y had a number of good Observations for the Longitude, and as it was probable they might be the last we shou’d have an opportunity of taking before we shou’d make VanDiemans land, the result which was 135°..30’E. was markd with Chalk upon a black painted board and Shewn over the Stern to the Convoy, at the same time a Signal made which had been previously appointed ---
On the 6th. in the Evening as I intended running in for the Land all night, made the Signal for the Convoy to Close & to drop into the Sirius’s Wake under an easy sail, the Night was dark, but Clear in the Horison so that we cou’d see near two Leagues ahead- this Night the Aurora Australis was very bright, of a beautiful bright Crimson Colour, Streak’d with Orange, Yellow, & White, & these Colours were Constantly Changing their place, the highest part was about 45°. above the Horison & it Spread from SEE to SSW.
7th. On the next morning at sun rise, one of the Transports having pushed a little ahead, made Signal for see the Land in which however she was

[Page 30]

She was mistaken, We at this time judg’d ourselves not less than 33 or 34 Leagues from it, deducing our distance from last Moon Observation---
It may not be improper before I proceed farther to Observe the Compas, that its Westerly Variation decreas’ d from the Longde. 54° 3’[indecipherable] where it was greatest (Viz) 32°..10’W to Longde. 135&..30’E where it was 1°.00’E. -- We continued steering in for the Land, but the Weather being cloudy, in order to make sure of our Latitude which was in our present Situation of Consequence, took two altitudes before noon by which we were in 44°.05’So. which being Seventeen Miles to the Southward of the Rock called the Mewstone hauld up from the ENE to NE and at 3PM of the [indecipherable] by Log - made the land in that direction, Stood well in with the Mewstone, and as the Wind was fresh from the Westward, I woud have gone within it and rang’d along the Coast from point to point, but having a Convoy of Transports & Storeships astern who were all to be led by the Sirius, I was apprehensive in case it fell little wind under the land and Night

Night sett in, and an accident might have happened to some of those Ships, which all the knowledge I coud have gained by a nearer Examination of the Coast, wou’d not have compensated: therefore stood on without the Mewstone and Steerd in for the South Cape which we past at 3 Miles distance, leaving the Rocks calld Swilly & Edistone without us - the South Cape terminates in a lone rocky pt. and appears to be a bold Shore and the Hills within it which are Moderately high, appear to have many tall trees upon them, which are very Streight & seem to have no branches but near the Top from which Circumstance I suppose them to be the Palm or Cabbage tree - to the Eastward of the South Cape between that, & the next point of land which is called Tasmans head, is a large Bay at the bottom of which there appears to be an Island or two; from the SW Cape to the South Cape there several bays & pretty deep inlets, which may probably afford some good Harbors, there are also, several appearances of Islands upon this part of the Coast but most of them seem to lay pretty near the land, except the Mewstone which is*
about 10 Miles off ∓ Swilly –
[*Note in margin - a high ragged rock ]

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Swilly & Eddystone which lay about SbE from South Cape about 5 Leags. distant; Swilly is a high Rock & Eddystone has at a distance the appear.ce of a Sail these two rocks are at opposite ends of a ledge or Reef of Sunken rocks on which the Sea seem’d to break very high, this ledge lies ENE & WSW the two rocks are in one with that bearing –
The Latitudes & Longitudes of the different points or Capes seem to have been very Correctly determind by Cap.ts Cook & Furneaux when they were here it wou’d therefore be superfluous to mention them here from any other Authority, they have settled them as under -
SW Cape. Latd. 43°. 37’So. - 146°..07E’ of Greenw.
So: Cape - 43°..42’So. - : 146°..56’E
Tasmans Head - 43..33 - 147.28
Swilly I:d or Rock - 43.55 -147.06 ------
Adventure Bay - 43.21.20 -147.29
Such Observations as we had an opportunity of making over this part of the Coast agreed very well with the above ------

We had Just got to the Eastward of the South Cape as it became dark, and were about 4 Miles from it, when it fell Calm, and soon after the wind sprang a very light Air from ENE which with a large westerly Swell Scarsely gave the Ships Steerage way, this Situation gave me some Anxiety, as I was uncertain whether the Sternmost Ships had seen Swilly, and they were at this time a little Scatter’d, the Breeze however favor’d us by freshing up at NE which enabled the whole of us to Weather those rocks without the apprehension of passing too near them in the dark, in the Morning at day light they bore WSW 3 leagues - Here we saw many Animals playing alongside, which were at first taken for Seals, but after having seen a Considerable number of them, I did not think they were the Seal, at least they appeard to me to be a very different animal from the Seals to be mett with on the Coast of America and Newfoundland, for they have a Short round head, but this Creatures head was

[Page 32]

1788 Jan.y
was longer & taperd to the Nose, it had very long whiskers, it frequently rais’d itself half the length of its body out of the Water to look round it, and often leapd intirely out, which I do not recollect ever to have seen the Seal do, from these differences I judg’d it to be something of the Sea Otter
On the night of the 8th. it blew so strong from NNE & No. as to bring us under Close reefs Maintops.l ∓ foresail, this Gale was accompanied with thunder Lightning & rain which soon chang’d it to the SW quarter and immediately cleard the Wear.
On the 10th. we had two very violent While Squalls from the NW. with lightning thunder & rain, these Squalls came on so very suddenly that some of the Convoy were taken with too much sail out, which obligd them to let go their Tacks & Sheets by which, One Ship Carried away her Mainyard in the Slings, another had her three Topsails blown from the Yards & a third lost her Jib & some other but trifling accident, this occasiond a short delay,

delay but as soon as those Accidents were repaird we made sail & availd ourselves of every Slant of Wind to get in with the Coast; I was desirous of falling in with it about Cape Howe, which is in Lat: 37°..30’S & 150°..00’E and from thence to have run down along the Coast to Botany Bay, but the wind prevaild so long from the No. & NW that we cou’d not fetch that part of the Coast
On the 15th. by a good Lunar Observation found our Longitude to be 152°..43’E which was 25 Leag.s farther from the Coast than I expected we were,
Every endeavour was exerted to get to the Westward and on the 19th in the evening, Judging from the last Observation, the reckoning being out, that we cou’d not be above 8 or 9 Leags. from the land, the wind being from the Et:ward, made the Signal & bro’. too with the Convoy till day light, when we made the land in Lat. 34°..50’So. 6 or 7 Lgs. distant we steerd in slanting to the No.ward until we came within 6 or 7 Miles of the Shore, then stood along

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Along the Coast at that distance, not choosing as the Wind was Easterly to carry the Convoy nearer; At Noon we were abreast of Red point which is well describd by Captain Cook, Observ’d its Lat. to be. 34°..29’So. - this point being only 10 Leags. from Botany Bay, I made sail ahead of the Transports, in order if possible to get sight of its Entrance before night, there being a Number of projecting points herebout, which by being so near in shore deceivd us a good deal, however we discovered from the Mast head before dark, what I had no doubt was the entrance of the Bay, as we were now near its Latitude which is certainly the only true guide by which you can find it, for the Coast has nothing so remarkable in it, as to serve as a direction for finding this Harbr. about 3 Leagues to the Southward of B. Bay there is a range of whitish Colourd Cliffs on the Coast which extend some distance farther South, & over these Cliffs the land is Moderately high and

and level, on this level land, there is a small Clump of trees something like that on Port Downhill near Portsmouth, these I think the only remarkable objects here --- As soon as we had bro’t the Entrance of the Bay to beat NNW, bro’t too & made Sigl. for the Convoy to pass in Succession under the Sirius Stern, When they were informed that I intended, as the wind was Easterly, to keep working off under an easy sail till daylight, and that the entrance of the Harbor bore NNW 7 or 8 Miles, which I suppos’d they cou’d not have been near enough to have seen before dark - the next Morning was fair with a SE wind, we made Sail at daylight for this opening, & by Signal order’d the Ships into the Sirius’s Wake, When the Bay was quite open, we discovered the Supply & the three Transports at Anchor, the former had Arrivd the 18th. & the latter the 19th: - at 8AM of the 20th: Anchord with the whole of the convoy in Botany Bay in 8 fathoms water * the Supply had not gaind more than forty hours of us,

*as the Ships were sailing in, a number of Natives assembled on the South Shore & by their Motions seemd to threaten, they pois’d their Spears & often repeated the Words Wara, Wara,

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And the three transports, twenty, We probably had fresher winds than they had, otherwise I think those Ships all Sailing well, shoud have had much more advantage of the heavy sailing part of the Convoy * - during the time we lay here, Sounded the Bay all over, & found a Consid.ble extent of Anchorage in 4, 5, 6, & 7fms. but wholly expos’d to E’sterly winds no possibility of finding Shelter from those winds in any part of the Anchorage, We Anchord on the North Shore off a Sandy Bay which I think as good a Berth as any in the Bay Cape Banks bore ESE - and Point Solander SSE. the ground Clear and good - the Wind either from the NE or SE quarter set on a prodigious sea - Higher up the Bay there is a Spott of 4 fathoms, where a few ships might be laid in tolerable security, but they must be lightend to enable them to pass over a flatt of 12 feet and that depth of narrow limits -------- (See page 257)
The day after my
*on the first day of my arrival I went with the Govr. to examine the South shore in order to find a spot for Erecting some buildings, but we found very little fresh water & not any spot very inviting for our purpose, we had s short Conversation with a party of the Natives who were exceedingly shy

My arrival the Governor accompanied by me one & two other officers embarkd in three Boats, and proceeded to the Northward along the Coast intending if we cou’d to reach what Captain Cook has called Broken Bay, with a Hope of discovering a better Harbor as well as better Country, for we found nothing at Botany Bay to recommend it as a place on which to firm an infant Settlement - in this excursion a large opening or Bay to the Northward of C: Banks about 3½ Leagues, was the first place we lookd into, it had rather an unpromising aspect on entring between the outer heads or Capes which form its entrance, which are High rugged & perpendicular Cliffs, but we had not gone far in before we discovered a large Branch extending to the Southward; into this we went, and soon found ourselves perfectly land lockt - with a good depth of water; We proceeded up for two days, examining every Cove or other place which we found Capable of receiving ships, the Country was also particularly notic’d, and found greatly Superior in every respect to that sound Botany Bay

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1788 Janry.
Botany Bay; the Governor Satisfied with the Eligibility of this Situation determind to fix his residence here, and returnd immediately to the Ships, and in two days after Saild round in the Supply with a detachment of the Marines to this Port, which Capt. Cook had observ’d as he saild along the Coast & Named it Port Jackson, he did not enter it amp; was therefore uncertain of there being a safe Harbor here, it has the appearance from Sea of being only an open Bay -
The Convoy was again left to my Care, the Commanders of the Transports having previously receivd their Orders from Captain Phillip to prepare for Sea.
On the 26 made the Signal for the Transports to get under way, We perceivd this Morning two larger Ships in the offing under French Colours, those Ships had been observd two days before, but the wind being fresh from NW they were unable to get in with the Land, I sent a Boat with an officer to assist them in, and about an hour after the Breeze sprang up from the Sea and they were safely anchord in the Bay - I then
[Note in margin]
On the 25th. of Jan.y we recd. the Time Keeper from the Supply, which I am sorry had been let down on board her during their passage from the Cape

got under way, & with the Transports workd out of the Bay, & the same Evening Anchord the whole of the Convoy in Port Jackson---
The two strangers were, the Boussole & Astrolabe, which Saild from Brest in June 1785 upon Discovery, & were commanded by Mons.r de la Perouse, Mons.r de L’Angle who Commanded one of those Ships when they left France, had been lately, when the Ships were at the Islands of Navigators, Murder’d there with several other officers and Seamen, by the Natives, who had before that unfortunate day, always appear’d to be upon the most friendly terms with them; This Accident we understood happened when their Launches were on shore filling water on the last day which they intended remaining at those Islands; during the time they were employ’d filling their water Casks, having the most perfect Confidence in the Friendly disposition of the Natives, the Sailors had been inattentive to the keeping their Boats afloat - some misunderstanding having happpen’d between some of the Seamen & Natives, an insult had been offerd by one or the other, which was resented by the opposite party, a quarrel –

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Quarrel insued, and the impossibility of Moving the Boats, expos’d the officers and Crews to the Rage of the Multitude, who attacked them with Clubs & Showers of Stones, & wou’d inevitably have Massacred the whole if there had not been a smaller boat at hand, which pick’d up those who depending on their swimming had quitted the Shore; Many of the Natives were killd upon this occasion, and the loss of the Ships was said to have been fourteen people kill’d including Captain de L’Angle and some other Officers; several were much wounded & the Boats intirely destroy’d - This account of that accident is by no means to be Consider’d as a Correct Statement of it, as it is only Collected from the little hints dropt in the Course of Conversation with different Officers of those Ships, they did not appear dispos’d to speak upon that subject, & we therefore did not presume to interrogate. The Voyage of those Ships will be no doubt be publish’d by the Authority, till then we must Wait for the particulars of that, and another unfortunate Accident which befell them upon the NW Coast of America where

Where they lost two Boats and twenty two people including Six Officers, in a Surf -

[Table of Wind not Transcribed]

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A few days after my Arrival with the transports in this Harbor, I sett off with a Six oard boat & small boat, intending to make as a good a Survey as circumstance wou’d admit, I took to my assistance Mr. Bradley (1st Lt.) Mr. [indecipherable] the master, & a young Gentleman of the quarter deck. During the time we were Employ’d on this business we had frequent meetings with different parties of the Natives, whom we found at this time very Numerous, which I confess I was a little surprised to find, after what had been said of them in the Voyage of the Endeavour, for I think it is observ’d in the Account of that Voyage, that at Botany Bay they had seen very few of the natives and that they appeard a very Stupid & incurious people. We saw them in very Considerable numbers & they appear’d to us to be a lively & inquisitive Race; They are a Straight, thin, but well made people rather small in their limbs but very active, they Examin’d with the utmost attention & [indecipherable] great astonishment at the different

Coverings we had on, for they certainly consider’d our Cloaths as so many different Skins, and the Hatt a part of the head; they were pleasd with such trifles we had to give them, and always appeard Chearfull & good humour’d, they danced & sung with us, & imitated our Words and Motions as we did them; they generally appeard arm’d with a Lancet & short stick which [indecipherable] in throwing it; this Stick is about three feet long, is flattened on one side, has a hook of Wood at one end, & a flat shell let into a split in the Stick at the other, & fastend with Gum; Upon the flat side of this Stick the lance is laid, in the upper end of which is a small hole into which the point of the hook of the throwing stick is fixd, this [indecipherable] the lance on the flat side of the stick, then [indecipherable] the Lance thus fixd in one hand with the forefinger & thumb over it to prevent its falling off sideways, Holding fast the throwing stick they discharge with considerable force & in a very good direction to the Distance of about sixty and twenty yards * Their Lances are in general about
[*Note in margin - I have seen a strong young fellow throw the lance full ninety yards which till then, I did not believe possible I measurd the distance –]

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about ten feet long. The Shell at one end of the throwing Stick is intended for Sharpening the point of the Lance & for varying other uses I have seen this Weapon frequently thrown, & think that a Man upon his guard may with much care either parry or avoid them altho it must be granted they fly with astonishing Velocity.
Whilst employ’d on the Survey of the Harbor, We were one Morning early in the upper part of it and at a Considerable distance from the Ship, going to land in order to take a few Angles, when we were a little surprisd to find the Natives here in greater Numbers than we had ever seen them before in any other place, we naturally Conjectured by their Numbers that they might have been those who inhabited the Coves in the lower part of the Harb.r & who upon our Arrival had been so much alarmd at our Numbers as to have judged it necessary to retire farther up; they appeard very hostile, vast Numbers of Arm’d Men appeard upon the Shore wherever we approached it, and in a threatening Manner, seemed to insist upon our not presuming to land; they were during the whole time we were

Were near them, hailing each other thro’ the Woods untill their Numbers were so much encreas’d, that I did not Judge it prudent to attempt making any acquaintance with them at this time, for as I have already observd we had only a Six Bord Boat & a Smaller, our whole Numbers leaving one Man in each Boat amounted to Ten Seamen three officers & myself with only three Musquets - We therefore for the present, Contented ourselves with making Signs of friendship, & returnd to the Ship. In two days after We appeard again in the same place better arm’d & prepard for an interview; their Numbers were not now so many, at least we did not see them, altho it was probable they were in the Wood at no great distance, but having occasion to put ashore in order to Cook some provision for the Boats Crews, I chose a Narrow projecting point of land for that purpose, which we coud have defended against some Hundreds of these people, I orderd two Marine Centinals upon the Neck in order to prevent a surprise, & immediatly set about making a fire We soon

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We soon heard some of the Natives in the Wood on the opposite shore, We call`d to them & invited them by Signs & an offer of presents to Come over to us, the distance was not more than 100 yds across in a short time Seven Men Embarkd in Canoes and Came over, they land’d at a Small distance from us, & advanced without their Lances, I went up to meet them & held up both my hands to Show that I was unarmed, two officers also advance`d in the same manner, We mett them & shook hands, but they seemd a good deal Alarm`d at four or five Marines under Arms by the Boats, upon which they order`d to ground their Arms & stay by them, they then came up with great Chearfulness & good humour and seated themselves by our fire amongst us, where we eat what we had with us, & invited them to partake, but they did not relish our food or drink -
I was one day in another part of the Harbor, on shore making friendship with a

a party of Natives, when in a very short time their Numbers increase`d to about Eighty or Ninety Men all Arm`d with Lance & throwing stick, & many with the addition of a Shield made of the Bark of a tree, some are in shape an Oblong square others are Oval, these were the first shields we had seen in the Country *
[*A] - Our numbers at this time were those I have already mention`d, & no better arm`d (only three Musquets) one of which I carried, they were very Noisy, but did not appear dispos`d to quarrel, We gave them such little presents as we had with us, with which they seem`d very well pleased, altho` we afterwards had much reason to believe, that such trifles only pleas`d as baubles do Children, for a Moment, for at other times we had frequently found our presents laying dispos`d upon the beach, altho’ Caught at by these people with much apparent Avidity at the time they were offer`d - Whilst we were Employ`d with this party, we Observ`d at a distance a Number of their Women, who were peeping from their Concealments, but durst not gratify their Natural Curiosity by appearing before & Conversing with us

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With us, for the Men appear here to be very absolute, I Signified to the Men that we had observ`d the Women, & that I wish`d to make them some presents if they might be permitted to Come forward & receive them, the Men seem`d unwilling to suffer them to advance, for we had generally observ`d that they took particular Care upon every occasion to keep the Ladies at a distance, & I believe wholly from an Idea of danger, they desird to have the presents intended for the Women & they woud Carry & deliver them, but to this proposal I positively refus`d to agree, and made them understand, that unless they were allow’d to come forward they shou`d not have any, finding I was determin`d, an old man who seem`d to have the principal Authority, directed the Women to advance, which they did immediately, with much good humour, and during the whole time that we were decorating them with Beads, rags of white linnen & some other trifles

Trifles, they laugh`d immoderately altho` trembling at the same time from an Idea of danger –
Most of those We saw at this time were Young Women I Judge from Eighteen to twenty five Years of Age, they were all as perfectly Naked as when first born -
The Women in general are Well made, & not quite so thin as the Men, but rather smaller limb`d.
As soon as these women were orderd to approach us, about Twenty Men whom we had not before seen, Sallied forth from the Wood, Completely Armed with Lance and Shield, & were painted with Red & White Streaks all over the face and body, as if intended to strike terror by their appearance, they drew themselves up on the beach in a line *
[* B]
& each man had a green bough in his hand as a sign of friendship, their disposition was as regular as any well disciplin`d troops coud have been, that party I apprehend was intended wholly for the defence of the Women if any insult had been offer`d then: We also Observ`d at this interview that two

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that two very stout Men Arrive`d, were placed upon a Rock near to where our Boats lay, as Centinals, for they never Mov`d from that Station untill we left the Beach, I therefore supposd they were orderd there to Watch all our Motions; We left these people after a Visit of about four hours, both parties apparently well pleas`d with all that pass`d.
In the different opportunities which I have had of getting a little acquainted with the Natives who reside in & about this Port, I am I confess dispos`d to think that it will be no very difficult matter in due time, to conciliate their friendship & Confidence, for although they generally appear Arm`d on our first Meeting, which will be allow`d to be very Natural, Yet whenever we have laid aside out Arms & have made signs of friendship, they have always advance`d unarm`d with Spirit & a degree of Confidence Scarsely to be expected, from that appearance of a friendly disposition I am inclin`d to think, that by residing for some

Some time amongst or near them. they will soon discover that we are not their Enemys, a light in which they no doubt Considerd us on our first arrival.
The Men in general are from 5 feet 6 inches to 5 feet 9 high, are thin but very straight & Cleanmade Walk very erect & are active, the Women are not so tall nor so thin, but are generally well made; their Colour is a rusty kind of Black something like that of Soot, but I have seen many of the Women almost as light as a Mulatto, We have seen a few of both sexes with tolerable good features, but in general they have broad noses & thick lips, & their Countenance altogether not very prepossessing, & what makes them still less so is, that they are abominably filthy they never Clean their Skin, it is generally Smeard with the fatt of such Animals as they kill, & coverd with every sort of dirt, sand from the Sea beach, & the ashes from their fires, all adhere to their greasy skin which is never Wash`d but when
Accident or the want of food Obliges them to go into the Water.- Some of the Men wear a piece of Wood or bone thrust thro` the Septum of the Nose which

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Which by raising the opposite sides of the Nose, widens the Nostril & spreads the lower part very much, which no doubt they Consider as a beauty, Most of those we hitherto mett, Want, (of the two foremost teeth of the upper Jaw,) the right one, and many of the Women want the two lower Joints of the little finger of the left hand, which we Cannot yet discover the reason or meaning of - for this defect in the little finger we have observ`d in Old Women and in Young Girls of 8 or 9 Years Old, in Young Women who have had Children, & in those who have not, and the finger has appear`d perfect in individuals of all the above ages and descriptions*,
[*Note in margin - They have very good teeth in general, their hair is short, strong and curly, but they seem to have no Method of Cleaning or Combing it, it is therefore filthy & matted - the men wear their beards which is short & Curly like the hair of the head.]
the Men Women & Children go intirely Naked as described by Captain Cook, they seem to have no fixd place of residence, but take their rest wherever Night overtakes them; they generally Shelter themselves in such Cavitys or hollows in the Rocks upon the Sea Shore as may be Capable of defending them from the Rain, and in order to make their appartment as Comfortable as possible, they Commonly make a good fire in it

in it before they lay down to rest, by which Means the Rock all round them is so much heated as to retain its Warmth like an Oven for a Considerable time, and upon a little grass which is previously pluckd & dry`d , they lay down in a huddle together *
If they retire back from the Water side a flake of Bark taken off a tree, bent in the Midle & sett upon its ends thus - with a piece sett against that end on which the wind blows, serves them as a habitation, & will Contain a whole family, for when the Weather is Cold which is frequently the Case in Winter, they find it necessary to lay very Close for the benefit of that warmth which they Mutually Contribute their share of - All the Natives ( Human ) that we have seen since our arrival here, appear to live chiefly on what the Sea affords, & Consequently we find the Sea Coast more fully inhabited than the interior, or that part of the Country, which we have had an opportunity of Visiting More remote from the Sea; the men fish with a Spear or fish Gig, in the use of which we will

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We will readily allow they may be, & are very dextrous, It is in length something more than the War Lance, but they Can according to the depth, increase its length by a Variety of Joints, Some have one, some two, three or four prongs, pointed & bearded with fish or other animals bone - We have sometimes in fine Weather seen a man laying across a Canoe with his face in the water, & his fish Gig immers`d ready for darting; in this Manner he lays Motionless, & by his face being a little under the Surface he can see the fish distinctly which were his Eyes above, the tremulous Motion of the Surface occasion`d by every Air of wind, wou`d prevent, in this manner he strikes at the fish with so much certainty that they seldom miss their Aim - The Women are Chiefly employ`d in the Canoes with lines & hooks, the line appears to be Manufactur`d from the Bark of Various trees which we find here of a tough Stringy Nature & which after being beat between two stones for sometime, becomes, very much like and of the same Colour

as a quantity of Oakham made of old rope, this they spin & twist into two strands, I never saw a line with more than two; their hooks are Commonly made from the inside of Mother of Pearl, of different Shells, the Tallons of Birds, such as the Hawke they sometimes make this use of , but the former are Considered best - in this necessary Employment of fishing We frequently see a Woman with two or three Children, in a Miserable boat, the highest part of which is not 6 inches above the Surface, Washing almost in the edge of a Surf, which it would frighten an Old Seaman to Come near in a good & Manageable Vessel - The Youngest Child if very young, commonly lays across the Mothers Lap, from whence altho she is fully emply`d in fishing it cannot fall, for the Boat being very shallow she sitts in the bottom with her Knees up to her breast, between her Knees & body the Child lays perfectly secure -
The men also dive for Shellfish which they take off from the rocks under water, we frequently see them leap from a Rock into the Surf or broken

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Broken water, and stay surprisingly long under, when they rise to the Surface, whatever they have gather`d they throw on shore, where some person attends to receiving it and has a fire already kindled for Cooking; they have no other Method of dressing this food than that of broiling, Boiling water they have no Conception of, as appeard very lately when one of our boats was hauling the Seine, some of the people had put a pot on the fire ready to drop some fish, which when caught some were put into the Pot then boiling, several Natives being by who wish`d to have more fish than had been given them, seeing those which had been put into the boiling water not watch`d, put his hand into the Pot to take them out & was of Course Scalded and astonish`d –
With respect to Religion, we have not yet been able to discover that they have anything like an Object of Adoration

Neither ye Sun, the Moon, or the Stars seem to take up or occupy more of their attention, than they do that of any of the other Animals which inhabit this immense Country - their Dead they certainly burn & that I have been well Convinc`d of lately when Employ`d on the Survey of a distant Branch of Port Jackson; Some of my boats Crew having when on shore discover`d a little from the Water side upon rising ground, what they Judg`d to be a fresh Grave, I went up & orderd it to be opend, When the Earth was remov’d we found a quantity of White Ashes which appeard to have been but a very short time deposited there, amongst the Ashes we found part of a human Jaw bone & a small piece of the Skull, which altho` it had been in the fire, was not so much injur`d by it as to hinder our knowing perfectly what it was; We put the Ashes together again & Coverd it up as before; the grave was not Six inches under the Surface of the Ground, but the Earth was raised the height of our graves

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in Europe - In the Months of March & April we found the Natives to decrease in their Numbers considerably, We have no reason to suppose that they retire back into the interior parts of the Country, for in all the excursions which have been made inland, very few if any have been seen; the Sea Coast we have every reason at present to believe is the only part of this Country which is inhabited by the Human Race, the Land seems to afford them but a very scanty Sustenance, We have seen them broil & Chew the Fern roots, & there is a small fruit here, which is about the size of a Cherry, it is Yellow when half grown, & when ripe it is almost black. it grows upon a tree which is not tall but very full and bushy at the Top, of this fruit we have seen them eat, it has a good deal the taste of a Fig, & the Pulp or inside very much resembles that fruit, But the Sea is their principal resourse, Shell and other Fish are

are their chief Support, they frequently attend our boats when hauling the Seine, and are very thankful to the officer for any fish he may give them, for in Cold Weather the Harbor is but thinly stock`d. When we Arrived here it was full, we caught as many fish as cou`d be used, but in the Winter they seem to have quitted our Neighb’rhood.* I have no doubt that the people who inhabited Port Jackson when we first enterd it, are gone far to the Northward, and that it is their constant Custom as the Cold Weather approaches to seek a Warmer Climate by following the Sun, & that in this practise they have another very powerful encitement, as well as the Comfortable Warmth of the Sun, which is that the fish incline to the Northward as the Cold Wr. comes on, this Conjecture seems in some degree to account for Captain Cooks having seen so very few of the Natives whilst he lay in Botany Bay, & that it appear`d to him that the Sea Coast was very thinly inhabited, for I think it was

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Was in April or May that he was there *
The Animal described in the Voyage of the Endeavour call`d Kangaroo *
[*Note in Margin - but by the Natives here, is call`d Patagerang]
we find in great Numbers, One was Shot the other day which Weigh`d 140 lbs: its tail was 40 inches long and 17 in Circumference at the root - it is very well described by C.Cook, we Eat the flesh with great relish, & think it good Mutton, altho not so delicate as that which we sometimes find in Leadenhall Market - the Strength this Animal has in its hind quarters is very great, in its endeavour to escape from us when surprised, it springs from it hind legs which are very long, and leaps at each bound about Six or Eight yard, but doesn not appear ever to lett its forefeet come near the ground, indeed they are so very short that it is not possible that the Animal can use them in running

they have vast strength also in their tail, it is no doubt a principal part of their defence, when attack`d, for they can strike with it with prodigious force, I believe sufficiently so to break the leg of a man, it is not improbable that this great power in the tail may assist them in making those astonishing springs.*
[* D] The Opossum is also very Numerous here, but it is not exactly like the American Opossum, it partakes a good deal of the Kangaroo, in the Strength of its tail & make of its fore legs which are very short in proportion to the hind ones like that animal, it has the Pouch or false Belly for the safety of its Young in times of danger, which the Kangaroo has also, & its Colour is nearly the same; there are many other Animals of a Smaller size, down as low as the field Rat which in some part or other partake of the Kangaroo & Opossum, we have Caught many Rats with this pouch for bearing off their Young when pursued - It wou`d

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It wou`d appear from the great Similarity in some part or other of the different Creatures of the Quadruped kind which we find here, that there is a promiscuous intercourse between the different Sexes of all these different Animals The same observation might be made also on the fishes of the sea, on the fowls of the air, & I may add the trees of the forrest- it is wonderfull to see what a vast variety of fish we have caught which in some part or other partake of the sharks it is no uncommon thing to see a skates head & shoulders to the hind part of a shark, or a sharks head to the body of a large mullet, & sometimes to the flat body of a sting rae- With respect to the feather`d treble, the parrot prevails, we have shot birds with the head neck & bill of a parrot, & with the same variety of the most beautiful plumage on those parts for which this bird here is distinguish`d, and a tail and body

and Body of a different Make & Colour & long Straight & delicately made legs and feet, which is the reverse of every Bird of the Parrot kind, I have also seen a Bird With the legs & feet of a Parrot, the Head & Neck made & Colour`d like the Common Sea Gull & the Wings & tail of a Hawke*
[*Note in margin - I have also seen trees bearing two diff’t kinds of leaves, & frequently have found some having the same leaf & with some kind of Gum exuding from them & cover`d with bark of a very different kind -] There are a great Variety of Birds in this Country, all those which are of the Parrot kind, such as the Macaw, Cockatoo, Lory, Green Parrot, Parroquet of different kinds and sizes & the Loriquette are Cloath`d with the most beautiful Plumage which can be conceiv`d, it would require the Pencil of an Able Limner to give a stranger an Idea of them, for it is impossible by Words to describe them - The Common Crow is here in great numbers, but the Sound of their Voices & Manner of Croaking is very different from those in Europe, there are also vast Numbers of Hawkes of Various Sizes & Colours here are Pidgeons & Quails, with a great Variety of Smaller Birds, but have not found one with a pleasing Note

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(96 -97)
There have been several large Birds seen, since our Arrival in this Port; They were supposd by those who first saw them, to be the Ostrich, as they cou’d not fly when pursued, but ran exceedingly fast, so much so, that a very strong & fleet Greyhound cou’d not come near them; One we have lately had Shott, which gave us an opportunity of a More Close examination- Some were of Opinion that it was the Emew which I think is particularly describd by Doctor Goldsmith from Linnaeus; others imagined it to be the Cassaware, but it far exceeded that Bird in its size, it was when Standing, 7 feet 2 inches from the feet to the upper part of its head, the only difference which I cou’d perceive between this Bird & the Ostrich was in the Bill, which appear’d to one to be Narrower at the point it had three toes which I am told is not the case with the Ostrich, it had one Characteristic by which some people may know it & which we thought very extraord.y.

