<p>Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales</p>

Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales

‘A log of the proceedings of His Majesty’s Ship Providence on a second Voyage to the South Sea Under the Command of Captain William Bligh, to carry the Breadfruit Plant from the Society Islands to the West Indies, written by himself’, Volume 2, 20 July 1792 – 6 Sep. 1793

[Page 4]
[Previous pages are cover and inside front cover]
Rems. Friday July 20th. 1792 Society Islands
1 Fresh Gales and fair Wr. but extremely hazy. At Noon proceeding Pt. Venus bore S85°E distant 6 Miles. Set Steering Sails. -
3 [Note in column] To hazy to make Obsev.
4 The Extremes of Moreah from S43°E to S12°W distance off Shore 7 or 8 Miles. – Unbent the a Sheet Cable. – Very Cloudy Wr.
6 The Extremes of Moreah from EbS to SE ½ S and its high Mountain SEbE.
                                                        F in
8 Ships draught of Water Forw 15 .. 9
                                        Aft 16 .. 9
                        By the Stern 1 .. 0
11 Squally Wr.
12 Species of Whales about the Ship
6 Huaheine from N25°E to N12°E, 6 leagues and Ulietaiah N37W to N60W 5 or 6 leagues.
8 Fresh Gales & very hazy Wr. _ Ulietea from N10°E to N18°E, the East High Mountain N12°E, the West N3°E off shore about 4 leags.
10 Got all chests and bedding up from below and washed and cleaned thoroughly.
11 Served 1 ½ lb of Pork per. Man & as much Breadfruit & Plantains as could be used.
12 Extremely Hazy Wr. and a cross going Sea. - Under all sails. - Assistant in Company. Plants in good order.

[Page 5]
Rems. Saturday July 21st. 1792 Towards
1 Fresh Gales and extremely hazy Wr. and much Sea. - Examined and birthed the People.
4 Less Haze
8 In Steering Sails & 2d. Reefs
6 Very Cloudy – out Reefs and set Steering sails. -
8 Hauled the Sml. Br. Cable up to examine it.-_ Served fresh Meat &c as Yesterday. - Cleaned below.-
10 Saw Tropic Birds.
12 Fresh Trade fair Wr. & hazy - Assistant in Company. - The Plants are doing exceedingly Well

[Page 6]
Rems Sunday. 22 July 1792. – Whytootackee
1 Fresh Trade and fair Wr. - Employed in mending & washing Clothes. -
3 Thirteen fms of the Small Br. being unfit for use, cut it off & bent the Cable anew. -
5 Let fresh Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps to Ventilate the Hold. -
8 Shortened Sail to Dble Reefed Top Sls.
11 Very squally – In 3d. Reefs
1 Very Cloudy
6 Out all Reefs and set Steering Sails.
7 Saw two Whales – Flying-fish – a Man of War Bird & some Tropic Birds
9 Cleaned Ship - Mustered & saw every person clean dressed & performed Divine Service. – Served fresh Meat &c as usual. -
12 Light Winds & Cloudy Wr. but got tolerable Observs. - Assistant in Company, & out sails up – Plants in fine order

[Page 7]
Rems. Monday. 23 July 1792 Towards
1 Light Winds and cloudy Wr. - Gave clean Hammocks to the People.
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps as usual. -
8 In lower and top Gallant Steering Sails
4 Calms and Light Airs
7 Scrubbed the 1st Divisions Hammocks. – Served Fresh Pork 1 ½ lb Pr. Man & as much Plantains as they chose.
9 Fixed the outer Bt Br Cable for an outer small Br. - Stowed away the old small Br. for future service, & bent a new Cable for the outer Best Br.
11 Carpenters repairing the sml. Cutter. -
12 Light airs & fine Wr. Assistant in Company. – Our Plants are doing very well - They are in charming excellent order.

[Page 8]
Rems. Tuesday. 24 July 1792 – Whytootackee
1 Light airs and Calms.
6 Worked the Pumps as usual
8 Calm and fine Night
1 Light breezes
6 Modt. and Thick Misty Wr. with Rain Set Steering Sails
8 Cleaned below – Served fresh Pork &c. as yesterday. -
10 Fresh Gales & thick misty Wr. wth. Rain. In 1st Reefs. & set F.T.Mt. Studding Sail. -
12 Fresh gale and Cloudy Wr. Got a good Observ. - Assistant in Company. - A Very damp Air. - Plants doing very well. -

[Page 9]
Rems. Wednesday. 25th. July 1792 - Wytootackee
1 Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr. Set lower Studding Sail. -
4 Cloudy & Misty Wr. Sun to be seen at times. At ½ past 4 The Assistant made the Sigl for seeing Wytootackee - it bore SWbW ½ 4 or 5 leags.
6 In 3d. Reefs & hauled the Wind The Round Hill bore SWbW abt. 4 leagues. -
10 Light Showers of Rain & smart Squalls
12 Wore Ship
4 Very squally Wr. with Rain. Wore Ship
7 Bore away with very unsettled & Squally Wr. at 7h:47’ I got Altds. & the Round Hill bore S59° W about 3 leags. The Eastn. Keys SSW. - Stood round the North end of the Island.
10 Found no ground at 140 fms. offshore 3 Ms. Round Hill S51°E. - Saw several Cannoes & Natives – one Cannoe came on board. -
12 Fresh Gales & very Squally Wr. The Extremes of the Main Isld. Wytootackee from N88°E to S12°E. Westernmost Key S ¼ W & West pt. of the Reef SbW- Round Hill S59°E 2 or 3 Miles from the Key abt. 5 Ms.- off shore 1 ½ or 2 miles - Under Dble Reefs – Assistant in Company. Served Fresh Pork &c as yesterday.

[Page 10]
I determined to take a look at Wytootackee not only to endeavour to gain some information not only respecting the proceedings of the Pandora, but also of the Bounty - to ascertain its exact situation, & to examine the West side of it for Anchorage. - I went round the East and SW part of it when I first discovered the Island in the Bounty. -
The land is remarkable by a round Hill which lies near the northermost extremity and it is of a very conspicuous height. -
After a very boisterous Night I bore away, and having passed the NE side of the Island we hauled round the North end and kept working under the lee of the land trying for anchorage which we did not find, having sounded with 140 fms. of line without striking the bottom - From the north point the land inclines first SWbS (by Compass) then S ¾ W & from the Westermost point SEbS to the south point of the Isld. -
What I have to remark new on the Geography of this land, is, that for an extent of 3 Miles on the West side there is perfectly good shelter for a Ship under Sail - The border round the shore is a steep reef at a small distance from the Beach, where I believe in moderate weather Boats may land with safety. - The Assistant sounded with 180 fms. of line abt. 1 ½ Cables length from the Breakers but could get no bottom. -
My Sketch of the Island will give a just Idea of it. - It is remarkable that I made the longitude of the Round Hill. in my last voyage to the 200° 19’E by my T.Keeper & this time from a mean of my three Time Keepers 200° 17’E from whence I conclude that 200° 18’E is very near the truth after so short a run from Otaheite - My situation with

[Page 11]
respect to latitude is the same and every nautical remark, I shall therefore conclude my description as I did then.
This Island which the Natives call Wytootackee is 10 Miles in Circuit its north part lies in 18° 50’S and its south end 18° 54’S. Eight small Keys (or Quays) lie off to the SSE of it and one to the WSW. - The southermost lies from the Round Hill S30°E by Compass 7 Miles and is in latitude 18° 58’S. - The Isld. Itself is not above 2 ½ Miles from East to West but the limits of the Reef which surrounds it are nine miles from North to South, and about 7 from East to West. -
It is beautifully clothed with wood, and exceeds any place, I ever saw, in Cocoa Nut Trees - a great number of them on the East side are without their branches, and even to leeward many of them were in the same state, I therefore apprehend the Island is subject to severe storms of Wind.
We had no sooner got round the north end of the Island than we observed several Hutts on the shore, and the Natives about their Cannoes. As soon as we were well under the lee of the shore they launched through the surf & came off to us. - As the Assistant was able to keep nearest the shore most of the Cannoes went to her: Three came alongside of us, and I made presents to them of Beads & Iron work for which they gave a few worthless Spears and Breastplates. They had not a Coco Nutt or any article of food with them, some Coco Nutts however were carried on board the Assistant. - They were confident of our good intentions towards them, & instead of any look of surprise and astonishment, it was expressed rather complacency and admi-

[Page 12]
-ration. They asked for Togee Nooee, which is the New Zeland name for a large Hatchet or Toey - a great part of their language was Otaheitean, yet the two Men I have with me did not understand them so readily as I did myself. - on the whole I was satisfied in my enquiries. - They said no White Person had been or was on the Island – That they had seen three Ships or Vessels – They named Brittanee and Otaheite very distinctly, and spoke of a Person who> whom they called Oheedidee – They called the Island Whytootackee, & named particularly Comackkaiah and Tongawarree as Errees of the Island. - They knew all our Plants, & Called the Breadfruit Cooroo, and Pork Boackah, the latter is a Friendly Island name - taking their expression literally it was to be I understood they had no Hogs on shore, but I suspect they meant to say they were scarce - Fowls were in abundance. The scraps of Cloth they brought off with them was were of the Friendly Isld. kind – The Men were above the Middle size- had very good regular features - were fleshey, & no showed marks of a want of food – Their Heads covered with strong black Hair were very lousy, & I observed that some of them had had their faces smutted, the remains of it being evident about the Eye brows & under the Throat – Their dress was only a Marro, & the Prl shell pendent from the Neck by plaited human Hair. - Their colour was is darker than an Otaheitean – They spoke of their Women (a) lasciviously, some of them were in the nCanoes that went alongside The Assistant. The Men were Tattowed on the legs, Thighs & arms. The legs & thighs of two Men were so fully tinctured as to lose the natural colour of the skin. - In all I observed about 15 nCanoes, some of them might have had abt 20 Men, I distinctly counted 15 and 9 & 11 in others. Some of the n Canoes had high black feathered or –naments at the sterns. - Within the Reef they were managed by setting Poles – those that were alongside of us were hollowed out of (a) called Waheine same as at Taheite
[continued on pg. 13]

[Page 13]
Rems Thursday. 26 July 1792 – Isld. Whytootackee
1 Blowing very hard with squalls of Rain and as much as we could do to keep under the lee of the Island - Three Cannoes came off to us. -
5 Bore away. The extremes of the Isld. from S86° E to S9° E, Round Hill S56° E Off shore 4 or 5 Miles and the Westermost Key & part of the Reef S15° W. -
[Note in column] Departure taken from the Round Hill latd. 18° 51’S 200° 18’E.
8 In 3rd. Reefs
12 Strong Gales & Squally with Rain and a great Sea from the SE.
6 Out 3d. Reefs
8 Very boisterous Wr. & much Sea.
9 Cleaned and Washed below - Empld. fitting a New Fore Sail & Foretop Sl. - Carpen about the Boats.
11 Served fresh Pork as Yesterday & began to serve Bread, (our Plantains being all expended) at 2/3 allowance
12 Do Wr. - Under Single Reefs – Saw Tropic Birds. - Much Sea & boisterous Wr. - Assistant in Company

[Page 14]
The Trunk of the Breadfruit Tree without any scarf or piece except in the length, to increase which they injudiciously join the ends of one piece of hollowed Trunk to the end of the other, by a sewing as it may be called, without forming a Scarf to strengthen it. - perhaps to make up for this, is perhaps the reason for of their supporting the gunwales by long poles being lashed along the edge. - The outriggers are common and, like all I have seen, on the larboard side. - I saw not any wth. sails.
The dwellings or Hutts on the Beach were only shelter for Fishermen, they were made like the common Sheds at Otaheite, but I saw some lofty Houses under & among the Coco Nutt Trees that had the exact form of those among The Sandwich Islands - They looked like Hay Stacks. -
I do not think we saw above four hundred persons including evry person we could discover with our glasses.
It blew so violently that the Natives showed some apprehension of being drifted off the land, but notwithstanding this, [too?] men wished to stay with us, & others gave our Otaheite Men an invitation to go on shore, for which, with much incivility, they laughed at them. On my looking at a scrap of Cloth that one of them had in his hand he conceived I wanted it, & with an apology gave it me in a manner which delighted me - "Terah - airaddee no te tye" - Take it – you are welcome, but it is wet with the Sea. -
There was no sign of any Wreck about the coast - It is clear that the Pandora was here, [Note – 1 ½ lines struck through but indecipherable] His shallop probablymade was the 2nd. Vessel, The Natives spoke of, and as to the 3rd, I fear they allude to my touching there in the Bounty - but for this, I should flatter myself Captain Edwards had taken her: -
One of the Natives who came on board had a very ulcerous Throat and Neck, evidently the same disease as the people of Otaheite are subject to.
At 5 O’Clock in the evening I bore away in a hard gale of Wind regretting very much I could have no further intercourse. -
Besides the Breast Plates & Spears, I got some fish Hooks like The Taheite Mattow made of Turtle Shell, the line was made of Coco Nut husk. Also a stone Adz or Ettoey the edge of which was circular like a Gouge.

[Page 15]
Rems Friday 27th. July 1792 – Towards
1 Strong Gale & Squally and a very trouble some Sea.
3 Leach Rope of the Fore TS gave way & split the Sail - Unbent the Sail & bent the 2. Best Sail. -
5 Close Reefed the TS and handed Miz TS. & Main Sail. - Down Fore Top Gallt. Yard. - Ship rolling very deep - Up Fore Sail. -
8 We only want Sleet & Snow to call it a heavy Gale of Wind and distressing Wr. -
10 My Course was WbS but were obliged to bear up on account of the Brig.
6 Set the Fore Sail - Down M.T.G. Yard
8 The Wr. moderating but a very trouble some Sea. - out Reefs - Employed repairing the F.TS & fitting New Sails
10 Served Fresh Meat as Yesterday
12 Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr with a Misty horizon and much Sea. - Under Single Reefed M.TS double Fore TS & Fore Sail. –
Assistant in Company

[Page 16]
Rems. Saturday 28. July 1792. Savage Island
1 Thick Gales and Cloudy Wr. with a Misty Horizon as bad as a Winters day in England.
5 That Lieut. Portlock might know my intention for the Night, I directed the preparative Flag to be hoisted & the Signal to steer WbS, & on his answering it, I made the Sigl to him to go ahead as soon as it became dark & carry a light, wch. he answered. – The preparative Flag was hauled down & course altered at 6 O’Clock. - Up Fore Sail
12 Strong Gales Very cloudy Wr. with much sea & Ship rolling deep
4 Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Wr. set the Fore Sail. -
6 More mod. but very dark Wr. out Reefs & made sail occasionally. -
8 Do Wr. with Rain – Opened a Cask of Otaheite Pork N. 18 Conts. 130 Dble Pieces. –
10 Sailmakers empld. repairing the Fore TS. Cooper making Tubs for some Plants the Pots being broke. -
11 Cleaned below.
12 Very Cloudy dark Wr. but the Sun came out sufficiently at Noon to give us a good latitude. –
Under Single Reefs & fore Top Mt. Steering Sail. - Assistant in Company.