Extraordinary; from every quill two distinct feathers grew out- The flesh of this Bird altho Coarse was thought by us delicious Meat, it had much the appearance when Raw, of Neck beef, a party of five with me din’d on a side bone of it most Sumptuously- The Pot or the Spit receives every thing which we can Catch or Kill, the Common Crow is relish’d here, as well as the Barn door fowl in England. -

Of Insects there are as great a Variety here as of other Creatures, the Scorpion, Centipede, Spider, Ants & many others, the Ants are of various Sizes from the Smallest known in Europe, to the size of near an inch in length, some are Blacks some white & others of the largest sort are Redish, this kind are really a formidable little Animal, if you tred near the Nest which is generally under ground with various little passages or outletts, and have disturbed them, they will Sally forth in

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forth in vast Numbers & attack with astonishing Courage, & even pursue to a Considerable distance; their Bite is attended with a most acute pain- Some build their Nests against a tree to the Size of a large Beehive, & another kind raise little Mounts of Clay up on the ground to the Heighth of four feet -
In speaking of the Spider it woud be improper to be Silent upon the industry of this little Creature, I call them little, altho if Compard with our Common Spider they are very large, they Spread their Web, in the Woods between the trees, commonly to a distance of twelve or fifteen yards, and Weave them so very strong that it requires considerable force to break them. I have seen the Silk of which the Web is compos’d, wound off into a Ball, & think is equal to any I ever Saw in the same state from the Silk worm, it is of the same colour, a pale Yellow or

or Yellow or Straw Colour; None of the Gentlemen Employ’d here, have yet made any particular Observation upon the manner in which this Animal is produc’d, or how they prepare their Silks, but I have found upon Bushes on which the Web has been found, hanging in Clusters, a thin shell something like that in which the Silk Worm prepares its Silk, but of this shape [ sketch indicates a spindle shape] & upon opening them they have had a quantity of this Silk within which a Spider was found Wrap’d up - Snakes we have seen from the Smallest size known in England to those of Eleven feet long, & about as large as a Mans Wrist- The Natives we have seen accompanied by a Dog, which appear to be Domesticated as ones in Europe- They are of the Wolf kind & of a reddish Colour - When speaking of Birds I shou’d have mentioned that some of our Gentlemen have seen in the Lagoons & swamps which they have fallen in with in their Shooting excursions, the Black Swan which is

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which is said to have been found in some parts of the West Coast of this Country, the Extremity of their Wings is White & all the rest of the Plumage Black, I am this Moment desird to come on shore & see one which has been Shott - It answers the above description as to Colour, but its Bill is a pale pink or crimson, it is about the size of the Common White Swan at Home & is good Meat.
The Vast Variety of beautiful plants or flowers which are to be found in this Country, may hereafter afford much Entertainment to the Curious in the Science of Botany, but I am wholly unqualified to describe the different sorts in which we find the Woods to abound - We sometimes meet with a little Wild spinnage, parsely & sorrel, but in too small quantities to hope for any advantage to the Seamen from - The Flax plant has been found here in several places but not in any Consid.le quantity.

I have heard it reckon’d a good kind, but in that also I must confess myself ignorant -
In the Infancy of a Foreign Settlement the want of Timber to Carry on the Necessary buildings will be allowed to be a very great inconvenience.
We are here in the Middle of a Wood, in which we have trees from the Size of a Mans Arm to those of 28 feet Circumference, but they are either so very Crooked, so Bent, or so very Rotten in the heart, that we can Scarsely get one sound or Serviceable Plank in a dozen, and what is in our Situation a very great Misfortune, we do not find one piece of timber that will float in Water- it is so exceedingly heavy that when a large tree is Cut down, in order to Clear a piece of ground, it will sometimes take a party of Men three or four days to dispose of it or Move it off the Place –

Weather - We arriv’d in this Country in the End of January 1788. The Weather was then very fine tho’ Warm, Sea and Land Winds pretty regular,

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Regular, and Farrenheits Thermometer was from 72 to 80 - - In Feb.y the Weather was Sultry, with Lightning Thunder & very heavy rain, this sort of Weather continued for a fortnight, with few & very short intervals of fair Wr. a flash of lightning fell one Night near the Camp, Struck a tree near the Post of a Sentinel who was much hurt by it, the tree was much rent & there being at the foot of it a Pend in which were a few Sheep & Pigs, they were killd. towards the End of this Month, the Weather was more Settled, less Thunder lightning &rain The Thermom.r has been from 65 to 77-
In the Middle of this Month Lt. King of the Sirius with a Masters Mate & Surgeons Mate with four other people from the Ship together with a few Men & Women Convicts embark’d on board the Supply Armd Tender & she saild for Norfolk Island, in her passage thither, they fell in with a Small Island which had not before been

discover’d. It lays in Lat:31°..36’ So. and about 140 Leagues to the Eastward of this Coast. Lieut. Ball named it Lord Howes Island. After having landed the party intended to remain on Norfolk Island, with their provisions and Stores, Mr Ball in his return to Port Jackson call’d again at Ld. Howes Island in order to Examine it more particularly, He found Anchorage on the West Side of it, but the bottom was Coral Rocks, He landed with the Boats within a reef & Caught many excellent Turtle upon a Sandy Beach, This Island also abounded with a Variety of Birds which were so unaccustom’d to being disturbd that the Seamen came near enough to knock down with sticks as many as they wanted -
March - In March the Weather was Variable, sometimes Strong Gales from the Southw.d & SE with Moist and hazy Wr. A great Sea rolling in upon the Coast- This Month the Marines were Order’d

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[Margin note: Therm. 60 to 75°]

Were Order’d to Clear ground & begin to build Hutts & Barracks for the Winter, the convicts were also directed to employ certain hours in the same necessary work for themselves; the Mornings & Evenings are now rather cold.
April: In the Month of April the Weather was much the same as in March rather Variable. A few days of Cloudy Weather with rain which generally fell in the Night, Southerly & SE winds, but when the wind shifted to the W’ward or NW the Weather became fair & pleasant, and this Wea.r is frequently attended with Sea and Land Breezes, the Mornings & Evenings are cold, Middle of the day (if calm) very hott Thermom.r from 68 to 72.
May: Beginning of this Month much bad Wea.r Strong Gales from So. to SE generally attended with rain in the night, Middle of the Month fair & Settled Weather for several days together with a regular Sea & Land Wind, towards the End of the Month the Wind prevails between

Between SW and SE the Weather unsettled, Showers of rain Commonly fall in the Night, in the day little wind and warm Wea.r - Therm.r 56 to 67°
June: Beginning of June fair & pleasant Wea.r attended with Land & Sea breezes, from the Middle to the latter Stormy Weather with much rain the Wind Cheifly from the SE quarter Therm.r 52 to 62.
July: This Month begins with the same blustering rainy Wea.r which the last ended with, but the Middle was less windy, tho’ Cloudy & dull with frequent Showers, end of the Month fair Weather with Westerly wind. Therm.r 52 to 63.
August This Month Commences with Cloudy W.r and Much rain Southerly & SE winds, the Middle Moderate & fair with Variable wind, the latter part was fair W.r with light & Variable Wind the Thermometer from 56 to 72.
Septem.r From the beginning till about the 20th the Wea.r was Cloudy with frequent Showers of rain but the latter part of the Month had strong Gales from the SE quarter. As I left

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As I went to Sea in the begining of October, I am oblig’d to defer any further account of the Weather at Port Jackson through the different Months in the Year until another opportunity.

[Margin note: See page 208]

I judg’d it better, whilst mentioning the Weather during the different Months, to go on with that by itself, & not to mix it with any other occurrences - I must therefore return back as far as the beginning of March; at which time, as the two French Ships were preparing to leave this Coast, I determind to visit Monsr. de la Perouse before he shoud depart, I accordingly with a few other officers saild round to Botany Bay in the Sirius’s Long boat. We stay’d two days on board the Boussole & were most Hospitably & Politely entertained, & very much prepd to pass a longer time with them. When I took my leave the Weather prov’d too stormy to be able to go along the Coast in an open boat, I therefore
left the Longbt.

Left the Longboat on board the Boussole, took my gun & with another officer & two Seamen, travelld thro`the Woods & Swamps of which there were many in our Route and directed our Course by a pocket Compass, which led us within a Mile of our own Encampment, the distance from Botany Bay to Port Jackson across the land & near the sea shore is in a direct line about 8 or 9 Miles and the Country, about two miles to the Southwd. of P. Jackson is high Woods with little or No underwood, but between that and Bo. Bay it is, all thick low Woods or Shrubberys, Barren Heaths, & Swamps; near the Sea, the Land altho` Coverd in many places with Wood is Rocky from the Waterside to the very Summit of the Hills - Whilst walking on shore with the Officers of the T. Ships at Botany Bay, I was shewn by them a little Mount upon the No. Shore which they had discovered & thought a Curiosity, it was quite rocky on the Top the Stones were all standing perpendicularly
on their

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On their ends, and were in long but Narrow pieces, some of three, four or five sides exactly in Miniature resembling the Giants Causway in the North of Ireland - The Boussole & the Astrolabe saild from B. Bay 11th of March.
As I have mentiond something of the Country between Bo. Bay & this place I must farther observe, “ that in the Neighberhood of Sydney Cove which is that part of this Harbour in which Governor Phillip has fixd his residence, there are many spotts of tollerable good land, but they are in general of but small Extent, exclusive of those particular spots it is rather a poor Sterile Soil, full of Stone - But near and at the Head of the Harbour, there is a very considerable extent of tollerable land, and which may be Cultivated without waiting for its being cleard of the Wood, for the Trees stand very wide

Wide from each other, & have no underwood , in Short the Woods here in the place I am speaking of, resemble Deer Parks, as much as if they had been intended for such a purpose but the Soil *

[* In the margin - but the Soil appears to me to be rather Sandy & Shallow, & will require much Manure to improve it which is here a very scarse Article, however there are people whose Judgement may probably be better than mine, that thinks it good land - I confess that farming has never made any part of my Studys.- ]

The Grass upon it is about three feet high, very close & thick, probably farther back, there may be very Extensive tracks of this kind of Country, but we have not yet had time to make very distant Excursions into the interior part of this New World. On the 6th of May three of the Transports which were Charterd by the East India Company to load Tea at China, Saild from this Port; the Supply also went to sea. The Carpenter of the Sirius with his Crew, have been constantly Employ`d on Shore Since our Arrival in this Country, in assisting in Erecting Store Houses & their necessary Buildings, The ships company variously employ`d out of the Ship upon the business of the Settlement - The scurvy has for some time past appeard more amongst

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amongst the seamen, Marines, & Convicts, then when on board the Ships, which will appear Strange, after having enjoy`d the advantage of being much upon the land & eating various Vegetable productions, but this the Gentlemen of the Faculty say, is no uncommon thing, particularly where we are under the Necessity of Continuing the same Salt diet; Setting aside this & a few with dysentarys, the Health of the people cannot be said to be bad - about the Middle of this Month a Convalescent who had been sent from the Hospital to gather wild spinnage or other greens, was Murderd by the Natives; there were two of them together, the one escap`d but was Wounded, the other has never been heard of since, but as some part of his Cloaths were found which were bloody & had been peirc`d by a Spear it was Concluded he had been Killed - *
Some Short

[In the margin - * E ]

Some Short time after this accident, two of the Convicts who were higher up the harbour in Cutting Rushes for thatching, were found Murderd by the Natives, it has been strongly suspected that these people had engage`d in some dispute or quarrel with some of them, and as they had hatchets & Billhooks with then, it is beleiv`d they might have been rash enough to use Violence with some of the Natives who had no doubt been Numerous there, be that as it might, the Officer who went to look after these unfortunate men, & to see what work they had done, after hailing some time for them without any reply, sett his boats Crew upon the Search, who having found a considerable quantity of blood near their Tent, suspected what they very soon found to be the case, for they discovered the two men immediately after laying in different places both dead; the one had his Brains beat out with a club or stone & several

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and several other Wounds, the other had many Wounds, & a part of a spear which had been broke, sticking quite thro` his Body: Their Tent, provisions & Cloaths remaind, but most of the tools were taken away.
The 4th of June being the Birthday of our much belov`d Sovereign, and the first we had seen in this far distant part of His Dominion, it was Celebrated by all ranks with every possible demonstration of Loyalty and Concluded with the utmost chearfulness and good Order, Having at this time of the year much bad Weather & some very heavy Gales of wind; I must observe that I had, as well as many others, beleivd till now, that the Gales (to which we are pretty frequently Subject in the Winter) had never blown upon this Coast in such a direction, but that a Ship on being Close in with the land when such

Such Gale commenc`d, might gain an offing upon one Tack or other; but we now find that those gales are as Variable in their direction upon this Coast as any other during the Winter Season, I wou`d therefore recommend it to Ships bound into any Port here to the Southward of Lat:30°00 S. at this time of the Year, to get in or Near the parallel of their Port before they attempt to make the Land, as in that case, if a Gale from the Eastward shou`d take them when near the land, they woud have their Port under their Lee, for it woud be next to an impossibility for a Ship to keep off the Land with such a sea as those gales occasion.
In July, our Scorbutic patients seem to be rather Worse; the want of a little fresh food for the Sick is very much felt, & fish at this time are very Scarse, such of the Natives as we meet seem to be in a Miserable & Starving Condition from that Scarsity, We frequently fall in with Familys living in the Hollow part of a Rock by the Sea side,

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duplicate image

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by the Sea side, where they eagerly watch every opportunity of Moderate Weather to provide Shell or other fish for their present Sustenance, If a bird is Shott & thrown to them, they immedly pluck off the feathers & put upon their fire without taking out the Entrails, they eat the Whole, and if it is a small Bird, do not even throw the bones away. This Season in which fish are so scarse, Subjects these poor Creatures to great distress, at least we are apt to beleive so, We frequently find them gathering a kind of Root in the Woods, which they broil on the fire, then beat it between two Stones untill it is quite Soft, this they Chew untill they have extracted all the Nutritive part, then throw it away - This Root appears to be a Species of the Orchis or has much of its nutritive quality - We frequently discover in this Season, large fires upon some of the Hills, and have been much at a loss to know for what purpose those fires were so frequently kindled at this

this time of the Year, But in going down the Harbor one day with an intention to get up the North head for the purpose of ascertaining its exact Latitude, We observ`d on a Hill near that point one those large fires, which, with the 1st Lieut & Surgeon who were with me, we determine`d to Visit, and as we thought it might probably be some funeral Ceremony which we were very desirous of seeing; We took our Guns & intended getting up amongst them unperceiv`d; but when we arrivd at the place, to our very great disappointment not a person was to be seen but believe there were not less than four or five acres of ground all in a Blaze. We then conjecture`d that those fires were made for the purpose of Clearing the ground of the Shrubs & underwood, by which means they might with greater ease get at those Roots which appear to be so great a part of their Sustenance during the winter, We have observ`d that they generally

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Generally take the advantage of windy Weather in making those fires, which will of course occasion their Spreading over a greater extent of ground.

[Note in margin - “How they make fire”]

On the 14th of July, Four Transports under the Command of Lt. Shortland, saild for England, they intended going to the No.W.d and passing thro` the Straits of Macassar & Sunda, the Season being too Early to attempt going round Vandiemans land & to endeav.r to get to the Westward by that tract, or to go to the Eastward by Cape Horne - this Month we lost two seamen by the Scurvey.

[Note in margin - Officer of Ships & the Settlement stand with the Govt.]

The 12th of August being the Birthday of his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales a Sallute of 21 Guns was fird from the Sirius, & the Supply.
We began at this time to take equal Altitudes for ascertaining the exact Rate of the Time Keeper - On the 17th the Governor directed two Boats from the Sirius with a proper officer in

in each to go up the Harbor, one to take the No. side, the other the South, to enter every Cove in their way up in order to ascertain as exactly as possible the Number of Canoes and Natives within the Harbor of Port Jackson; for the same purpose, two other boats went down the Harbor, in one of which the Governor went himself & I proceeded in the other; in the lower or North part of the Harbor - there were a considerable Number of Canoes, some of which were then Employ`d at a small distance from the Shore in Catching fish, upon my going round the Coves, they all left their Work and pushd with great precipitation for the land, which convince`d me that they were Women who were thus Employ`d, for they had ever shewn a desire as much as possible to avoid us, I did every thing in my power to prevent their being alarmd, or in any respect uneasy by keeping at a distance from them & making every

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Every friendly signal I cou`d, but to no purpose for alth`o there was no other boat in Company they did not seem disposd to trust us near them, there were many men upon the Shore who spoke to us in their usual familiar and Chearfull Manner and invited us with apparent earnestness and friendship to come on shore , which however I declind in order to prosecute the business I was engage`d in, altho I own I thought the Counting them from the Boat was a very uncertain Method of coming at their Numbers; It blew fresh, and there was so much Surf on shore that it was impossible to land where these people Stood, without the danger of hurting the Boat, otherwise it is probable, that I with Lt. Geo. Johnstone of the Marines who was in the boat with me shou`d

Shou’d have landed, we went as near as possible to the Shore I believe within twenty yards, & whilst in friendly Converstion with them and laying upon our Oars, We observd one of them place his Lance upon the throwing Stick, but had no Idea he meant to throw it amongst us after so friendly an invitation as we had receivd from them to land, but I am now Convinc`d that they only wanted us within their reach, no doubt from an opinion that we had no fire Arms, as they did not appear; as soon as they judg`d that they cou`d throw with Effect a Lance was discharg`d which past about 6 feet over our heads, I saw the Lance in the Air & immediately snatched up my Gun, which, as they ran off the Moment they had shewn their Hostile intention, I was determind to discharge amongst them, & shou`d probably have killed one of their number

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Number if my Gun had not miss`d fire, Mr. Johnstone upon my gun having miss`d, immediately fird his into the bushes in which they had shelterd themselves from our sight, but as it was chargd only with small Shott imagine it coud not have hurt any of then; what reason they cou`d have given for this treacherous kind of Conduct I am wholly at a loss to guess, for I am sure that nothing hostile or Mischievous had appeard on our part, on the contrary the most friendly disposition had been Manifest in every thing we said or did, even when their Women took the Alarm upon our approach, I spoke to them & made such signs of friendship as we Judg`d they wou`d understand & and went round at a distance to prevent their apprehension of any insult, it was perhaps fortunate that my Gun did not go off, for I was so displeased at their treachery, that it is highly probable I might have shott one of them

One of them. After having compar`d the Account taken by the different boats employ`d upon this business it appeard that we had seen-
Canoes - 67) which is by no means a near
Men - 94) account of the numbers which
Women - 34) at this time live in and about
Children - 9) this Harbor, for I have since
Seen in one part of the harbor more than that Number. On the 27th the Supply tender Arriv`d from Norfolk Island, where she had been with a quantity of provision & stores for that Settlement; She brought the Melancholy account of the loss of Mr. Ja.s Cunningham & four others, who were drown`d in the Surf by their boat being oversett inlanding the Stores from the Supply, so exceedingly difficult of access is the Shore of that Island, from an almost continual Surf breaking upon a Reef which encompases the Coast of the Island on that part where the settlement is form`d.
In this Month a report prevaild in the Settlem.t which seemd at first to gain some Credit - It was that one Dailey a Convict had discovered a piece of ground

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of ground, in which he had found a consider.ble quantity of a Yellow Colourd Ore, & which upon its being tried appeard to have a certain proportion of Gold in it - at this time the Gov.r happened to be absent on a short excursion to the Northward, the report having been made to the Lieut. Governor he of course Examind the Man who had made the discovery, & who told his story with so much plausibility that it was not doubted but that an Ore of some kind had been found. He was interrogated as the place; but this he refused to give any information on, ‘till the return of the Governor, to whom he wou`d give a full account of the discovery, provided, he woud grant him what he considerd as but a small compensation for so Valuable a discovery - this reward was to be, (as there were ships upon the point of sailing) his own, and a particular Woman Convicts enlargement, & a passage in one of the Ships, together with a

a certain Sum of Money which I do not now recollect. The L.t Governor insisted upon it, that as he had already mention`d the discovery he had made, He shou`d also shew what part of the Country it was in, otherwise he might expect punishment for daring to impose upon those officers to whom he had related this business, the fear of punishment dispos`d him to incline a little tho` apparently with much reluctance; He proposd to the Lieut. Gov.r that an Officer shou`d be sent down the harbour with him (for this Mine he said, was in the lower part of the harbor & near the Sea shore) and He woud shew the place to the officer, accordingly an officer with a Corporal & two or three private Soldiers were sent with him, He landed where he said the Walk wou`d be but short, & they entered the Wood in their way to the Mine - soon after they got amongst the bushes, he applied for permission to go to one side for a Minute upon some necessary occasion, which was granted him, but the Officer stay`d some hours without seeing the fellow again who had

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who had immediately upon his having hid himself in the wood, push`d off for the Camp by land, for he knew the road very well, and he had had cunning enough to persuade the Officer to send the boat away as soon as they had landed, as he suppose`d he would not choose to quit the place untill a guard came down, for which purpose he was to have dispatchd a Man by land as soon as he arrive`d at the place & was satisfied that it merited attention - The fellow arrivd in Camp pretty early in the afternoon & informd the Lt.Gov.r that he had left the officer who went with him in full possession of the Gold Mine, He then got a few things out of his own Tent & disappeard, the officer and party after waiting for some Hours hooping and hailing thro` the Woods for the fellow left their station & marchd round to the Camp where they arriv`d in the evening heartily tird and not a little chagrind at the trick which this Villain had played them. The want

The want of provision soon brought him from his Concealment and a severe punishment was the consequence of this imposition; However he still gave out that he had made the discovery which he before had mention`d & that his reason for quitting the Officer who went with him was, that he thought if he gave information to the Governor himself he shoud certainly get what he wanted; When the Gov.r return`d another Officer was sent with him altho every person now believd that there was no truth in what he had hitherto reported, this officer informed him when going down in the boat that he woud not suffer him to go three yards from him when landed, & that he woud certainly shoot him if he attempted to run from him for which purpose he shew`d him that he was loading his Gun with a Ball - this so terrified him, that he acknowledg`d he knew of no Gold Mine. He was then interrogated respecting the Ore which he had produc`d, he Confess`d that he had filed down a piece of a yellow mettle buckle & had mixd with it part of the filings of a Guinea, all which had been blended with

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Blended with some Earth & made hard; the Man who had tried it was bred a Silversmith, he upon separating the difficult parts had discovered that it contained a small quantity of Gold, He was of Course well punished for his ingenuity.
In the Month of September Govr. Phillip, having signified to me, that it was his intention very soon, to dispatch the Sirius to the Cape of Good Hope, in order to purchase such quantity of Provision as she might be Capable of taking on board, and that she might made as light as possible for that Service, He desird that I wou’d land Eight of her Guns & Carriages with any other Articles which I judg’d the Ship coud spare for the time she might be absent, & which might Answer the purpose of lightening the ship & making room; in Consequence of this order Eight Guns with their Carriages, 24 rounds of Shott for those Guns, twenty half Barrels of Powder Spare Anchor, four half Anchor Stocks, a fish for the Mast, & Various other Articles, were put on shore

On Shore at Sydney Cove; He also directed that I shoud leave the Ships Longboat behind for the use of the Settlement, this order I confess I very reluctantly obey’d, as the want of such a Boat has often been very severely felt; I was desird at same time to endeavour on my Arrival at the Cape to purchase such a Boat for the Settlement, and that written directions for that and other purposes woud be given when I receiv’d My final instructions.
Whilst upon this Subject I thought it a proper opportuny: to represent, that the Sirius was (excepting in the Carpenters department) perfectly ready for the Sea, but that the want of the Carpenters Crew, the whole Number of whom together with the Carpenter of the Ship himself, having been so Constantly employ’d on the business of the Settlement since our Arrival in this Country, the Ship had in Consequence been much Neglected in that department, and as she was soon to go to sea, it was highly Necessary that

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that these people shou’d be immediately sent on board to prepare for a Voyage.
We had it is true, upon my representing the absolute necessity of having the Ship’s Decks & Sides Caulk’d, Employ’d an old Man the Carpentrs. Yeoman, & a Convict Caulker upon the Wear. Works of the Ship, but that Work we had reason afterward to know had not been so well executed as it might have been had the Carpenter been permitted to stay on board and attend so necessary a duty.
On Tuesday the 30th. of September I receivd my final Orders, and on Wednesday 1st. October Unmoord the Ship, the Governor & his family din’d on Board, and the Wind being Easterly we got under way, and Workd down to the lower Anchorage, where we came too, & intended taking the advantage of the Land Wind in the Morning to put to Sea.
The Golden Grove Store Ship also came down

Down & anchord below, she having on board provisions & other Stores with which she was bound to Norfolk Island, she had also on board a Number of Men and Women Convicts for that Island, I think twenty Men & twelve Women, together with Six Marines & three Seamen from the Sirius - In the Evening the Governor & other Gentlemen who were with him took their leave, and in the Morning of the 2nd with the wind at SW , We Saild out of the Harbor.
As I have not at any time when speaking of this Harbor given any description of it, or any directions for sailing in to it, I will take this opportunity.
The Entrance of the Harbour of Port Jackson, has nothing in its appearance when 6 Leagues from the Land, by which it may be known Your Latitude will be the most infallible guide to this Harbour; or indeed any other upon this Coast; Steer in for the Land which here lays about

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about NbE ½ E and SbW ½ W. keep as near as you can in Lat. 33°.50’S. the entrance when you come near will Shew itself by the Heads on each side, which are High steep perpendicular Cliffs of a light reddish Colour, a ship bound in here, may run in without fear between the Heads, which are distant from each other one Mile & three quarters.
There is nothing in the way and the shore on each side pretty steep too, the Sea breaking which it does even in fine Wear. will shew any rocks which may lay near under the shore. Steer in between the heads for a high bluff point which is called Middle Cape or Head, and is steep too, untill you open to the Southward of you a very extensive Arm of the Harbor - If the wind is Sufficiently large to run up this branch (which lays by Compass SWbS) on either shore, haul round the E’most point

point of this Arm, which is called the inner So. head, it is a low rocky point give it a berth of 2/3 of a Cable, and steer right in for the first sandy Cove above it on the same side, Calld Camp Cove, keeping at a convenient tho’ small distce. from the Shore in 3½, and 4 fathoms, and observe that right off this Cove, and near Mid channel lays a patch of Rocks which appear at ½ tide the shoaling towards them is gradual all round upon a smooth sandy bottom, it is Rocky only about half a Cables length from the dry part, you may keep near the upper point of Camp Cove in 6 and 7 fams. and from thence steer directly up the Harbor - If you incline to go on the West shore & to leave this patch of rocks to the E’ward of you; steer in as before for Middle Head & when within a Cables length of it steer up for the next point above it on the same side, observing not to make too free with that point