[Page 17]
Rems Sunday 29th. July 1792 – Towards -
1 Fresh Breezes and dark cloudy Wr. -
2 Employed in cleaning and mending Clothes and repairing the old Fore Top Sail.
7 The Wind flew suddenly round & took us a back with heavy Rain. - In 2d. Reefs - Showed a light to the Assistant. -
1 Light Airs & Cloudy. Swell from the SE
4 Out 2d. Reefs. -
6 Fair Wr. up T.G. Yds - Saw Red Tailed Tropic Birds.
8 Served Portable Soup Gruel for breakfast - Spread all Sails and Wet things out to dry - Got up all Chests & bedding & washed thoroughly below & dried - Mustered & saw every person ed clean dressed, and performed Divine Service. -
12 Mod. and fair Wr. - Assistant in Compy.
 I have the happyness to see my Plants in a thriving state, altho we have had a very boisterous passage for them.

[Page 18]
Rems Monday 30 July 1792. Savage Island
1 Light Winds & Cloudy Wr. - Sent a Boat for Lieut. Portlock as I wanted to give him some directions how to proceed. -
6 Let fresh Water into The Ship and worked the Pumps. -
8 Light airs & fair Wr.

 5 Saw Tropic Birds & some species of Whales. -
7 Served Thick Portable soup Gruel for Breakfast. – Bore Coal & Portable Soup thickned with oatmeal for Dinner.
9 Employed fitting the New Fore Sail - repairing the old Fore TS & awnings. Cooper making Tubs for the Plants - Carpenters repairing the large Cutter.
12 Light airs & Calms. Assistant in Company. Served ½ pint of Vinegar to each Man.

[Page 19]
Rems Tuesday 31st. July 1792. Towards
1 Light airs & very Cloudy Wr. - Empld. repairing the Old Fore TS and fitting the New Fore Sail. Exercised at Small Arms.
4 Unbent The M.T.G.Sl. to repair & bent the best.
5 Worked the Pumps as usual.
10 Showers of Rain & Calms.
12 Very Cloudy with thick Rainy Wr. and light airs the remdr. of this day
7 Served thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast – Krout with their Beef & Pudding for Dinner. -
8 Cleaned below - Carpenters making Glass Scuttles for the Cabbin Ports. – Sailmakers repairing Main T.G. Sail. -
12 Light Airs & Thick Rain. Swell from the SE. –
Assistant in Company.
I expected to have seen Savage Isld. but it such dirty Wr. we cannot discern land above 3 or 4 leags at most -

[Page 20]
Rems Wednesday 1 August 1792. Savage Island.
1 Light Airs with thick drizzling Rain and dark Cloudy Wr. – I hauled the Wind to the Southward as I knew myself near to Savage Island.
4 Rain abated & horizon clearer. -
5 The Assistant made the sigl for seeing Land. Saw Savage Island from the Mast Head WbS ½ S but no part could be seen from the Deck.
7 Just at dusk I could see it from The Fore Yd. & suppose myself abt. 7 leagues from it. It appeared a flat surface without one rising or Hill. – Steered to the northward of it -
10 Smart Rain & thick Wr. I sent the Assistant ahead. -
12 Drizzling Rain
6 Dark Cloudy Wr. – Set Studding Sails and Royals. -
7 Served thick Gruel &c. for Breakfast – Bore Cole & Portable Soup mixed with their Pease for Dinner.
9 Cleaned below & hung up all Wet things to dry. – Sailmakers repairing The M.T.G.Sl. Carpenters the Pinnace & making Scuttles.
10 Served Slops – Exercised small Arms & fired. Taylor empld. making coats of mail for the Boats Crews out of Otaheite Cloth. –
 Surveyed worn out Rope. -
12 Dark Cloudy Wr. with frequent spitting Rain but near Noon the sun gave us a tolerable latitude.
Assistant in Company.
The Error in acct. has taken place since making Savage Isl.
[Note in margin] In 1777 I made The Longd. of the Center of Savage Isld - } 190° 23’E
In the Bounty 190° 18’E
From the above bearings applying the error of all wth. [indecipherable] } 190° 25’E
The latitude is 19:02S

[Page 21]
Rems Thursday 2d. August 1792 Observations
1 Dark Cloudy Wr. with light Showers of Rain
6 Worked the Pumps as usual
9 Heavy Rain - in Steering Sails, & Royals. I directed the Galley fire to be kept in all Night to air the Ship.
11 Squally In 1st & 2d Reefs.
1 Small Rain
4 Fresh Breezes and Squally with Rain. -
6 Out 2d Reefs.
8 Strong Breezes and dark Cloudy Wr - Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast – Bore Cole in the Pease, & a half pt. Sour Krout pr. Man for Dinner. -
10 Broached a Pun. of Spruce Beer. – Exercised at Small & Fired - New Marked Deep sea lead and hand Lines. – Aired the Cockpits wth. Fires & cleaned Ship. –
 Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr. but got a good Observation. –
Saw some Flying Fish & Tropic Birds.
Assistant in Compy.

[Page 22]
Before I left England I was informed by My Friend Mr. Alexander Dalrymple, that Captn. Franc. Anton. Maurelle in a Ship called The Princess in 1781 Had discovered numerous Islds. between the latds. 17° S. & 21° S and between the longitudes 182 Degrees and 184 Degrees East. – He favoured me with a Sketch of them and some Views of the land and an extract from the Journal of the Ship’s Track. - The northernmost Islands Maurelle lies lays down in a Parrallel with those I discovered, but 2 Degrees to the Eastward of them & about one to the Westward of The Friendly Islds. - He calls them Dr. Martyn Mayorga Isles. -
The southern Islands helies lays down south of the Mayorga and calls them Don Jon. de Galvez’s Isles - he places them on a Parrallel with the Friendly Isles & about one Degree West of Them. It is evident their relative positions is are sufficiently exact. I think therefor as one Group cannot be removed out of the position he has laid them down in, without the other, that Captain Cook’s track from Tofoa to Turtle Island, and my track in my Boat, demonstratively proves that Maurelle’s southern Islands and The Friendly Isles are the same, & that his Grand Montagne & St. Christoval are Tof Caow & Tofoa. As Mayorga according to my supposition lies on a Merid with the northern part of the Friendly Islands, and if I prove it to be so I evidently determine the rest. I therefore give up all thought of revisiting Annamooka to determine this Point which is of much greater consequence, and may otherwise remain unknown for ever.

[Page 23]
Rems Friday 3rd. of August 1792
1 Fresh Gales and dark Cloudy Wr. and a Cold Air.
2 Exercised at Small Arms and fired.
4 The Wr. as gloomy and dark as in the depth of Winter in England – Cannot get any astronomical observ.
6 In 2d. Reefs – I hailed Lieut. Portlock & directed him to go head during the Night & Steer W ½ S.
8 Ordered Fire in all Night to Air the Ship.
12 Saw Land from NW ½ W to WbN about 4 leagues – Hauled the Wind and made the Assistants Sigl. to TK. & and carry more sail and of seeing Land. -
2 Very smart Rain and thick W so that we could see but a small distance.
4 Made the Sigl. And Tacked
6 Very squally and dark gloomy Wr. – The Land from SWbW to WbN ½ N 4 leagues off shore. – Many Flying Fish but no Birds. – Bore away for the north part of the Land –
8 Very bad Wr. – Served a Hot Breakfast as usual – Aired below with Fires. – The Extrs. of the Land from the Deck S49°W to S87W – A Table Hill S66°W 3 Leags. off shore.
10 Broached a Punch. Spruce Beer
12 SW. with a glimpse of the Sun at Noon which fortunately gives me my latitude. The NE part of the land S76°E 5 le The North Cape S73E 4 leags. Table Hill S44°E & the Westerm Extreme S19°E 5 leags off shore 3 leagues. – Discovered a Mountanous Isld. S42W 11 leagues and a lump of an Isl, (not quite so high & regularly formed) N29W 11 leags.

[Page 24]
A fine Moonlight which shone through the Clouds, gave us a better chance of seeing danger than if the Sky had been perfectly clear, and I therefore determined to stand on all Night. I took my track to the south of Maurelle’s latitude of the north part of Mayorga, that I might be sure to fall in with it, and I informed Lieut. Portlock of my intentions; We however saw the land first at a tolerable distance, and having made the sigl to haul the Wind & Tack, we spent The Night under low Sail.
The day turned out very tempestuous with much Rain, and except severe cold, as bad as any winters day in England – The consequence was, I had not so good a view of the land as I could wish. – The northern part made a Fair Cape with a very lofty shore, and the east part had some projecting heads which looked like Islands – The southern parts were much lower, they nevertheless formed as double Lands, and for that reason I believe are Islands. There are two very remarkable Hills which lie on The NW part of the Island, one is a Table Mountain, and the other nearly as high, the top of which formed like a Dukal Crown.
We could observe the country was abundantly clothed with Wood, and to the southward of the East Cape were many Cocoa Nutts Trees. The North point of the land was higher than any other, and was a very steep Clift, altho with some inclination – it was something like Beachy Head. - The Verdure which clothed The Clifts was broken in many places as if the face of the shore was sandy, but this I attribute to the torrents of Rain that fall into the Sea, for the general outline rather marked some l wonderful convulsion which has placed these this kind of Islands in this immense sea.
The East side of the land lies in the direction of S15° W by Compass – From the North Cape it inclines S62° W & then SSW. Round the NW part I could observe a small Isld, and an opening in the land & from this the land is much lower & broken & is the same

[Page 25]

 to the southward of the East part of the land so that if the High land forms one Island it is only about 20 Miles in Circuit whereas the whole is more than 40 Miles. -
Nothing but the extremely bad weather could have prevented me from knowing more of it, as well as of two other Islands which we discovered at Noon – The northermost from the Mast head appeared as two very inconsiderable lumps of land which I believe are connected, the southermost is a remarkable high peaked Mountain, the summit hid in the Clouds. The distance at which we saw these Islands from their height must to be considerable. -
At Noon, I unexpectedly got a good latitude and as I saw no good consequences attending any delay I directed my course to the Westward.

[Page 26]
[Sketches of Table Hill S85W 5 Leags., NE Cape N73W]
[Notes underneath]
Thus appeared Mayorga Island at 3 leags. dist. From the shore
[Sketches of NE Cape, North Cape, Table Hill S49E 11 Miles]
[Notes underneath]
Thus appears Mayorga A Port Refuge
[Sketch of island]
[Notes underneath]
Thus appears Island Late S42° W 11 leags. – Amargura was too clouded to get a view of it.

[Page 27]
Rems Saturday 4th. Aug. 1792 Mayorga Islands
1 Very Fresh Gales and Squally Wr. with thick Rain like a Fog, clearing for a few minutes at intervals.
3 At 1h 40’ North & NE Cape in one at S88° E North Isld. or Amargura N13° W 10 Leags. West part of Mayorga S51° E.
5 The Wr. cleared a little and we saw the South Island (called Late) bearing SbE ½ E 18 Miles. -
7 Very heavy Squalls close Reefed the TS and handed the Main Sail. -
8 Do Wr. with sharp lightning – Made the sigl and tacked Ship.
9 Fires all Night to air Ship & dry Clothes. -
12 Constant Rain
2 Made the Sigl. and Tkd.
4 Weather cleared up saw Isld. Late SSE
7 Out 2d. Reefs & set Studding Sails – Served a Hot breakfast as usual.
8 Fresh Breezes & Cloudy Late SE ½ E & at ¼ past 9 SEbE ½ E 44 Miles.
10 Got every thing up from below - Washed & dryed Ship with fires
12 Fresh Trade & Fair Wr. with a very clear Horizon.
Plants doing very Well –
Assistant in Company. -

[Page 28]
Nothing could exceed the unfavourable weather after Noon – It came on so very thick and squally that it was like steering in a Fog. I therefore informed Lieut. Portlock, by hailing him, that after the close of the Day I should keep on a Wind for the Night. I had the good luck however to get a sight of the two Islands last discovered which enabled me to determine their situations with y tolerable exactness and the new day bringing us better Weather I had a good sight again of the South Island & excellent Altitudes of the Sun to determine any longitude by my Time Keepers.
How far my description of these lands will agree with The Journal of Mr. Maurelle I cannot say, but I see no reason to doubt of their being the same lands - The relative s positions and latitudes agree very nearly, and the longitude is out of the question. He has been exact in what it is unpardonable for a Navigator to neglect - I mean his latitude - I shall not therefore (altho he seems to have been a poor unhappy Wanderer about the Sea, & not unlike many of our modern English Navigators about this Part of the Globe) take away the names he has given to these Islands, by supplanting them with substituting others which a New Discovery would have led me to have done had I been the first Discoverer I should probably have given. -
The Island of Mayorga is the land I first saw. The Mountainous Island is the Isld. Late, and the northermost Island is Amargura.
Close under the Table Hill is certainly Maurelle’s Port Refuge
The North part of Mayorga
by me lies in 18° 34 ½’S 186° 09’E By Maurelle 18:33S 183:53E
Port Refuge 18:38 ½ 186:04 18:38 183:52
Island Late 18:50 185:31 18:46 183:11
Isld. Amargura 17:58 ½ 185:46 17:59 183:21

[Page 29]
Rems. Sunday 5th. August 1792.
1 Fresh Breezes and fair Wr. Sea from the Southward.
3 People employed in cleaning and mending Clothes.
5 Clear Wr. Worked the Pumps as usual. -
7 in 1st Reefs. Spoke the Assistant and ordered Lieut. Portlock to lead for the Night. -
10 Saw Porpoises -
12 Fine Night
5 Scrubbed the Peoples Clothes Bags
8 Served a Hot breakfast as usual Aired Ship with Fires - Cleaned & Mustered the Ships Compy. & performed Divine Service. -
11 Saw an Isld. From the Mast Hd SWbW A
12 Fine Wr. The Island S48W 26 Ms from the Deck, & other land from The Mast head WbS & WSW B Assistant in Compy. Served a Punc. Spruce Beer. Bore Cole &c. as usual on this day

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My object was now to determine that Maurelle’s Lands were not the Islands I discovered in my last Voyage to the WNW of the Friendly Islands, and to determine more accurately their situation. At that time I could n only determine their boundary to enable a Navigator to discover them again, and I now steered such a course as could satisfactoraly fix it beyond a doubt. At Noon I made the land, but it all at this moment appeared new to me, which may readily be conceived by those who have read my account with a proper attention. - From the recollection I had of it however, The Isld. A appeared to me to be the land to the southward of which I had passed to the southward of altho it did not agree with my latitude by a few Miles,an error that [series of indecipherable words] but I thought that might be owing to an Error in my Observation when I saw it before. may be easily accounted for as the cause can readily be inferred.