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that point as it is rocky something more that half a Cables length off, in this channel which is much the best being rather broader than the E’ern Chan. Youl have 4, 4½ & 5 fathom - When you are above this second point on the West shore, you may take what part of the Channel you wish, there being nothing in the Way from shore to Shore.
The Chart will be the best guide in going in - If the wind shoud be Southerly, a stranger woud not venture to work up, but he might Anchor with safety in the North part of the Harbor which he will perceive by the Chart to which I woud refer him rather than by a written description; The Observations I made here both for the Latitude & Longitude, as well as those made by Lieut. Bradley were as inserted in the following pages - Observations

[Observations not transcribed]

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[Observations not transcribed]

We were no sooner clear of the Harbor, than the wind Veer’d more to the Southward and began to blow strong with thick hazey & dirty Weather. & what gave me privately a good deal of Concern, the Carpenter reported that the Ship which had hitherto been very tight, Made Water, Such a piece of information, with such a Voyage as the Sirius was now enterd upon, was no doubt very unwelcome, & more particularly so when it was Consider’d, that the Ships Company from having been long upon Salt diet without the advantage of any sort of Vegitables, were not so healthy & strong as a leaky ship might require; I had often observ’d that whenever this Voyage upon which we were now enter’d, was the Subject of Conversation in Company with the Governor, He Always spoke in favor of the passage round Vandiemans Land and to the Westward but when I signified a Wish that He wou’d direct by what Route I shou’d endeavour to perform the Voyage, He declind that & observ’d that I wou’d be govern’d by circumstances, & that He shou’d leave it to my discreation & Judgment, at the same time expressing

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Expressing his opinion strongly in favor of the Westward route which I confess I was still a little Surpris’d at, as it has never yet been attempted, not even by Ships which have been employ’d in that sort of Service which leaves it in their favor to make experiments - I do not say that the passage from Vandiemans land to the Cape of Good Hope by the Westward is impracticable, that remains yet to be tried, but from my own Experience of the prevalence of Strong Westerly winds across that vast Ocean, I am inclind to think it must be a long & tedious Voyage - and at the same time so very uncertain, that the time for which the Sirius was Victuald (for 5 M.os for the Number of Men on board) and the nature of of the Service upon which she was then going, & which was no doubt of Considerable Consequence to the Settlement, was not an opportunity for trying such an Experiment, as the Consequence of a disappointment wou’d have been, that I must

Must have return’d to Port Jackson for a further Supply of Provision, and the Season for any other passage perhaps too far advanc’d -- I therefore determin’d judging from the Experience of those who had before made the Eastern passage - to pass to the Southward of New Zealand & round Cape Horne ---
We Stood off to the Eastward determind as early as possible to get an offing of fifty or Sixty Leagues, the Wind continued to the Southward with the same Hazey and Squally Weather until the 5th. when it shifted to the SSE, by this time we were about 70 Leagues from the Coast which enabld us to tack and stand to the SW, with this Change of wind from the SW to the SE quarter it still Continued the same squally unsettled Weather - The Ship we found upon the last Larboard tack made much more water than on the Starboard, so much as to render it necessary to Pump her every two hours to prevent too long a spill, she makes in general from ten to twelve inches in two hours, there was reason to Conjecture from this

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From this difference on the opposite tack, that the Leak is somewhere about the Starboard Bow - and near the Surface of the water, If it shou’d prove so, I had a hope that we might, the first Moderate Weather, with smooth water, be able to come at & stop it, I was the more Sanguine in this expectation as the Carpenter in a few days after, discovered it to be under the after part of the fore Chanels a little below the surface of the water, & seemed to think, that it proceeded from one of the Butt Bolts being decay’d by the Copper, which I now understand has never been taken off since the Ship being first Sheath’d which is more than Eight years - On the 6th. the weather cleard up and both Mr Bradley and myself had a few distances of [nautical symbols] by which our Longitude was 157° ..10’E. by Time Keeper 156°..55’E and by Account 156°..17E in Latde: 34°..49” So. Var pr. Azimth. 11° ..40’E At Noon on this day the Wind had got round to East & EBN. by which I Steerd SSE; Still favoring our endeavour to get

to get to the Southward, it came to NE & N and in Lat 40.33So., it came to NW, but it still continued Squally and unsettled Weather ---- So the Weather began now to be rather Cold, and as in the Tract I meant to prosecute my Voyage by I might expect to have it Considerably colder, and consequently that the Ships Company wou’d require a Shift of Cloathing, Slops were serv’d to all who stood in need of them - On the 9th. we were near as far as Southward as Vandiemans land or South Cape of New Holland, and the wind apparently Settled in the SW quarter, I steer’d a Course for the South Cape of New Zealand - From Port Jackson to Vandiemans land we have run parallel to the Coast at the distance of 60 Leagues from it, and have not seen anything, so that we may venture to say that there are no Islands lay off that part of the Coast at the above distance from it. On the afternoon of this day (9th.) we had several good Setts of distances of [nautical symbol] by which our Longitude is 157°..26’E by T. Keeper 157; 19E and

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and by Account 157°..48’E Lat. 43..30S. the Thermometer is now 57° -- On the 12th. We passed the South Cape of New Zealand, but the Weather being very Hazey, and Squally I did not attempt to make it, but kept a degree and half to the Southward of it. Here we mett vast Numbers of Birds of Various kind, mostly Aquatic, Albatross, Vintada birds, Divers, Petrels and a great variety of Gulls, some of a kind I had not before seen during the Voyage, Some of a very large kind of a dark Brown or Mouse Colour, and another not quite so large, with a white Body dark Wings & the head a light blue or lead Colour, Much Sea Weed was also seen here in very large patches - We had the Wind now fresh from the NW quarter with frequent Squalls attended with rain, the Weather Cold - We found the Variation of the Compas 40 Leags. SSE from So. Cape of New Zealand 16°..54’ E - Mr. Worgan the Surgeon, having recommended that the Essence

Essence of Malt be Serv’d at this time to the Ships Company a certain quantity of Sweet Wort was made every morning and a pint serv’d to each man -
On the 15th. by an Observation of the [symbol] distance from the * Aquilo, our Longitude is 171°..16’ E by T. Keeper 171° 32E by account 172°..10’E Lat 50..40So. and Var. of the Compas 16°..20’E - From this time until the 22nd. had light and Variable winds sometimes from So. & SE and sometimes from the No.ward with Moist and hazey Weather. 22nd. the wind inclind from the Westward and the Weather became fair, had this day a sett of distances of [symbols] our Longitude is 182°..46E T.Keeper 182°..37E and Account 184°..10’E Lat: 51°..03’S the Variation is now 13°..45’E and the Thermn. 48° --
For those Successive days, we have had Lunar Observations, by which it appears that the Reckoning a few days ago, was more than a degree & half to the Eastwd. of the Observations & T: Keeper, but by our last distance of [symbols] (26”) the Ship is gaining on the Account - these differences seem to proceed wholly from the Sea occasiond by the prevailing

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prevailing wind for the time - the Easterly Variation is decreasing being now only 11..00E in Lat. 52..42S and Longitude 196..11E - We very frequently now hear the divers in the Night, and as often see in the day; it is really Wonderfull, how those Birds get from or to the Land at such an immense distance from it, from 800 to 1000 Leags. they undoubtedly lay their Eggs & hatch them on shore and yet we plainly perceive, that those we meet here are of the Penguin kind and do not fly; from the Slow progress such a Bird can make in the Water, we wou’d suppose that it shou’d take them many Years, were instinct to point out the direct & shortest course for them, before they cou’d possibly reach any Land, unless there are Islands in these Seas & not far from our Track, which have not yet been discover’d –
I have endeavour’d in Sailing from New Zealand to Cape Horne, to keep as much as possibe

possible in a parallel between the Track of the Resolution & Adventure, so that if any Islands lay between the Parallels in which those Ships saild, We might have a Chance of falling in with them - We have had very Variable Weather & for some days past with variable Winds and a Confusd Jumble of a Sea, which the very frequent shifting of the wind occasions ---
On the 2nd November by a Lunar Observation we were in Longitude 214°..27’E by T:Keeper 214°..19’E and by Account 213°..20’E & Latitude 55°..18’So. the Variation was here 11°..00’E & the height of the Therm.r. was 50°. - From the 2nd. to the 6th. we have had the wind from NbE to NNE - On the 6th. and 7th. had very good Observations for the Longitude by [symbols] the former gave 223°..57’E and the latter 227°..58’E the Longitude by Account is 226..20E Lat: 56 ..12S the variation is increasing again being now 12°..20’E - Therm.r. 46° - From the 7th. untill the 17th; the Weather was very Variable and the

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The wind very unsettled between the SE and SW quarter, attended with Strong Gales and dark hazey Weather with frequent showers of Snow and hail - the Therm.r. is now down at 42° in the Cabbin where we sometimes have a fire, but in the open air at 35°. the Showers are commonly accompanied with heavy Gust or Squalls of Wind - Notwithstand: we are with these Southerly Winds, Subject to Snow or hail, yet we have frequently found some of the Gales which have blown from the Northward, attended with a more piercing degree of Cold - On the 18th: the Weather became more Moderate & fair, and the wind Shifted to West a Moderate Breeze, We are now in Longitude 261°..50’E and latitude 55..23S and have 14&deg..43’E. Variation - On the 19th. found the Variation had increased in a run to the Eastward of 25 Leagues to 17°..30’E - On the 22nd: had Several good distances of [symbols] and find

and find our Longitude to be at Noon 280°..22’E. by T. keeper 281°..08’ and by Account 283°..09’E: Lat. 57°..15’S. the Variation of the Compas Encreases very fast as we approach Cape Horne being now 20deg;..30’E and on the next day (23d) 22°30E but as I mean at the end of every passage to insert a table of the variation Observ’d during that passage as has been already done in those we have already made, it will there appear at one view
We now very frequently fall in with High Ice Islands - On the 24th. had fresh Gales with Hazey & Cold Weather, Meet so many Ice Islands that we are frequently oblig’d to alter our Course to avoid them - the 25th. Strong Gales with very frequent and heavy Squalls; as we were now Drawing near Cape Horne and in all the Charts of Terra del Fuego which I have seen, there is an Island laid down bearing from the Cape about SSW and calld Deigo Ramirez and distant from the Land

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Land Ten or Twelve Leagues and as I do not find that the Existance of such an Island has ever been Contradicted by any person who has Saild round this Promontary, I determind to keep as near as possible in its parallel, the wind being from WNW to WSW and the Weather rather hazey, If I shoud make it, I cou’d pass either within or without as might be convenient, and it woud be as good a Land fall as the Cape itself, as in case the wind shoud incline to the Southward we shou’d have Offing enough to Clear the Land, which to us who were upon a service which wou’d not admitt of any loss of time, was of Consequence; At Noon this day (26th) had a good Meridian Observation & were exactly in the parallel of Diego Ramirez & at 8 in this Morning an opportunity offerd for about an hour, for taking a Sett of distances of [symbols] of which both Mr. Bradley and myself availd ourselves, the result of which was, (taking the Mean

Mean of both Observation which agreed within a few Miles) 292°..38’E: at the time of Observation, so that we must then have been very near the place in which this Island is laid down, for we cou’d rely upon the Observation, but as Nothing appeard, we hauld in for the Land, the looming of which we frequently saw, but the heavy black Squalls which were constantly gathering upon it, rendered it too indistinct to be able to determine any particular point, at this time Several long strings of Wild Ducks flew past the ship, in the Evening the Weather Cleard a little in the Horison, and we sett the Extreams of Terra del Feugo from NbW to WNW distant about 10 Leagues; We continued our Course NE and I think may safely venture to determine, that there is no Island so situated from Cape Horne as this Diego Ramirez is said to be ---
For several days before we made the Land and every day since we left it, We have fallen in

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fallen in with a great Number of very high Islands of Ice - Here also we meet with vast Numbers of divers & Seals - We had got but a very small distance to the Eastward of the Cape, when the Westerly wind inclind to the Northward and from that to the NE and blew a fresh Gale - from this time (27 Nov.) until the 12th. Dec.r. we had the wind Constantly in the NE quarter, which I believe to be rather uncommon near Cape Horne for such a length of time, as ships in general bound into the South Sea, find it rather tedious getting to the Westward round this Cape - The Ships Company now, shew much disposition to the Scurvy, and what makes it the more disturbing, we have nothing in the Ship with which we can hope to check the progress of that destructive disease, except a little Essence of Malt which we continue to serve - We have only to Hope for a Speedy passage to the Cape of Good

Good Hope, where we shall without a doubt with the help of the good things which are to be had there, be able to reinstate their health perfectly - I am so far from being surpris’d at this appear.ce of the Scurvy amongst the Company of the Sirius so soon after leaving Port, that it is with me rather a Matter of Wonder that it has not Shewn itself sooner, and so it will be with any person who Considers how they have liv’d since we left the Cape Outward bound, Since that time (about 13 or 14 Months) they have not tasted a bit of fresh provision of any kind, nor have they had a single blade of any sort of Vegitable - We begin now to be Subject to hazey Moist Weather with frequent very thick Fogs Lat: 55°..30’S. Longitude 306°00’E and the Weather very Cold, Very high Ice Islands in every quarter, some of a prodigious size, for fourteen days after we came to the E’ward of Cape Horne, we were beating to the NE Anxious

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Anxious to get so far to the Northward as to feel the influence of the Summer Sun, which it was to be hop’d and expected, that our Scurbutic patients might be much releivd by - In Lat. 52°.3o’S. & 318°..20’E the wind inclind from the Southward of East with hazey Moist Weather, and we steerd to the NE - We find many very large Whales here, they seem to go in droves of from five & six, to fifteen and twenty together, Spouting within a Cables length of the Ship and sometimes so near that it woud be no difficult Matter to Harpoon them from the fore part of the ship as they pass under the Bow - On the 12th. December. Henry Fitzgerald Seaman died, He was troubld with a disorder in his Lungs, but the Scurvy was his principal Malady - On the 13th. in the morning we passd one of the largest Ice Islands we had seen, we Judg’d it not less that three Miles in length and

and its perpendicular height we suppos’d to be about 350 feet - In Latitude 51°..33’So. and 321°..00’E the wind Seems Sett in at SW and blows a fresh and Steady gale, frequently attended with Showers of Snow or hail, the variation of the Compas Decreases fast, as will appear by the table annex’d - On the 16th. the wind Shifted Suddenly to the NW quarter and blew a Steady Gale, On the 19th. it blew very strong from WNW with Hazey Weather and frequent Showers of rain, which again chang’d the wind to the SW quarter, and the Weather as usual upon those changes became fair & pleasant - We seem now to have lost the Ice Isl.ds. with which, from South Georgia, to the Latitude of 46..00S: this again seems at this Season of the year to be Spread Over -- * We have run for several days together, at the rate of from 50 to 60 leagues in the 24 hours in a NE direction, and have passd thro’ a Lane (street) or if it may be so calld, of Ice Islands, the whole of

[Note in margin]
*In Lat 44..00S we saw the last piece of Ice - on the whole we have run 800 Lgs amongst Ice

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of that distance, in general from the Size of a Country Church to those of one, two, & three Miles circumference & proportionatly high - Were it not that at this Season of the Year we have in high Latitudes very short nights, and Scarsely an hour which can be called dark, it wou’d certainly be attended with considerable danger to run in the Night, the Ice Islands were in such vast Numbers, we Seldom Saild more than three or four Miles without having several upon each Beam - I think the direction which those pieces of Ice seem to have been driven in, is a strong proof of the prevalence of SW winds in this part of the Ocean; It is highly probable that they have been form’d upon the Coast of South Georgia & Sandwich Land, and separated from the ground, early in the Season, or, probably in Gales of wind during the Winter, many of them were half black apparently with Earth from the Land to which they had probably adher’d

Adher’d, or Mud from the bottom on which they had lain, for it is well known, that Ice Islands after having been driven about at Sea for a length of time, do become so light & Spungy in that part which has been immers’d in the water, that the upper part being become heavier thereby, do frequently oversett and may by such a Change, shew some part of the ground on which they had rested, others had large and distinct portions of them thoroughly ting’d with a most beautiful Sea green, or light Verdigrise Colour –
In Latitude 45°..30’So. and Longitude 342°..00’E the Variation of the Compas which had decreas’d very gradually, was only 00°..04’E - We carry on strong Westerly winds with us which Amply Compensates for the Northerly & Easterly Gales which detaind us so long between Cape Horne and South Georgia, and it is exceedingly fortunate for us that we are so favord by the wind, for the Ships Company are falling down very fast with Scurvy, and as I have already Observd, we have nothing on board with which we can hope to Check its progress, far less cure it; Nothing certainly can

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Can promise so fair to Effect so desirable a purpose as carrying a good stock of Various Vegitable Acids in every ship, but, particularly those Employ’d upon such Service as the Sirius is, the Elixir of Vitriol hitherto allow’d, and formerly considered not only as a preventative, but as a Cure, is found by no means to Answer the purpose of the former, far less the latter - the Vegitable Acids which might be provided for the use of Ships upon long Voyages, I apprehend wou’d be found to occasion a very small additional expense if any, and am Convinc’d wou’d in the end be found a Considerable saving - The 25th. of December, having this day arriv’d upon the Meridian of Greenwich from which we had saild in an Easterly direction & Completed 360 degrees of East Longitude, consequently gaind 24 Hours, I dropt 360° degrees and repeated Thursday 25th. December - On the 30th. John Shine Seaman died of the Scurvy - On the 31st. had a few Setts of Distance of [symbols] by which our Longitude at Noon was 17&..16’E, by Mr. Bradley 16°..58’E the

the Mean 17°..07’E by the Time Keeper 18°..10’E and we have not yet made the Land, Lat: is 33°..48’S. this is a proof that the T. Keeper must have alterd its Rate since we left Port Jackson, We had then determind it to be losing 4’’–77– this Change of its rate I have some time Suspected and Atribute to the Effect of the Weather we had off and near Cape Horne, this Evening we made a Short trip off `till Midnight when we tackd and stood for the Land again, and at day light saw the land, the nearest part or that which we were abreast of was distant about four Leagues & the Table Mountain bore SbE about 9 or 10 Leags. the wind all last 24 Hours has been strong from the Southward. and we had, thro these having been too much of it, fallen to Leeward, Nothing cou’d have been more correct than our Observations for the Longitude - The wind coming from the Sea stood alongshore to the Southward, and in the afternoon were abreast of Robins Isld. but cou’d not fetch round the Reef and into Table Bay; the Weakley Condition of that part of the Ships Company which were doing duty upon deck

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Deck, and the very dejected State of those who were confin’d to their Beds, determind me to Endeavour if possible, to bring the Ship to an Anchor before night, as the very Idea of being in Port has sometimes a very good effect upon the Spirits of people who are reduc’d low by the Scurvy, therefore after endeavouring in vain to Weather the reef off the South end of the Island, I bore away, ran round the North end, and Anchord within, right off the Flag staff and Landing place in 9 fathoms water Crasse ground. Flagstaff bearing and South end of the Island Just on with the Western land of Lyons Rump; a few hours before we got in, Joseph Caldwell Seaman died -
As soon as the Ship was Anchord, I sent a Boat with an officer Lt. Bradley on shore to the Island, for such News from Europe, as the Commanding officer there myself might be able to give - I wishd to know if Governor VandeGraaft was still at the Cape, & If Col. Gordon was still Commander in Chief of the

the Troops in Garrison there; the Officer Commanding at the Island was exceedingly civil to the Lieut. who went on shore, and gave every information he cou’d but it was unfortunate that the one cou’d not speak a word of English nor the other understand a word of Dutch; However it was Observ’d that he wore a large Orange Cockade in his Hatt, and altho’ he cou’d not converse, he made the officer sufficiently understand, by broken expressions of half English half Dutch, that the English and Dutch were very good friends again, and that the French had no Connection at all with Holland, from all which I conjecturd, that some Considerable Changes had taken place in the Affairs of the Republic since our departure from England, and the Stadholder had been reinstated in all his Rights*
1789 In the Morning of the 2nd. of January, with a Breeze from the Northward got under way & saild up to Table Bay - I had generally understood, that the depth of water between

[In margin] *He was so very kind on hearing what a long Voyage we had come, as to send on board a basket of such fruit as his Garden afforded, which to make the dejected Sick well assurd that we were in Port, which some of them doubted - was sent down & divided amongst them --

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Between the Island and the Anchorage in Table Bay, was so very considerable, as to be unsafe to Anchor in, in Case of being becalmd or otherwise not able to reach the proper Anchoring ground - I was more inclind to believe that to be the Case, from never having seen the soundings laid down in any Chart of this bay, except where Ships commonly Anchor; I therefore to ascertain whether this was the Case or not, determind to go up under an easy sail, and to keep the lead going; the Soundings were very regular and the deepest water was 15 fathoms, the ground was hard & probably not very clear, but still there is Anchorage which I did not before know - at 10AM Anchord in the Bay in 7½ fathoms and Moord a Cable each way --. As soon as the Ship was secur’d I sent an officer to wait on the Governor and to inform him of the business I came upon, He very politely inform’d the Officer, that there was great abundance of every thing to be had,

had, and that I had nothing to do but to Signify in writing the quantity of each Article wanted, and that directions shou’d be immediately given respecting it - His Excellency also took that opportunity of sending me information that he shou’d in a few days send a Ship for Amsterdam, and that if I had any dispatches to forward, and wou’d send them to His House, He wou’d answer for them being delivrd into the Custody of the British Ambassador at the Hague as far as the safety of the Ship cou’d be depended on - The Governor also confirm’d the Accounts we had (tho’ imperfectly) receivd at the Island; He sent one of the Treaty of Alliance from between the Kings of G. Brittain & Prussia and also between the States General & those two Sovriegns, which was a very pleasing piece of intelligence - Every person here either Military or Civil, wore a Mark of their attachment to the Orange party & the Old Constitution, the Former

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The former by an Orange Cockade, the latter by a bit of Ribbon of that Colour at either breast button hole or Sleeve - In two or three days after our Arrival here, I directed the Sick quarters shoud be immediately provided for the Sick, which was done & they were landed under the care of Mr. Worgan the Surgeon of the Sirius, their Expeditious recovery is of much Consequence to the Service upon which I am at present Employ’d, and it is also of Consequence to that service that they be perfectly recoverd before they are taken on board again, as we have yet a very long Voyage to perform before we can arrive at any Port after leaving this, When we Arrivd in this Bay, we had just twelve Men in each Watch & half that Number from Scorbutic Contractions in their limbs, were unable to go aloft -
Every person here with whom any of the Officers fell in Company spoke of our Voyage

Voyage from the East Coast of New Holland by Cape Horne to the Cape of Good Hope with great Surprise having not touchd at any Port on our way, & having Saild that Vast distance in Ninety one days - I was now very Anxious to receive some Account of the Transports which under Command of Lieut Shortland the Agent, had left Port Jackson the 14th. of July 1788, and which I was sorry to understand had not been in this Bay, for I thought it highly probable, that as their Route was to the Northward by the Molucca Islands and Batavia, they would certainly touch here in their way Home - It being now Seven Months since they saild, I was apprehensive for their Safety, particularly when I considerd the very Weakly Condition of some of their Crews by the Scurvy when they left us, and not a Surgeon in any of the Ships - a Shameful piece of Economy in the Owners of those Ships when the Extent of the Voyage they had undertaken was Considerd, together with

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together with the well known impossibility of their being able to procure Seamen or any recruit of Strength to their Ships Companys in that remote and far distant part of the World - I cannot help here taking the liberty of saying, that it is much to be lamented, when Ships are hird for the Service of Government to perform on such long, & trying Voyages to the Health of those Employ’d on them, that it is not made a part of the Contract or agreement that they do carry a Surgeon, for I know well, that Seamen when taken ill upon such long passages, are at the very Idea of being without the assistance of a Surgeon, altho’ Careless and Void of thought at other times when in perfect health, apt to Way to Melancholy & a total dejection of Spirits Many a valuable Subject has been lost to Government by such a trifling Saving -
Out of Nine Transports which were Employ’d

Employ’d on this Service, One only had a Surgeon and that one had she not been bound upon some other Service after leaving Port Jackson wou’d in all probability have been without also
On the 5th. a Dutch East India Ship arrivd here from Rio de Janiero, from this Ship I receivd information of the Arrival at that place, of two Ships from the East Coast of New Holland, that they arrivd Singly and in very great distress from the Sickness and the Death of Many of their people, that the first which arriv’d had her Name in her Stern (Prince of Wales of London) from which Circumstance there cou’d be no doubt of its being one of our Transports, the other Ship was also so well describd that I knew it to be the Borrowdale Store Ship, the officer of this Ship observd farther, that they were so Weak that had they not been boarded by boats without the harbor, they were unable to bring their Ships into safety –
Those Ships I apprehend had parted Company with

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With Lieut Shortland soon after Sailing from Port Jackson, and had then determind to go to the Eastward by Cape Horne; but they were in My opinion (and I judge from my own experience,) Wrong after passing Cape Horne, in preferring Calling at Rio de Janiero, to Cape of Good Hope, which last place I have no doubt they wou’d have reachd in less time, and with Considerably less fatigue to their Sickly Crew, besides the Advantage of being able to procure More Seamen if they were in want, which I apprehend they will find much difficulty in at Rio de Janiero - As Westerly winds are prevalent between Cape Horne & C. Good Hope, If it shou’d so happen that these Winds do blow more from the NW than SW quarters, their progress to the Northward along the Coast of South America wou’d not be very rapid, but from both those quarters it is fair if bound over to the Coast of Africa, and farther, with respect to a passage to Europe, they woud have been more Conveniently Situated at the C. Good Hope that at Rio Janiero, for making that passage with

With Expedition, for at Rio. you are within the limits of the SE trade, and upon that Coast are consequently to Leeward, You may be obliged to Stretch from thence as far to the Southward as the Latitude of 30°:00’ & sometimes to 32°:00’So. along that Coast, before you can Tack and stand to the NE in order to Cross the Equator far enough to the Eastward to ensure a tollerable passage across the NE trade; but sailing from the Cape Good Hope, you are when you reach the SE trade, far to Windward, & steer to the No.ward with a large wind - On the 19th. a small Dutch Frigate Arrivd here from Batavia, from which I learnt, that Lieut. Shortland had arrivd at that Port a Single Ship about the beginning of December, in a very distraught Condition, that he had buried the greatest part of his Ships Company and was assisted by the Officers and Crew of the above frigate in Securing his Ship & handing his Sails, that he had been reduced to the Necessity some time

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Sometime before he arriv’d to Sink the other Ship which was in Company with him, for the purpose of Manning one - out of the remaining part of the two Ships Compans, without which he never cou’d have reach’d Batavia with either, for when he arrivd there, He had only four Men out of the two Crews who were Capable of Standing the Deck, I was now particularly Anxious for the Arrival of Mr. Shortland at the Cape, that I might have something more Authentic than these reports to give Gov.r Philllip on My return to Port Jackson - By Altitudes taken for the Time Keeper since we arrivd here, We find its Error to be 1°..31’ Easterly and Brockbanks Watch Err’d 3°..01’ Easterly also, from which I conjecture, that the very Cold Weather which we Experienc’d some time before we reachd, & for a considerable time after we past Cape Horne, had Effected the Watchs going; When we made Terra del Fuego it appeard to be about 1°..00’ to the Eastward

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On the 18th. Feb.y to my no small Satisfaction (for I was proposing to Sail the next day) Mr. Shortland arriv’d in the Alexander Transport - I was going off from the Shore when I discovered the Ship coming round Green point, I therefore row’d directly on board him, his people were so happy to meet their old friends in Table Bay that they Cheerd us as we come alongside - I now receiv’d from Mr. Shortland an exact Confirmation of all intelligence which I had receivd concerning him from the officer of the Dutch Frigate - the two transports of which I had collected some accounts from Rio Janiero, he told me, had parted company with him two days after he left Port Jackson, and that he was Nineteen Weeks and four days on his passage to Batavia -
Feby. 20 1789
On the 20th. of Feby. I saild from Table Bay after having taken on board twelve Months provisions for the Ships Company & in addition, about Six Months Flour for the Whole Settlement, together with Various

[Page 92]


Various Stores for the Hospital, and many private Articles for the different officers &c. &c. in Short, the Ships Hold, between decks, every Officers apartment, & all the Store Rooms were Completely filld; -- During the time we lay in Table Bay, I receivd many Civilitys, indeed many Marks of the most polite & friendly attention from Governor VandeGraaft, Col. Gordon, & many other Officers of this Settlement ---
Before we Embark’d any of the provision, we heeld the Ship to endeavour to stop the Leak which had kept the Pumps so much Employ’d during the Voyage, and was so fortunate as to get at it, It proceeded from an Iron bolt which had been decayd by the Copper and by the working of the Ship had dropt out, and left a hole of more than an inch in diameter, a wooden plug was

Was driven into it & coverd again with Copper, but beside this leak there were many smaller holes which were occasiond by the decay of long Spike Nails with which the Skirting board, (which Securd the upper edge of the Copper) had been fastend on & had gone quite thro’ the Main plank of the Ships bottom, all were Clos.d as far as we examin’d and the Ship for the present makes less water, but is not yet so tight as formerly; It is therefore my intention upon my arrival at Port Jackson to represent to Captain Phillip the Necessity there is to lighten & Examine the Ship some distance below the Water, that such defects as we may find, may be remidied whilst they are trifling -
The Time Keeper which I have already mention’d to have had upon our arrival here an Error of 1°..31’, seems during the time we lay in Table Bay to have gradually recoverd its

[Page 93]

Its original Rate (Viz) 4”.77) it is now losing 4”78, [In margin Therm.t at the Cape] this serves to Convince me in the Justice of my Conjecture, that it had been considerably Effected by the very Cold Weather we had near Cape Horne –
After we left the Cape we had for three Weeks Strong Gales from the Southward with Squally disagreeable Weather, which Sometimes reducd our Sail as low as Coarses, We did not meet with Westerly Winds quite so soon as I expected, or as we had done the last time we made this passage
F* In Latitude 41°:50’S & Longitude 28°.09’E the wind Shifted from the Southward to the NNE and blew a very strong Gale for two days, it then Settled in the NW quarter, we were then in Latitude 43.00So. and Longitude 37°. 30;E, we found the Variation of the Compas had increas’d as high as 32°:20’W. before we had reachd as much East Longitude as we found that Var.n in last passage, but we were now –

1789, March 20
were now in a higher Latitude as will appear by the Table - On the 20th. of March having Sprung the Trussel tree’s of the Maintopmast, we Struck, unrigg’d it and fitted New Ones -

On the 22d. We had a very heavy Gale of wind from NNE & No. with a prodigious high broken Sea, our Course (ESE) being at Right Angles to the Wind, kept the Ship in the trough of the Sea which Occasion’d her Shipping several heavy Seas and made me very apprehensive for the Safety of the Boats and Booms, I was therefore under the Necessity of laying the Ship too under a ballanc’d Mizen for about four hours, when the wind Shifted Suddenly to NW, this change enabled me to bear away & sett the Reef foresail, it continued to blow very hard all Night and we Shipt much water, but the Ship having a flush deck no weight cou’d lay on it, the only danger was that of filling the Boats, to prevent which I after this Gale, had them oversett bottom up - the wind Contind. in the NW quarter and blew Strong until the 8th. of April, when it inclin’d a little to the Eastw.d of North

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Apl. 16th.
of North for two or three days, but it had not so much Easting in it as to make it unfavorable to our Course. On the 16th. we were in latitude 44°..45’So. and Longitude 135°..30E and at Night we perceivd the Sea spread over with large luminous Spotts, resembling lanthorns floating on its Surface; Near about the same Longitude last Voyage, we discovered the same appearance upon the Sea; this observation may have its use, and serve as a hint of your being at no great distance from Van Diemans land -
On the 20th. had a Strong Gale from the WNW to NNW. which Suddenly Moderated in the Night and Veerd round by the Westward with a light Air to SWbS. by which we were encourag’d to make all the Sail possible, but we had no sooner got everything Sett, then the wind Veerd round to the Southw.d and began to blow, in the Course of a few hours it increasd to a very Violent Gale of Wind

Wind; We were now in Latitude 44°..29’So. and Longitude 144°..30’E, being so near Vandiemans land and so well to the Southward, as I suppos’d we were (for our Lat:d this day was by Account) I had no doubt of being Able to Cross it and Avail Myself of this Southerly Wind to run along the Coast to the Northward and reach Port Jackson in a few days; but as we drew near the Meridian of the South Cape, the Gale increasd to a Mere Tempest attended by a thick hazey Weather and a most astonishingly high Sea, this brought us under a Reeft foresail ballanc’d Mixen & three Storm Staysails; at daylight on the morning of the 21st. the Fore, main, & Mizen Staysails were all Split by the Violence of the Wind, by this Accident we were reduc’d to the Foresail reeft & Mizen ballanc’d, the Gale still Continuing to increase rather than abate, and inclining to the Eastward of South, was in our Situation at this time

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this time particularly unfortunate, for we were so far advanc’d to the Eastward, as to hope that in the Course of a few hours, we shou’d have been Able to have made a fair Wind, if it continued to the Southward, I still flatterd myself that we were as far to the Southward as not to have a doubt of passing some distance to the Southward of Rock Swilly, & Consequently at Sufficient distance from South Cape, which is the Southern point or extremity of this Promontory, for this Rock or rather ledge of Rocks, is not less than fifteen Miles from the South Cape, and we were now about its Meridian by the Longitude carried on from last Lunar Observation which was taken five days ago, & by our Time Keeper from which our Situation had been determin’d since those observations as long as the Sun was to be seen during any part of the day it now blew a most Violent Gale of Wind with thick hazey Weather, and it may be proper here to Observe that three days had now Elapsd without a Sight of the Sun during the day or a

or a Star during the Night, from which we cou’d Exactly determine our Latitude, but as every Allowance had been made for the drifting of the Ship to Leeward under a very low sail and a very heavy Sea, and for every other disadvantage attending such Situation, there remaind not a doubt with me or any Officer on board, but that we were near half a degree to the Southward of the South Cape, and as the distance from West to East across this Promontary is not more than a degree & half of Longitude or about twenty or twenty two Leagues in distance (that is from SW Cape to Tasman’s head) we had every reason to think that we were near round it - But at ½ past 3 PM it Cleard a little in the Horison, and we Saw the Land bearing East, the haze was such that we cou’d not well guess the distance, but it was very near, Wore the Ship immediately, and Stood to the Westward, the wind had now got to the SSE, but continued to blow with great Violence, the Ship

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Ship upon this tack laying up SW, We sett the Reeft Mainsail, and at ½ past 6 Saw the Land again thro’ the Haze, close under our Lee Bow, and the Sea breaking with prodigious force upon it, it was not possible to Weather it, therefore wore Ship immediately whilst there was a chance of having room for doing so, I now found we were Embay’d, the Gale not in the least likely to abate, the Sea running Mountain high, very thick Weather, a long dark night Just setting in, and an unknown Coast I may call it (for altho’ it has been seen by several Navigators it is not yet known) close under our Lee, nothing was now left to be done, but to carry every Yard of Canvas the Ship was Capable of bearing, and for every person on board to constantly keep the deck and attentively to look out under the Lee for the Land, and as often as it might be discoverd to ware & lay the Ships head the

the other way, but as we know not what Bay or part of the Coast We might be upon, nor what dangerous ledges of Rocks might be detachd some distance from the Shore & in our way every moment, we had reason to fear that the next might by the Ship Striking launch the whole of us into Eternity, for our Situation was such that not a man coud have escap’d to have told when the rest Suffer’d ---
However whatever might have been the private feelings of each individual, I never saw orders executed with more Alacrity in any Situation, every Officer & Man on board took a Station for the look out, and immediately waring to the E’ward notwithstanding the Strength of the Gale, the Close reeft Fore & Mainsails were sett over the Reeft Coarses, and at this instant the wind favor’d us over two points, the Ship lay better up upon this Tack then her Course upon the other promis’d, but still the Weather was so thick, the Sea so high, the Gale so heavy, & dead upon the Shore, that

that little hope cou’d be entertain’d of our Weathering the land; We stood on to the E’ward and the Ship to my Astonishment as well as to that of every person on board, bore such a press of Sail wonderfully - We had about Midnight run back to the distance made from the first land we saw to the Second, and perceivd thro’ the haze the looming of that land under our Lee nearly on the Beam, this advantage we had gaind the [indecipherable] of the wind .
2 PM: We stood on, and I had Hope that this might be the nearest land, but at 2AM as I was looking from the quarter deck very Anxiously to Leeward, I observ’d the looming of a High & very Steep point of Rocky land, and the Sea foaming with frightfull Violence against it, I made no mention of it, but Just at that instant, it was discovered by the people Stationd forward, and they calld out land close under our Lee, I replied that it was very well I had seen it sometime, and that

that as it was now upon our Beam (which it really was for I discoverd it thro’ the Main shrouds there coud be no danger from it, we shoud soon pass it) *
[Margin note: if this Land had been seen a little sooner, the fear of not being able to Wea.r it might have occasiond our warning which woud have been unfortunate, the Wea.r Just cleard at a time when we coud see that no danger was to be apprehended from it.]
the Ship was at this time half buried in the Sea by the press of Sail, but was going thro’ it, (for she coud not be said to be going over it) at the Rate of four Knotts, we soon shot past this Head, and from the Courses we had made, I was convinc’d it was Tasmans Head, which is the Eastern Point of a Bay, of which the South Cape is the Western, and is calld by Tasman Storm Bay; the first land we had seen, was within the Bay on the Eastern Shore, not so far out as Tasmans Head, and the Western land under which we Wore at ½ past 6, was the South Cape - after passing Tasmans Head, we kept our wind still, and carried Sail, in order if possible to Weather Marias Islands which lay about 6 Leagues to the NE, for we had no sooner got round the

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round the last head, then the wind headed us and we fell off from EBS to EBN, had this Change taken place a little sooner it must have prov’d fatal to us; at 8 AM we past to windward of Marias Islands, which from the hazeyness of the Weather we did not see untill they were upon the lee quarter -
If I had found it impossible to have got round them, it was my intention to have stood back to the Westward, and to have got sight of the Land between Tasmans head & Adventure Bay, to have run along the Coast Close in untill I found the Opening of that Road and there to have depended upon our Anchors- In this trying Situation, the Ship being Leaky, our Pumps during such a Night were a distressing tax upon us, they were kept constantly at work- I do not recollect ever to have heard of a more Wonderfull escape, Every thing which depended upon us,

us, I beleive was done, but it wou’d be the highest presumption and ingratitude to divine Providence, were we to attribute our preservation wholly to those weak endeavours, His interference in our favor was so very conspicuously Mmanifested in Various instances in the Course of the night, as I beleivd, not to leave the Shadow of a doubt in the Minds of even the most profligate on board, of His immediate Assistance - After having Weatherd Marias Islands, we continued to Stand on with a press of sail to the Eastward, for I was Anxious to gain an offing from the Coast the Ship being Exceedingly disabled, All the rails of the Head, sound Houses & figure of the Head were washd intirely away, and the Rails to which the Bumkins are secur’d so much weakend as to require to be frapd down to the Knee of the Head, the Jib Boom & Spritsailyd. & Fore Top Gallant Mast were necessarily kept down upon deck to ease the Bowsprit in case of any of its securitys

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Securitys shoud be in danger from the Shatterd Condition of the [indecipherable] water - We were no sooner to the Eastward of Marias Islands then the wind Shifted round to SE & ESE which brought us again upon a Leeshore, for we coud not Weather Marias Islands upon one Tack, nor Schootens Isles & Bay of Shoals upon the other, however as it did not now blow so hard & the Land was near 20 Leag.s distant I was not under any apprehension from it - On the 26th the wind sett in from the No.ward & blew fresh frequently attended with the most Violent Squalls, it continued Northerly until the 2.d of May, when it inclined to the Southward & from that to the Eastward, I had on this day several distances of [sun and moon] the result of which was 155°..25’E. Longitude, which was little more then one degree to the E’ward of the Time Keeper, on the 6th in the morning we made the Land in Latitude 33°..30’S and at Noon Cape

Cape three points bore WbS distant off those 4 Leag.s Here upon a rough examination of the Error of the Time Keeper it appears to be about a degree or little more to the Westward of the truth, but we shall upon our arrival at Port Jackson examine its error more particularly
G* The Wind now, rather unfortunately for us, after 24 hours Calm, inclin’d again to the Southward, & we kept plying to windward with all the sail we could carry - Right off Cape 3 points at 6 Leagues distance from the Shore, we sounded in 75 fathoms, bottom of fine grey sand, on the 8th a light air from the Northward in the Night carried us by day light in sight of the Entrance of Port Jackson & in the Evening of the 9th we enterd between the Heads of the Harbor and work’d up to Sydney Cove where we anchord before Dark after an absence of 219 days, 51 of which we lay in Table Bay Cape of Good Hope, so that altho during this Voyage we had fairly gone round the World, we had only been 160 days in

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in describing that Circle, & by taking a mean between the highest & lowest Latitudes we saild in we shall find our track nearly in the Lat: 45°:00’S
- We found in the Cove the Supply Arm’d Tender-
Our passage Since we came round Vandeimans land has been attended with much bad Weather, very Violent Squalls & a thick haze particularly with the wind from the E’ward I have before Observd, that in the winter time upon this Coast, we are subject to much bad Weather, and this passage has Convinced me of the necessity, when Ships are intended to be sent to this Settlement, that the Seasons shou’d be considerd and attended to -
During the Summer Months we are sometimes Subject to thunder, Lightning & Squalls, but in general the Weather is fine; If in the fairest weather, you shoud observe it to lighten in the Lee part of the Horison, you should prepare for a Squall from that Quarter, which

Which are generally pretty severe -
As I have been speaking of the Weather upon this Coast, it may be a proper opportunity for taking notice of an Observation which I made both on this and our former passage along it - In passing (at a distance from the Coast) between the Islands of Schooten and Point Hicks, the former being the Northernmost of Capt. Furneaux Observations here, & the latter the Southernmost part which Capt. Cook saw when he saild along the Coast, there has been no land seen, and from our having felt an Easterly sett of Current, and when as the Wind was from that quarter (NW) We had an uncommon large Sea, there is reason to beleive that there is in that Space either a very deep Gulf or Strait which may Seperate Vandeimans land from New Holland, there has been no discovery made on the Western Side of this Land in the parallel I allude to between 39:00 & 42:00 S - (for there the land has never been seen) which does

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does not deny the probability of this Conjecture.
As soon as the Ship was secur’d’ I went on shore to wait on the Governor, Whom I found in good health. He was sitting by the fire drinking tea with a few freinds, Amongst whom I Observ’d a Native Man of this Country who was decently Cloathd, & seemed to be as much at his ease at the tea table as any person there, he manag’d his Cup & Saucer, as if he had been long accustom’d to such entertainment. this Man was taken from his freinds by force, a few officers having gone down the Harbor for that very purpose *[Margin note: Lt. Ball & Capt Johnston- marines] the Governor having found that no encouragement he cou’d give them woud dispose them to Visit the Settlement of their own accord; this Method He had therefore determin’d upon to get One Man into his possession, who by kind treatment might hereafter be the Means of disposing his Countrymen to place more Confidence in us, this Man whose Name was, was taken as I have already said by force, & in the following manner - after

After having been a short time in conversation with some of the Gentlemen One of the Seaman who had been previously directed, threw a Rope round his Neck & drag`d him in a Moment down to the Boat, but his Cries brought a Number of his friends in to the Skirts of the Wood, from whence they threw many lances but without Effect; the terror this poor Wretch Sufferd can better be conceiv`d than Expressed, He believe`d he was to be immediately Murderd, but upon the Officers coming into the Boat, they remov`d the rope from his Neck to his Leg, treated him with so much kindness, that he became a little more Chearfull - He was for sometime after his Arrival at the Governors House, ornamented with an Iron Shackle about his Leg to prevent his being able to affect his escape with ease, this he was taught to consider as Bang-ally - which is the Name given in their Language to every decoration and he

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And he might well believe it a Complim.t paid to him, because it was no uncommon thing for him to see several (of the most Worthless of the Convicts who had merited punishment) every day Shackled like him, the cause of which he coud not of course understand - However as He was very soon reconcild to his Situation from the very kind treatment He receivd from every person about him, and the Iron growing uneasy it was taken off and he was allow`d to go where he pleas’d; He very soon learnt the Names of the different Gentlemen Who took Notice of him, & when I was made acquainted with him He got Mine which he never forgot, but expressd great desire to come on board my Nowee, which is their expression for a Boat or other Vessel upon the water & the day after I came in the Governor & family did me the Honor to dine on board

on board when I was also favord with the Company of Ara-ba-noo - whom I thought a very good Naturd tractable fellow, he was about 30 years of Age & tolerably well look`d - I expressd at the Governors much Surprise at not having seen a Single Native on the Shore as we came up with the Ship, the reason of which I could not comprehend untill I was inform`d “that the Small Pox had made its appearance a few Months ago amongst these poor unfortunate Creatures, and that it was truly Shocking to go round the Coves of this Harbor which were formerly so much frequented by the Natives, where in the Caves of the Rocks which us`d to shelter whole familys in bad Weather, were now to be seen, Men, Women, & Children laying dead; as we have never yet seen any of these People who have been in the Smallest degree

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degree marked with the Small Pox, we have reason to suppose they have never before now been afflicted with it, and are strangers to any Method of treating it, and if we Consider the Various attitudes which the different dead bodys have been found in, we must believe, that when any of them are taken ill, & the Malady assumes the appearance of Small Pox, having already experiencd its fatallity to whole familys, they are immediately deserted by their friends, & left to perish in their helpless situation for want of Sustenance, some have been found Sitting on their haunches with their head reclind between the knees, others leaning against a rock with the head resting upon it, I have myself seen a Woman sitting on the Ground with her Knees drawn up to her Shoulders & her face resting on the

the Sand between her feet - Two Children, a boy of 6 or 7 Years Old & a girl about 10 were lately pickd up labouring under the same disease, two OldMmen also whom we had reason to believe were the Fathers of the two Children were brought to the Hospital and much attention paid to them, the two men liv`d but a few days, but the Children are both recoverd & seem well satisfied with their very Comfortable Situation, thro the means of these Children if they retain their Native language, a more intimate & friendly intercourse with the people of this Country may in time be brought about - about five or Six days after my Arrival Poor Ara-ba-noo was Seasd with the Small Pox, & although every possible means for his recovery was us`d he liv`d only till the Crisis of the disease - every person in the Settlement were

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Were much Concernd for the loss of this man – I was exceedingly concernd on hearing of the death of Captain Shea of the Marines, his disorder was a general decay, which I think must have taken place very Suddenly for he was apparently Strong & healthy, when the Sirius Saild from Port Jackson -
Several people had been during our Absence lost in the Woods & either killd by the Natives or perishd there - Another Melancholy piece of information we receivd on our Arrival was that Six Marines had been tryd by a Criminal Court & found Guilty of Robbing the Public Stores, they were sentencd to death & executed accordingly, it appeard upon the tryal of these infatuated Men, that they had carried on this iniquitous, (& I may add from our Situation) dangerous practice, for

for several Months, and all originally occasion`d by some unfortunate Conections they had made with some of the Convict Women - The Settlement had been during our absence remarkably healthy -
- Before the Sirius Saild from Port Jackson, the Governor had determind to send a detachment of the Marines with a Considerable Number of Convicts for the purpose of Clearing as much as might be necessary, & preparing, a tract of the land at the head of this Harbor which I have Just mentiond in page 108 - in order to Sow Corn; When we returnd from our Voyage, I went up to see what progress had been made at this Farm, which had been Nam`d Rose Hill; It certainly very much exceeded My expectations, the quantity of ground prepard for receiving grain at the proper time was considerable, a Number of Hutts Built - Gardens in tollerable appearance and

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and altogether every prospect of, in due time a very extensive farm, We now know, that if we had people enough, to labour, it might be carried at least twenty Miles to the W:ward and every foot of the ground apparently as good as that on which they are now at Work;
[Margin note H]
There has been several attempts by the Gentlemen here who have little farms in the Neigh’hood of Sydney Cove, to raise grain of different kinds for the purpose of feeding a few pigs, Goats & Poultry, but altho their endeavours seemd for a time to promise ample reward, for the Corn shot up very quickly but it no sooner formd into Ears than the Ratts, with which as well as much other Vermin this Country is over run - destroyd the whole of their prospect, the Indian corn which was remarkably promising was destroy’d in a Night -*
[Margin note I - *]

Having since our Arrival examind the Error of the Time Keeper, We find it to amount to 5°..20” - or 1°..20’ of Longitude Westerly - which makes the Error in Sailing the Whole Circle only 01°..11’ of Longitude Easterly and as I had kept Brockbanks Watch going the whole time, I examind its error also - I have already mentiond that it was upon our arrival in Table Bay - 3°.01’ - E`ward. but upon our return to this place it was Correct to a fraction of a Second, so that whatever its error might have been during the Voyage it had none upon our Arrival, I did not keep the Account of Longitude by it, but every day when the Sun coud be seen determind our place by the Time Keeper, in doing which I generally compard my own watch with it, both before & after the Altitudes were taken, & carried it upon deck the Time piece being fixd in the Cabbin -

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(table not transcribed)
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As in any account of the Weather during the different Months in the Year at Port Jackson, I was on account of my being oblig`d to leave that place in the beginning of October under a necessity of finishing that Acct; with the Month of September, I have since my Arrival been furnish`d with the remaining Months by Lt.Dawes of the Marines. –
Oct.r 1788
The first & Middle parts of this Month [indecipherable] Wea.r was Mod. & Cloudy & the Wind very Variable frequent thunder and Lightning with Showers of rain, the Latter part was clear fine Wea.r in general with distant thunder & lightning, & after Violent Squalls of wind which happend generally in the Night - Therm.r from 49, to 81-
In the beginning of this Month the Wea.r generally Cloudy & hazey, Wind from the Eastw.d Middle part also Cloudy with frequent light Showers of rain, & thunder & lightning sometimes distant & sometimes very heavy, Latter part Cloudy & hazey with Violent thunder lightning & rain Wind from NE to SE & Therm.r from 53 to 93 –

First part Cloudy and hazey with some thunder attended with Light rain, Middle same kind of Wea.r with frequent & light Showers of rain, Latter W. Mod. Weather with a good deal of rain, the wind chiefly from Northw.d & Eastw.d
Thermom.r from -53 ° to 102 –
Jan 7.1789.
During the whole of this Month the Wea.r was Cloudy & hazey with light Showers of rain, & sometimes distant thunder The wind chiefly thro` the day from the NE & SE & during the night Westerly or land winds Therm.r from 63° to 112° -
The Therm.r as markd for these four Months was in the open Air - occasionally exposd to the Sun or Wind.

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On the 6th of June I was engage`d in a party with the Governor on a Visit to Broken Bay in order to Examine some parts of that Harbor which had not been (for want of time & opportunity) Noticed in his last Visit to that place; Two boats were despatchd under care of Mr. Keltie Master of the Sirius, with provisions &c. and the party which Consisted of the Governor, Cap.t Collins the Judge Advocate, Captain Johnstone of Marines, Mr.White, principal Surgeon of the Settlement, Mr. Worgan Surgeon of the Sirius Mr.Towel and myself with two other people each arm`d with a Gun &c. We landed in the North part of Port Jackson, and proceeded along the Sea Coast to the Northward; in the Course of our March we had many long sandy beaches to Cross which was a very fatiguing part of the Journey, when we ascended the Hills we had frequently thick Woods to pass thro` but as we often fell in with paths which the Natives in traveling along the Coast had trodden very well down

down, those paths renderd our March, not only with respect to the most easy and accessable hills & woods but in point of direction the shortest which cou`d be found if we had even been better acquainted with this tract - We left Port Jackson at 6 oclock in the Morning Just as the day was dawning, and we arrivd the South Branch of Broken Bay at 3 in the afternoon after a pretty Warm & fatiguing Journey, loaded as we were with several days provision, Water Arms & ammunition, when we Arrivd at the Water side We found our Boats, which had left Port Jackson at Midnight were safely Arrive`d; As it was now too late in the day & we were all too Much fatui`d to attempt any part of the Main business upon which we came here, We pitchd our Tents and hauld the Seine for fish in which we were Successful We therefore set down regal`d upon fresh fish & Salt Beef & rested the remainder of this day; In the Course of the little Excursions of our Boats Crews

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Boats Crews this afternoon, a Native Woman was discovered, Concealing herself from our sight in the long Grass which was at this time very Wett and I shoud have thought very uncomfortable to a poor Naked Creature; She had before the Arrival of our Boats at this Beach, been with some of her friends employ`d in fishing for their daily food, but were upon their approach Alarm`d, and they all made their escape except this poor Young Creature who had jJst recover`d from the Small Pox, was very Weak, & unable from a Swelling in one of her Knees to get off to any Distance. She therefore Crept off & Conceald herself in the best manner she cou`d amongst the grass not twenty yeards from the place on which we had plac`d our Tents; she was discover`d by some person having fird & shot a Hawke from a tree right over her which terrified her so much that she Cried out & discovered herself,
Information was immediately given to the Governor

Governor and we all Went to see this poor Miserable Girl, whom we found as I have already observd lately recoverd from the Small Pox and lame; She appeard to be about Seventeen or Eighteen Years of Age, had covered her Naked body over with the Wett grass having no other means of hiding herself, She was very much frightened on our approaching her, and Shed many tears with piteous lamentations, we understood none of her expressions but felt much Concern at the distress she seem`d to suffer, we endeavourd all in our power to make her easy, and with the assistance of a few expressions which had been Collected from poor Ara-ba-noo whilst he was alive, we Soothd her distress a little, and the people belonging to the Boats were immediately orderd to bring some fire up which we plac`d before her pull`d some grass dry`d it by the fire & spread it round her to keep her Warm, then Shott some Birds, such as Hawkes

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Hawkes, Crows, Gulls &c. Skind them & laid them on the fire to broil, together with some fish of which she Eat, we then gave her Water, of which seem`d to be much in want, for when the word was mentiond which is their expression for water, she put her tongue out to shew us how very dry her mouth was, and indeed from its Colour & appearance she had a Considerable degree of fever on her - before we retird to rest for the night, we saw her again & got some fire wood laid within her reach, with which she might in the Course of the Night recruit her fire, we also cutt an extraordinary quantity of Grass, dry`d it Coverd her well & left her to her repose, which I conjecture from her Situation, was not very Comfortable or refreshing - next Morning we saw her again, she had now got pretty much the better of her fears, she frequently calld to her friends who had left her, and whom we knew cou`d be at no great distance from her, She repeated their Names in a very loud & Shrill Voice

Voice and with much apparent Anxiety and Concern for the little notice they took of her invitations to return, for we imagin`d in all she said when calling on them she was informing them, that the Strangers were not Enemys but friends, however all her endeavours to bring them back were ineffectuall whilst we remaind with her, but we were no sooner gone from the beach than we saw some of them come out of the Wood, and as there were two Canoes on the shore belonging to this party, they launchd one into the water, & went away - We employ`D this Second day in going up the South Branch which the Governor has Nam`d Pitt Water, so much of the day was spent in this Examination, that when we returned down near to where we had pass`d the last night, it was thought too late to proceed farther, we therefore encampd on the same Spott, out Tents &c were no sooner up than we went to Visit our Young female friend, whom we now found in a little Bark Hutt upon the Beach, this Hutt was the place in which She and her friends

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Friends were enjoying themselves when the Arrival of our Boats alarm`d them - She was not now alone as before, she had with her a female Child about two years Old and as fine a little Creature of that Age as I ever saw; but upon our approach the Night being Cold and Rainy, and the Child terrified exceedingly, she was laying with her Elbows & Knees on the ground covering the Child from our sight with her body, probably to shelter it from the Wea.r but I rather think on account of its terror; on our speaking to her she rais`d herself up & sett on the ground with her Knees up to her Chin and her heels under her, and was at that Moment I think the most Miserable spectacle human shape I ever beheld - the little infant coud not be prevaild on to look up, it lay with its face upon the ground and it hand over its Eyes - We supplied her as before with Birds & fish & fuel to keep her fire in with, we pulld a quantity of Grass to make her a Comfortable Bed

Bed, and Coverd her little miserable Hutt so as to keep out the Weather, She was now so reconcild to out frequent Visits, seeing we had nothing in View but her Comfort in them, that when she wanted Baado, or Magro which signifies fish, she woud ask for them, & when she did it was always supplied her, in the Morning after our second Night here, we saw her again, the Child had now got so much the better of its fears that it woud allow us to take hold of its hand, I perceive`d that young as it was, it had lost the two first Joints of the little finger of the left hand, the reason or meaning of which, we have not yet been able to learn - We left all the fish we had remaining, & gave her a quantity of firewood & water within her reach & took our leave - We embarkd in the Boats, & Saild across the bay to the North Branch, which has a very Shoal & Narrow Entrance, we proceeded but a Small distance up before we landed on the West shore & refreshd ourselves, after which we row’d

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Row`d into the first opening on the East side, this we follow`d up until we arrivd at its head, it was very Shallow, & very Narrow, & ended in a large bason full of Shoals and surrounded with mangroves, it extended near four miles to the North & Eastward; When we returnd from this branch We pitchd our Tents on the West Shor for the night, & Early next Morning proceeded to the Northward, in this route we fell in with many Shoals of considerable extent and after rowing aout Six or Seven miles up we arrivd at the Head of it which divides into two large Bays in one of which I obsev`d the Latitude to be 33&deg..26’30”. 30 So. We returned from hence to a point near the Entrance of this North Harbor, where we encampd and spent the night * Across the Mouth of this North Harbor, there is a Bar or Spit of Sand which Extends from the Sandy Beach or West point of Entrance, almost over to the Eastern Shore, and which
[*In this harbor we found very few natives, not more than 20, some few came & conversd with us which]