[Page 31]
Rems Mondy. 6th. August 1792 Fidgee Islands
1 Fine Wr. all sails set. - At 1 O’Clock Saw Extensive Breakers in the NWbN at 3h. 40’ Breakers in the SEbS & several Islds. to the southward.
4 The Isld. A bore SWbW & B NW about 3 or 4 leags.
5 At 5 Breakers NWbW
6 At ¾ past 5 got close in under Island A & kept on & off it all Night from 2 to 4 Miles from the shore. - The West point of A bearing from SSE to SbW - No ground wth. 50 & 80 fms. of Line.
10 A Cannoe came off with 2 Men in her & brought a few Coco Nutts. -
12 Got some tolerable observations of Acquila
4 At Sun rise Bore away Isld. A East 3 Miles to S54°E 3 Miles. Isld. B NbW ¼W Isld. C N38°W Isld. G S86°W between which I steered – Several Islands in sight to the southward. F SW ¾S abt. 6 Miles. A Cannoe wth. 4 Men came on board.
8 Isld. G S72W 3 leags. C NWbN A SEbE 3/4 E 6 or 8 Miles – At 9h saw an Isld. K to the Eastd. of G, N19°W, it appeared like two - B N22°E – at 10h ¾ B N66E – F S6°W. -
10 Saw a sailing Cannoe like those of the Friendly Islands.
12 The Isld. A S69°E 7 leags. F S53°E G S42°E K N39°E C N5W to N11°E – Land as seen from the Mast head NWbN & WbS called M & L.
Assistant in Company - Plants in fine Order.

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The Breakers wch. we saw at one O’Clock and which rendered a passage to the north. of Isld. B l doubtful made one steer to the SW. Island B is a low Island & forms with a number hillocks – the eastermost is the highest & very remarkable by being detached from the others but altho connected by a Reef. – Island A is a fair lofty Island and diversified with a moderate uneven surface.
At 5 O’Clock I found a dangerous range of Breakers Midway between the Islds. A & B where I intended to ed pass I therefore hauled in for A and found its north shore bold too without any Anchorage, and its west side apparently shut up by a Reef which extended to other Islands F, G, & H. – Where sholes were so numerous standing on in the Night became highly dangerous, for that reason I prefered my present situation, altho not the pleasantest I could have wished for. – I hailed Lieut. Portlock & told him to keep in with the Isld all night with the West end of the Isld bearing from south to SSE and we preserved our station very fortunately without trouble. –
A Cannoe came off to us with two Men in her who bartered without reserve a few Coco Nutts for Toeys & Nails – I paid them well, and as I expected were they came off in the Morning with other two two other Men, & sold as many more Nutts, some Spears & Clubs. – Two of the Men came on board and looked about them with some surprise. One of the Men had his hair plaited about 4 inches long in his Neck into a number of Tails loaded with black grease, the others wore it short and lime burnt – some of them had lost both the little fingers as far as the second joint and the others only of one hand - They had very few marks of tattowing – one of their Ears was remarkably long and had a hole in it that would have taken a large Knife for an ornament – The others were bored in the common way – Their Beards were rough & no way trimmed, and their persons dirty. – We could not understand them except in a few words which were of The Friendly Island language. I happened to mention Tongataboo, when they got hold of it of which they took notice, and I saw they were perfectly acquainted with that Land. – The n Canoe had the common outrigger, but it was on the Starbd. Side – It differed also in its form to any I have seen – it was open, about 2 feet wide in the middle sharp at each end with a prow

[Page 33]
 that curved a little – Their Paddles were like those of The Friendly Island – as I could not delay any time I made sail & they quitted us well satisfied with what they had got. – The Spears were common for striking Fish & the Clubs were identically the same as those of the Friendly Island. – One of The Men wore a pretty Pearl oyster shell at his breast. –
I have no very favourable opinion of the Country, - around the shore however were a great many Coco Nutt Trees. On The Hills the Trees marked very strong Winds from the east & SE. There can be no doubt of the Natives being as desirous as The Friendly Islanders, of intercourse wth us - it was remarkable their coming off in the Night was remarkable. –
The Sea l appeared clear to the WNW but we soon began to discover more Islands and at Noon we had them on each side of us. A sailing n Canoe followed us for some time, but at last seeing I could not wait for them it returned. The Sail Was like The Friendly Island sails, & there was a small Shed on the Cannoe and about 20 Men.
The Island C appeared the most considerable of any we have yet seen – it may be about 4 leagues in circuit, is high and diversified with Hill & Vale sufficiently clothed with Wood – A smaller Island lies between it and B . –
In the Bountys Launch I passed to the southward of The Island A I then fixed its latitude to be 18° 27’S.whereas I now find it to be 18° 39’S. – My charts will give a more exact idea of the lands. – Its longd. is 181° 32’E.
The few Words I was able to understand were
Hee,oh - Yes Friendly Island
Mattow - Affraid do.
[Fuckatow?] - To Trade or Barter do.

[Page 34]
Rems. Tuesdy. 7 August 1792
1 Fine Wr. All sails set. – Saw M from the Deck N27 ½° W. – Smokes on Isld. C where we saw a Sailing Cannoe
4 Isld. L S40° W to S52° W 3 or 4 leags. M North to NNEt 5 or 6 leags. – C N64° E to N72 E Saw Land NW called N.
6 Isld. M N29° E – L S2° 3 or 4 leags. – C EbN 8 or 10 leags – N N18° W – In 1st. Reefs.-
8 Spoke the Assistant and hove to, M. TS at The Mast.
12 Wore Ship Isld. L SE ½ E – M NE ½ N Sounded frequently, but no ground.

4 Isld. M NEbE L SE ½ S
6 Made Sail L S42E about 5 leags. M N58° E to N65° E – N N9° E – Saw other Islds. Called O & P.
8 Took Altds. – M N78° E – N N24° E to N34° E abt. 5 leag. O Isld. N11° W – Saw land called P S39° W & other called Q NbE – Some larger land called R in The NNW. –
10 Washed & Cleaned Ship. Aired wth. Fires. –
11 At 11h:30’ the North part of N bore true East.
12 At Noon N, E2° N 9 leags – O N26° E 7 leags. – Q N14° E 9 leags - R N20° W to N32° W – other Lands seen in the NEbN, NWbW & SWbW from the Mast Heads. –
Assistant in Company

[Page 35]
I directed my Course to The WNW between two lofty Islands which we saw from The Mast head called M & L. – In passing The Island C we saw numerous Smokes and a well cultivated country – A sailing n Canoe made the utmost exertions to over take us, but as they were far a stern & the Night was coming on, I could not wait for them, as I had to take a small range before dark to be certain of a clear space for The Ships during the Night. Saw another Isld called N.
At 8 In the Evening I was about 4 leags to the SW of the Isld. M & about the same distance to The NNW of Island L and here we lay to for The Night. –
At day light we saw other Islands called P & O the latter became very remarkable like Gibralter Rock – as we stood on we saw a very high Isld. in the North called R – land to the north of it called T and to the SE of these, a small high Isld. which was called Q – The land in the SWbW I considered to be the SEt most of the Islands I discovered in the Bountys launch, and that in the NWbW to be part of the Northermost. – To the Eastward of our station at Noon the Land was new to us, I therefore determined to stand to the Northward to see what lands were connected with those I had passed in my Boat in 1789. –
All the Islands are High – We saw smokes on the smallest of them, and I am confident they are well inhabited.
The Island N lies in latitude 17° 45’ S° –

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Rems Wednesday. 8th August 1792
1 Fine Wr. All Sails Set.
2 Hauled the Wind – Saw an Isld. In The WNW called S
4 Island R N19° W to N40° W. Q N39° E abt 6 leags O N72 ½ ° E abt. 4 leags. – N S69° E – Isld. S 87° W
5 At 5h. Isld. O N80° E wch. is true East
6 At 5h. 20 saw three small Keys lying off Isld Q, & in the North between it & Isld. R also land in the ENEt.
8 At 6 hauled the Wind TKd. Q NE 4 leags O East 3 leags. – S85° W R NWbN. Sound. 85 fms. No ground. –
12 Isld. O NE ½ E – Cloudy Wr.
4 Isld. O NEbE ½ E
5 Sent the Boat on board for Lieut. Portlock Saw Islds in the South called V & U. At 6am Isld. O N45° E 8 leags. Q N34° E – R N7W to N20° W – S from N65° W to N75° W U S60°: W & V 40° W.
8 Dark Cloudy Wr. O Isld. N47° E Isld. R N6° E to N11° W – Isld. S N61° W to N73° W – Isld U S65° W V from S47° W to S54° W.
10 Employed cleaning & drying Ship wth. Fires. –
12 Very Cloudy Wr. but got a good observn. U W6° S to W8° N 5 leags – V Isld. S66° W to S42W 7 leags. S N43° W to N33° W – R about North – An Isld. S26° E called P. –
Assistant in Company

[Page 37]
As we got to the Northward we saw a shoal of Keys lying about 2 leagues to the WSW of Isld. Q, it is probable, they join with it. – Q lies on a Meridian with O (or Gibralter Rock) and about 9 Miles apart, it is also High and about the same size – neither is of these are above two Miles in circuit, if they exceed one. –
The land seen in the ENE at 5h. 20’ was seen the preceeding Noon bearing NEbN. –
As the Wind was scant I determined not to pass to the Northward of Island R as I at first intended, but to keep the Wind to the southward – My course would have been West or WbN between the large Islands where I found a dangerous shoal, (in the Bounty’s Launch,) – I wished much to have known more of these large lands, but there was too much impropriety in my taking that track in my present situation, while I could be justified in taking any other that was news. –
The Isld. R is a very High land – I have placed it in 17° 10’S, but it was from a supposed distance, for I could not get any angles to determine it better. –
The Island S is of a good height, it is the Eastermost of the Islands I passed between on the 6th. May 1789 – I then considered it to be 17° 12’ S° whereas I now place it in 17° 22’ S° - I am not certain of its exact situation to a Mile or two. –
At daylight I sent for Lieut. Portlock to give him a few necessary directions, & having hoisted in the Boat I steered for Islds. in the SW called V & U
At Noon we had sight of the Isld. P which was first seen at 8 O’Clock in the morning on the 7th. The Isld. V had a very fruitfull appearance – The Isld. U was like it, but smaller, and had a remarkable Islot or Rock off lying off the SE part of it – In latd. 17° 53’ S

[Page 38]
Rems Thursday 9th. August. 1792
1 Fresh Breezes and cloudy Wr. Edged away for the Passage between Isld V & Isld U – Great reefs spitting off the shores. – Sounding frequently. but no ground. –
4 The Extrems. Of Isld V from W1° N 4 Miles to SbW 5 or 6 Ml. – Isld U N3° East. 2 leags to N27E 5 Miles a Round Rock off it called Mitre Rock N33° E 6 Ml. – Many Isl. in The West & WNW. – Isld. S N10° W to N5° W. –
7 At Dusk 5h: 52’. The Isld V S17° W 4 Miles to 8h. 4 Miles U NE ¾ E 7 Ms. To NE ¾ N Mitre Rock NEbE ¼ E – South land insight WSW & from thence many Islands round to the NE. –
9 Isld. V a fine cultivated Isld. and numerous inhabitants – some cannoes came near to the ships. – Sounded frequently but no bottom –
12 Tkd. Isld. V NEbE ½ E

2 Tkd
4 Isld. V ENE
6 Isld. V NE to N74° E – Land seen in the Eving WSW called Z west. Many Islds. round by the North. an Isld. WSW called No. 1
8 Isld. V NE ½ N to ENE at 6 or 7 leags. Z N89° W to N68° W a High Cockscomb Mountain N75W
9 Fair Wr.
10 Saw Land bearing from The Mast head SbW. Called No2
12 Mod. & Fair The land seen at 10h bore SbW ½ W with other Islands round by the West to Isld. Z which bore from N65° W to N30W abt. 9 leags from us & The Cockscomb Mounts. N56° W. – V bore NE ½ N 15 leags. No 1 N86W to West 8 leags.
Plants in fine Order. –

[Page 39]
Untill we advanced towards the Islands and opened the channel fairly, it appeared full of breakers – Besides what were round the shores, There were however some broken patches off the West part of U – Every way else the passage was fair about 5 Miles wide – The Reefs were also steep too, for we could not find any bottom, and from the extreme parts of the Island. They extended a long way off – about 2 Miles –
We ranged along The Shore of V Island, and on its West side open to a Valley, formed by the highest lands of the Island, appeared an excellent Harbour or Bay for Ships. Another likely place was seen on the south side. It was at this time nearly dark, I was therefore obliged to give up the idea of examining those places, and to get a little Sea Room for the Night, the land extending from the WSW round by the North to the Island U. – The most southerly Land was very high & extensive to what the others were, it was called Z.
At day light I made sail to the southward – a very high Mountain was seen on the Island Z, & from its likeness was called The Cockscomb, the whole of this Island is very mountainous, and its SW part terminated as a very high Cape Sloping towards the south – An Island lies to the southward of it called No. 1.
The Island Z either joins or forms a part of the largest islands of this llego archipelago between which I passed between in 1789. –
As land continued to present itself in the south, I determined to sail round its southern extremity, altho it might cost me a day to accomplish it.
The nearer we came to the shore the more we became delighted with the country – we sailed within a Mile of the Reef which surrounds the shore – inside the Reef the water is perfectly smooth & shoal, and some fine Sandy Beaches.