Which from the wind having been from the Southward during the last night, broke prodigiously from Side to Side, so that at near low water, it was impossible for the Boats to get out, we were on that account oblig`d to remain here until it was more than two thirds flood, when in the deepest part of the Channel the Sea did not break, We got out and push`d over now for the SW Arm or Harbor, up which we went, but as part of this branch had been lookd into last Winter, we enter`d an Arm on the Northside of it and proceeded up about a Mile and half to an Island which had been visited last Winter, here we encampd for the Night, and hauld the Seine with great Success, from the vast quantity of Excellent Mullet & other fish Caught here, it receivd the name of Mullet Island - Next morning we row`d into a branch which had been enterd last time our boats were her, but not examin`d we proceeded to the

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to the Top, and found it a very Shoal branch extending to the Northward about four Miles, and Navigable only for boats, having but four, five and Six feet Water in it - After having Satisfied ourselves as to the extent of this Arm, we returnd to Mullet Island, where we Caught fish and din’d, in the afternoon, the Governor & Myself went in one of the Boats, leaving the rest of the party and our Tents upon the Island, we enterd another branch which had also been seen last winter but not examind, up this we went about Seven or Eight Miles, until it became so very Narrow and Shoal, Scarsely water to float the boat, or room to use the Oars - we thought it not worth prosecuting any farther discovery at the risk of grounding the Boat & being left here during the night - We therefore returnd to Mullet Island & spent another night upon it - This branch is all Shoal water, only five & Six feet -
The next Morning we Struck our Tents, and proceeded

proceeded in the Boats to examine a point of High land which from our Situation in the boat the day before, had the appearance of an Island, of this we were determind to be Satisfied, and we found it to be an Island as we had Conjecturd, in this Examination we were led into a Branch which had not before now been discover’d, we proceeded up this for a considerable distance, found good depth of Water, and every other appearance of its being the opening of an extensive river, we continued to row up the whole of this day, and in the Evening went on shore on the most Comodious spot we cou’d find which was a low Marshy point, here we rais’d our Tents & spent the night - At day light in the Morning it was so foggy, that we were oblig’d to defer our departure from this station until 10 oclock when the influence of the Sun dispeld the Mist and we continued our Course upwards, still finding good depth of water

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Water and strong tides, both which we consider’d as indications of a Considerable River, the Whole of this day was imploy’d in exploring & making what progress we cou’d, the Ebb tides we observ’d thus far up, were considerably stronger than the floods and the Water very little the taste of Sea Water, it Scarsely cou’d be calld brackish, we continued going up ‘till the Evening, when it was found impossible at this time to make any further discovery, our provision being nearly expended, we fill’d our water Cask where we gave up farther pursuit, and there altho the tide was high the water was perfectly fresh - The general depth of this River was from 3 to 7 fathoms and its breadth was from 100 to 300 fathoms - there are some shoals, but they generally extend from low Mangrove or Marshy points - Its general direction thus far, is to the NW, we were When

When farthest up, about Twenty Miles from the Entrance of the SW arm of Broken Bay - The Banks of the River in the lower part of it, had many Mangrove trees along it higher up, Reeds grew along its Margin, and the land behind those Reedy banks, were immense perpendicular Hills of Barren Rocky land, with trees growing from between the Cliffs of the Rocks, the depth of the River as far up as we advanc’d, was there 6 & 7 fathoms; We were so Anxious to pursue this discovery that we did not think of returning until it was near dark, & where we then were, there was not a spot on which we could erect a Tent so very steep were the Shores, except where they were Marshy - We pushd down as fast as possible in order to find a landing place before it shou’d be very late, and soon after dark put ashore on a parcel of Rocks which indeed was the only spot near, on which we coud find room for our Tents, here we past the

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The night - The Morning of the next day was foggy, until the Sun had gaind sufficient power to disperse it, When we returnd down the River, and as the wind blew fresh and fair for us, we Saild down and in the Afternoon Arrivd in the South Branch or Pitt Water - fixd out Tents for the Evening & Caught some fish in order to lengthen out our provision - Our female freind had left this place - The Governor was now determin’d as soon as we had rested ourselves for a few days, to prosecute this new discovery to its Source-
We struck our tents at Night, & embarkd them in the Boats, for, as the wind was Northerly it was intended they shou’d sail at Midnight, a Wigwam was made to Shelter us during the night, and a large fire made, by which we lay till day light, The Boats having saild in the Night we sett off at dawn of day by Land, we found an easyer

Easyer path than that by which we came, & Arriv’d at the North Cove of Port Jackson by 2 oClock in the afternoon, when the Boats were already arriv’d - in our Journey we fell in with several dead bodys who had probably fallen by the Small Pox, but they were mere Skelletons so that it was impossible to say of what disease they died - Boats were upon our arrival immediately orderd to be prepaird & provision got ready for another excursion, the same party have engag’d to go again, & if possible trace this River to its Source - as far up as we advanc’d, I have made an Eye Sketch of it-
On Sunday 28th -

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On Sunday the 28th of June, the Boats being ready Provision embark’d & the wind fair for this Second Visit to Broken Bay, they sail’d before day light on Monday Morning; the Party enjoy’d to go by Land were put on shore at the North part of the Harbor at 6 oClock AM - the same Gentlemen who were on the former expedition were also on this, with the addition of five Marines on the whole our Numbers amounted to about Forty, the two Boats were well Arm’d & capable of Making a powerfull resistance, in case as we advanc’d up the River we shou’d find the interior parts of the Country well inhabited, and the People of a Hostile disposition-
We left Port Jackson at the time above mentiond and having in our last visit to the Northward found a better trail to travel by, we were soon in the Neighbourhood of the South Branch of Broken Bay, at which place one boat had been orderd to meet us in order to save us by much the worst part of the Journey, We

We arriv’d at the head of Pittwater before 11 oClock but no boat appear’d, which oblig’d us to walk round all the bays, woods, & Swamps, between the head & entrance of this branch, by which when we did Join the Boats we were exceedingly fatigu’d, the Weather being rather Warm & each person having his Napsack & Arms - this last part of our March increas’d the distance from twelve or fourteen Miles to about twenty five, in the Course of which we had very High & steep hills to climb & many deep swamps to wade thro’- By the time we Joind the Boats the day was too far advanc’d to think of proceeding farther, we therefore pitch’d our Tents and spent the Night on the spott which we had formerly occupied when here - Tuesday 30th we Embark’d in the boats, and as it was intended to reach as high up the river this day as possible, We passd Mullet Island & proceeded into the River, before Night we had advanc’d as far up as a point on which we rested a Night last time we were here, and which was

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Was within three or four Miles as high as we had advanced into this River, Here we rested for the Night, and at the day light in the Morning 1st of July we embarkd in the boats, and after advancing a very little way beyond our farthest discovery, the River divided into two branches, one leading to the NW the other to the Southward, We took that which led to the NW, all this day we continued to row up this arm, which was in general Shoal water from 4 feet to ten & twelve and its breadth from 20 fathoms to about 40, the Banks of this branch were in general immense perpendicular Mountains of barren rock, or if in some places the Mountains did not reach the Margin of the river but fell back a little way from it they were joind by low Marshy points coverd with Reeds or Rushes which extended from the foot of the Mountain to the edge of the river - at five in the Evening we put ashore and raisd our Tents at the foot of one of the Mountains where

Where we found a tollerable dry spott for that purpose, and in the Morning of the 2nd proceeded Higher up, this Mornings progress was a good deal retarded by many large trees having fallen from the Banks & reachd almost nearly across the river for here it scarcely deservd that Name it was so narrow by 10 oClock we were so far up that we had not room for the Oars, nor indeed water to float the Boat, we therefore found it necessary to return, & before noon we put ashore where I took the Meridian altitude of the Sun which gave our Latitude 33 °:21’So. and we Judg’d by the Estimated distances mark’d in my sketch, that we were about thirty Miles above Mullet Island, at the place where we past the last night, we were examining the ground round us, as was customary wherever we plac’d our Tents for the night, and about half a Mile from our resting place some of the Gentleman found a small Hutt they saw a person whom they took for

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for a Native Woman, & who upon their approach fled with great precipitation into the Woods, they went to examine the Hutt & found two small helpless children in it, the poor little creatures were exceedingly terrified but upon being kindly treated seemd to recover a little from their fear, they appeard in great distress, apparently for want of food, they had a little fire by them & in it were found a few wild potatoes almost the size of a Walnut I rather supposd them the root of the Orchid plant. Upon a supposition that the Parents of those children woud soon return after our leaving the place, a Hatchet & some other trifles were left in the Hutt, Next morning whilst the people were employ’d striking the Tents & the same Gentlemen visited the Hutt again, which they now found unoccupied, the whole family were gone, & the Hatchet etc. was left laying by it- It is really wonderfull that these people should sett so very little vallue upon such an usefull article as a Hatchet certainly must be to them, this indifference I have seen several times in those

those who have been shewn the use of it, and even where its superiority over their Stone hatchets have been pointed out by a Comparison - It is not to be accounted for - We had now a strong Ebb tide & we row’d late in order if possible to get out of this branch before we stopd for the night, about 6 oClock in the Evening, we enterd the Southern Arm, when near its entrance we encamp’d for the night; Next morning (Friday 3rd) we proceeded up this arm for about Seven or Eight miles, where it again divided into two branches, thus far we found the depth from 3 to 9 fathoms and the breadth of the river from 100 to 150 fathoms and this left no doubt but this was the main river. We took the branch which led to the Northward, the other enterd South, We had not advanced more then a quarter of a mile before we found the water very Shoal however as it might lead to a good Country the Governor determind to go as high as the boats cou’d find water- We advancd up this Arm thro’ various windings, and mett many difficultys

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difficultys from the Shoals of the Water, notwithstanding which we made shift to get about thirteen Miles up, depth from four to twelve feet & breadth from twenty to fifty fathoms; the Banks of this branch were the same as the last, high steep and Rocky Mountains with many trees growing down their sides from between the Rocks where anyone wou’d beleive there cou’d be no Soil to Nourish them, Both this and the last branch examind, probably Extend many Miles farther than we with our boats coud`d trail them, but they did not appear, when we left off the Examination of them, to be Navigable for any Vessel but the Canoes of the Natives which do not draw more than two or three inches water - We saw several Natives in these branches but they fled into the Woods upon our approach, the Miserable condition of these poor Creatures, who have taken up their residence for a time so far back from the Sea Coast where no fish are to be had, is far beyond any description, they no doubt have Methods of Snaring or killing the different kids of Animals which

which are to be found here * [* See page (4) under letter C] otherwise I think it impossible they coud exist at any distance from the Sea, for the Land (as far as we yet know) affords very little Sustinance for the Humane Race.
Having advanced as high as practicable with out Boats, we returnd and having row`d about two or three Miles down to a point where there was tollerable landing, we put ashore & pitchd our Tents for the Night; In the Morning of the 4th while the Boats were taking in the Tents &c. I measur`d the height of the opposite shore, which I found to be 250 feet perpendicular above the level of the River which was here 30 fathom wide; at 7 we Embark`d & dropt down until we came to the Entrance of this Second Southern Branch certainly the Main River where we found good depth of water 6 & 7 fathoms, this from its depth encourag`d us to hope that it might extend a great distance to the Westward; We advanc`d up this branch about thirteen or fourteen Miles before we put ashore for the night, in this distance the general depth of Water was from two to Seven faths and

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(234- 235)
and the breadth of the river from Seventy to a hundred & forty fathoms, but the Country still wore a very unpromissing Aspect, either high rocky shores or low Marshy points - After having rested the night we were again under way at day light, & this day advanc`d about fourteen Miles against the tide, In the Woods we frequently saw fires, and sometimes heard the Natives, in the afternoon we saw a Considerable Number of people in the Wood, with many fires in different places; We calld to them in their own Manner by frequently repeating the Word Co-wee, which Signifies Come here, at last two Men came to the water-side with much apparent familiarity & Confidence, I thought from this circumstance that they had certainly seen us before, either at Botany Bay, Port Jackson, or Broken bay - They receiv`d a hatchet, and a Wild Duck which had been Just before shott from the boat, and in return

return, they threw into the boat a small Coil of line, made of the Hair of some Animal, and also offerd a Spear which was refus`d; the only Argument against their having seen us before, is, that they are the first we have mett with who appeard desirous of making a return for any presents they receiv`d -
Here the Banks of the River are low and coverd with what we Call the Pine tree of this Country, which indeed has receivd that Name Merely from the leaf which is a good deal like the Pine, but the wood is of a very different Nature - The Natives here appear to live Chiefly on the Roots which they dig from the ground, for these low Banks appear to have been ploughd up as if a Vast herd of Swine had been living on them, we put ashore and examind those places which had been dug and found the Wild Potatoe in Considerable quantity, but in general very small not larger than a Walnut, they appear to be in greatest plenty upon the Banks of the River farther back they are Scarse, We frequently in some of the

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Of the reaches which we passd thro` this day, saw very near us, the Hills which we suppose we see from Port Jackson, and were calld by the Governor The Blue Moountains - At 5 in the Evening we put ashore at the foot of a Hill where we past the Night & at day light in the Morning of the 5th we embarkd & continued our way up the river, in which we still found good depth of water from two to five fathoms and Sixty or Seventy fathoms Wide, as we advan`d we found the river to contract pretty fast in its breadth and the Chanel became Shoaler, from these Circumstances we had reason to beleive, that we were not far from its Sourse; the Ebb tides were pretty strong, but the floods only perceptable by the Swelling of the Water upon the Shore. In the Evening we arrivd at the foot of a High Mountain which was spread over with lofty trees without any under Wood, all the pleasant looking Country Coverd with grass and without that Mixture of Rocky patches every rise or two, as is very common

Common in many other places, Here we ascended some distance up & erected our Tents for the night, the River here was not more than twenty fathoms wide - In the night when every thing was still, We heard distinctly the roaring of what we Judged to be a fall of Water, and Imagind from that, that we shou’d not be able to advance much farther, as we had no doubt, if what we heard shoud be the falling of Water, that we must be near the head of the River at least as far as was navigable for out boats - In the Morning we Walk`d to the Top of the Hill, Where we oservd we were not more than five or Six Miles from a long range of Mountains, between which & that on which we were, there is a deep Valley or low Country, thro` which probably a branch of this river may run - this range of Mountains we supposed to be those which are calld from Port Jackson the Blue Mountains and seen from thence, limit the sight to the WNW. In that range of high land there is a remarkable Gully or Chasm, which is seen distinctly at a distance, where we now were, we coud not be more than five Miles from this Chasm The hills

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The Hills on each side this gap were namd by Governor Phillip Carmarthen and Lansdown Hills, and that on which we stood was calld Richmond Hill*
[* In the margin - here having a little bottle of Spirit with us we drank to the health of those Noblemen after whom those Mountains had now been Namd]
In the morning of the 6th we examind the river which was I have before observd was narrow and Shoal, its bed was composd of loose round stones & sand, it was now low water, and we coud not advance with the boats for want of depth - We therefore delay`d any farther attempt till it shoud be near high water, & in the meantime [indecipherable] take a view of the country round this hill which had it been clear of trees wou`d from its Commanding height given us a most extensive prospect to the Eastward Northww’d and Southward, but the hills above mentioned were still higher and of Course limited our view Westward - Whilst the other gentlemen of the party were Employd with the Governor in Examining the country, I employd myself

myself in taking the Meridian Altitude of the Sun by which I found the Highest part of this Hill in Latitude 33°:37’ So. The Gentlemen spoke highly in favor of the Country, as far as they Walkd it was perfectly Clear of any kind of underwood the trees upon it were all very tall & stood very wide apart, the Soil was also Examind and found very good, a small patch was dug up & a few potaoes Indian Corn Melon & other Seeds Sown, this was a Common practise when a piece of ground favorable from its soil & being in an unfrequented Situation was found was generally a few Seeds of different kinds put in, some of those little gardens which have been planted in this manner & left to Nature, have been since visited & found thriving, others have miscarried - After the observation was over, the tide being up we put off in the boats, and endeavourd to get higher up but were frequently aground, by the time we had reachd half a Mile higher than the

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than the foot of Richmond Hill, We mett the Stream setting down so strong, that it was with much difficulty we cou`d get the boats so high - We here found the river to divide into two narrrow branches, from one of which the Stream came down with considerable Velocity and with a fall over a range of Stones which seem`d to lay across its entrance, this was the fall which we had heard the night before from our Situation on the side of Richmond Hill; We found too little water for the Boats which we had with us to advance farther, & the Stream was very strong down, altho weak to what it may reasonably be conjecturd to be after heavy rains, for here we had evident Marks and proofs of the vast torrents which must pour down from those Mountains after heavy rains - We found that the low grounds of such time are intirely cover`d, & the Trees with which they are overgrown are laid down (with their tops pointing down the River) as much as I ever saw a field of Corn after a

a Storm, and where any of those Trees have been Strong enough to resist in any degree the Strength of the Torrent / for they are all less or More beat downwd, We saw an the Clifts of the Branches of such trees, vast quantitys of large logs which had been hurried down by the force of the water, lodg’d from thirty to forty feet above the Common level of the river, and at that height there were great quantitys of grass, reeds, and such other Weeds as are washd from the Banks of the river, hanging to the branches - The first notice we took of those Signs of this extraordinary swelling of the Water here, was twelve or fourteen Miles lower down, and where the river is not so confin`d in its breadth, there we measurd the same Signs of those torrents twenty Eight feet above the Surface of the Water, the Common rise and fall of tide did not appear to be more than Six feet - On the banks here also we found the Wild Potatoe and other Roots which we had evident marks of the Natives frequenting these parts in search of - they have no doubt some method of preparing

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preparing these roots before they an eat them for we found one kind here which some of the Company had seen the Natives dig up, some of the Gentlemen had been pleased with this Root which had much the appearance of Horseraddish and of a Sweetish taste, had swallow`d a small quantity of it, which occasiond Violent Spasms, Cramps in the Bowels & sickness at the the Stomach, it might probably be the Casada root - We found here many wares or traps for Catching Animals, in which we observ`d the feathers of many Birds particularly the Quail - We now gave up the Hope of tracing this river any higher up with our boats, & as in case of heavy rains setting in, which might be expected at this time of the year, there would be considerable danger whilst confind in this narow part of the river; We pushd down and encmp`d the night of the 6th about Seven Miles below Richmond hill, In the Morning early we sett off on our return and encampd the

the 7th at night about twenty six Miles down at 7 in the morning of the 8th we embarkd again and by 4 oclock in the Evening we had reachd a point about forty three Miles down when we pitchd our Tents for the night - which was very foggy - In our way down, we stopd for a short time and I measurd the perpendicular height of a Hill on the North side the river * which I found to be 399 feet, here the river was 120 fathoms wide [* This hill woud be more properly be Calld one of the banks of the River, for it was a long range of level land & was nearly perpendicular from the Water, the opposite shore was low & Marshy –]
On the 9th in the morning we proceeded to examine some other inferior branches, there general direction was to the Southward, and the longest was not more than five or Six Miles in length, navigable for such boats as ours - the general depth was 3 & 4 fathoms for about four Miles up, then shoal water, the others were inconsiderable; In one of these branches we passd the Night of the 9th and saw a few Natives who came off in their boats with much Cheerfulness & good humour - I thought we had seen them before, they receiv`d a few presents amongst which were a looking glass which we took

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we took much trouble to Shew them the use of , they were some time before they observd their own figure in the glass, but when they did they turn`d it up & look`d behind it, then pointed to the Water, signifying, that they coud see their figure reflected as well from that - Having examind every thing which was thought worth our attention we made the best of our way to Mullet Island where we landed the 10th in the evening and Caught some fish, this night and all the next day (the 11th ) it blew a gale of wind from the Southward, so that we were oblig’d to pass a Second Night, here also, in the Morning of the 12th it was moderate altho very squally & unsettled, We struck our Tents and saild for Pitt Water, where about Noon we encampd upon a point pretty high up, in our way up we put ashore to fill some fresh water, & in a Cave near the Stream, we found a Native Woman, who appeard to have been dead some time

time, for her Skin was as hard as a piece of leather it was impossible to know whether she had died of the Small Pox or not; In the Morning of the 13th as we intended to land well up this branch in order to avoid the most difficult & tiresome part of the road to Port Jackson - we embarkd after we had breakfasted & row`d up about a Couple of Miles, when the party for Walking went on shore, each with his Arms & Knapsack containing two days provision, We were about half an hour in getting thro` the Wood, which led us to the Sea Coast where we fell into our old & well known path and by 4 oclock in the afternoon Arrivd at the North part of Port Jackson, but we might as well have been fifty Leagues off, for here we coud have no Communication either with the Sirius or the Settlement, and no boat had been directed to meet us - We went immediatly to work and made a large fire by which we lay all this Night which was a very cold one, the next day we crossd the

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Crossd the Hills and came to the Mouth of the NW Harbour, but we cou`d not find the means of Crossing it; We had fir`d Musquets frequently during the night, in hope that some boat might have been down the harbor fishing & have heard us; We found this Morning a Canoe upon the beach, with which we had no doubt of getting two men across the water, who coud in a short time Walk over to the Cove where the Sirius lay, but this prospect was disappointed by the first man who enterd the Canoe having oversett her & she immediatly sank, He was obliged to Swim on shore; after this we went to Work and made a Catamaran of the lightest Wood we cou`d find, but when finishd and launch’d, it woud not altho pretty large bear the Weight of one Man - It was now propos’d to walk round the head of the NW Harbor, which would have been a good long Journey for at least two days, and our provision was nearly expended, to this proposal I was under

under the necessity of objecting for want of shoes, the last March having torn all but the Soals from my feet & they were ty`d on with Spun yarn, I therefore declind the Walk propos`d, & determin`d to go back to Broken Bay & rejoin the Boats, which I had no doubt of being able to Effect in the course of that day, and with far more ease than I cou’d with: [indecipherable] Shoes to climb such rocky Mountains & thick wood as lay in the Way round the head of the NW harbor - But as it was not improbable that I might fall in with some partys of the Natives in the way, I wish`d to have a Companion, Capt. Collins prefer’d accompanying me to the intended Walk, and we were Just upon Setting out, when two of the people who were with us, propos`d Swimming over the water, & Cross thro the wood to the Sirius - the distance across was not more than two Cables length, or 400 Yards - They immediatly stripd and each had a dram, they tyed up in a handf: a shirt pair of Trowsers & pair of Shoes which was rested

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Rested upon their Shoulders - Thus equipd they took the water, and landed on the other side in Seven Minutes, but one having taken the Cramp was oblig`d to disingage himself from his bundle which was of Course lost - they sett off thro the Wood & in an hour & half arrived on board, the one with his shirt & trowsers the other perfectly Naked, upon their information, a Boat was sent down & took us up after a pretty fatiguing Walk.
I cannot help here remarking how providential it was that we did not all agree to Walk round the NW Harbor, - at 8 in the Morning we heard the report of a great Gun, which led me to beleive that some person belonging to the Sirius was missing and had probably been lost in the Woods, as we frequently that morning fir`d musquets, we sometimes imagin`d that we had heard a Musquet at a considerable distance in the Wood, in consequence of this Idea We frequently fird several together, & as often heard the report of that which we believd meant to Answer us in short

in short by means of these repeated Volleys We drew nearer to that which Answerd, and by hollowing alltogether found we were within the hearing of the person who had followd our firing, for after Calling out We listend attentivly, & heard a very faint Voice in Answer, in that direction we walkd, & came so near as to desire the person to remain where he was and we wou`d find him out; We at last by frequent calling & answering found the person who prov`d to be Peter White Sailmaker of the Sirius, He had been four days lost, & had about an Ounce of Bisquet left, was very faint, & appeard to us to be stupid and almost exhaused, for he Staggerd like a Man drunk, We took him with us, & by giving him such provision as we had, in small proportions, he was in a few hours a good deal recover`d, but I think if he had not been found as he was, in twenty four hours more, he would not have been able to walk farther, & must have perishd wherever he lay down

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It is remarkable, that the flint of his Gun being Worn to a Stump, he coud not get fire during the whole day before from it, until Night, when a fire became Necessary for him to rest by, He then tried it again with very little Hope of Succeeding, he did get fire contrary to expectation, & sat the whole night by it, the next morning it faild him again, untill he had occasion to answer our Musquets, when it again struck fire, which it did every time he wished to Answer us, otherwise in all probability We shu`d not have found him, this is exactly his own account –
In the end of August the Governor having expressd a Wish to have a Survey made of Broken Bay and Botany Bay - I offerd to perform that Service - In the Meantime the Sirius having been remov`d from Sydney Cove to a Cove on the North side the Harbour,much more Convenient for giving her those repairs of which she now stood so much in need; the Carpenter & his Crew, who had been employd on shore upon the business of the Settlement ever since our return from last Voyage, were now order`d on board to attend to the repairs of the Ship, a

a temporary Wharf was built by the Ships Com.y and a piace of Ground leveld to receive the prov.s and Stores, Every person was now employd in Lightning the Ship and in Cutting down timber for the repairs Wanted –a Survey upon the Defects of the Ship was orderd by Capt. Phillip & she was reported to be very Weak in her upper Works - Several Bolts decay`d under the Wales which occasiond her making much Water at Sea, and that it was absolutely necessaary to Examine as many of her Butt Bolts as possible, it was also thought necessary to fix Seven pair of Riders one each side to Strengthen her upper Works, various other defects were given in -
Whilst the Ships Company were emloy`d lightning the Ship, & the Carpenters Cutting down Timber for Riders & planks; I determin`d before any thing Material was set about in the repairs to go round & make a Survey of Broken Bay, in this excursion I was accompanied by several Gentlemen of the Settlement, the Boats were dispatchd round under Care of Lt. Bradley by whom & Lt. Ball I was assisted in this Work, and the

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and the party went by Land, but as I wish`d also to make a Sketch of the Coast between the two Harbors, we determind to be two days on the Journey & to lay all night in the Woods - We arrived in Pitt Water & Joind the Boats in the afternoon of the Second day - We Visited all those parts which were Navigable for Ships & having before very particularly Sounded & examind all the Branches here, the business was finished in little more than a fortnight Mr.Bradley returnd with the Boats & we walkd along shore to Port Jackson -
The Entrance of Broken Bay lies in Latitude 33°..34’ So. & Longitude 151 °..27 E. the Bay is large & Clear the distance from No. to South Heads is two Miles and the depth is 8,10 & 12 fathoms but as you run up the Bay it shoals to 7,6 &
Just within the No.head of the Bay is the entrance of the Northern Branch, which from the Shoalness of the Water is only Navigable for Boats or Small Vessels, the Chanel going in is very Narrow -

Narrow occasion`d by a very long spit of sand, which extends from a low Sandy pt. on the West side the entrance, and on which when the Wind is from the Eastward the Sea breaks very high -
A little within the South head of the Bay is the Entrance of the Southern Branch or Pitt Water - this is a good harbor, the entrance is render`d rather Narrow by a Shoal bank which extends from the Eastern point full two thirds of the way across; Keep the W’shore on board, which is pretty bold & is a high steep rocky pt. & steer right up the Branch, 3 fam. at low water is the most you will have, & that depth is only in the narrows which is very short extent, for as you run up you very soon deepen to 4,5,6 &7 fams., to the shoal which narrows the entrance it is very gradual soundings. When you are above the second point on the W’Shore you have good depth of water & good room, you may run up in Mid Chanel without fear both shores are pretty bold to, except off the points from some of which it is shoal a small distance in

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In this Branch then are several Coves in which a Ship might Lighten & Careen, there is also fresh water in Various parts of this Harbor with Wood in abundence, fish may be caught in all the Sandy Bays - The Entrance of this branch is divided from that of the SW Arm, by several rocky points (the land over high and steep) between which are some small sandy Bays, and right off the Mouth of this Arm is a very high Rocky Island of but small extent but its Eastern End is very high and perpendicular, this Island is a good Mark, for any part of this Bay may be known with certainty by the situation of this Island which the Chart will point out - If a stranger was coming in here for shelter in a Gale of Wind, I would recommend his pushing up the SW Arm, Steer in for the Island which is now Calld Mount Elliot, from its similarity to the North end of Gibralter rock, you may pass on the other side, but the South side is fairest for going up the SW arm keep

keep Mid channel between the Island and South Shore, this shore is so bold that you may run up within two Cables length of it, in your way up you will perceive a branch on the North side which runs up NW when thus high you are above a Bank or Middle ground on which the least water is 16 feet you may by keeping near the Shore pass on either side of this shoal which has gradual soundings to it The South side has most room and deepest water the North side has 5 fams. when above this you may keep in the Middle if you wish to go higher & and the least water will be 5 or 6 fam. for several Miles higher & from this SW Arm several branches extend, most of which have good depth of Water, but the Chart will be the best guide - If you wish to enter the NW branch Enter it by keeping Larboard Shore on board and for some distance up, for from the Starboard Shore a Shoal extends one third of the distance over -

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After having rested a few days I determined not to lose any time, but to go immediately & make a Survey of Botany Bay whilst the Weather was Cool & pleasant - towards the end of September two boats with provision, Tents &c. were dispatchd around under Care of Mr Kellie the Master of the Sirius, by whom and Mr Blackburn Master of the Supply, I was assisted in my Work in Botany Bay; A few Gentlemen of the Settlement having signified a Wish to accompany me, the party resolved to Walk over & meet the boats there; this Rout being well known & the path well trodden, it is not an unpleasant Walk -
We Joind the Boats about Noon and found our Tents pitchd - We began our operations the Same afternoon & in about ten days had finished the Bay &c. - The Anchorage in this Bay as I have formerly Observ’d is extensive, & the passage is easy, there is a Cluster of Rocks which lay SSE about 2 Cables length from a little Bare Island on the North Shore on which the Sea frequently breaks very high

high, but if you keep Cape Banks open, you will avoid them, both Shores are bold too ‘till you come thus high - a little above point Sutherland (South Shore) is another patch of Rocks, which to avoid in turning, keep the land below this point open - Altho the Anchorage here is extensive, yet by looking at the Chart, it will appear a Small Spott for so very large a piece of Water - from Both the No. & So. sides & from the Bottom of the Bay, the Flats run off a great distance from 4 to 15 feet - I did formally believe [ See Page 62] that there was an easy Chanel over these flats into the West River, but in this examination I think it rather difficult if practicable at all for the Soundings are very irregular, this River in some spotts has good depth & that near and within its entrance, but higher up it is all Shoal water & full of knowls of Sand, in short it is only to be Navigated by Boats; it has two branches in which there are several Coves or Bays, but all Shoal water - After having gone to the head of this River and returned to the Bay again

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again ,We then entered, a small River which emptys itself in the NW part of the Bay, this river is all Shoal water as high as I went which was about five Miles up. (it has been since examind to the head by Lt. Bradley) in short those Rivers were at this time with one no object to throw away time upon I therefore made no Survey of them than an Eye Sketch, every reach is laid down true with respect to discretion the soundings are the depth at or near low water, & the distance is estimated by short portions at a time that they might be the more correct - It will soon be perceived by looking at the draft of this Bay, that it is not possible to lay Land Lock’d with a Ship in any part of it, you will always be exposd to the large Sea which tumbles in here with an Easterly wind - the Edge of the flatts, (in 3fm) is determin’d by many intersections so that its extent is pretty Justly ascertain’d -

In the end of October it was Judg’d necessary to Shorten the Allowance of provision one third, for altho we may expect Store Ships from England by the end of January 1790, Yet as there did not remain above five Months provision in the Settlement the Governor thought it Necessary to Issue an order for two thirds allowance, to Commence the 1st of November - Having finished the placing of the Top riders in the Ship by the end of October, We took our provisions and Stores on board, and on the 7th November, moved the Ship from the Careening Cove over to Sydney Cove - a few days before that John Mara the Gunners Mate had been missing and was supposed to have been lost in the Wood, parties were sent out in Search of him, the third day after he disappeared, I was rowing up the Harbor Early in the Morning, & some distance up, I thought I heard the Voice of a Man upon the North Shore, We lay upon the Oars for a considerable time and listen’d attentively, we again heard the voice and row’d immediately towards that part of the Shore from which the Voice came, and there we found John Mara, who was sitting upon a rock, was

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Was exceedingly faint & Scarcely Able to get into the Boat, having had nothing to Eat since his absence but an herb which the people use by way of tea, & which is so palatable that they can drink it without Sugar, it has exactly the taste of Licquorish root- I interrogated him respecting the Manner of his losing himself, He said “that having been sent on shore in the Evening to fill a few Water Casks which were landed at a Run of Water near the Ship, and that having Just before he went on Shore taken rather a Copious drink of Grog, He felt himself soon after he landed, a good deal dispos’d to Sleep, that the Weather being Warm & the Evening Well advanc’d, he lay down upon the Hill some distance above the run of Water, and upon the Grass fell sound asleep, that He did not Wake untill it was late, & the night being very dark, and he a little confus’d when he awoke, He went farther into the Wood instead of Coming out of it, and by that means lost himself intirely, He also said that when I took him up, he was so exhausted that he shou’d not have been able to Walk much longer, that he had only reach’d the Water side the

night before - He had no Arms of any kind, it was therefore fortunate that he did not fall in with any of the Natives, for we have much reason to beleive that they are dispos’d to take the advantage of those they Meet without firearms-
The Night before we left the Careening Cove Mr. Francis Hill one of the Masters Mates, had desired permission to go over to Sydney Cove, and to return early the next Morning - He went over, and was next Morning early put across to the nearest part of the North Shore, intending to walk round to the Ship, it is a Rout which has been often taken by Many of our Gentleman, & is not more then an hour & halfs Walk, But in this short distance Mr. Hill lost himself - the Next day parties were sent out different Ways, and boats both up & down the harbour in search of him, & a Gun for their & his direction, was fir’d every two hours, & this continued for two days - the third day many additional parties were sent, to the Number of Nine or Ten, in short every peice of Ground where it was possible he might have pass’d, was travers’d over & over & over by

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(262- 263)
by the different parties, but without Effect; We have therefore much reason to beleive that he may have fallen in with a party of the Natives who have probably Murder’d him, for he had no Arms of any kind with him; that this opinion of a disposition in the Natives to take advantage of a Single person, particularly unarm’d, is not ill founded. we have many instances to prove - one of which may suffice in this place, as it very recently happen’d - a Man belonging to the Sirius who has generally been employ’d in Shooting for the Officers, was a few days ago, & previous to the suppos’d death of Mr. Hill in the wood looking for camp & had been seen by a party of the Natives from the Skirt of a Wood, they had not been observ’d by him, they taking the advantage of him unobserv’d, threw a large stone at him, which very Narrowly Miss’d his head, at which it was very well Aim’d, had it hit him, it wou’d have knock’d him down & depriv’d him of his senses, which opportunity they wou’d have avail’d themselves of to dispatch him, but as they did not Succeed in their attempt, they stood their ground, He fir’d a charge of small shott at them which I suppose

I suppose they felt no inconvenience from, as they Laugh’d at him & advanc’d with their Lances; He was pretty quick in loading his Gun again, into which he put a pretty heavy Charge of Buck Shott, and as they appear’d to him to be resolv’d on Mischeif he determin’d for his own Safety to be before hand with them - He took very good Aim, & fir’d right in amongst them, two of them fell, & the rest with great precipitation made off, but he beleiv’d, carried their Wounded ( probably dead) freinds off with them, He stood where he was & loaded his Gun & then came towards the Ship, without seeing any More of them - they are exceedingly terrified of fire Arms -
There is one Circumstance which disposes me to beleive that Mr. Hill has been Murder’d by these people, which is, that one of the Boats which went down the Harbour to Search for him, in one of the Coves in the [indecipherable] part of it they put ashore, the Young Gentlemen who had charge of this duty went upon the Beach five of the Boats Crew, whilst two remain’d to take care of the Boat, they had not been landed more than a few Minutes, & were near the Skirt of a Wood, when two Spears were launch from a rising ground, one

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One of which struck the Hatt of one of the Seamen, & as no fire Arm had appear’d, the Natives shew’d themselves to the Number of between twenty & thirty; The Midshipman & Boats Crew return’d to the Boat and brought up a Musquet loaded with Ball, which the Natives observ’d, & all but two disappear’d, the Ball was fir’d at them, but whether with or without Effect we know not, they also disappear’d immediately. These Hostile appearances, I think may have been the Effect of their Success in having lately Murder’d some of our people, for as we have had Several such Accidents here, we have had an opportunity of remarking, that they have generally shewn immediately after them, a more then ordinary degree of Hostility -
The want of one of the people of this Country, who from a habit of living amongst us, might have been the Means of preventing much of this Hostile disposition in them towards us, is much to be lamented. If poor Ara-ba-noo had liv’d, He wou’d by this time have acquir’d enough of our Language to have

have understood whatever we wish’d him to communicate to his Countrymen, He cou’d have made them perfectly understand that we wish’d to live with them on the most kindly footing, and that we wish’d to promote as much as might be in our power, their Comfort & happiness. The two Children mention’d formerly, and who are very happy amongst us, are yet too Young to be of use in reconciling the Natives to us, they now understand almost everything we say, & can make themselves very well understood; But the Governor is desirous of having a Man or two in our possession to whom we might teach enough of our Language without the danger of losing any part of their own, to render them usefull to their Countrymen; it has therefore for some time past been in agitation to endeavour by force to secure one or two.
For this purpose on the 25:th of Nov.r last Lieut. Bradley with some other officers and a party, were sent down the Harbour in an Arm’d

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Arm’d Boat - they went to the North part of the Harb.r where upon one of the Sandy Beaches they Observ’d two Native men Walking; they immediately form’d a Scheme to intice them to a conversation, for that purpose a few large fish were held up when they were call’d to, which had the desir’d Effect, the Men with much Confidence came forward un Arm’d & with much Chearfulness receiv’d the fish & held a Conversation with those who presented them;
At this time there were about five of our people upon the Beach, & the Boat laying afloat with her stern close to the shore & the people laying on their Oars, Mr. Bradley who was in the Stern of the Boat seeing the Opportunity good, gave the Signal for Securing them, and in a Moment their Heels were knock’d up and they were tumbled into the Boat, follow’d by those who Secur’d them and the Boat pull’d immediately off - they Call’d out to their friends the Moment they were taken

taken hold of, but altho’ a considerable Number appear’d in the Skirt of the Wood, seeing Arms in the hands of those in the Boat who stood up, they did not venture an Attack - The Men were lashd to the thwarts of the Boat on first being taken into her, but after having got to such a distance from the Shore as to prevent the possibility of an escape, their Hands were loos’d & they were secur’d only by one leg; untill they were thus much liberated their terror was considerable - As soon as they were landed in Sydney Cove, they were immediately taken up to the Governors House where they were very kindly treated, But to prevent any attempt to escape being at all probable they each had an Iron Shackle put on one of their Legs, to which a peice of Rope was Splic’d, a Man was order’d for Each, who was to be answerable for their Security; wherever they went this Man accompany’d, holding one End of the Rope - When these two Strangers landed in Sydney Cove, Many people prompted by Curiosity, came to see them, amongst that Number were the

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the Native Girl and Boy, Whose Names I think when Speaking of them, I have never yet Mention’d, the Girl is call’d A-ba-roo & the Boy Nan-bar-ry, or Bal-der-ry - the Moment they saw the Men, they with raptures of Joy call’d them both by their Names they also knew the Children, & it is not improbable, that their very Comfortable appearance after having liv’d so long amongst us, might in some degree calm that perturbation of mind which we wou’d naturally beleive might attend them in such a State of Captivity, for it shou’d be recollected, that not one of those Natives whom we have had amongst us, have ever return’d to inform their freinds what kind of treatment they had Mett with from us, it is therefore not to be Wonderd at, if they suppos’d such as fell into our hands might have been put to death by some of us; the two Old men who pick’d up the Small Pox when A-ba-roo & Nan-ber-ry were found & whom we believd to be the Fathers of the children - died very soon - Poor

Poor Ara-ba-noo who was at liberty to go where he pleas’d some time before he died, was so well reconcild to us that he never shew’d the smallest inclination to go from us, unfortunately did not survive the Small Pox, and the Girl & Boy are now so accustom’d to our Manner of living, that it is not probable they wou’d at all relish that of their own Country - We soon discover’d upon the Arrival of these two Strangers whom the Children call’d by Name, that one was a Cheif or distinguishd person amongst those of the tribe of Ca-di-gal his Name was Co-al-by - He was a Man of about 35 years of Age the other was about 25 years old and was Call’d by several different Names Ba-na-long, Vogle-troo-ye or Vo-la-ra-very, the first we thought his proper Name the others we understood from himself were Names by which some of his particular connections were call’d & which he had upon their death taken up, this Man was a very good looking Young fellow, of a pleasant lively disposition, the presence of Co-al-by seem’d to be a

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a Check upon the Chearfull temper of Ba-na-long which inclin’d us to think that he paid a kind of difference to him, he was always very Silent in his Company; seventeen days after these people were taken, they appear’d so well Satisfied, that their keepers began to be less apprehensive of their attempting to make their escape, which they did not fail to Notice, and had no doubt laid a plan to avail themselves of for they are very far from being destitute of Observation and Cunning- One Evening when it was pretty dark, their keepers were sitting within the door of their House Eating their supper, Ba-na-long was within also, & employ’d in the same manner - Co-al-by was at the door sitting Just on the outside and had with him something for his supper which he pretended to be employ’d about, the end of his Rope was in the hand of his keeper within; whilst those on the inside were thus amus’d He drew the splice of his Rope from the Shackle & in a Moment was over the paling of the Yard & out of sight, an immediate Search was made but

but without effect, We saw him no more, however we have heard since that he Joined his freinds again & will no doubt be carefull how he Confides here after in us, His freinds wou’d no doubt be something surpris’d to see him so well Cloathd for he carried off his whole Wardrobe - I do suppose it wou’d cost him some trouble to get the Shackle from his Leg which was rivetted on - the other Man has been much more Chearful since Co-al-bys absence, which seems to Confirm our Conjecture, & the Childrens account, that He was a Man more distinguished in the Tribe to which he belong’d than Ba-na-long was -
In the Month of January 1790, in every Company the conversation turn’d now upon the long expected arrival from England. We were & have been for some time past, in daily Expectation of a Supply of Provision; our Stores here are now in a very exhausted State, much more so then we ever expected they wou’d have been, for it was the General opinion that I shoud last year on my Arrival at the Cape of Good Hope, have these mett with

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With Store Ships bound to this Country for it has always been believ’d that the Settlement woud never have been reduc’d lower then one Year Provision in Store. We landed in this Country with two years Prov:n at least that was what was supposd when we Saild from England wou’d be the Case - that time is now elaps’d we have not yet been Visited by any ship from Europe, & we still have remaining provision at half Allowance till June. We all look forward with Hope for Arrivals with releif; and that every assistance necessary for strangers might be at hand, I offer’d with a few Men from the Sirius to go down to the South Head of the Harbor there to build a Lookout house and erect a flagstaff upon the height, which might be seen from the Sea and also Communication information of Ships in the Offing to Governor at Sydney Cove - The Governor approv’d of my proposal; I went down with Six men and was Accompany’d by Mr.White & Mr. Worgan the Surgeons of the Settlement & Sirius, We erected a flagstaff, and liv’d in a Tent for Ten days, in which time we Completed a tollerable good house. at the end of the Ten days I was releivd by Lt. Bradley with a fresh party -

In February we began to look a little Serious on our disappointment of Arrivals, We had not now more than provision till June at the allowance I have already Mention’d - The Governor now saw a Necessity for dividing the Settlement, & Signified his intention that such division sh.d take place soon, by sending a certain Number of Marines & Convicts under the Command of the Major Ross the L’Gov.r to Norfolk Island, where he understood there were many resources which Port Jackson or Country round it did not afford, and that the Gardens and Cultivated land here w.d be more felt by the remaining Numbers, Accordingly an Arrangemant took place - And on the 26th Feb.y I receiv’d an Order to prepare the Sirius for Sea & to Embark the L.t Gov.r with one Company of Marines & their Officers Baggage &c. and also 186 Convicts in all 220 - with such proportion of the remaining provision and other Stores, as the Settlement at that time cou’d furnish, And I was directed to land them upon Norfolk Island. Lt. Ball, the Commander of H.M. Arm’d Tender the Supply was orderd under my Command, & he also Embarkd a Company of Marines & twenty Convicts -
We saild from Port Jackson the 6th of March and

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And the Wind being from the Westward we made Lord Howe Island on the 9th at 4 PM bearing ENE distant about 16 or 18 leagues - the South End of this Island, is two very high Mountains nearly perpendicular from the Sea, those hills are the only land you see untill you come within 6 or 7 Leag when the Lower land begins to appear extending from the foot of the Mountains Northward, it was Calm most of the night with now & then a very light air with which & an Easterly set of Current which is generally found here, we were enabled to get in with the land by Noon on the 10th. I make the Latitude of the So.m: Hill ( M.Gower) 31°..35’ So.
Longitude by Time Keeper - 159: 10.30 E: Greenw.
By dist.ce & [sun & moon symbols] taken at 10AM - 159..08 Et: -
There is a very remarkable Rock which lays about 12 or 14 Ms. to the Southward of the Island which is Nam’d Balls Piramid and has much the Appearance of a Church Steeple at a distance, but as you come near, it is exceedingly high & perpendicular, We passed in the evening between the Island & Piramid had 26 fathom water within two Miles of Mt Gower Rocky bottom, this Island I Judge to be about three & half Miles long NNW & SSE, it is narrow across -

There is anchorage on both sides but the bottom is foul - On the W’ side there is a Bay, off which lay a reef paralell to the Shore with good Swatches or passages thro’ for Boats, this reef breaks off the Sea from the Shore which is a fine Sandy beach, so that there is no difficulty in Landing, I have observd before in page (103) that Turtle are sometimes Caught here, & there are many Birds upon the Isl’d
On the 13th at 2 oClock in the Morning we made Norfolk Island which I did not expect we shoud have done quite so soon but the Easterly Current which is Commonly found here had been strong, we brought to till daylight, & then as the Wind was fresh from the SW, I well knew there wou’d be no landing at Sydney Bay Where the Settlement is fixd on account of the very high Surf which Southerly winds occasion, I bore away & ran round to the NE side of the Island, & in a Bay Calld Cockade Bay, where after a few days of Mod.t Wea.r & an off Shore wind it is possible to land, and that only on one spot, which is a rock that projects some distance into the Sea & has deep Water to it, on that rock I landed in the afternoon of that day, all the Marines & a Considerable Number

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Number of the Convicts, but being set to the Eastward in the Night I did not land the remainder untill the 15th when they were also put ashore on the same place, these people were no sooner on Shore, then the Wind shifted to the Eastward & the Weather became hazy & blew strong - No prospect of being Able to land any part of the Provision - We had put on shore from the Sirius & Supply two hundred & seventy people, & had not met an opportunity of sending any Stores with them, We were now driven out of sight of the Island & I knew the Exhausted state of the stores there, I was also acquainted with the many difficulties which Lieut. Ball Com.r of the Supply had met with in the different Voyages he had been from Port Jackson to this Island with Provision, and the length of the time he had in some of those Voyages been Oblig’d to Cruise before he coud have any Access to the Shore so Continually does the Surf break all round it,
These considerations gave me much Anxiety & uneasiness - On the 19th a Slant of Wind from the SE brought me in again with the Land, the Supply had the preceding Night parted Comp.y but as they

they were better acquainted here then we were, I Judj’d they had stood for the Land in the Night before I did -
As we stood in, finding that we cou’d fetch the Windward part of the Island, I steerd in for Sydney Bay, as we drew near, I observd the Supply laying too in the bay, and the Signal upon the Shore was flying that Longboats or any other boats might land without any danger from the Surf -
Anxious to avail myself of this favorable signal I steerd in as far as I Judj’d safe & brought too with the Ships head off shore, hoisted the Boats out & loaded them with provision & sent them in, but observing that the Ship settled fast to Leeward We made sail & immediately hauld on board the Fore & Maintacks &c. the Supply had also made sail & was to leeward of the Sirius, there is a Reef of Sunken rocks which lays off the Westpoint of the Bay, & which/ as the Wind freshend & the Sea Rose broke a considerable way out the Supply having drawn ahead cou’d not Weather this Reef, she Tack’d, as we drew near I plainly perceiv’d that we settled so far to Leeward that we shoud not be able to Weather, We after standing as near

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as was safe, put the Ship in the Stays, She came up almost head to wind, but the Wind Just at that Critical Juncture baffled her & she fell off again, nothing coud now be done, but to Ware her round in as little room as possible, which was done and the Wind hauld upon the other tack with every thing set as before, but still perceiving that the Ship settled into the Bay, & that we shoald the Water, Hands were placed by one of the Bowes Anchors; in 5 fathom Water the helm was again put down. She had now some additional after sail, which I had no doubt woud ensure her coming about, but she came up almost head to Wind & there hung sometime, but by her sails being all aback had fresh stern way, the Anchor was therefore Cutt away, and all the haulyards sheets and tacks let go, but before the Cable coud be brought to Check her, she struck upon a reef of Coral rock which lays parallel to the Shore & in a few Strokes was bulg’d, when the Carpenter reported to me, that the Water flow’d fast into the hold, I orderd the Masts to be Cutt away, which was immediately done, there was some Chance when the Ship was lighten’d of their Weight, that by the

by the Surges of the Sea which were very heavy she might be thrown so far in upon the Reef as to afford some prospect of Saving the lives of those on board if she shou’d prove Strong enough to bear the Shocks she receiv’d from every Sea -
It was now about 11 oClock in the forenoon. We Employd ourselves after the Masts were gone in getting out of the hold such provision as coud be come at, & securing it upon the Gun deck, that it might be at hand in case any opportunity offerd of floating it onshore. In the Evening the Wind freshend still more and the Surf was considerably increas’d, it was in consequence Strongly recommend’d by the Gent.n on shore Who knew the place much better then we cou’d, that every body shou’d quit the Ship, for this purpose the end of the small Rope was floated thro’ the Surf & over the Reef to the Shore by an Empty Cask, & by that Rope a seven inch Hawser was hauld on shore, with a Wooden head upon it for a traveler & the End was made fast to a tree, by this traveler I corresponded with those on shore & receiv’d their opinion, & to this traveler three or four people at a time were made

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Made fast, and were hauld by the people on Shore thro’ the Surf over a Ragged Coral Reef to the Land, part this Evening & the remainder the next day, the whole were intended to have been landed that night, but when it became dark the Hauling rope of the Traveler got often foul of the Rocks, which might have occasiond the drowning of those who were at such time on the traveler, for the long scope of hawser (near two hawsers) by the weight of three or four people, was more then two thirds of the way in the Surf - The 2nd day after the landing of the People, the Weather being more Moderate and the Surf less dangerous a few of the Seamen who coud depend in case of Accident upon their good Swimming, were got on board by the Hawser, & the utmost Exertions us’d to get some part of the provis.n sent on shore - We were now in all upon this little Miserable Island 506 souls, upon half Allowances and that coud with our present Number last but a very short time, for the Supply intended for the Island was yet on board the Sirius, and consequently its Safety uncertain; Providence was kind, We

We had for several days the Weather fine & the Surf uncommonly smooth for this place, for altho there was a continual Surf breaking on the Ship & all the way between her & the Shore, yet it was consider’d here as uncommonly fine, We got on shore each of those fine days from twenty to thirty Casks of provision, with Various other Articles of both Public & private property, Such articles as wou’d Swim, were entrusted to the Chance of being thrown on shore by the Surf, all that I or any other Officer sav’d was found Washing upon the Beach, but as the Shore was lin’d with Marines to prevent the Convicts from Committing depradations, it was much, tho not wholly prevented, everything which came ashore by the Sea was placd under the Care of Centinals, until Claim’d by the proprietor before certain 0fficers; but that Success which for a time attended those things which were committed to the Sea, prov’d at last a Misfortune, for it occasion’d their trusting every thing promiscuously of private Articles to the Surf, by which many Valuable Articles of Mine & some of the officers were lost, being too heavy to float

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float, which those who threw them overboard had not Considerd. The Provision being the principal Object, nothing was allow’d to occupy the traveler but that & notwithstanding if it was all dragg’d thro’ the Sea, the damaged part was but trifling. Some Casks were Washed out of the Slings, dashed to peices upon the rocks & of Course lost, but taking the whole together we sav’d More provision then we cou’d fairly have expected - By the time we had landed the principal part of the Provision the Weather began to be rather unfavorable to our Wishes & endeavour the Wind set in from the Southward, the Sea rose & occasiond a very heavy Surf, which renderd it insafe for any person to remain on board, the Small Bower Cable which had hitherto kept the Ships head to the Sea, being Cutt by the Rocks, & the Ship being Considerably lightend by what had been taken out of her, she was lifted so high by every Sea as to occasion her Striking very heavy, & by those repeated Shocks she was thrown for a short time broad side to the Sea, had she kept in that position she woud soon have gone to peices, but from

from her being very light forward by the Iron ballast &c. having dropt out of her Bottom, she was lifted fairly round & was thrown more then her own length Nearer to the Shore & was by this Change in her position, almost out of reach of the break of the Sea, that is , the Surf which before generally broke upon her, did now break without, & its force was Considerably spent before it reach’d her, When the Weather was Mod.t & the Surf low, we were now enabled to get with more ease on board & cou’d remain there with less risk. One of the Bow ports was enlarged for the more conveniently getting Casks or other Articles out, The Hawser ° traveler were also fitted & hove taught from the Bow, & various Stores were sent on shore with more ease & certainty then before; But the Knees of the Beams being many of them broke, & the ends of the Beams dislodged from the Clamp, the Orlop Deck blown up & the Lower deck Beams loose & many of them broken, it was dangerous to Attempt going into the hold, for by every Stroke of the Sea those decks were all in Motion however Whatever cou’d be got at & movd by the

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the people on board, was sent on shore.
A few days after the unfortunate loss of the Sirius the Ships Company being all on shore, very little provision on the Island for so great a Number of people, & the Supply from the Ship yet in a very precarious way - the Lt. Governor having assembled all the Officers in the Settlement, in order that the description of people we had now amongst us in a considerable a Number - I mean the Convicts - (who I believe to have been some of the Worst Characters ever sent from Great Britain) should fear the Commission of any Crime here, more than they had ever done under the Laws hitherto established in this Settlement; It was Unanimously Judg’d necessary for the general Safety and good of the Whole, that Martial Law be now established in this Island, untill such time as we may be relievd from the distressing prospect now before us by a Supply of provisions, or untill His the Governor in Chief of His Maj.s Territory in this part of the World, may think fit either to approve or disapprove it: The necessity of this Measure in such Situation as we were now reduc’d to, I

I apprehend will be apparent to every considerate person; By the proclamation of the Lord Martial which was generally consented to, Not by an Oath as I believe is commonly the case where it is found necessary to declare such Law, the Service we had to perform, not admitting of the delay which such Ceremony would have occasiond, the general approbation was taken by every individual passing under the Kings Colours which were displayd for this purpose, That Ceremony every person was previously informed, would be considerd as an assent & which was done with a degree of Solemnity & at same time an apparent cheerfulness thro’ the Whole.
By this proclamation of the Law Martial, I say, much Mischief I am of opinion was prevented: Hitherto, every Convict or other person on this Isl.d having Committed any Crime which Merited a tryal by the Criminal Court, were to be sent the first opportunity to Port Jackson with the necessary Evidence & there to be tryed, this in our Situation would have been attended with innumerable inconveniences & many bad consequences, which as I have already said, I confidently believe were prevented by this.