There are some openings in the Reef fit for Boats. – About the Reef we saw many Natives striking of fish and tracking their Cannoes about with Poles – on the shore the Natives were numerous, - as we sailed along they [indecipherable word] followed us waving of pieces of White Cloth – In general they had a piece round their heads and a Lance or Spear in their hands. Nothing could exceed the beauty of the country at this time – it was cultivated far up into the mountains in a regular and pretty manner – Fine Plantain Walks & shades of Cocoa Nutt and other trees were rendered more picturesque by the Dwellings that were among them – It was an uncommon sight in this Sea to see a well built Village on an m eminence – here, was a considerable one delightfully situated on the Brow of a Hill amidst a charming grove of Trees – Some Houses and plantations were a considerable way up the Mountains – the Houses were all thatched round the sides & Top with one opening or Door Way – (a)[Sketch of one of the houses] Some of them resembled those of the Friendly Islands with The Roof exceeding or overhanging the base and the sides had a great inclination outwards, so that the floor is considerably less than the bounds of the Roof. – others were something like the Sandwich Island Houses. – every thing seemed to show they were an industrious and social People, they are notwithstanding much accustomed to War, for their signals were numerous to collect their whole force. – On an elevated Hill (a) where we saw a number of the Natives, two signals were made by flags hoisted to two detached Cocoa Nutt Trees, no doubt to alarm the whole Island, - on this Hill we could d observe a well beaten Road & a single Hutt which I thought was for the purpose of a Watch House. –
(a) On the North part of the Isld.

[Page 41]
They appeared very desirous to have an intercourse with us, & I regretted very much that with the Night I was obliged to relinquish it. – Three Cannoes came after us, but as they were too late in leaving the shore, so they failed of coming up with the Ship. – In the first Cannoe were seven Men, they were of a very dark Colour, almost a Black – Their heads bound round with White Cloth – had Pearl Oyster Shells pendant from the Neck. – one Man stood in the Bow of The Cannoe holding up a Club such as I got at the last island, & made signs for us to stop and trade with them – Their Clothing was on the common Marro, a strip of cloth around their Hips. – The colour of these men must certainly have been artificial, for in the other Cannoes y the people were rather lighter coloured than the Otaheiteans, without any thing to confine their bushy hair – These Men also showed much desire to trade with us, & held up cloth to induce us to stop for them. In one of the Cannoes they used a large Paddle to scull with as the Friendly Islanders do, & without any material error I believe we may consider them to be the same kind of People-
It appeared indifferent to them on which side the outriggers were on, as I observed at the last Island – the form of the Cannoe was the same & the double Cannoe secured by cross pieces in the Common Way. –
At Whytootackee I observed the Natives blacked their skin with grease & smut – here they certainly do the same – This an undoubted mark of ferocity. –
This Island has about 7 leagues of Sea coast – its north point lies in 17°50’S & Longitude [appears to be missing] E: it was first seen on the 7th. At Noon SWbW & was then distant 15 leagues. –
The Island U is very like V, but not above half its size altho prettyly diversified with high grounds & cultivation.

[Page 42]
Rems Friday 10th. August 1792
1 Fresh breezes and Cloudy Wr. with some light glimmerings of the sun in the forenoon, but dark cloudy Wr. again at Noon –
3 At 2 Tkd. Off a parcel of Rockey Islets to the West of No 2. A dangerous Shoal lay to the WSW 6 Miles, & the outer Islet bore SSW about 2 legs. The Cockscomb Hill bore about NWbN – No 1 N75° W & a distant flat Topp’d Mountain SW ½ S. No 2, from S ½ E to SWbS.
7 At 5h ¾ Isld V N56° E to NE ½ N. Y NW ¾ N – The wider part of Z NWbW. – No 1 S75° W abt 8 leags. No 2 or South part of the land SbW ¼ W.
2 Tkd.
4 Tkd.
8 Extrs. of Z NNW ½ W to N60° W, Cockscomb Hill N54° W No 1, N78° W to N84° W – No 2, S24° W to S44° W – Rocky Islets S29° W to S46° W
10 Tkd Outer Islot S68° W 8 Miles. The southermost land S26° W called No.3 – The south part of No 2 as set before S29° W. No 1 Isld N72°’ W Extrs. of Z N54W to N34W
12 No Obsv. Isld. Z, N40° W to N65° W – No 1 Isld W ½ N. 9 legs. Isld V N30° E – southermost & eastern land in sight SbW ½ W. Part of No 2, 8 leags. –
Plants in fine order
 Assistant in Company.

[Page 43]
As we advanced towards The South land, we fell in with several rocky Islets and dangerous breakers – They lie North from it about 6 leags. – As I could not weather the one or The other I tacked to the northward and spent The Night plying to Windward.
We saw smokes and marks of Cultivation about these small Isles, and a very high mountain, (with a flat top), on the Western part of the land round which I had determined to go round. –
In The Course of this day we advanced but little, for at Noon we had only made a direct course of 7 Miles, so that the objects about us were the same, and The weather very unfavourable to discern them. –

[Page 44]
Rems Saturday 11th. August 1792
1 Mod. And dark Cloudy Wr.
4 Extremes of No 2 land S33° W to S53° W off shore 4 leags. – Four Islott off it S55° W to S84° W
6 No 2, the southermost and eastermost land S45° W to S70° W offshore 3 leags. and about 6 leags. from the south part. – The Islots from S87° W to N68° W three to five leagues & now 5 in number. –
9 Small Rain & dark Wr.
12 Thick Rainy Wr.
4 Squally – considering myself round the land, took in first Reefs.
6 Saw the land from NWbW to NbE Bore away & set all sail.
8 Dark Cloudy Wr. but an interval of sun gave me good Altds. The West part of the land (a High Mountain seen yesterday afternoon) N58° W. The northt. extreme in sight NbW no other part of the land distinct
12 Thick Rainy Wr. Extrs. of the land from N16° W (the Mountain) 4 or 5 leags. to N34° E. An Isld. Close to the shore N15° E. –
Country moderately woody – Lofty like Continental Land – Saw Cocoa Nutt Trees & Smoke. – The Wr. so Thick & Dirty could get no sight of the Sun
Assistant in company.

[Page 45]
At 4 O’Clock we were abreast of the Rocky Islots. – on the largest were several smokes, and it was prettyly covered with Trees. – There is no passage among these Isles for Vessels of any size, the ground appears very broken, & perhaps forms a ridge of Breakers all the way to the Shoal to the Northward of them. –
Night closed upon us before we could be within a proper distance to observe much of the land or Main (of these Rocky Keys) which was called No. 2, - It was very high and was diversified with Hill & Dale interspersed with Trees. – Cultivation no doubt equal to any of the other Islands. –
At day light I no longer found any land to the southward of us – The High flat Topt Mountain seen yesterday was now also the west part of the land, & as I steered for it, we passed the south side of No 2 which I suspect is three Islands about 10 leagues in extent from ENE to WSW. – The whole country was like [continental?] land doubling Hill over Hill, moderately woody & cultivated – Saw many smokes & Coco Nutt Trees; but the Weather was so unfavourable, that we could not observe any thing with great certainty. –
A small high island lay a few Miles to the SE of The Mountain, which was also well cultivated. –
I could get no observation at Noon, however, by the assistance of my Map, I am inclined to think we were not above a Mile or two wrong in our situation –
In connecting these Islands which I have now discovered, with those I discovered in the Bounty’s Launch, they have an extent of full 90 leagues from east to west and full 53 leags from north to south – the NW & Western Islands are much the

[Page 46]
largest, some of them have I dare say, twenty or thirty leags of Coast. – I have now opened away to their being regularly surveyed – if I had had a month to spare I would have completed it myself – The difficulties I expect to meet with in exploring my way through between New Holland and New Guinea with a contrary monsoon advancing calls for my utmost exertions to avoid delay. –

[Page 47]
Rems. Sunday 12th. August 1792
1 Moderate and dark Cloudy Wr. – All sails set. –
2 People employed in mending & washing Clothes. –
4 The High Mountain set yesterday Noon. NE dist. 6 or 7 leags. could not see any other part of the land
6 Very dark and unsettled Wr. In Studding Sails and Dble Reefs
8 a part to leward having much the appearance of land, and the night being very dark & unsettled, I hauled the Wind on the Starbd. Tack & made the Sigl. to the Assistant to do the same.
12 Made the sigl and Wore Ship
4 Made the Signal and Wore Ship
6 Day being made we bore away & made all possible Sail.
8 Very Cloudy Wr. at times thick Rain & a few intervals of Sun Shine. –
9 Cleaned below – aired with Fires – Mustered & saw every person clean dressed – Performed Divine Service. – Hot breakfast every Day as usual – Bore coal & Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner. –
12 Fair Wr. just at Noon – Got a good Obser.
12 Plants in a charming an excellent State
 Assistant in Company

[Page 48]
Rems Monday August 13th. 1792
1 Fair Wr. Got all Wet Things spread to dry.
6 Worked the Pumps as Usual. – In 1st. Reefs & set Fore T.M. Studding Sail.
10 Showers of small Rain and dark Cloudy Wr. –
5 Set Royals & T.G. Studding Sails
7 Thick Portable Soup gruel for Breakfast.
8 Mod. and fair Wr. – Cleaned below – Got up all Wet Things to dry –
9 Exercised great guns & Small Arms & fired. – Aired below with Fires –
12 Cloudy & unsettled Wr. – No Observation – Served Bore Cole & Portable Soup thickened with Oatmeal for Dinner. Shortned Sail it threatning a heavy squall & shift of Wind.
Assistant in Company.

[Page 49]
Rems Tuesday Aug. 14. 1792
1 Moderate & dark cloudy Wr. with Rain but very smooth water. –
2 Sent The Boat for Lieut. Portlock. –
4 Squally Wr.
6 Let fresh water into the Hold & worked the Pumps to Ventilate the Ship. – Lieut. Portlock returned to his Ship. – In 2d Reefs. –
12 Cloudy Wr. and at times squally wth. a little Rain.
6 Out Reefs & made all sail.
7 Served Thick Portable Soup gruel for Breakfast as usual. –
8 Strong Breezes & very hazy – saw a Tropic Bird. –
9 Worked & Cleaned below and dried with Fires. – Hands making Points & spinning spunyarn. –
11 Served Sour Krout as usual and a Puncheon of Spruce Beer. –
12 Strong Breezes, Cloudy & very hazy Wr.
Assistant in Company.
Plants in fine order.

[Page 50]
Rems Wednesdy. Augt. 15th. 1792 Observations
1 Strong Breezes. Cloudy & very hazy Wr –
2 Exercised at small arms & fired
4 Saw a Man of War Bird & a small Black Sheerwater. –
6 In Studding Sails and Topsl double reefed the Top sails. – Worked the Pumps as usual –
5 Out Reefs & made all sail – Saw three Tropic Birds.
7 Served Portable Soup gruel for Breakfast. – Bore Cole and Portable soup in the Pease for Dinner.
10 Cleaned below and aired with Fires – Broached a Punch. Spruce Beer. –
12 Dark Cloudy Wr. with much haze & Sun only out at intervals.
Assistant in Company –

[Page 51]
Rems. Thursdy. Aug. 16th. 1792
1 Modt and dark cloudy Wr.
2 Exercised at small Arms & fired – unbent the New & bent the old Jib.
5 Squally Wr. – Let fresh Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps to Ventilate the Ship. –
7 Shortened Sail & in 1st. Reefs.
8 Squally in Second Reefs.
5 Out Reefs & set all sails – Saw a Tropic Bird. – Fair Wr. & Cloudy. –
7 Served Breakfast as Yesterday – Bore Cole in the Pease for Dinner.
8 Aired below with Fires – Unbent the Old Miz. TS to repair – Cleaned below. – Exercised at small arms & Fired. –
12 Fair & pleasant Wr. Assistant in Company. –
 Plants in fine order

[Page 52]
Rems. Friday August 17th. 1792
1 Fair & Pleasant but the sun generally clouded.
5 Let fresh water into the Ship and Worked the Pumps as usual to ventilate the Ship. –
7 In Steering Sails & 1st Reefs. –
8 Very Cloudy Wr. but in other respects a fine Night. –
10 Heard the blowing of Whales
5 Made all possible sail – Saw Tropic Birds & some flying Fish. –
7 Served thick Portable soup gruel for Breakfast – Portable soup & Sour Krout In the Pease for Dinner. –
9 Washed & Cleaned below and aired with Fires. – Exercised small Arms & fired. – Sailmakers mending Miz. TS. –
11 Strong Breezes & dark cloudy Wr. In 1st Reefs
12 Extremely cloudy not a glimpse of the sun. –
Assistant in Company –
My Plants are in charming condition.
Corrected Course this day N57° W 100 Ms. Having supposed the error in Curr. Setting North –

[Page 53]
Rems. Saturday Aug. 18th. 1792
1 Strong Breezes and very Cloudy Wr.
2 Exercised small Arms
5 Worked the Pumps as usual. –Spoke the assistant – Informed Lieut Portlock that I should Haul the Wind at 8 O’Clock – In 2d. Reefs. –
8 Fine Night – Hauled the Wind
12 Wore Ship & made the sigl to the Assistant.
5 Dark Cloudy Wr.
7 Saw Flying Fish & some Tropic Birds – Served a Hot Breakfast as usual – Bore Cole in the Pease for Dinner. –
9 Opened Cask of Pork No 16 Conts. 120 Dble Pieces. –
11 Sun came suddenly out & very fine Wr. – Empld. Mending & Washing Clothes.
12 Assistant in Company.