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By this proclamation, which it may be said to have been held out in Terrorem only, for in the whole time of its existance we had but once occasion to put it in force, & that in an instance which will be hereafter mention’d, the fear of an immediat tryal & if found guilty immediat execution, kept every body tollerably honest and attentive to the necessary dutys which it became the whole of us now to look forward to -
As the Supply Tender Saild from this Island on Wednesday the 24th which was the fifth day after the Loss of the Sirius & we had not at the time been able to work on the wreck in order to endeavour to save any part of the provision She cou’d not carry to the Governor any certain account whether we shoud or not be able to get anything on shore to help out the very Scanty proportion of provision which now remaind in the Store; We therefore had a glimmering of Hope left, that she might in the course of five of Six Weeks return to us with the very Comfortable News of Arrivals from England

England, however after the expiration of that time during which we lookd anxiously to the Sea, our Situation began to Wear a very alarming Aspect, we now had no doubt that in consequence of a disappointment in the expected Arrivals, the Governor had found it necessary to dispatch Lt. Ball to some European Settlement, & that as he coud not relieve us with provisions from Port Jackson We were left to do the best we cou’d to Spin out a Miserable existence as long as possible or [indecipherable] - In consequence of this truly distressfull Situation, on the 14th May, the Officers Composing the Council mett the L’Gov.r agreeable to appointment & publishd the following Orders - At a Meeting of the L’Govr & Council held to Consider of the very exhausted state of the Provision in this Settlement, and to Consult upon what Measures were most proper to be pursued in order to preserve Life, until such time as we might be reliev’d by some arrivals from England, of which we have been so long in Expectation, but probably disappointed by some unfortunate

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Unfortunate Accident having happend to the Ships intended for this Country - The state of the provision having been laid before the Council and the Alarming situation of the Settlement having been taken into the most Serious consideration, the following Weekly ration of Provision was unanimously resolv’d & orderd to take place on Saturday the 15th instant (Viz) -
Flour - 3lbs pr. Week;
Beef - 1½ lb - Do. or 17ozs of Pork in lieu;
Rice - 1lb - Do.
Children above 12 Months Old half the above ration;
Children under 12 Months Old 1½ lbs flour and 1lb of Rice pr. Week
In future, All Crimes which may, by any three Members of the Council, be Considered as not of a Capital Nature, will be punished at their discreation by a further reduction of the present allowance of provision -
Every day & every breeze from the Westward we now look out upon the Sea, but in this unfrequented Ocean we can expect nothing to appear, but what may be intended for us, day after day we talk to each other of our Situation, no other Subject seems to occupy the Mind of any one amongst us, We are here Situated upon

Upon an Island of only five miles long & three in breadth, three hundred Leagues from the nearest part of the Coast of New South Wales, deprivd of every hope of finding any relief by a Change of situation and we have the additional Mortification of Anticipating that in a Short time a farther reduction of our Allowance of provision - At this particular Season we have one advantage which when that leaves us will reduce us to very great distress I think then that many of the Convicts who are indolent to astonishment & who can & frequently do eat at one Meal what they are allowed for a Week, must when the resource I am going to Mention fails perish for want or suffer death from the depredations they are so much inclined even in times of plenty to commit upon others –
In the Month of April & frequently earlyer we find that Mount Pitt which is the highest ground on the Island is during the Night Coverd with Birds, this Hill is as full of holes as any Rabbit Warren in those Holes at this Season those Birds burrow ° make their Nests & as they are an Aquatic Bird they are

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they are during the day time frequently off at Sea in Search of food, as soon as it is dark they hover in Vast flocks over the ground where their nests are, (I mean Seamen Marines ° Convicts) who are sent out in parties to provide birds for the general benefit arrive upon the ground soon after dark where they light Small fires which atract the attention of the Birds, & they drop down out of the Air, as fast as the people can take them up & kill them, When they are upon the ground the length of their Wings prevents their being able to rise, until they can assend some Eminence, they are unable to recover the use of their Wings, for this purpose, Nature has provided them with a strong sharp & hooked Bill & in their heel they have a small Sharp spur, with the assistance of which & the Strength of their Bill they have been seen to Climb the Stalk of a tree sufficiently high to throw themselves upon their Wings.
This Bird is when deprived of its feathers about the Size of a Pidgeon, but when Cloathd, consid’ly larger, for their feathers are exceedingly thick, they are Webb footed & are of a rusty black Colour, they Make those holes upon the hills for feeding their young

Young in, they lay but one Egg & that is full as large as a Duck egg, they are in the End of May as plenty as if None had been Caught altho for two Months past there have not been less taken every Night than from two to three thousand birds - Most of the females which were taken in May were with Egg, this Egg nealy fills the whole Cavity of the Body & is so heavy that I think it must fatigue the Bird much in flying; this Bird of Providence which we may with great propriety Call them appears to me to resemble that Sea Bird in England Calld the Puffin*. [* The Bird is well tasted, at least our good appetites relishd them very well, the Egg is excellent.] We are highly indebted to Devine Providence for this Vast resource, but as these kind of advantages can only be for a Season, We reflect with pain that it must have an end - Fish was generally Mentiond by Govr. Phillip when speaking of this Island as an inexhaustable resource, he also mentiond the Vast quantity of Birds, (Tropic birds & Gannets) which were to be caught upon the two Small Islands here. Mt. Pitt was not then known to be what we have found it, If the Govr. had ever been here himself or Spent a Winter as I have upon Norfolk Island, he certainly would not have laid any stress upon resources so very precarious as we have found them

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found them & consequently not to be depended on as a certain advantage, I have seen the Weather so Stormy & the Surf so high for near a month together that a boat coud not be launchd more than twice during that time, & then only for a few hours, & even when they have got out, they would sometimes bring in a hundred fish of from two to four pd. W! & at other times only five or Six, so that this Supply was very uncertain & very trifling when it was Considerd that we were above 500 people.
The Birds upon the small Island were attended with (in procuring them) the same inconvenience a difficulty of landing from the constant Surf -
In the End of May the Ship still holds together but the Beams & knees are all either broken or loose. She is so much out of the reach of the very heavy Surf that it breaks with considerably less Weight upon her - Every time that the Weather will admitt a few people are sent on board to save whatever Articles may be got at & to send them on shore - Our distress did not occasion us to forget that the 4th of June was the Birth day of our much belov’d Sovereign, on the Morning of

of this day the Colours were displayd and at Noon three Volleys of Musquetry were fird by the Marines -
The Seamen having but little to do on the Wreck were now Employ’d in Clearing Ground for a Garden, that they might have a few Vegetables to lengthen out their pittance of Provision. About the Middle of this Month, I sent some people on board to see if any alteration had taken place in the Wreck, that might render it possible to get at the Best Bower & Sheet Cables or any Casks from the hold, but it was found impracticable from the Orlop & lower decks laying down on the Contents of the Hold. On the 6th of July a Convict Man who had been out in search of Birds reported that he had been Robd of his Shirt by three other Convicts who being too lazy to Work had left the business which they had been employd at & had taken Shelter in the Woods, and as it became necessary to check an Evil of so dangerous a Nature as early as possible, least from any inattention to it, Many of the very Worthless Characters which were now upon this Island, might be encouraged to Assemble in Considerable Numbers to the very great Annoyance of the rest of more industrious part of the Settlement. The Lt. Governor directed two small parties of

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Of Marines, and desird that I wou’d also Order two parties of the Seamen who might probably be less Suspected of any intention to apprehend them; Each Man sent upon this duty was provided with a Ship Pistol & a few Charges of powder & Ball - The Evening of the same day on which the parties were sent out, the Culprits were brought in Pinnion’d by two of the Seamen who had been sent after them –
A few days after, a Court Martial was assembled for the tryal of the Above Convicts
They were Sentenc’d to receive 300 lashes each.
The Sirius’s people being now wholly Employd when the Weather will admitt, in fishing for the Settlement, & when the Surf is too high, in Making fishing Lines & Hooks -
A party of Marines & all the Convicts are Employd in Clearing Ground for Corn & Potatoes.
On the 24th July there being not More than ten or twelve days Salt provision left at the Short Allowance before mention’d, and as Birds, altho growing scarce, were still to be had, it was Judged necessary by the Lt. Govr. & Council, to stop

Stop the Salt provision entirely during the time which Birds were to be Caught, so that the Ration now was 3 lb of flour & 1 pint of rice pr. week -
The people in general were now reduced so low in Bodily strength for want of a Sufficiency of food that much Work could not well be expected. However it was absolutely necessary that something should be done to get Seed in the Ground - a Considerable portion of the Cleard ground was planted with Potatoes, as the first thing from which we cou’d expect any relief –
On the 4th of Augt. one of the Seamen who had been walking towards the SE part of the Island, Casting his eyes towards the Sea, He Saw a Sail without waiting a Moment to examine her particularly ran back with as much Speed as possible Calling out as he ran, a Ship, a Ship, this News was all over the Settlement in a few Minutes, Men, Women & Children were running in different directions.
I took a Spy Glass & went to the place from whence the Ship had been seen & there to my very great Comfort & happiness, I observd a Ship with an English

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English Ensign flying and more than 6 or 7 miles off Shore, The wind at this time blowing strong from SW, it was not possible for her to appear off Sydney Bay - She therefore Wore & seem’d to intend going under the Lee of the Island & endeavour to land a Boat there - Captain Johnstone of the Marines & me agreed to Walk aCross the Island & receive them, We Sett off & when we Arrivd at the Sea Side it is impossible for me to describe our feelings when we Observd this ship before the Wind & making sail from the Island; We did all we cou’d to Shew ourselves, but he did not think proper to Speak us, the Effect of this disappointment had upon every individual on the Island it will be easyer to Conceive than to express by Words.
Every one agreed in opinion that it had been much better that no ship had been seen, there surely was an appearance of great want of the Common feelings of humanity iin the Commander of this Ship for altho we now know that he had no relief for us, he might have been able to have given us some Comfort, some Hope of relief being at no great distance,

that woud certainly have relievd that Anxiety of Mind under which we had now labourd for five Months & he would not have lost two hours in doing it - As Captain Johnstone & I were on our way back, lamenting our disappointment, it Struck me that this Ship must be from Port Jackson & that he was bound to China, had nothing in for the Island, & did not Choose to lose any time, but if this Conjecture shou’d be Just, He must have known from our friends there, what the probable State of this Island might have been, & therefore might readily suppose that five Minutes Conversation would have been a Vast relief to our Anxiety. After having determined to hope & believe that he was from Port Jackson and that we shou’d soon have some thing from thence, We kept a very good look out, and to our great happiness on the 7th a Ship was discoverd in the Offing, & soon after her Another was seen, the Surf being low a Boat was sent immediately off to go on board the nearest, they were the Justinian & Surprise from Port Jackson with provisions for the relief of this Island, and at same time had brought an addition to the Number of

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of about two hundred Convicts, they informed us that five Ships had arrivd with 980 Convicts & provision for the Settlement & that they had been arrivd about two Months, a delay of great length when it is considered that our Situation when the Govr. last heard from us was rather an Alarming one. Nothing had then been sav’d out of the Wreck of the Sirius, so that there was no certainty, that we had been able to live, & therefore, there could not have been to much expidition usd in sending relief -
We also received information by these Ships of the unfortunate Accident which befell His Majesties Ship Guardian in her passage to this Country with Provision & Stores, & also that the Gorgon was fitting to bring further supply together with another Lt. Govr. who Commands a Corps rais’d for this particular Service, the Marines being Orderd home -
The Justinian & Surprize by the good fortune of an uncommon time of fine Weather were Cleard in little more than 3 Weeks & proceeded upon their Voyage to China having left this Island the 30th
If the above ships had been here two Months before

before they did Arrive, the Weather was such that they cou’d not have been cleared two days before the time they were - We are now looking eagerly for the Arrival of the Gorgon which ship the Govr. informs me by letter is to take the Serius crew & the Marines off this Spot which has Cost me so much distress -
As soon as the above Ships arriv’d & we had Communication with them; for their Safety, as well as for the more expiditiously landing the provision, I sent Lt. Bradley on board the one, he being now perfectly acquainted with the Sett of the tides, their uncertainty, & all other danger around the Island, I also sent Mr. Donovan, Midshipman on board the other, He having been near two years upon Duty on this Island, & was well acquainted
This assistance enabled them at all proper times to make free with the Shore. Mr. Keltie the Master & Mr. Brooks the Boatswain attended the whole day with me at the landing place, the Boats employd on this Service were Manned by the Sirius’s people, so that every possible attention to prevent danger or Accident was us’d, but Notwithstanding which, on the 17th Aug., in what was

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What was considered as good landing, one of the Boats in Coming in, was overtaken by a Succession of heavy surfs which threw her on one of the reefs where she in less than two Minutes parted & Seven people were drowned, I was with several other Officers within twenty yards of them and with at least thirty people beside & coud not render them any assistance; of the people who were drowned there were two of the Boats Crew, three Women Convicts who were coming from the Ship in this Boat, a Child, & one Convict Man who went off with many others to try to save the Women, there were two Women bro. on shore by the exertions of the people on the Reef, who were when landed apparently dead, but recovered by the Surgeon, one was the Mother of the Child which was lost, one Convict Man who was exerting himself, to save others was himself bro’ on shore drown’d but was also brought too again, those people who were lost were Carried out by the outset from the Shore which at a certain time of tide is so strong, that a Boat can scarcely pull against it even

Even when calm; this serves to Convince me of the Cruelty & illiberality of an observation which I have seen in a Certain publication lately come out from England, in which is Mention’d when Speaking of this Island, that there was a boats Crew drown’d at a Certain time Mention’d there, but that it was occas:d by the imprudence of the Midshipman who did not attend to the Orders, which were given him, those orders, I as well as every Officer here at this time have been fully satisfied, it had not been in his power owing to the outset before Mention’d to Obey, & therefore Consider the reflection upon that Young Gentleman’s Conduct highly unjust, if there had been any Act of imprudence Committed at that time, it was not in the Midshipman, whose duty it was to Obey Orders, but in the sending in that Narrow & intricate passage, one boat to meet another where they are in each others way or Subject by that Means (if a Surf should rise at that Juncture) to very great danger, I found it necessary in unloading the Supplys which arrivd at this time, in consequence of seeing the

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the Boats going out & Meeting those coming in considerably endangered by the entangling their Cars, so narrow is the passage in its most dangerous part, to give orders that no boat should put off from the Shore when a loaded boat was near in, nor indeed until such loaded boat was safely landed -
The arrival of Supplys for our relief at this very Critical Juncture was truly fortunate & a strong instance of the friendship of Divine Providence, for greatest & indeed our only resource, began now to fail us very fast - The Mount Pitt Birds on which it may be Justly said we have for a very Considerable time principally liv’d are now very scarce, Many of the People who go out to catch them are frequently after remaining a whole night on the ground when they were during the plentifull Season so very Numerous, contended to bring in Six or Eight Birds and are sometimes unable to find one, the fish also faild us at this time, the Ships which had brought us the Supplys, did not during the time they were Cruising about the Island catch a Single fish, it will therefore appear that, had not shore Supply arrived so fortunately, or had they been detailed for Six Weeks longer, thro’ any accident or other cause, what a

a deplorable & Melancholy Situation we should have been reduced to, thank God such Consequences as must have attended it were prevented by this providential relief, and the dejected gloom & pale sickly look which was to be seen in each Countenance now gave way to a cheerfull & happy appearance of Satisfaction. But Still notwithstanding this relief I felt myself much disappointed & Neglected, in not having been remov’d with all my unfortunate Shipmates, from a Situation in which we had suffered so much, nor have I even heard a reason worth attending to given, why some steps had not been taken for that purpose - Had one of the Transports which had arrived at Port Jackson been immediately on their arrival Cleard & ordered for the relief of Norfolk Isld. such provision as might have been Judged necessary & sufficient to answer the purpose of a temporary relief a Measure which every thinking person in this Country agree should have & was expected to have taken place - That Ship cou’d have removd this unfortunate Crew of the Sirius to Port Jackson without the most distant probability of its effecting her Voyage or Season to China, for which they were intended - Had the crew of such Ship when they arrived at Pt Jackson

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P. Jackson been Sickly & unfit to proceed immediately to Norfolk Island, there were enough of the Seamen of the Sirius on the Spot to have been put on board her - What induces me the emore to condemn this appearance of indifference to our Situation upon this Island, is; the distress I so continually experienc’d from the Nakedness of my people & the want of power to relieve their necessitys whilst they remaind here, whilst there were ample means at P. Jackson, The repeated applications of my people, did at last in order to relieve their distress as much as possible determine me to cutt up some of the worst of the Ships sails to make frocks & trousers to cover their Nakedness
In the Month of Jan.y 1791, finding it impossible to get any of the remaining stores out, which were under the Lower & Orlop Decks of the Wreck, I determin’d to attempt the getting the Guns out, which until now I did not incline to try, the Gundeck being in so very infirm a state, that I was suspicious, that by the moving the Guns, which had hitherto (being Iron’d) hung chiefly by the

by the bolts in the side, it might indanger the decks falling in for the Beams from the opening of thie Ships sides did but barely keep this hold of the Clamp the bolts of the knees being all broken - had this deck fallen in upon the others, it wou’d have prevented every endeavour to save such stores as were under it, & which from time to time by the alterations which every heavy surf made on the Wreck, we were sometimes enabled to get at - However - after everything which there was any possibility of getting at had been used, we began with the Guns, & in a few days got every Gun & Carriage on shore, by means of a traveler upon a Nine Inch Hawser, there were only of our Ordnance two Carronades lost, which were carried away by the fall of the Masts. We had Just Completed this last business of the guns when a sail was discovered in the Offing, which we all believd to be the Gorgon so long expected, but upon her nearer approach, we discovered it to be the Supply Tender - She had been, upon her return from Norfolk Isl. with

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with an Account of our Misfortune, immediately dispatched to Batavia, where Lt. Ball was to endeavour to hire a Vessel & to load her with such Articles of provision as he cou’d procure for the relief of the Settlement; this Service Mr. Ball succeeded in, having procured a Dutch Snow of about 300 tons, & put on board such provisions as he could procure, which consisted of Beef, Pork, Flour, Rice & Various Hospital Stores. The Season at Batavia while the Supply was there was very Sickly, He lost many of his people by fevers & amongst the Number was Lieut Newton Fowell 2nd Lt. of the Sirius, who had been put on board to assist in bringing the Vessel which might be hird, to Port Jackson; I was exceedingly concerned for the life of this young Gent’m. He was a good, well dispos’d & promising Young Officer. Mr. Ross, the Gunner of the Sirius, who had been left on duty at P. Jackson when the Sirius saild for Norfolk I. died also at Batavia, he had been put on board the Supply in order to be landed at

Norfolk I. if she should be able to reach Isl.d in her way to Batavia - After the return of the Supply to Port Jackson, she was found to require some repairs, which were set about & when completed, she was ordered on the Service upon which we now find her (Viz) bringing a few Stores for Norfolk I. with orders to embark the remaining Officers & Crew of the Series & to return with them to P. Jackson. This information I recd. with very great pleasure, for our situation now became exceedingly irksome, We had been upon this small Island now Eleven Months & during great part of that time, from Various Causes, had been opressed by feelings, more distressing than I can find words to express. On the 11th Feb.y I embark’d with the Officers & Ships Comp.y on board the Supply having taken my leave of a place which had Cost me so much distress & Vexation. We had fine W.r during our passage to Port Jackson, where we Arrived the 27th & were very kindly & Hospitably received by all our friends there; I now understood from the Govr. that he had entered into Contract with the Master

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Master of the Dutch Snow for a passage for the Officers and Ships Comp.y of the Sirius to England, a piece of information which I did not by any means feel a pleasure from, Anxious as I was to reach England as soon as possible, I should with much patience rather have waited the Arrival of an English Ship than have Embarkd under the direction or at the disposal of a Forreigner. However preparations were making for sending us off as fast as possible -
As I have spent so much time upon an Island which has of late been much spoken of, and of which many flattering accounts seem to have been given, it will be expected I should say something –

Norfolk Island
Lays in Lat: 29°:02’ So. (Mount Pitt or highest land) & Longitude 168°:05’ E of Mird:n. of Greenwich, its direction is NWBN & SEb S & is in this direction about 5 Miles Long & Nearly 3 in breadth, it is very thickly coverd with Wood, of which there are Six or Seven different kinds & some I believe might be appl’d to Naval purposes. The Pine which has been particularly spoken of

by C. Cook & others who have lately visited this Island. The most conspicuous of any here, they grow to a prodigious Size, and proportionably tall, from 150 to 220 feet, & in circumference from 12 or 14 feet to 28 & 30. These trees from their immense length have a very noble appearance, being in general very straight & free from branches for 40 sometimes 60 feet above the Ground, they have been by some thought fitt for Masts for Ships of any Size, in length & diam.r they certainly are, but with respect to quality, they are in my opinion wholly unfitt even admitting them to be sound which from experience I know is seldom the case - I Employd the Carpenters of the Serius whilst here to Cutt down a few Sticks which it was intended should be sent home by the first opportunity, in order for tryal in H.M. Dockyards, & to see if they were as had been said for His Maj,’s Navy or not - in providing a Topm. & Topsailyard for a 74 G ship, a 32 of 20 or Sloop & one rough Spar in all Seven Sticks 34 Trees were Cutt down, 27 of which were found defective. When those trees were fallen, it was observ’d, that most of them

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of them discharged a considerable quantity of clear water, which continued to flow at every fresh Cutt of the ax, there is no turpentine in this tree but what circulates between the Bark & body of the Tree, it is a very short graind & Spungy kind of Timber & I think fitt only for House building, for which we know it to be very usefull. When fresh Cutt down five out of Six will Sink in water, it is so exceedingly heavy - And if we suppose for a Moment, that great part of this Pine timber was fitt for Naval purposes, the great difficulty & indeed I may say improfitability of getting it from the interior part of the Island to the Sea, wou’d render it of little Value, if design’d for Masts, but if for plank, it coud be cutt where fallen - Those which grow on the SE point of Isl.d where the land is low, are those which have hitherto been made use of - Norfolk Isl.d if correctly laid down in plan with all the Hills & Valleys represented accurately, wou’d very much resemble the Waves of the Sea in a Gale of wind, for it is compos’d wholly of long, Narrow & very

very steep ridges of Hills, with deep Gullys which are as narrow at the bottom as the Hills are on the top, so that there is Scarsely any level country upon it, but as Viewd from the Sea it appears quite level, the diff’. ridges being nearly the same heighth -
Arthurs Vale, which is near the Settlement & the first place which was cleard for Cultivation, is a pretty spot of level ground, & the most extensive flatt yet cleard, it contains Eleven Acres - This very great unevenness of the Ground, occasions much labour in Cultivating, & renders it wholly impossible to use a plough, even if the ground was Sufficiently cleard & we had cattle to work, every labour of that kind must be done by hand. There was when I left the Island in Feb.y 1791 something more than 100 acres cleard for the Public, exclusive of private Gardens, but all the roots were left in the Ground which will no doubt occupy a fifth part of it for many of them are very large. The Soil over the whole of this Island is generally allowd to be remarkably fine, & it is very deep

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very deep, indeed the Luxurience with which almost every thing grows, sufficiently indicates a very rich Soil, it seems to be Composd principally of a deep fatt Clay & decayd Vegetable matter - in Short I am so ignorant of Agriculture or farming, that I am at a loss how to describe it - I shall therefore only Observe, that a more luxurious Soil I never mett with in any part of the world.
The Flax plant mention’d by C. Cook grows chiefly on the Sea Coast or points which project into the sea, but as those points seem to be the same kind of Soil, as the other parts of the Island, there can be no doubt of its succeeding in the interior parts if planted there. In the very Sanguine opinions which we find have been given of this Island, since we Arrivd in this part of the World, it appears that the Size of it has been wholly overlookd, otherwise I think such expectations & opinions of its Value, as appears to have been entertain’d, cou’d not have taken place; I only Judge of those expectations

by the number of people which Gov.r. Phillip seems determind to send there, opinions have been given that it will maintain 2000 inhabitants, if it were all Cleard & Cultivated, it woud no doubt furnish many of the necessarys of life for such a Number, but in its present State, I shou’d think a fourth part of that Number sufficient, & in my humble opinion they should be such as had forfeited every hope of ever seeing their Native country again, such a description of people wou’d find it their particular interest to be industrious, as their Existance might depend on it. The Crops here are very subject to Blight & immense quantitys of the Grub Worm & Caterpillars, & also a fly of a very destructive Nature to the Corn & Gardens, but when such Vermine do not appear untill the crops have arrivd at a certain age & have gaind strength, their Effect is not so very ruinous - there is no certain period at which they appear, probably when more of the ground is Cleard, those Vermin may not be so frequent.

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so frequent. Indian Corn grows here with great advantage, from forty to fifty Bushels an acre planted with about a peck –
This little Island is extraordinary well Waterd. There are several fine streams which seem to flow from the body of Mount Pitt and empty themselves on both sides of the Island into the sea. On the North side in Cascade Bay, there are two pretty falls from steep Cliffs into the Sea; there are two streams upon this Island which I have often Notic’d even in dry seasons, & thought them capable of turning a Mill - With respect to landing upon the Shore, as it is frequently attend’d with great difficulty and danger; stores should never be sent here but in the Summer time when there is much fine Weather & easy landing, but when the landing is impracticable in Sydney Bay, it is profitable to get light stores ashore in Cascade Bay which will then be smooth, if it does not blow hard. If it does, the whole Island is inacceptable

inacceptable, for it is not of extent enough to prevent the sea occasion’d by bad weather from affecting every part of the Shore -
Since my Arrival at Port Jackson, I have been at Rose Hill, whose great improvements are carrying on, a Considerable Town is laid out and many good Buildings are erected & roads Cutt, with about 213 Acres of land cleard for Corn and 80 for buildings & Gardens, that is, the trees are Cutt down, but the roots remain in the Ground which will certainly lessen the quantity of Cleard Ground considerably, this Ground being Grub’d up & laid open, gave an opportunity of examining what the Soil consisted of, and altho I pretend not to any knowledge in Farming, yet I thought it requird no very great Judgement to determine & pronounce this favorite Spot (which to do it Justice is certainly better than any upon or near this harbour) a poor Sandy Sterile Soil, the ground is cover’d only a few inches deep with a Soil which seems to be produc’d from decay’d Vegetation - rotten leaves & burnt or Witherd grass /and

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And under that is a mere bed of Sand, Rose Hill is certainly a pretty Situation But the country will require much Manure, much dressing, and good Farmers to Manage it, before good Crops can be expected from it; the best they have ever had, I have been inform’d has amounted only to Six or Seven to one, & this last season has been little more than two to one - If it is the determina(tion) of Government to persevere in Establishing a Settlement in this Country upon an extensive plan, the Nation must be contented to Submitt to a very heavy expense. It must be stockd with Cattle, without which, were only for the Manure this Country is too poor ever to yield tolerable crops. And if it shou’d be resolvd upon to stock it with Cattle, It will be found highly necessary to emply a consid’ble Number of people in the Care of them, to prevent their being frequently attackd by the Natives, whom we know are frequently driven to very great distress for food. The

The Country about Rose Hill which I have formerly mention’d as requiring not much labour in Clearing, from its being coverd only with lofty open Woods without any underwood, & which I then observ’d ran to the westward about 20 Miles, Has since been traveld over by several Gentlemen, who admitt that, that kind of Country does extend near the distance abovemention’d Westward, but in a North & South direction, it is not more than 3 or 4 Miles, when you come again to Barron Rocky land wholly unfitt for Cultivation; in short as I have Walkd over a good deal of Ground since I have been here, & have frequently traveld from Botany Bay to Broken Bay along the Sea Coast, I can with much truth declare that I have never mett with a piece of Ground any where Sufficient for a small farm which has not been so stoney as to be unfitt for any use, the best of it appears to be a poor Miserable sandy Soil & what must Subject those who live on it to much inconvenience is, the very great Scarsity of Water, upon my Arrival here from Norfok Island - all

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all the Streams from which we were formerly Supplied, except a Small drain at the head of Sydney Cove, were intirely dry’d up, so great had been the droughth, a circumstance which from the very intense heat of the Summer, I think it probable we shall be very frequently subject to -
This frequent reduction of the streams of fresh water disposes me to think that they originate from Swamps & large Collections of rain water, more than from Springs -
When the Sudden Vicissitides of heat & cold are consider’d we woud readily pronounce this Country very unhealthy, but near four years experience has convinced me that it is not so - it is no uncommon thing at Rose Hill & frequently at Sydney, for the Therm.r to be in the Morning at 56° or 60° & by two hours after noon at 100° sometimes 102 and after Sunset down to 60° again, but this with the Therm.r exposd to the Air in a shade & not within the house. When

When I went last to Rose Hill, I left Sydney at 5 in the Morning & row’d up the Harbor, a Great Coat was then Comfortable - at Noon I walkd over the Cleard ground, the Therm.r was then more than 100° -
Norfolk Island is also Subject to Sudden Changes but is also remarkably healthy; I don’t think I can give a Stronger proof of the Salubrity of this climate than by observing that I never saw the Constitutions either of the Human Race or other Animals more prolific in any part of the World, two Children at a Birth is no uncommon thing, & Elderly Women who have believd themselves long past the period of Child bearing, have repeatedly had as fine Strong healthy Children as ever were seen -
I have formerly mention’d the name of, a Native man, who had been taken in the lower part of the Harbour at same time with Co.alby. had been kept in his Shackle & treated with so much kindness that it was suppos’d he might now be trusted with his liberty without any fear of his leaving us. He was therefore in the month of April, which

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which was soon after we left Port Jackson for Norfolk Isl.d set at liberty, and did not appear at all disposd to leave the House, or absent himself from his New Acquir’d friends; this appearance of Satisfaction he feign’d with Success for several days, for no person seem’d to Suspect him, He at last however took french leave, Having after dark one Evening strip’d himself of his very disent Cloathing, left them behind & Walk’d off. Both Him & Co’alby were afterwds frequently seen by our fishing Boats & convers’d with the people, who often invited them to come up to Sydney (the name by which the Settlement is called) but this invitation they were not much dispos’d to accept, untill the Governor in person shou’d invite them, & shou’d give them his promise that they shou’d not be detaind, the Gov.r did invite them and promisd to give them many little things of which they were very much in want. It was scarcely to be expected that these people, who had been deprivd of their liberty in so treachorous a manner, & had been so long detain’d from their familys

Familys & Connections, shou’d have had Confidence enough to trust their liberty again in our hands. However as the Gov.r and every other person in the Settlement had ever been kind to them, they were inclin’d to depend on the promise and did come to Sydney, were kindly received, went from House to House, & saw all their old acquaintance, they receiv’d many little presents and return’d to their familys When they thought proper; this Confidential Visit from two men, who appeard to have some influence amongst their Country men, soon brought about a More general intercourse, & the next Visit from those men, bro.t the same favor from their Wives & familys, whose Example was follow’d by many other familys, so that very Gent.ns House was now become a resting or Sleeping place for some of them every Night; whenever they were pressed by hunger, they had immediat recourse to our quarters where they generally got their Bellys filld, they were now become exceedingly fond of Bread, which then we

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We came here first, they cou’d not bear to put in their Mouth, if ever they did, it was out of Civility to those who offer’d it, But even the little Children had all learnt the Words, Hungry & Bread, & wou’d to shew us that they were Hungry, draw in their Belly so as to make it appear Empty - Co’albys Wife had a Young female Child in her Arms about three or four Months old, this little Creature had a ligature round the little finger of right hand in order to separate the two lower Joints which in the Course of 3 Weeks or a Month it Effected, for I saw it Just as the finger was about dropping off but as it hung by a bit of Skin, they begd Mr. White the Surgeon to take it off, which he did with a pr. of Scissors & which the Child did not seem to feel, this taking off the little finger of the Right hand seems to have been a mistake in the Mother, who frequently pointed out, that it shou’d have been the other hand.
A Short time previous to this friendly & general Visiting from the Natives, the Gov.r as I have already Observd in order to dispose them the more to confide in us, Went

Went down the Harb.r himself in order to see & converse with our old friends Ba’na’long & Coalby & to invite them to come to his House when they shoud receive whatever they might be in want of & be permitted to return when they pleas’d; The Gov.r having receiv’d information that those two men with several other Natives were then in Collins’s Cove, went thither accompany’d by several other Gent.n & were unarm’d, this unfortunate want of a Necessary caution had very near prov’d fatal to the Governor, the particulars of this accident was related to me by an officer who was of the party, & was an near as I can recollect as follows –
On Tuesday 7th Sept.r the Gov.r with a few other Gent.n went down to the Lookout in order to fix on a Spot for erecting a Column or Pyramid, as a Mark by which Strangers might at Sea, the better know the Harbor, & were returning when they were mett by a Boat which had been landing a party of Gent.n who intended Walking along the Coast towards Broken bay, by the Coxswain of this Boat the Gov.r