[Page 54]
Rems Sunday 19th. August 1792
1 Fair Wr. and Cloudy. Much Haze.
2 The Assistant made the sigl for seeing Land. Saw it in the SW.
4 Cloudy Wr. The Sugar loaf Peak Isld. (so called in The Bountys Launch) S24° W 11 leags. the Eastermost Isld. S41° W. 8 leags.
6 The Isld A S16° W 8 leags. B S36 W 5 leagues – C or largest Isld. of this group S46° W – D or North island S76° W and the North Rocks NWbW 6 leags. –
9 Hailed the Assistant and hauled the Wind for the Night
12 Fresh Breezes & Cloudy – Made the signl and TKd.
2 Squally in 2nd. Reefs.
7 Bore away A S14° W B S28° W to S45° W North Rocks N41° W 7 leags. –
9 Cleaned & Mustered the people. Saw a Booby & a large Devil Fish – Some large Flying Fish –
11 Saw some Keys between [indecipherable word] C & D steered more to the Northd.
12 Fair Wr. not very hazy The Extremes of Isld D S65° E to S27° E 6 or 7 Miles The West part of B on wth The eastn – extreme same time. The E. part of B bearing S72 ½ ° E – Could see no other parts. –
Assistant in Compy. – Sails well – Plants in fine order. –

[Page 55]
In pursuance to my plan to verify my observations during my distressing voyage in the Bounty’s Launch, I directed my Course to make the Islands that I discovered to the northward of the New Hebrides. We saw them soon after one o’Clock, but our situation was, owing to a Current was farther to the northward than I intended, & by that means, being out of The Point of View I saw them in before, they had not the same appearance. – The Sugar loaf Peaked Isld, as I then called it, was very different – it had only a Peaked Hill on its eastern part joined by land which scarcely made it remarkable but for its situation & small size, altho high – It was now called Isld A. B Isld. is higher, & forms with Three Hills a mountainous body of Land with a low border of land round it with a Clift shore – They bear S ½ E & N ½ W by Compss from each other, & lie off the Coast of the largest Isld. of the Group. – I was certain of my situation by the North Rocks, and I spent the Night plying to windward that I might get a better view of the Land in the Morning, as well as to prevent accident to the Ships. –
At day light I stood round Isld. B, to the SW of which we saw the Largest Isld called C towering in the Clouds, the summits of its high Mountains hid, or at times but partially to be observed, - My Views of it will give a just Idea, & its size sufficiently marks it out from all the rest. Between B C & D we observed two low Isles or Keys, & some broken ground wch. was thought to join C & make that pass dangerous, it therefore induced me to pursue my old track round the Isld. D. –
We passed near to B, it has a rocky shore, & I believe steep to, for we could get no ground – It is covered with wood without any cleared ground – Cocoa Nutt Trees grow luxuriantly & raise their heads conspicuously above the rest. – I saw only one smoke & not a single habitation – some Trees looked like the Breadfruit, but I saw no Plantain Trees. – It has a remarkable Hill on its West part that opened with the other high land at S34° W. This Isld. is about 6 or 7 leagues round. –

[Page 56]
Upon the North Rocks, which I now call the Bounty’s Launch, We saw some trees, with our glasses, & it is of a tolerable height, for we saw it at 7 leagues distance. It lies NNW nearly by Compass 22 Miles from the Isld. B and is in the latitude of 13° 17S. Longd. by T. Keepers 167° 42’Es. as deduced from my Map –
I steered close in with Island D to take a look at the Bay I had described in my last Voyage. It is a remarkable Island from the formation of this Bay which occupies a large circular space in the middle of it, surrounded by a continued ridge of high mountains that have rather a rapid inclination to the water side. I could get no ground off this place, and am inclined to think the Water is extremely deep close to the shore. The Points of the Bay lie S20 E & N20° W from each other about a Mile a part or more, but whatever anchorage a ship may find in it I am f afraid she cannot get sheltered from the Wind at NE – in other respects it may answer very well – At the bottom of the Bay there appeared some sandy beaches, & we saw the like round the North part of the Island, but as they were bounded by a rocky shore it is probable to have there is very deep anchorage. –
The whole country had an entire covering of wood without a single cultivated or cleared spot – Many Clumps of Cocoa Nutt Trees strike>was afforded the only favourable aspect it had, and these were uncommonly numerous about the Hills – around the sea shore we saw only a few Natives, but as we passed the Bay we saw a large Body collected in the inner part of it, drawn up in some order as if with a design to prevent our landing. Some of the

[Page 57]
Natives whom we observed with our glasses on the Sea Shore, had cloth over their shoulders in the Otaheite fashion, but I cannot say any thing more of them. –saw no Habitation.
This Island may be about a dozen Miles round or more – Its latitude is 13° 34’ S. & Longitude 167° 25’ E. and lies S32° W by Compass about 7 leagues from the Bounty’s Launch.
I have forgot to mention that in passing the low Keys we saw a few Natives & a Cannoe – the Sail was like the Friendly Island sails.
At Noon I directed my Course towards the westermost of the Islands I discovered of this Group in my last Voyage. –

[Page 58]
Rems Monday 20th. August 1792
1 Extremely hazyWr. but otherwise pleasant Saw the Westermost Isld. of My Discovery W ½ S & soon after two others to the West & north of it called E, F, G.
4 Hauled the Wind E S66° W leags. – F S82° W to S89° W – G WbN and D EbS.
6 Worked the Pumps as usual. – Spoke the Assistant – they had sprung their Main T. Mt. Cross Trees.
12 Made The Sigl & Wore Ship
4 Made the Signal & wore ship
6 Bore away & made sail – Very cloudy Wr. & dark horizon
8 Do Wr. & thick Haze. Many Flying Fish. Assistant fixed new Cross Trees. – Served Hot breakfast as usual. – Bore Cole & Portable Soup thickened with oatmeal for Dinner. –
10 Exercised small arms & fired – Cleaned below – Bent best Fore T.G.Sl. & repaired old one – Working up Junk. – Saw Porpoises & a Devil Fish. –
12 Fair Wr. & Cloudy with a prodigious thick haze. Served ½ pint Vinegar per man as customary on this day
Assistant in Company

[Page 59]
As I expected we saw the land about 2 O’Clock, The same Isld. I discovered when I was in the Bounty’s Launch, & what was now new to me , two other Islands to WNW & NW of it – They were called E F & G, are of a good height, Woody and in other respects I believe the same as the other Islands we had passed. The Island E I believe is the largest of the Three and is about 3 leagues in circuit – It lies in latd. 13° 27’S – Longd 166° 45’E. about 13 leags from Isld. D.
During The Night I hauled the Wind and at Day Break made sail on my way. –
These Islands, according to my present account from a Mean of my Three Time Keepers, lie between the Longd of 166° 37’ East, and 167° 46’ East – Latd 13° 17’ S to 14° 21’ S. – I suspect a chain of these Islands extend to Santa Cruz. –

[Page 60]
Rems. Tuesday 21st. August 1792
1 Fair Wr. and cloudy with much haze.
2 Empld. mending F.T.G. Sail.
6 Let fresh Water into the ship and worked the Pumps. –
8 In 2d. Reefs and hauled the Wind for the Night.
10 Tkd
12 Tkd
2 Tkd
4 Tkd
6 Mod and dark cloudy Wr. Bore away under all Sail.
7 Served a Hot breakfast as usual
8 Fair Wr. & Cloudy, the Sun to be seen at times. –
9 Got up every thing from below washed & aired ship with Fires – Exercised at small Arms. –
11 Saw Three Tropic Birds on the Water.
12 Mod. & Fair with a great Haze –
Assistant in Company & out sails us so that I have given Lieut. Portlock general orders to keep ahead. –

[Page 61]
Rems. Wednesdy. 22d. August 1792
1 Modert. and fair Wr. with much Haze
2 Employed mending Miz Top Sail
6 Worked the Pumps as usual.
7 In all studding sails & 1st. Reefs.
9 Squally in 2d. Reefs.
12 Cloudy Wr.
5 Fair Wr. & Cloudy out all Reefs & made all sail.
6 Thick Portable Soup for breakfast as usual – Sour Krout & Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner
8 Fine pleasant Wr. with some haze. –
9 Aired below with Fires – Saw Tropic Birds & Flying Fish, and some Man of War Birds. –
12 Pleasant Wr. & Cloudy with bright intervals – after much difficulty I got some Lunar Observs.
Assistant in Company

[Page 62]
Rems Thursday 23d. August 1792
1 Fair & pleasant Wr. which enabled me to get some good observations, from wch. the mean of my Time Keepers differ only 7 Miles. –
5 Worked the Pumps to Ventilate the Ship
7 In all small sails & two Reefs of the TS. Unbent old M.T.G. sail & bent a New one. –
12 Fine Night – Porpoises about the Ship.
5 Out all Reefs & made sail. – Saw Man of War Birds, Tropic Birds & Bonetos. –
7 Served Thick Portable soup gruel for Breakfast. – Krout in the Pease for Dinner.
9 Cleaned below and aired with Fires. Exercised at small arms & fired – Sailmakers repairing M.T.G Sail. – Hands Picking Oakam & working up junk. –
12 Fair Wr. and hazy – saw a Brown Booby & Man of War Bird. – Got some good observations.
Assistant in Company

[Page 63]
Rems. Friday 24th. August 1792
1 Fair Wr. and hazy
5 Worked the Pumps – Saw a Gannett Booby. –
7 In Studding Sails and shortened Sail
8 Fine Night.
1 Many Tropic Birds heard
5 Fresh Breezes and fair Wr. – Saw Man of War & Tropic Birds. – Made sail. –
7 Served Hot breakfast as usual & Portable soup & Krout in the Pease for Dinr.
8 Employed Cleaning below & washing with boiling Water to kill Cockroaches –
10 Exercised small arms – Saw a branch of a Tree.
12 Fresh Gale & Fair weather with haze.
Assistant in Company.
Assistant in Company

[Page 64]
Rems Saturday August 25th 1792
1 Fresh Gale and fair Wr. with haze
2 Exercised the Marines at small arms and fired. –
3 Fitted New Buoy Ropes. – Saw a Flock of Birds after Fish which I imagine were Man of War & Tropic Birds & some black backed species of gull that are in this sea. –
6 At dusk some brown Boobies were about us. –
7 In Studding Sails and dble Reefs.
5 Saw many Man of War & Tropic Birds. Made all possible sail.
8 Fine Wr. served Portable soup gruel for Breakfast & sour Krout for their dinner
9 Got up all chests & Bags & washed ship fore and aft – Washed and mended all old Clothes. – Saw some flocks of Birds as in the afternoon – Bent the best Main Top Sail. –
12 Fine Wr. – Our Plants in a most flourishing condition –
Assistant in Company and continues to out sail us. –
I am now on a Merid. nearly wth Cape Deliverance allowing it 154° 37’ E. Green. & as it is in 11° 45’ [S?], our dist. Is 94 Miles

[Page 6]
Rems. Sunday Aug. 26th. 1792
1 Fine Wr. and a fresh and pleasant Trade. –
5 Let fresh Water into the ship & worked the Pumps as usual. –
7 Spoke the Assistant and shortened Sail to dble Reef Top Sls. –
12 Some Porpoises about the Ship.
5 Made all Possible Sail.
8 Served thick Portable soup gruel for Breakfast – sour Krout in the Pease for Dinner. –
10 Some Flying Fish only seen –
11 Mustered the Ship’s Company & performed Divine Service
12 A continuation of fine Wr. – Assistant in Company. –

[Page 66]
Rems. Monday August 27th. 1792
1 A continuance of Fine Wr. – Sent the Boat for Lieut Portlock – to Dine.
6 Lieut. Portlock returned on board – Shortened sail to 2 Dble Reef TS. –
8 Caught a Brown Booby & a Common Noddy, - Brown Plumage wth a grey colour in the top of the head near the Bill
12 Birds flying about the Ship
5 Out Reefs & made all possible Sail. –
7 Served Thick Portable soup gruel for Breakfast. – Portable soup and Bore Cole thickened with oatmeal for Dinner. – Vinegar ½ pint Pr. Man as usual. –
9 Cleaned & aired below with fires.
10 Exercised great guns & small arms & fired. – Painted the Pinnaces bottom. –
12 Light Wind & fine Wr. with Haze. –
Assistant in Company –

[Page 67]
Lunar Observations since the 22d. August reduced up to this Day at 4h. 27’ by applying the difference of longitude by the Time Keepers. –
[Observations below these comments in a table]

[Page 68]
Rems. Tuesday August 28th. 1792
1 Light Winds and fine Wr. with haze.
2 Exercised Marines at small arms & fired.
4 Unbent the Old & bent the next best Fore Sail. – saw a Mother Careys Chicken & many porpoises. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship & Worked the Pumps to Ventilate the Ship. –
7 Shortened Sail to Dble Reefs.
12 A Dew
5 Out Reefs and made all possible Sail. –
6 Saw Tropic Birds & two Noddies –
8 Fair Wr. with a great Haze – Served Hot breakfast as usual –
9 Sailmakers repairing old M. Top Sl.
10 Saw a small Patch of rock weed & a piece of Wood – Washed & Cleaned Ship. –
12 Fair & extremely hazy –long swell from the SE. –
Assistant in Company & a head on the lookout. –
I am now on a Meridian nearly with Cul de Sac.

[Page 69]
Rems Wednesday. August 29th. 1792 -
1 Fair Wr. and extremely hazy. Roused the small Br. Cables up & cleaned under them.
4 Saw many Birds of the gull species and Fish leaping – Saw some pieces of Rock Weed & branches of Trees apparently not long in the Water. –
6 At Dark shortened sail to Dble Reefs.
8 A fine Night and not so great a Swell from the SE
11 Very heavy Dew falling – Birds flying about the ship thought to be Noddies
1 Cloudy Wr. & light Winds.
5 Made all sail. – served thick Portable soup for breakfast. – Krout in the Pease for Dinner & Portable Soup –
7 Sailmakers repairing the old Fore Sail – Hands working up Junk –
8 Got the large Cutter out of the Launch & stowed on skids on the Gunwales, so I had now four Boats ready on an emergency. –
12 Light airs & fine Wr. with much haze. Some Swell from the SE.
Assistant in Company & a head on the look out. –

[Page 70]
Rems. Thursday August 30th 1792
1 Light Winds and fine Wr. with haze Exercised at small arms. –
4 Saw many of the black backed & winged species of Gulls – Caught a Noddy. –
6 Worked the Pumps – Shortened sail to Dble Reefs –
8 Fine Night with Lightning in the NE where I saw the land of New Guinea.
10 A Dew.
1 Gulls flying round as making a Noise like the Tropic Birds.
4 At ½ past 5 saw the Coast of New Guinea off the Deck from NNE ½ E to NE ½ E about 12 leags. off – NbE from Mast Head. –
6 Saw a brown Booby, species of gulls & many flying Fish. –
8 Fine Wr. & Hazy as soon as the sun got up – Could not see the land. –
9 Up all Chests & washed Ship – aired with Fires. – Served Sour Krout in the Pease for Dinner – Sailmakers repairing Boats coverings. –
12 Very fine Wr. & light Winds – a little Hazy – the Land however discerable from aloft from NNE to NE ½ E.
Assistant in Company, & leading. –
Happily my Plants are in a most flourishing condition. –

[Page 71]
As I intended, we fell in with the most western part of Mr. Bougainville’s discovery – My longitude shows it to be somewhat to the westward of any part he saw, but as in other respects I think it to be a part of the same we may readily attribute the differenceto be owingto an error on his side from the unfavourable weather he had.
It was at a distance of at least 12 leagues, for with my best glasses before the sun got up & a clear Horizon, I could discover nothing but its form which was too indistinct to give a sketch of it – Notwithstanding, to give an idea of its height it was comparatively speaking 15 feet above the Horizon and formed in Hills & Vales, and therefore may be considered to be High Land. –
I approve of this Way of comparing the height of land when at a considerable distance, because a person accustomed to discern objects in the horizon can form a more just Idea of it. –
Fixing the land at 12 leags. distant bearing NE by true Compass, its situation will be 9° 38’ S Longitude 147° 16’ E. from the mean of the T.Keepers to which 14’ being added for their error the exact situation becomes 147° 30’ E. – the west part that Mr. Bougainville saw is computed by a late publication to be in Latd 10° 00’ S 140° 40E.