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Gov.r was informd that Mr. White who was one of the above party, had seen Co’alby and Ba’na’long and had a long Conversation with them, that those men enquird for every body they knew and for the Gov.r that they had sent the Gov.r a piece of Whale, which had been thrown on shore & upon which they had been regailing themselves, that Ba’na’long wou’d go up to Sydney if the Gov.r wou’d come for him, in consequence of this information the Gov.r return’d to the Look out, & got together every thing that he cou’d find which he thought wou’d be acceptable to his Old friends, he also took with him four Musquets and went immediately to Collins’s Cove, where those people had been seen, in their way they tried the Musquets & found that only two of the four wou’d strike fire, those they loaded, when they reach’d the Cove, they observ’d a Number of the Natives sitting round a fire which was near the place where the Dead Whale lay. The Gov.r stood

Stood up in the Boat & Askd in their language where Ba’na’long was, He (Ba’na’long) Answer’d, I am here, the Gov.r then said, I am the Gov.r Your Father, a name he always wishd the Gov.r to be known by when he liv’d with him. The Gov.r after desiring Capt. Collins & Mr Waterhouse to remain in the Boat & to have the Musquets ready, he landed & Walk’d up the Beach unarm’d, with his Arms extended to Shew he was so, that they might not be alarm’d they did not seem inclined to meet him, However he follow’d them into the Wood, & one of them frequently called Gov.r & Father, in consequence of this & having shook hands in a friendly manner, the Gov.r return’d to the Boat & desir’d one of the men to bring up some Wine, Beef & Bread, & a Jacket or two which had been brought on purpose, & went back with those Articles to them, on his holding up a Bottle to them one of them calld out Wine and repeated several English Words, two of the Natives came forward & receiv’d the things, one of them drank a little Wine, they had likewise receivd

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Reciev’d from the Gov.r a few knives. In a short time the Gov.r came down again & mention’d all that had happen’d, observing at same time that & Co’alby were not amongst the Number. He ask’d Capt. Collins to Walk up with him, & desird Mr. Waterhouse to stay by the Boat, they then Walkd up, Mr. W. frequently heard one of them call to Ba’na’long, & inform him of what Observ:s. he made upon those who remained in the Boat, the Boats Crew being employ’d in keeping her afloat upon her Oars. Shortly after, one of the Men came down from the Gov.r & inform’d Mr. W. that both Ba’na’long & Co’alby were there, & that the former had frequently Ask’d for Mr. W. that the Govr. desir’d he wou’d come up, which he did, on his Arrival he observ’d a considerable Number of the Natives on each side & Eight or Ten in front all Arm’d with their spears except two with whom the Gov.r & Capt. Collins were in conversation, Mr. W. went up, but did not know Ba’na’long until he was pointed

pointed out to him. He then shook hands with him & Co’alby - Ba’na’long had at this time two Jackets on which he had receiv’d from the Gov:r & C:Collins. Co’alby also had a Jacket given him, after Ba’na’long had been asked several Questions, relative to Various & indifferent circumstances which happend while he liv’d with the Gov.r all which he seem’d to recollect very well, at one of those questions he took Mr. Waterhse round the Neck & kissd him, Co’alby shook hands again with Mr. W, & beg’d to put on the Jacket which had been given & which he held in his hand, not knowing how to put it on himself which Mr. W did for him - Ba’na’long on the Gov.r first meeting him had a remarkable fine spear, which the Gov.r ask’d him for, but he either cou’d not, or wou’d not, understand him, but laid it down on the Ground - during all this time there was the greatest appearance of the most perfect harmony - However, the Natives seemed Closing round the Gov.r & party which being Observd the

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the Gov.r propos’d going down to the Boat, for they had by this time nearly form’d a Crescent, & had the party in the Center, there were now 19 Arm’d men near, & a Considerable Number in the Wood out of sight, the Gov.r now told Ba’na’long that he wou’d return in two days & bring him the Cloaths he us’d to wear when in his House, & also woud bring him a Couple of Hatchets for himself & Co’alby, with which promise they seemed well pleas’d, & often repeated, that it might not be forgot - Just as the Gov.r & party were going, Ba’na’long pointed out & Nam’d several of the Natives who were strangers, one of whom the Gov.r went up to & offer’d to shake hands, at which the Man seemd much terrified & immediately Seizd the Spear Ba’na’long had laid on the Ground, fixd it on the throwing stick & discharged it with astonishing Violence, He with all his asociates made off with the utmost precipitation, the Spear enterd the right Shoulder Just above the Collar bone & came out about

about 3 inches lower down, behind the Shoulder blade. Mr. Waterhouse who was with the Gov.r suppos’d that it must be Mortal, for the Spear appeard to him to be much lower down that it really was & suppos’d from the Number of Arm’d Natives, that it wou’d be impossible for any of the party to escape to the Boat. He turn’d round immediately to run down the Beach to the Boat as He perceived Capt. Collins to go that way & was calling to the Boats Crew to bring up the Musquets. The Gov.r. who attempted to run towards the Boat holding the Spear with both hands to keep off the Ground but owing to its great length, the end frequently took the Ground & Stopd him (it was about 12 feet long). The Gov.r in this Situation desird Mr. W. to endeavour if possible to take the Spear out, which he immediatly attempted, but observing it to be a barbd one and the barb quite thro’ he saw it wou’d be impossible therefore endeavour’d to break it, but cou’d not - while he was in this attempt, another spear came out of the Wood & took the Skin of between his (Mr. W.) fore finger & thumb, which alarm’d him a good deal

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deal & he thinks added power to his Exertions for in the next attempt he broke it off, by this time the Spears flew pretty thick, one of which he Observ’d to fall at Capt. Collins’s feet whilst he was calling to the Boats Crew, the Gov.r attempted to pull a pistol out of his pocket, but the spears flew so thic, that it was unsafe to stop, However, he fird it, upon a supposition that their knowing he had some fire Arms, wou’d probably deter them from any further Hostility, the whole party got down to the Boat without any farther accident, in two hours they Arrivd at the House, when the Surgeons were sent for, Mr. Balmain who was the first that Arrivd after examining the Wound, made every body happy by assuring them he did not apprehend any fatal Consequences from it, He extracted the point of the spear & dressd the Wound & in Six Weeks the Gov.r was perfectly recovered.

Immediately on the Arrival of the party at Sydney it was Judg’d necessary to send an Arm’d party of Marines towards Broken Bay to escorte the Gent.n who had Walked that way back again, least the same Hostile disposition in the Natives, shou’d incline to make an attack on them upon their return -
Before I left Port Jackson, the Natives being now become very familiar & intimate with every person in the Settlement, many of them now take up their rest every night in some of the Govt. houses. Their very unprovokd attack upon the Gov.r & his party being now past over & almost forgot, We have frequently observd since this familiar intercourse took place that they often have a dance amongst themselves at Night on the lower point of Sydney Cove, where a small House had been built by the order for their accommodation; It had been signified to some of the principal amongst them, that we wou’d be glad to have an opportunity of seeing them dance, which they readily agree’d we shou’d, and the next night

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Night was appointed, when the Gov.r & a considerable number of Gent.n attended, every one being provided with Arms of some kind, a Caution, which Notwithstanding friendly appearances, was generally allow’d to be necessary, for experience has Convinced us, people have a good deal of treachery in their disposition. Preparitive to this Exhibition much attention was paid to the decorating themselves. They were all Adams & Eves (perfectly Naked) without Even a fig leaf. The Young Women were employ’d with all their Art, in painting the Young Men, who were Chiefly ornamented with Streaks of White, done with Pipe Clay, & in a different Manner according to the taste of the Man himself or to that of the Lady who adorn’d him. No Fop prepairing for an Assembly was ever more desirous of making his person irresistably beautifull, this paint so much in use amongst them, cou’d not be applied without a little Moister; the Lady in

In drawing those Marks on the face which were so Essential a part of the decoration, I observed frequently to Spit in the face of her friend whom she was occpd. in adorning, in order that the White Clay might mark the Stronger - When they were all prepaird We Walk’d down to the place appointed after dark for they prefer taking their Amusements by fire light, we found several fires lighted, and a considerable number of people Assembed - We walkd round the Spot in order to see that there were no Arm’d lurkers amongst the Bushes -
The dancers being ready we were plac’d in a Semicircle, by Ba’na’long & Co’alby, who seem’d to have the Chief Authority & direction - The dance began by a few Young Boys, and was increas’d by Men & Women cheifly the former untill their Numbers amounted from twernty to twenty six, Their dance was truely Wild and Strange, yet in many parts of it there appeared Order & regularity -

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One Man would frequently Single himself out from the dance, & running round the whole of the performers, Sing out in a loud Voice, using some expressions in one particular tone of Voice which we cou’d not understand, then Join the dance in which it was Observ’d that certain parties alternately led forward to the front, & and there exhibited with their utmost Skill all the various motions which with them seem’d to constitute the principal beautys of dancing, one of the most Striking of which was, that of placing their feet very wide apart, and by an extraordinary exertion of the Muscles of the thighs and & legs, mov’d the Knees, in a trembling & very surprising manner, such as none of us could imitate, which seem’d to Shew, that it requir’d mich practise to arrive at any degree of perfection in it - There appeared a good deal of Variety in their different dances, in one I observ’d they paird themselves & frequently

frequently danc’d back to back, then change suddenly and fac’d each other, sometimes all the performers set down on the Ground, with their feet under them; and at a particular Word or Order, all raisd themselves up, this motion they performed without any assistance from the hands - Now they ran back in distinct rowes, then advanc’d in the same Order - Again wou’d form a Circle with some distinguished person in the Center, sometimes the Whole of the performers appeard with a Green bough in their hand, which they held up in a Conspicuous manner - in all the Variety of figures which they perform’d, I observ’d that they generally finish’d by certain Members of their principal dancers, advancing to the front, & going thro’ that favorite part of the dance, the quivering Motion of the Knees, whenever this was done, the whole Company fac’d to the front & and went thro’ the same Motions, but it was Notic’d, that some were more frequently in the front than others, and those I concluded were

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were such as had great Confidence in their own Skill, in the execution of this very difficult part of their performance, and no doubt Vain enough to wish to outshine in their Ability the rest of the Company - On the whole this exhibition was well worth Seeing, it was, the first opportunity that had offer’d since we have been in the Country - Their Music consisted of two Sticks of very hard Wood, one which was held up on the Breast in the manner of a Violin, & was struck by the other in good & regular time, the performer, who was a stout Strong Voiced Man, Singing the whole time, & frequently applied those Graces in Music, the Piano, & forte, He was assisted by several Young Boys & Girls who sat at his feet, & by the Manner of Crossing their thighs, made a hollow between them and their belly, upon which they beat time with the flat of their hand so as to make a kind of sound which will be better understood from the manner of being produced, than from any Verbal

Verbal description, those children also sung with the Chief Musical performer, who stood up the whole time, & seem’d to me have the most laborious part of the performance - They frequently at the Conclusion of a dance wou’d apply to us for our opinions or rather for marks of our approbation of their performance, which we never faild to give due praise to, by often repeating the Word Boojery - which signifies good, or Boojery Caribberie for a good dance, those Signs of pleasure in us, seem’d to give great Satisfacton, & generally produc’d more than ordinary exertions from the whole Company of performers in the next dance –

On 27th March=91. Every thing being embarked We left Sydney Cove in the Waaksamhey’d Transport & sail’d down the Harbour, We were accompany’d by the Governor, & most of the Civil & Military Officers of the Settlement; when we passd the lower point of the Cove, all the Marines & New So.Wales Corps who were off duty, came down & Cheerd our people by -

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By way of taking leave, Never upon any Service, did there a better or more friendly understanding Subsist than between different Corps, than has ever been the Case between The Seamen & Soldiers Employ’d upon this, When we came near the Lower part of the Harbour our friends took leave, & soon after the Wind setting in from the Sea, We were Oblig’d to Anchor untill next morning, when a Land Wind took us clear out - The Master of the Ship has orders from Gov. Phillip to call at Norfolk Island, in order to take on board the dispatches of Lt. Gov. Ross, but this order was meant only, if it could be done without any Material loss of time - We were now in all on board this little Vessel 123 people Victuals for four Months, have a very long Voyage before us, and as it was my Wish, if possible to avoid touching at Batavia to prevent Sickness amongsst my people, in the very Crowded State they were in, & which at the Season we shou’d probably be there much to be dreaded, I had expressed a desire to press thro’ amongst the Molucca Islands & endeavour to Call at Timor for the purpose of Watering & getting such other Articles as cou’d be

Cou’d be had there as by the time we coud arrive amongst those Is.ds the E’ly Monsoon w’d be set in strong, & from thence to have proceeded as far as I cou’d reach with the provision I had, either to Mauritius or Cape of Good Hope; We therefore could not afford to lose much time in an Attempt to call at Norfolk Island. Three Weeks however we persever’d in endeavouring to reach it, & had arrived within 25 Leag.s of it When the Wind
set in strong from the E’ward, I therefore calld the Officers & Master of the Ship together, to consider of our Situation with respect to Water & provisions.
We had been fitted out in a very hasty and Careless manner with Water Casks built from Old Worm Eaten staves which had been laying exposed to the Sun for more than a year, so that by the time we had arrived within the Above distance of the Island We had lost by Leakage full three Weeks water & had every reason to fear the loss of much more from the same Cause; it was not therefore a time with a heavy sailing Vessel, to Attempt beating to Windward in order to reach a place which we knew we cou’d not gain without a Change of wind, and the very great difficulty & uncertainty of getting

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a Supply there, determin’d every ones opinion in favor of bearing away to the Northward; Much time had already been lost on making the attempt; We therefore steerd to the No.ward intending to pass between the New Hebrides & Nova Caledonia, but in this intention We were disappointed upon making the Isle of Pynes (on the 23d of April) which lays off the So. End of New Caledonia, the Island bore when we made it No. - and the Wind blew so much from the Northward of East that we cou’d not Weather & pass to the Et.ward of it - We had not C. Cook’s Second Voyage on board, so that we had no Account of this Land, and as I had always understood that the Isle of Pines, was a small inconsiderable Spott with many tall Pine trees upon it. We all Concluded that What afterwards prov’d really the Island, was the Land which C. Cook has calld the Pr: of Wales Foreland, & is the SW part of new Caledonia and what gave further reason to believe this to be the Case, was, that from this land to the SE lay a low Island on which were high Pine trees, from which we considerd it to be the Isle of Pines, & being unable as I have already Observ’d to Weather it, bore away

bore away, intending to go along the Western Coast of New Caledonia, this mistake, had very near proved of fatal Consequences to us, for after having Coasted along for a few Leags. & been employ’d in taking Angles for Ascertaining the Shape of the Coast as we saild along it; Land was discovered ahead upon which the Course was Alterd, soon after more land was seen Still ahead, and as we hauld up to avoid it, more land and broken Keys or low Islands was discovered ahead, and as far to windward as the Eye could reach, we consequently hauld our Wind & stood towards it in order to discover our Situation with more certainty -
We soon found that we had saild in to a very deep Bay form’d between the Isle of Pines to the Eastw.d and a most dangerous Reef on the West, which Extends from the High Land to the SW pt. of N. Caledonia not less than 10 or 11 Leags. & is near by that distance in a SW direction from the High part of the Isle of Pines, in this Situation, there was no alternative, we must either beat to Windward to go round the Reef, find a Channel thro’ it or go on shore, the first therefore we determind to attempt, We made all the Sail the

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the Ship cou’d bear & stood towards the Reef, it being now Evening we wishd to ascertain our exact Situation before dark; we found the reef Compos’d of a Number of low Islands or Keys & many rocks above water, & of Considerable breadth in short there was not he Smallest hope of Passage thro’ it, the Sea broke every high over every part of it which we cou’d reach with the Eye from the mast head - As soon as it was dark & we thought ourselves near enough we Tack’d & kept every person upon deck during the Night - We had during the time we were running to Leeward making observations on the Coast, past by a Number of low Islands coverd with Trees or shrubs & observ’d they were all Surround ’d with a reef which the sea broke upon, & among those little Islands were many reefs which appeard only by the breaking of the Sea; We were now thoroughly sensible of the Mistake, and that the Land which we had taken from its extent to be part of N. Caledonia, was the Isle of Pines, and that the High land which we had steerd down for,

for, & thought to be a part of the Coast which C. Cook had not seen, was what he had Calld the Prince of Wales’s foreland, & was the farthest he had seen Westward. We kept Working to Westward all night between between this extensive reef to the Westw.d & those small Keys & reefs which lay between us & the Land, & of which I have Since observd C. Cook in his sketch here takes No Notice, the Outer Reef He marks but leaves a large open space between it & the Land, which describes the Reef to be a round Cluster of Rocks above & under water, He probably had not an opportunity of Observing this dangerous place so near to the land as we had; there may be a Channel to Leeward between the Inner end of this reef & the Shore, but it had very little the appearence of it, as we saw many low Shrubby Islands between us & the Shore, to which they were probably connected by a reef under Water at the distance we were coud not be ascertaind

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At day light in the Morning We observd with no small degree of pleasure that we had gaind ground to Wind ward, but this we knew was not owing to any Weatherly qualitys in the Ship, but to the wind having Varied during the night several points, & of which we availd ourselves, by Noon we so far to the Windward, as to perceive the utmost extent of the reef to the Southward under our Lee, & we had a prospect of Weathering it, We of Course Carried a press of Sail & did Weather it about 2 or 3 Miles, When abreast of it, the Highest part of the Isle of Pines was Just to be seen above the Horison which was very Clear, & it bore by Compas NEbN 10 or 11 Leags. having passd without the Reef, at Noon Observd our Lat to be 23°:07’So. so that the So. Extrem.y of this dangerous Reef lays in Lat. 23:00 So. nearly, as soon as we were fairly Clear of this Situation bore away to the Westward.
The Isle of Pines so far from being an inconsid.ble Spot as I had believ’d, is not less than 14 or 15 Miles over

Over in a SE. & NW. direction, it is High & remarkable in the Middle, being quite a pointed Hill & sloping towards the Extremitys which are very low, the Low Land which has many tall Pine tree on it, those trees in length seem exceedingly to Surpass those of Norfolk I: but their branches appear not to extend so far from the body of the tree - We continued to Steer to the NWard seeing any thing, when we had reach’d the Lat. of 19°:So. which is Supposed to be as far North as any part of N. Caledonia extends, we hauld to the NE, so as to pass between Queen Charlotte Is: & that Large tract of Land which has been Seen by Mons.s Bouganville & Surville formerly & lately by Lt. Shortland in the Alexander Transport, & more recently by Lt. Ball of His Maj.s Armd Tender Supply - This part of the Land seen by Lt. Ball is I believe more to the Southward than seen by the French, & is no doubt the same as that seen by Lt. Shortland, but the one saild along the East, the other the Westward side of it - It is highly probable that it is a continuation of the same tract, & it is further probable by the breaks which have been observd in it that it is a Chain of Islands extending

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Extending in a SW & NW direction & very nearly Conected with the Coast of New Guinea - On the 5th of May, we were now as far to the N.ward as the Southernmost part of this Land, but did not see it being by our Longitude in 163°.33’E which is more than a degree to the E’ward of the So. part seen by the Supply, the Weather is now dark & Gloomy with heavy rain at times, & light & Var.ble winds.
Queen Charlotte Island certainly lay farther to the E’ward than has been suppos’d otherwise we must have made them, for we Cross’d this Lat - in 163.30 E’ Longitude which is nearly what the West end of Egmont I: is said to ly in, On the 8th of May had a Number of very Good Observations of the Sun & Moon distance by which our Long:de was at Noon 163:32 E Lat: at same time 9:33 So. On the 10th in the Morning saw Land bearing WNW. distant about 7 Leags., bore down to make it plain, it prov’d to be a Cluster of Small Islands five in Number, they were well Coverd with Trees, amongst which we thought we Observ’d the Cocoa Nutt; These Islands when we first discovered

Discover’d them, One Only appeard, which induc’d me to think that it might be Carterets Is: & had it not been that by going nearer we discovered that these were five of them, & they did not at all Answer the Account given of that by C. Carteret, I shou’d have Concluded that it was, altho the Longitude of his Island, must have been very Erronius had it been so,
Their Lat. is 8°..26’ So. which is near the Lat. of Carterets, & their Long:de deduced from Yesterdays Observations is 163°:18’ Et. Westward from them directly to the Northward in order to see, if we cou’d discover Gowers I: which C Carteret says lays about 10 or 11 Leags. to the Northwd. of Carterets but as we saw Nothing, I concluded they had never been seen before - I therefore calld them Stewarts Islands as I mark of my respect for the Hon: K. Stewart.
The two largest I Judgd to be about 3 Miles in length, whither they are inhabited or not we cou’d not discover We pass’d to Windward of them, & not being situated conveniently for making discoverys or exploring

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exploring unknown lands, We made the best of our way to the No.ward, just after we left these Islands we pass’d thro’ a very strong rippling of a tide or Current & saw the Trunks of several large trees in the Water. On the 12th at 9 AM the Man at the Masthead discover’d breakers on the Starboard Bow & not more than Six Miles distant, soon after, it was seen to break on the Starboard quarter & on the Beam, in large patches, extending in the direction of ESE ∓ WNW 5 Leags. at 11 breakers were seen on the Larboard Beam in different patches about 2 Miles long & laying parallel to those on the Starboard side brought to & Sounded with 130 fm. of Line but had no ground; This has the appearance of a very dangerous Cluster of Shoals, for being Situated in a Climate where it seldom blows so strong as to raise a large sea, a Ship might in the Night without a very good look out, be in great danger before they cou’d be perceiv’d they appeard to be sand Shoals & very little below the Surface, the passage we saild thro’

Thro’ is in Lat: 6°..52’ So. & 161°: 06’Et: these patches shou’d not be Cross ’d in the Night; I calld them Bradleys Shoals (the Var. was here 8°..01’E -
On the 14th at day light in the Morning saw Land and at Sun rise Observ’d this land to be a Number of Islands of Considerable extent & many smaller - thirty two were distinctly Counted from the Masthead bearing from NW½N to NE½E many of them were Considerable distant, so far as to make it probable that we did not see the Whole of this extensive Group. at 10 we perceiv’d 6 or7 Canoes coming off with large triangular Sails, a little after Noon one of them with Nine men in, came up with us although we did not Shorten Sail, We cou’d not persuade them to come alongside or touch the Ship, but we threw a few Beads Nails & other trifles into their boat, with which they appeard much pleas’d, & in return they threw some pieces of Cocoa Nut on board, at one oClock a fresh Breeze sprang up & they left us. - The people in this Boat, were a stout Clean well made people of a Dark Copper Colour, their Hair was

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Was tied in a Knot on the top of the Head, & they seem’d to have some method of taking off their beards for they appeard to us, as if Clean Shav’d but had an Ornament Consisting of a Number of fringes like an Artificial beard, which was fastend on between the Nose & Mouth, & Close under the Nose, to that hung a row of teeth which gave them the appearance of having a Mouth lower than their Natural one; they had holes run through the sides of the Nose into the passage, into which as well as that thro’ the Septum were thrust pieces of reed or Bone; their Arms & thighs were mark’d in the Manner describd by Capt. Cook of some of the Natives of the Islands he Visited in these Seas, calld Tatowing & some were painted with red & White streaks, they wore a Wrapper around their Midle. Their Canoe was about 40 feet long, badly made & had an outrigger; The Islands appeard very thickly coverd with Wood amongst which the Cocoa Nut was very distinguishable, I think it highly probable there may

May be good Anchorage amongst them, but my Situation wou’d not admitt of my examining. They lay in an Et. & Wt. direction along that side in which we saild (So.side) & their Latitude on that side is 5°:30’ So.Longitude from 159&de;:14’E to 159°:37’ Et: * On the 18th. at 8 in the Morning, We saw three Small Islands bearing WNW. & very High Land bearing SW. at 11 two other Islands in sight - from the Masthead, & two smaller which appeard no larger than Rocks, at Noon 5 Islands & two Rocks were to be seen, they seem’d to be all Connected by a Reef which on the West side extended some distance from them, great part of a Sand bank within the reef on the W’side appeard dry & some of the Natives were seen upon it; two Canoes with triangular sails Endeavour’d to reach the Ship, but it blew very fresh & we coud not afford to lose time - These Islands I take to be a part of Capt. Carterets 9 Islands, they seem to ly in the direction

[Margin note]
* Lord Howes Group

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direction of SE & NW. We Saild round the South End from which to the Westward a reef extends about two Miles - the So.m’ Isl: lays in the Lat: of 4°:53’ So. & Long:de 155°:20’ Et: the SWt.m’ Island is in 4°:50’ So. & Long:de155:13E - The Land seen in the SW is exceedingly high & bore at Noon SSW½W. at Sunset the Extremes of the High Ld. from the SbE to WSW & seems to terminate to the No.wd in a Low Woody point, about the Midle part of this high land there is a considerable break or opening, which has much the appearance of a Strait or passage thro’, & as I Judge this is the Land, along the West side of which Lt. Shortland in the Alexander Transport saild, untill he found an opening thro’ which he passd to the E:ward - think it highly probable that this may be the strait particularly as he says that soon after he was Clear & stretching to the NE, he fell in with four Islands which he took to be part of C. Carterets 9 Islands - This opening was intersected from two stations &

And the run of the Ship, & was found to lay in the lat. of 5°:25’ So, & Long: 154°:30’ Et.- Whether these Isl.ds which I have last mention’d as C. Carterets 9 Isl.ds be those he saw - I will not be very positive upon, He says they extended NWbW & SEbE - the direction is nearly the same, & the distance in that direction is 15 Leags. & their Number 9 We did not see much more than half that dist.ce in which 7 only were seen - Our considering he passd round the No. End & We the South will agree very well, & with respect to Long:de His was determind by the reckoning of the Ship, Mine by the Lunar Observn: & the difference is only about a degree - At day light in the Morning of the 19th Saw Sr. Ch: Hardys Island bearing N2°:00 W. 5 Leags. & Wenchelsea, (or Lord Ansons I:) as markd in C. Carterets Chart S48:0 E: this last is certainly the point which terminates the High Land before mentioned, for we have kept it in sight since the Evening and were abreast of it at 2 AM & were not then

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Not then more than 14 or 15 Ms. from it - Its Latitude will be 5° 08’ So. & Long:de 154°:31’ E - Sr. Ch: Hardys I is low level & Cover’d with wood, its Lat. Is 4°:41’ So. & Long:de 154°:20Et: - at Noon on the 19th. Saw High Land bearing from Wt. to WNW. It was very Cloudy over it so that we coud not see its extent to the No.Wd. it was distant about 8 or 9 Leagues the Wt. point of which is no doubt Cape St. George New Ireland At 6 PM of the 20th Cape St. George bore No. 80:00 Wt. 5 Leags. had light winds during in the Night. In the Morning the land was so Cover ’d with Clouds that we cou’d not discover the Extremity or point of the Cape; Steer’d to the NNW having found from the general bearing of the Land, that we had been at the Southwd. during the night, at Noon it was Clearer & the Cape bore N14°:00’E 10 or 11 Miles we had very light & baffling Airs during the Night of the 21st which made me, from what C. Carteret has said of Strong Westerly Currents here, apprehensive that as we had no now opend St. Georges Chan.l. we might be

be set past both Gowers & Carterets Harbor before we coud get as much wind as Command the Ship, for she was as dull & heavy sailing a Vessel as I ever was embark’d in, & in my opinion wholly unfit for the Service she is now employ’d in - When any other Vessel wou’d be going 3 Knots with a light wind we can scarcely give her steerage way - in the Evening finding as I expected apprehended the Ship setting fast to the Westward, hauld up to the E’ward in order to keep us near the Cape as possible until day light in the morning - this night also we had very little wind & that Variable, we kept her head as much as possible to the Eastward & at 8AM the Cape bore No.16°:00’E 11 or 12 Miles which was much further off than I wish’d at same time a projecting point on the Coast of New Britain bore WNW, We were becalmd most of the day & still setting to the Westward, PM of the 22d a very light breeze sprang up from the E’wd. with which we endeavd. to get within

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Within Waller’s Island, Sounded frequently but had no ground with 130fm. of line, this Situation was truly distressing for altho we had everything set we coud not force the ship more than a Knot & half thro’ the Water; & we had the Mortification to see that we were drifting to the Westward, about 2 PM the breeze freshend up a little, & although we were within 3 Miles of Anchorage in Gowers Harbor we saw plainly that we cou’d not fetch it; However I had Hope as Carterets harbor is laid down in the Chart four Leags. to Leew.d of it. That we might with care get in there, We had a boat inshore at this time, & it was the general opinion, that unless we bore away soon we shou’d not run the distance before dark, we therefore made the Sig.l for the Boat and bore away -

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Transcribed by Judy Dawson, Rex Minter, Helen Monaghan, Dorothy Gibson, Lynne Palmer for the State Library of New South Wales]