[Page 72]
Rems Friday August 31. 1792
1 Very fine Wr. with light Winds and a little hazy untill Sun Set. –
3 Saw some Boobys & Tropic Birds on the Water. – the Tropic Birds have red Beeks & the two long feathers of the Tail the same colour. – Noddies, Flying Fish & some patches of Weed. – The officers of the Assistant saw a Turtle. –
6 At dusk shortened sail, and Dble reefed the Top Sails.
10 Caught two Noddies.
2 Some Porpoises about the ship. caught a Noddy.
4 Fine Wr. but the sun brought with it a prodigious Haze. – Made all possible sail. –
6 Saw Tropic Birds setting on the Water – Flocks of the black backed gull, some Noddies & Boobies and Man of War Birds – Some patches of Weed like the Gulph Weed – many Skipjacks & Bonetas and flying fish. –
10 Extra allowance for Breakfast & Dinner as usual on this day.
12 Fine Wr. but extremely hazy so that 5 or 6 leags. is the utmost we can see any land. –
The Assistant in Company & ahead on the look out. –

[Page 73]
My being so late in the season, and a great probability of my meeting with delays in passing through between New Holland and New Guinea, is the cause of my running on in the Night. – Since the 23d, The Boobies and Noddies that we have seen daily, are indubitable proofs of our passaging passing thro dangers – this is a track that should be taken with great caution, and I recommend it to whoever may follow me, not to run in the Night, but to keep the Ship on a Wind under such sail as will render her manageable.
I am in good time to [save?] the Monsoon to Timor provided my route was be clear, for I count upon the Easterly Trade blowing untill the middle of October.
At present the Weather is so fine, and the sea so smooth, I depend on clearing any danger reasonably to be expected, and Lieut. Portlock has likewise his orders to keep ahead, which is a double security, for the little Vessel is as manageable as a Boat. –

[Page 74]
Rems. Saturday 1 Sept. 1792
1 Fine Wr. but very hazy – Boobies, Noddies species of gull – and Flying Fish. –
5 At ¼ past 6 the assistant made the Sigl. for seeing Breakers. Saw the shoal from SWbW to WSW 2 or 3 Miles. Hauled the Wind on the starboard tack – Sounded 94 fms of line but no bottom. – Spoke the Assistant to keep on a Wind for the Night & took a Reef in the Top Sails. –
9 Boobies & Noddies. – Caught several Noddies. –
12 Tack’d Ship
3 Tkd.
4 Tkd.
5 At sunrise bore away. – At 8 the shoal could be seen a few Rattlings up bearing WNW 2 or 3 leags.
7 Untill we tacked we continued to see more of the shoal extending to the southward, and as far as the Eye could trace to the westward. No land to be seen, - A kind of Race was near us when we Tkd, & the south part of the Shole in sight bore SbW 3 or 4 Miles. –
11 Birds as before & Porpoises. –
12 Fresh Breezes & Fine Wr. but hazy – Could only see the shole from the mast head bearing NNW abt. 2 or 3 leags. dist. –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 75]
The Assistant being on the lookout made the signal for Danger and tacked towards us. We found it to be a very dangerous shole about 3 Miles from us. – Happily we saw it before Night – no land could be seen near these l dreadful breakers, but Boobies and Noddies in abundance. – I hailed Lieut. Portlock to keep the Wind for the Night, which we passed without any trouble altho with some concern.
At sunrise, (for until then we could not distinguish Colours on the Water,) We bore away & I ordered the Assistant to lead. At 7 O’Clock we saw the shole bearing W & WNW, & supposing it to be a small spot we steered to go round to the southward of it, but to my surprise as we advanced, found the Breakers incline more & more to the south and were obliged to keep our Wind.
At ¼ past 10 We tacked ship, as a stream set us fast towards the Breakers & there was no possibility to of weathering them provided the end terminated where we saw it, - this however I do not believe to be the case. What I shall prove this shole to be , I hope will soon be determined. I hope soon to be able to determine what this Shoal is – it gives a horrible Picture of the Navigation in this unknown streight. –
Being exposed to the sun and anxiously employed I received a shock of my nervous disorder so that to ease a distracted headach I was obliged to [series of indecipherable words] refrain from observing at Noon, - the [indecipherable] Altd. Is a mean of three of the officers all of which agreed within a mile. –

[Page 76]
Rems. Sunday 2d September 1792
1 Fresh and fine Wr. but Hazy. – Boobies & Noddies about the ship.
4 Edging away round the north end of the shole bearly are discernable from the Mast Head
6 The Breakers, seen from the Mast head, bearing bearing south 3 leags. – Spoke the Assistant and at 7 O’Clock hauled the Wind.
10 Tkd. Ship pr. sigl.
12 Tkd. pr sigl
2 Tkd. pr sigl.
4 Tkd. pr sigl and as we got round saw the Breakers bearing south 2 Miles.
6 Bore away – the Breakers seen from the Mt. Hd. bearing south 7 or 8 Miles. –
8 Fresh Breezes & fine Wr. with haze. The Breakers just discernable from the Mast Head from SbE to SEbS. –
9 Cleaned & mustered the Ship’s Company – Read the Articles of War &c. – Performed Divine Service. –
12 Fresh Gale & Fine Wr. with Haze. Assistant made [indecipherable] sigl for Breakers & to steer between the S & West – saw them from the Mast Head bearing West abt. 3 leags. distant, Perhaps only 2 leags. Past a Tree wth. many Barnacles on it.

[Page 77]
Towards evening we saw the termination of the breakers to the northward, but as we had every reason to suppose the Sea full of dangers from the many Noddies & Boobies about us, I ordered Lieut. Portlock to keep on a Wind for the Night.
At 4 in the morning when we supposed ourselves at least 6 Miles from the shole we were only two, having been apparently [indecipherable word] set to the southward by [indecipherable word] a stream of a Tide.
As soon as we could see about us we bore away with a clear sea to all appearance, but at Noon we were obliged to haul the Wind to the southward. – Many Boobies, Noddies & a White kind of gull were now about, & a large Trunk of a Tree was near us, but this had been a long time in the water for it was covered with barnacles. –
The Breakers we saw were tremendous, & the wind being now increased to a fresh gale the sea began to make – The Assistant on the lookout made the sigl. to steer to the southward, we therefore under dble reefs kept close to the wind, for I conceived we could be but a few leags. from the south part of New Guinea on this Meridian, and we saw the Breakers bearing West. – The Horizon is very hazy, & should the coast be low it accounts for our not seeing it, but at Noon I do not think we could see land of a good height above 5 leags - Perhaps, & I think it likely that the south part of the coast may extend full as far to the south as, we are, [series of indecipherable words] it may do more, or it may trend to the northward, & the shoals we have seen may be a barrier of Reefs round the Coast, which we must now beat our way through as well as we can. – Had I a month to spare my mind could be at ease on all of the Plants – I have now no wise alternative but to persevere – God want me success. –
The North part of the shoals lie nearly East & West 40 Miles in the latitude of 9° 26’S & the NE part lies in 144° 54’E Longitude by T. Keepers

[Page 78]
Rems. Monday. 3 Septr. 1792 – Coast of New Guinea. –
1 Fresh Gale & fair Wr. with much haze. The Assistant made the Signal for seeing a Sandy Bay in the SW. We saw it also from our Mast heads about 2 leags. dist. – Hauled the Wind to The NE & soon after was obliged to throw all aback to clear shoal patch that had no break on it. – Soundings Coral bottom. – Mr. Portlock saw a Whale. –
8 Mod. And fine Night
11 Tkd.
12 Tkd Noddies about the Ship
2 Tkd
4 Tkd.
6 Spoke the Assistant and sent her ahead with my large Cutter to sound before her – Saw a Grampus or Specie of Whale. –
8 Mod. & fine Wr. No land in sight –
9 At 40 Min. past 11h. saw Breakers in the NbW – Assistant made the Sigl. to denote Danger – Hauled upon a Wind. –
12 Fine Wr. & light Winds. A Dangerous Reef from WNW to N ½ W 2 leags. dist. seen from the lower Yard, Not from the Deck – Boats in the WSW 6 Miles off making the Sigl for 25 fms.
No appearance of land. –
Soundings Corral rock. –

[Page 79]
As we advanced to the southward we saw a sandy Key in the sth about 2 leags. distant, this I conceived to be connected with what we had seen the preceeding Noon, it was therefore extremely hazardous to do more before dark, than to look out for a clear Sea to keep the ships safe for the Night, for altho we had depths to anchor in, the bottom was so rocky as to ensure offer no hope of security, I therefore stood to the northward & spent the Night with short tacks, having directed Lieut Portlock to lead & tack pr. signal. [series of indecipherable words] . -
In the Morning I directed the Assistant to lead to the NW in hopes of determining something about the land, but towards Noon we were again retarded in our progress by seeing Breakers about 10 Miles extent from SW to NE in the latitude of 9° 00’S and Longd. 144° 10’E by T.Keepers. – Towards this shoal we had very bad soundings of coral bottom – I could see no land – the Assistant was on the lookout with Boats a head sounding, & every thing had an unfavourable aspect – our Hopes & Fears in these situations are various, but as a Navigator cannot expect very agreeable circumstances, he can only make himself happy by comparison considering that they are no worse, & be vigilant. - Fortunately for us, the weather is fine. -

[Page 80]
Rems Tuesdy. 4th. Septr. 1792 Coast of N. Guinea
1 Fine Wr and light Winds. – Assistant ahead & Boat sounding. – Our Leads going. –
4 A small sandy Key set from the Mast head S ½ W & an Isld. of good height in The SW. – alarmed with the appearance of Shole Water, - it was the Spawn of Fish wch. gave it a dusky colour. -
7 At sun set the sandy Key SbW ½ W abt. 2 or 3 leags. & the Isl. In the SW called A about SWbW
8 At 6 Came to an Anchor wth. the sml. Br. in 37 fms. sandy Key SbW ½ W about 6 Miles & Isld. A nearly SWbW 10 leagues. –
10 Latd. of this Anchoring Place – 9° 19’ S Longitude of this Do – 144: 11’E.
3 Fresh Breezes & fine Wr. Hoisted the Whale Boat out, and having sent the Cutter a head of the Assistant We got under sail at ½ past 5 –
6 At 7 the Sandy Key bore SbE 4 Miles
8 The [sketch of an anchor] Key EbS ¼ S 6 or 7 Miles Isld. A SW ¼ S 7 or 8 leagues. – ¾ past 9 saw Islds. B & C in the south. – At 11h:20 saw a Key & shole Bank in The SW wch. obliged us to keep the Wind It lies ENE from Isld. A – Saw sholes also in the SE. – In standg. towds. A Bank, had least Water 16 fms. – Saw sholes to the SW of A. – Sounding, & the utmost Vigilance used. –
12 At Noon fine Wr. A S70° W to S78° W 12 Miles, Isld B S17° E to S25° E dis. about 6 or 7 leags.

[Page 81]
The shoal we met with to the northward, and soon after Noon seeing a lump of high land a lump of high land which we saw soon after Noon in the SW called A made it l doubtful to me whether I was far enough south to go round the land, I therefore thought it best to stand to the southward. – In doing this I found better bottom, and discovered a sandy Key with reefs about it. The Night coming on made it necessary for me to Anchor. Here we found a Tide the course of which was nearly ESE & WNW. – I call it Anchor Key. –
In the morning we got under sail, & with great caution proceeded to the SSW. – Abt. 10 O’Clock saw more land, (high like the first) in the south called B. – Soon after, shoal water, & a sandy Key was seen from the Mast head lying to the ENE of A, and we found it shoal by our lead & deepen, but upon the whole tolerable good ground, sandy, wth a kind of clay in some places. – We now were obliged to keep close to the Wind as it appeared the most l eligible to go to the southern end of Island A.
Island A may be 4 or 6 Miles round, it rises from each end to the center to a good height – Is interspersed with Trees, but not a very fertile looking Island, in some places it seemed scorched up, we however saw some Cocoa Nutt Trees. – From the Masthead some Cannoes were seen
Lieutenant Portlock [series of indecipherable words] having but few Hands to carry on his duty I sent him five Men to assist in the Work of the Vessel (out of my Ships Company altho I could ill spare them) untill we should arrive in a sea unembarassed with such difficulties. – J. Judge - G. Delbridge – [series of indecipherable names] - & Saml. Dennis. –

[Page 82]
Rems Monday. 5 Sept. 1792 – New Guinea
1 Mod. Breezes and fine Wr. – The Assistant leading with Boats a head shole water laid between us & A
4 At 4 O’Clock [sketch of anchor] in 21 fms with the sml. Br - veered ½ Cable. Isld. A N52° W to N64° W 2 or 3 leags.
5 B S35° E to S40° E 5 leags. C S31° E abt. 4 leags. a sandy Key (Canno Key) S56° W 4 Miles – shole water between the Key & A induced me to send the master & 2d. Lieut to examine it.
8 Fresh breezes. Boats returned, but were to late to gain the necessary knowledge of the dangers – Prepared them for the Morning – Several Cannoes were seen with oblong sails, could see nothing more distinctly. –
12 Very fresh Breezes & fair Wr.
4 Sent the 3d Lieut & Master away again to Cannoe Key to discover if any passage is there as we cannot move without a knowledge of it. – Cautioned them to be friendly to the Natives & endeavor to gain their Friendship if they came to them. –
8 Saw several large sailing n Canoes which had an oblong sail - & were a fishing about the Reefs but – could see nothing of them distinctly.
10 Saw the Boats returning – Cutter made the sig for assistance, sent the Pinnace manned & armed –
12 Mod & fair Wr. with much Haze. Whale Boat returned a little before Noon. – Cannoe Key is now covered we therefore know the Flood comes from the ESE & sets WNW. –

[Page 83]
Soon after noon we shoaled the Water from 31 to 15 fms along the shoal to the eastward of A – Boats to leward had only 12 fms – then deepened to 23, 20 & 25 fms. – We had a Cast of 35 & 41 fms – About one clock we found we were standing towards a sandy Key & shoal water that extended towards the Islds. in the SE B& C, and we saw white water to the southd of A – at 4 O’Clock our bottom was good & a moderate depth, I therefore came to an Anchor & sent away Lieut. Tobin in one Boat, & Mr Nicols the Master in the other, to go and examine the Passage to leward. – Night only permitted them to go only as far as the Key, where they found sufficient depths of Water, but could say nothing of the channel round it – Every thing was got ready for them to proceed in the Morning. –
At day light they were down at the Key & where on there return towards Noon, when the Master by by having the best rowing Boat got on board. Mr. Tobin we observed make the signal for assistance, I therefore judging his People were fatigued, sent him fresh hands in the Pinnace.
We have seen several large Cannoes, about the sholes fishing, but can give no description of them being at too great a distance. –
All this day the Haze has been very great & prevented our seeing distinctly with our glasses, but the Isld. B appeared as large or larger than A, its western part being the highest & forms a Hill. – C lies about 2 Miles to the Westward of it, a small high round lump of land, and between those two appeared a low small Isld of Keys – The whole are wooded like A. –
During the Forenoon we observed the sandy Key (which we call Cannoe Key) to cover with the Tide, the Flood therefore must come from the ESE or East, for about E & West I think is the set of the Stream.

[Page 84]
Rems Thursday. 6th. Sept. 1792. New Guinea
1 Mod. Breezes & fair Wr. with much haze, The Pinnace & Cutter returned
4 Caught a few Fish – a pretty pale red & silver coloured kind of Bream and a sucking Fish, the sucker on the upper part of the head
8 Fresh Breezes & Cloudy
4 A Fine sand & Clay came up with the Lead.
6 At ½ past 6 Weighed – sent the Cutter & Whale Boat to the Assistant lead ahead & sound & bore away for Cannoe Key – Sound. 21 & 22, 20 & 21 the Key So. abt. ½ or ¾ of a Mile.
8 Isld. A NbW to N22° W 2 leags. B S51° E – C S48° E – Saw other small Isld. to the Westd. Called E & F – saw several Cannoes among sandy Keys to the westd & some coming towards us – more land in the west. –
10 Anchored pr. sigl from the Assistant A N52° E to N68 E 4 Miles E N47 W 4 F N59 W – two sandy Keys S21° W & S 64° E [asterisk] – at 11 I sent the Assistant & Boats to proceed & examine the Passage to the NNW –
12 Fair Wr. – Assistant under sail to the NNW & Boats sounding. –a Cannoe coming up to us, several having been to the Assistant before she weighed. – Abt. 15 Men in each – Find the bottom to be a tough clay & sand Latitude of this anchoring place 9° 37’S Longitude do. 143° 41E Do. by my map 143° 43 E

[Page 85]
At 1 Mr. Tobin returned – both his and the Master’s report was, that they had found a deep water channel, & that the ships might proceed with a better chance than by returning any other way. – It was now too late to risk going down lest we should not have time to get into good anchoring ground for the Night, I was therefore very reluctantly obliged to remain, - our safety could only d oblige me to it, for I see with great concern the danger we are in of losing our voyage by [series of indecipherable words] delays of an intricate navigation. –
Mr. Tobin informed me he was overtaken by a Cannoe about 50 feet long with 15 Men in her – that when about 15 yds from him, they offered him a Coco Nutt which he refused makeing signs to them to proceed to the ship; upon this they immediately got their Boats ready, & he saw their intention was to send some Arrows at him; in self defence therefore; he was says he was obliged to fire at them, & the whole boats crew, 7 Men, fired into the Cannoe and no doubt did some mischief; for the poor wretches immediately quitted them. – This was the most melancholy account I could receive, all my hopes [indecipherable word] to have a friendly intercourse with the Natives were now lost.
At sun rise we weighed and sailed under 3 Reefs, the Assistant with Boats a head & on each [indecipherable word] Bow leading, and Hands at the Mast Head conning the ship. We run in past Cannoe Key & the Reef off A Island, where it was about ½ or ¾ mile wide, wth. 21 fms. water, & from thence steering to the NW we anchored in a fine Sand & Clay bottom, for I was affraid to run the risk of going farther lest the anchoring ground might be lost, before I could explore with the Assistant & my Boats, & in the afternoon, the sun’s light does not refract show the sholes & show them as in the Morning. – at ½ past 11 the Assistant weighed to explore pr. Signal. –
Island A is prettily interspersed with Trees (among them are the Coco Nutt and Plantain) and clear Patches, but the latter are burnt up, & the most luxuriant of the Trees have a very poor verdure. – Saw several Cannoes, & about 100 Natives on the sandy Beaches. Could observe some of their Dwellings that appeared neatly thatched & fenced round. – The Cannoes looked long & low – abt. 12 were seen – Isl. A by my Map lies in latd. 9° 34’S 143° 45’E

[Page 86]
No wind could send any sea into this anchoring place except from the North and from thence I suspect there lie so many banks, that it would not endanger a ship’s riding be dangerous for a ship to ride here at any time of the year. – If Island A produces water, & a good footing Intercourse could be gained obtained with the Natives, it would be an l eligible stopping place to stop & refresh at . – The Passage in from Canno Key is perfectly safe, borrowing on Island A side to clear the detached Reefs that lie to the southd. – When abreast of A’s Sandy Key the passage is abt. 3 Miles wide, & fine anchoring ground. – How far the Reefs extend to the NNE of Isld. A is uncertain – if they do not connect with the North Reef, the passes what ever they are is likely to be dangerous, for in that part we saw no land. – Some Sandy Keys lying in the West, I determined to proceed to the northward round two woody Keys or Isles E & F – as our anchoring at this time was only through caution, I ordered Lieut. Portlock to weigh again & wth the Boats to explore between A & E. -
While the Assistant was at an anchor several Cannoes went alongside of him & traded with their Bows & Arrows for Iron of any kind – They took care to make good bargains, but were honest and readily gave up what was agreed for – on account of these Cannoes being about us I could not send my Boats away without the Assistant, otherwise I might have accomplished with procured from them alone a sufficient knowledge of the Passage. –
These people expressed a great deal of surprise at seeing the Ships, they were however perfectly acquainted with the use & value of Iron, and called it Tooree, or Toorick. – Their implements of War were the only things they had for traffick, except a few plantains & a yam or two. – There were about 15 Men in each Cannoe – Lieut Portlock made signs for them to come to me; only one of them however showed any inclination, who separated from the rest, & came towards the Ship. – The readyness with which these People went on board the Assistant gives me hope that no injury was done to them yesterday by our Boats. –
At Noon the Assistant & our Boats wre under sail about five Miles from us exploring the Passage between A & E.

[Page 87]
It is impossible for me to forsee what delays may attend me in this Strait – the want of Water may not be the least of our difficulties, I therefore in order to reduce the expenditure of our stock, ordered the distilling apparatus to be got ready. – Hitherto we have been at an allowance of two Quarts a day – a Pun. Of Water serve the Plants two Days & sometimes three

[Page 88]
Rems Friday 7th. Sept. 1792. New Guinea
1 Fair Wr. and hazy. The Assistant & Boats sounding a Passage to the northward, & reporting to me by signals. [Comments in margin – A Cannoe & 10 men came alongside. -]
3 At 1 O’Clock made the signal to me for good anchoring, & that I might follow without danger at 2 O’Clock weighed out of good holding ground. – [Comments in margin – Began to Distill fresh Water. -]
5 At ¼ past 3 I anchored again in 13 fms. – coarse sand & shells. A S78° E to S59° E abt. 2 leags. a sandy Key S9° W 5’ – E S37° W 2 or 3 Miles – F W ½ N – Saw another Isld. called G (from the Mast head) WbS.
7 All the Islds. ecept A B & C are low Woody Keys abt. a Mile or two round. –
9 The Cannoe returned to us & traded wth. great faith their Bows & arrows. – Left us & went to Isld. E to sleep as we understood by their signs
12 Fresh Breezes and cloudy Wr.
4 Breakfasted at 6 O’Clock & sent the Cutter and Whale Boat away to explore to leward.
5 At ½ past 8 the Boats made the signal for us to follow – they had from 12 to 25 fms – They bore NW ½ W –
7 At 10 we were under sail with strong wind & 3 Reefs in the TS – The Brig & Boats leading – sounding 18 to no ground at 27 – Then 24 to 17 – 19 to 27 - & 20 to 26 fms. to 11h. 20’, Isld F SWbW 2 Miles East [pt?] Reef EbS ¾ S 1 Mile
9 Saw Natives on F, Houses, Dogs, & fences – It is a small Woody spot abt. 1 ½ or 2 Miles round – saw two Cannoes. –
11 Round the Bottom tolerable good for anchorage & edged more to leward.
12 Fresh gales & Fair Wr. with much Haze. Isld. F S69° E 3 Miles. – A S75° E 5 leags, G S15° W abt. 5 Miles – Land like the other Isles seen from the Mast head SSW & WSW. Woody low Keys.
Assistant and Boats leading. – No land appeared in the North, but in that direction the water sholed as the Boats reported by signals, but we saw no dangers. – [Note in margin – Distil’d 10 galls. of Water to day. –

[Page 89]
At one o’Clock a Cannoe came along side wth: ten men in her, but as the Assistant made the sigl to follow her, they was under sail I had not time to let them come on board – They expressed much surprise & seemed mortified at our getting under way, for they had been to the Assistant & traded with great fairness. - Mr Tobin’s battle seems to have been of no consequence. -
We found difficulty in weighing our [sketch of anchor], the ground was so good & at ½ past 3 anchored for the night under the lee of an Isld. called F, & here the Cannoe who had left us came to the ship again, and traded their Bows & arrows - Clubs & spears, with great fairness for large Nails and Toeys which they called Toorick. – They showed great surprise. – Three of them came on board but could not be enticed below – They are about the middle size, quite black & woolly headed with beards – stark naked – some of them had lost several of their Teeth – some had their foreheads daubed red – some had a few feathers stuck in their wool – some had the skin on the point of the shoulder raised in circular Rims, that together formed a kind of badge about the size of a Water-Mans - The Septum of the Nose was pierced, in wch. they wore a ring of shell or bone, to distend it, of ¾ inch Diameter – The Ear of all of them was pierced in common, & in some the lobe was cut through & full of small holes around it to wear admit ornaments of plaited grass or shells – some had rough beards tinged grey & appeared aged – Their countenances on the whole not bad – I saw no distortion of the forehead – Their noses rather full at the point. - ir The White of their Eyes not clear. – The chief sign they made was patting the top of the head with the Palm of their hands. – Their expression of surprise was – Wow Wow, Wow Wow wah. – They made use of the Words Toorick, for Iron or Hatchet, attah, gooroo for sleep, and Teeteeree when they wanted to haul their Cannoe up – one of the Men had a piece of shell wch. being formed for the purpose hung over his Penis, the others were all bare. – Their Bows made of Bamboo, & their strings the outer skin of the same, no one man in the ship could string them – Their arrows were various, - some pointed with bone & others wth. bamboo – They had clubs rudely carved, & some spears abt. 14 feet long. Their Cannoe was 58 feet long, 3 feet wide & [8 feet across?] & 2 feet deep, - one piece, except of kind of gunwale to form a strait sheer – Had a stage across the Gunwale & an outrigger on each side – the stern was a little carved, & the head was ornamented in the head wth. shells – Paddled standing, their Paddles were long & narrow bladed. – They were not surprised at looking in a glass, & cared for nothing but iron – I bought only one yam, & that which they wanted to cut in half halves to make the most of their bargain – a Boars tusk was seen. – They had a strange way of showing their astonishment by wistling, & making a noise like the [wizzing?] of a ball in the air.

[Page 90]
 Rems Saturday 8th. Sept. 1792 Coast of New Guinea
1 Fresh gales and fair Wr. with much haze. Came to in 25 fms. under F Isld. at ½ past Noon F N86° E 2 Miles – G S5° W 2 or 3 Miles. A S79° E E S72° E – from the Mast head saw other Islds H, I, K, & L bearing from the So. to the SWbW ½ W 4 or 5 leags. off.
5 Washed and cleaned ship so that our afternoon was not idly spent. –
6 Saw Natives on Isld. F, saw a Woman with some covering round her Hips, a Dog – The tops of Houses well thatched within some fences. – Saw Fires on Isld. G
8 Fresh gales & Fair Wr. - In Boats. & down T.G. Yards
3 Situation of this Morning anchoring Place called good Road} 9° 37’S
                                                                 } 143° 15 E.
6 As soon as the [sketch of the sun] got up we could see tolerably well. Began to heave up – sent the Boats to the Assistant to lead a head. – sailed under close Reefed TS F Isld. E. 3 or 4 Ms. G SbE 3 Miles
9 Saw a sandy Key in the West b S – Shoals appd. in a short time in all directions but SW, steered by [Cunning?] the ship from the Mast Head, and at last having cleared the Key, hauled up under H Isld. & made the sigl. to prepare to [sketch of an anchor]. –
12 At 11h:50’ came too in 15 fms. sand & clay in a pretty Road – H Isld. bearing S7E 1 Mile to S72° E 2 Miles abreast of a Deserted Village & fine sandy Beach. – An Isld. bore SbW called M & 4 others to the Eastd. of it were in sight wch. were seen at the last anchg place – a great shole extended from S50° W round by the West to N ¾ W.
[Note in margin] Distilled 23 galls of water. –

[Page 91]
The Afternoon sun being a blind to us with respect to observing danger, in the afternoon whilst in which in the forenoon it is altogether as favourable – I waited untill the morning before I got undersail. – on the south we were shut in with a number of low Woody Isles, but in the west and north all appeared clear – an hours sail however having showed us shoales in the direction we hoped to steer, & the Water shoalned I conferred that. Many banks I thought to lay in the north, and I therefore determined to steer for an Island called H. – as we came near it, we saw a sandy Key to the north of it, & an extensive Bank in the West, and others to the NE of the sandy Key. – Midway way between sandy Key & H we had 12 fms. When I hauled to the southward & [sketch of an anchor] in a charming little Road under island H – the bottom sand & a kind of clay. –
Abreast of us was a small Village consisting of a dozen or 15 Hutts with flat Roofs – each had a Door Way, but no Door – several of the Hutts joined together & formed one Front – they were slightly built and covered with Mattings or Palm Thatch. – Three Cannoes were hauled up on the Beach, and we saw a Dog. – I concluded the Natives were either out a fishing, or had retired into the Woods on our approach. –
This Isle is not above a Mile or Mile & half round, and its surface not 20 feet above the level of the sea, yet this little spot is covered with wood, & Trees of a very large size, branching like Forrest Oaks. – Except the Islands A B & C all we have seen are of this kind – very small spots covered with Wood. –
The Winds were now very strong and our safety depended on great caution, I therefore prepared the Boats to explore to the SW which was the only open pass for us to proceed. –
Fortunately I got some good observations of the Sun & Moon, by which I was satisfied my Time Keepers erred not materially from the truth. –
I have now no doubt of the space north of F Island to north Reef being full of shoals. –

[Page 92]
Rems. Sundy. Sept. 9th. 1792 Coast of New Guinea
1 Strong Breezes & Fair Wr. with Haze. Sent the Boats to leward in the SW to sound. – saw dozen Dwellings wth. Flat roofs & Door Ways wth. out Doors – Saw a Dog. –
4 The Boats returned with a report of good Soundings from 13 to 16 & 18 fms. good ground. – abt. 42 Natives 7 of whome were children abt. 8 years old – Some Women & a Child carried on a Womans shoulders. – The Boats brought the Natives round from the north side of the Isld. – Sent Lieus Guthrie, Tobin & Pearce to make presents to them – they were very friendly, & gave them some Fruit like a Plumb – called Sow by the Malays of Timor – Night prevented a long interview – they were distracted after Iron & cared for nothing else – called it Toorick. –
12. Strong Winds

3 It was 8 o’Clock before we could see the Reefs & shoals so as to enable us to proceed wth. safety. –
8 Fresh Breezes & Hazy Wr. Weighed – Cannoe came after us & put back again. – all the Forenoon we continued to see Woody Keys or Isles round by the south as far as WSW – also Banks & a continuation of the Reef seen from the last anchoring Place, wch. seemed to join to a low Woody Isld. called P next to wch. was a larger Isld called O – We passed between Banks I can say little of but kept in good [sketch of an anchor] ground from 11 to 15 fms.
12 At Noon the Assistant & Boats ahead sounding & repeating sigls. With Vigilance N Isld. S54E abt. 3 Miles 10 fms. ground O S74° W 3 or 4 leags. M N69E abt. 4 leags.an Isld. of tolerable Hight called Turtle Backed was partly in wth. O & many Islds. & Keys & Reefs in the south, in short we appeared advancing into a labyrinth of Dangers –

[Page 93]
As soon as the People had got their dinners, I sent the Boats away with Mr. Nichols the Master to sound in the south & SW, for the stream of the Tide was now to the WSW & SW which I believed to be owing to banks in the West which gave it that direction. –
In the Evening [indecipherable word] the Boats returned, and Mr. Nichols reported to me that he had found good soundings from 13 to 17 fms. towards Island M, and 13 to 15 to the SW in the stream of the Tide. –
In their return to the Ships they were observed by the Natives who followed them making signs for them to land. –When they all arrived at the Village, the number was 42, 7 of them [indecipherable word] were children – one of them was carried on the shoulders of a Woman, & not to at the back as is common. – There were about 15 who had Bows & Arrows wch. they laid at the back of one of their sheds – The Women had a covering round their Hips – Men stark naked. – They made signs & waved branches for us to come to them, I therefore dispatched two Boats with Lieuts. G & F to make some presents of Iron to them, which, as I conceived; was the only thing valuable, & like the rest called them it Toorick – They were frantick when they heard it gingle – They gave in return some fruit like a red Plumb, & some shell ornaments – This fruit is what I have described under the Malay name Sow – They had only one Dog with them, & I suspect there is no other Quadruped on the Isld. – A little bad water was got, it is most likely to be brackish. – They offered no kind of provisions for sale – not a single Coco Nut Tree was seen, but the Boats a in sounding observed a few Plantain Trees. – They made us of the Word Hobbo signifying to eat. – Their general sign was waving a green branch & patting the top of their heads – They waded into the water to the Boats & wanted m the People to go come on shore. – The Women were very ugly except one, whose youth could only be the advantage over the others. – The Dog was of a reddish brown colour, & like the Otaheiteans. – on the SE part of the Isle they had fences which I believe they retire to and fight under – These fences are formed of strait poles about breast high, secured one to the other by tyings & cross pieces. Fish, Turtle, & Shell fish is their chief support. – on seeing us get under sail they launched a Cannoe, but I could not wait for them. –
As we sailed to the SW, we had a great shoal to the West of us taking the same direction & in every other quarter Shoals seemed to threaten a barrier to our proceeding. -

[Page 94]
Rems Monday 10th. Sept. 1792 – New Guinea
1 Fresh Breezes & Fair Wr. at 1 ½ h We fell in wth. d an extensive Bank to the Sd. of O Isld – some Parts of it was dry & large black stones spotted the surface of it. – I made the signal to prepare to Anchor & the Assistant & Boats to explore. – she made me the sigl. to follow I bore up, Boats leading. About 1 ½ mile from the Bank in 14 & 15 fms. Water.
5 At 3h. 20’ brought up in 17 fms. hard ground (for we had no choice) off the point of the Bank bearing S5° E to S62E about ¾ Mile O S89 W to N68&sdeg; W pt of its Spit N60° W 3 Miles – an Isld. on the west part of great Reef called P N7° W 5 Miles – a woody Key S25° E 3 or 4 leags – a long flat Isld. S29° W to S42° W. – I sent the Master with two Boats to sound. –
9 A Cannoe came near to the Ship & went off wth. the Boats. – It was 10 before they got back the Tide was so strong against them –
11 Lay wth. a half Cable during the Wr. tide & a whole during the lee tide – The ground about us very indifferent & Rocky & our situation rather dangerous. – Struck Top Gallant Masts - & hoisted the Boats in – We called the Bank Dungyness, & an Isld. S78° W 6 5 leags., Turtle backed Isld. –
3 At daylight saw several Cannoes about the Reefs. Two lay on Dungyness, 8 men in each Cannoe s making signs for us to come to them. – The others, 7 or 8, lay near Isld P. – Hoisted out the Boats & waited for the Wr. tide to make. –
6 At high Water greatest part of Dungyness covered. & the Tide is not slack above 10 Minutes

Situation of this [sketch of anchor] Place 9° 50’ S
Longitude - - - - - 142:55 E.
12 Fresh Breezes Weighed under three Reefs in each TS – Backed & Filled to the Eastward, & supposing the Passage to the southd. of O intricate Bore up to go between it & P.
Several Cannoes lurking about the Reefs. –
Boats sounding ahead –
[Note in margin] Fresh Water distilled 14 Galls

[Page 95]
At ½ past one in our course to the Island O, we fell in wth a very dangerous and extensive Reef that made it l doubtful for to us how to proceed – I made the signal to the Assistant to be ready for Anchoring, & at the same time to explore with the Boats, while I could keep on a Wind – Lieut. Portlock with his usual attention & vigilance, soon discovered that the Reef was detached from Island O – we saw it plainly from our Mast heads, and followed him to an anchor, where we came brought to up off the point of the Reef & Bank, having passed along the east side of it in 15 fms –The Tide ran 3 Knots & the bottom being bad we road with great risk. – The weather Tide could only now get us out of this situation, as running to the southd. of O Island was hazardous from the light coloured water that we saw, & at any rate, going with a lee Tide in the place we were in, could only be done through madness or folly. – It was near Noon therefore when we were under sail with the first of the Ebb setting strong to the Eastward. –
A great part of this Bank is s covered at high Water – it is made up of corral, & the surface is spotted with a number of small [indecipherable word] rocks. – I called the Point Dungyness & the Isld. O Dungyness Island, between which and Island P appeared the best Passage for the ships to proceed. Isld. P is a small woody spot as the most of the sandy Keys are, & is inhabited, but the Isld. O seems to be made up of Rock, about 4 or 6 Miles round, low & covered with an impenetrable r forest. – Altho I did not approve of going through to the southward of it, I now apprehend there is a safe channel towards some higher Islands, one of which from its appearance was called Turtle Back’d Island.
A Cannoe came off to us in the Evening & would have come alongside, but the Boats quitting the Ship, the Cannoe followed them under sail towards Isld. P, where they parted company without any communication. – The Sails of these Cannoes are made of matting in an oblong form, & rudely stiched together – The Mast to which it is hoisted consists of two Bamboo Poles, the lower ends fixed close together in the bottom of the Cannoe, & the upper ends extend the width of the sail, from whence it is hoisted, travelling upon two guys – some Cannoes have two of these sails – they are always fixed in the fore part of the Cannoe close together. – We observe them always row well to Windward before they set their Sail, & I think they have a piece of Plank which they sometimes make use of as a lee-board.

[Page 96]
Rems. Tuesdy. 11th. Sept. 1792 Off the Coast of New Guinea
1 Fresh Breezes and fair Wr. – Assistant made the Signal for assistance – Saw them firing some Cannoes – Had three Men Wounded – some large Cannoes were about us, & discharged some arrows – Fired at them, upon which they dispersed. – I suppose several were Killed – one man we saw not able to swim away. – Cannoe bloody. –
6 Steered between O & P and, at 4 o’Clock {sketch of an anchor] under O or Dingyness Isld. in 10 fms. coarse bottom. A shoal N29° E 1 Mile Isld. P N61° E to N66 E 3 or 4 Miles – Dingyness Isld. S64° E to S10° E offshore 1 Mile. The long Flat Isld. on wth. the south extreme. Turtle Back Isld. S54° W to S60° W 3 or 4 leags - a small high lump called The Cap S86° W 4 leags. and an Isld. with two Hills called the Brothers N80° W 5 or 6 leags. Down T.G. Yards & in Boats. –
Situation of this [sketch of an anchor] Place – 9° 40’ S
                                Longitude – 142:51E
5 Out Boats & up T.G.Yds. – It was ½ past 9 before the Assistant could get her [sketch of an anchor] having hook a Rock & Mr. Portlock informed me had lost one at Dingyness. –Sailed – The Assistant & Boats ahead soundings. I ordered Lieut. Portlock to lead round to the northward of the Brothers. –
10 At 10h:50’ saw a high lump of an Isld. like Maitea N43° W called it Q – Turtle Backd. Isld. bore true So. & we had 9 to 11 fms.
12 Fine Wr. & smooth Water. The Brothers S71° W [indecipherable word] 4 Miles. The Cap S9° W 5 Mls. Turtle Backed S19° E 3 leags. Dingyness Isl. SEbE ¼ E abt. 5 or 6 leags. – Isld. Q N35° W. –
Assistant & Boats ahead – our Water shoaling. –

[Page 97]
We were not long under sail before we saw the Cannoes that were about Dingyness, and Island P, nine in number containing from 8 to 20 Men in each, paddling towards the ships – some went towards the Assistant but the strongest party came to us & made signs that Water & Food was to be had at Island P – a word they generally made use of, was, Wabbah Wabbah, pointing to their belly & holding up a Bamboo wch. I considered was for the use of holding Water. – They expressed great astonishment at the Ship us, & at the Men at the Mast heads, and altho we offered them ropes they would not come along side, but showed a distrust and a design. I was just considering the amount of all these symptoms intention of this conduct when I saw the Assistant fire at some Cannoes, (as did our Cutter,) & was alarmed [indecipherable word] by the signal she made for assistance. It was now known the Cannoes had made an attack, & those about us were intending to do the same – I knew mischief was done by these Wretches to our poor little Companion & some arrows were fired at us – [series of indecipherable words] - It was now not a time to trifle – My ship might be on shore in a few Minutes without active & carefull conduct to prevent it, & it remained a serious point who were to be Masters of this Neighbourhood was a very important matter. – I determined [series ofindecipherable words]I settled [indecipherable words] it immediately by discharging two of the Quarter Deck guns with round and Grape – The contents of one carried destruction with it, & horrible consternation - They fled The Natives jumped from their Cannoes into the sea & swam to windward like Porpoises. If my situations had not been among Rocks & Shoals I would not have quitted them [series of indecipherable words] untill I had shown them we were there their friends –The assault was unprovoked. – Great fires were made on Isld. P were we saw abt. 100 Persons – We passed between O & P a good channel of 2 or 3 ms, & leaving a small reef to the northward of us, anchored under Island O for the Night. – The Isld. O or Dingyness Isld. is a rocky spot on which the Natives do not reside, preferring the sandy Islands on acc. of Fishing. It has a narrow rim of rocks that surrounds this side, within which is a kind of lagoon – about the shore are mangroves, & within, the wood is prodigiously thick – saw ieus Curlews & a large Birds as Pelicans, White wth. their Wings tip’d black. –
It appeared to me, as the Stream of the Tide had a run to northd. of West, that our course should be directed that way, I therefore weighed & steered to go round the Brothers, the Assistant with the Boats ahead leading.
Our soundings shoaled which was not very pleasant circumstance, yet at Noon all seemed clear. –

 [Page 98]
Rems. Wednesday. 12th. Sept. 1792 – Coast of New Guinea
1 Fine Wr. and smooth Water – Discovered a small sandy Key & shoal ahead. – at 25 mins. past Noon [sketch of an anchor] in 7 ½ fms. sandy ground, and sent the Master and 2 Lieuts. away to sound between the Brothers & the sandy Key. –
4 Bearings at [sketch of an anchor] S50Wto S65W 4 Ms. the Brothers. – The Cap S2° E 5 Miles – Turtle backed Isld. S23E to S19E 3 or 4 leags. Isld Q N34° W 6 leags – an high Isld. called R S39° W 10 leags., another S S ¾ W 8 or 10 leags - Dungyness, or O Isld. S61° E 5 leags. – a sandy Key N64 ½ W to N68° W 3 Miles – low land from the Mast head supposed the Main of New Guinea NbW to NWbN abt. 6 leags. –
8 The. Boats returned with a report of a good passage from 7 to 10 fms. between the Key & Brothers –
12 Fine Night
6 Breakfasted & prepared the Boats to go away & lead
7 At 36’ past 7 We got under way with the Assistant & Boats leading – up T.G.Yards. – Saw a few Natives on the Brothers. – It is a poor miserable Isld. covered with Rocks & stones except its lee side.
9 At 35’ pt. 8 saw a Bank in the WSW made the Sigl.
10 At 9h: 55’ saw low land WbN do.
11 At 10: 55 – Saw Danger in the SW, breakers do. –
At 11: 05 - Boats made the Sigl. to anchor, & of Danger being in 3 fms. – Came to immediately in 6 ¾ fms. & called in the Boats to get their Dinners to proceed to examine the Passage. –
12 At Noon Fine Wr. – Bearings at [sketch of an anchor] – The Brothers S64° E to S71° E 9 Miles – The Cap S63°E 5 leags – Q Isld. N7° E 4 or 5 leags, Boats shoal SWbW 2 Miles. An Isld. T N57W – an Isld. U S44°W some Breakers were obsd. from aloft in the NNW abt. 5 or 6 Miles & a shoal connected with what the Boats had met with SbE to West part of it dry. – Isld. R S18° W 10 or 11 leags.

[Page 99]
Soon after noon our progress westward was unhappily retarded by an alarm of shoal water & a sandy Key which lay north of the Brothers – Uncertainty of our situation made me anchor for the Night, & in the mean time I sent away two Boats to examine what dangers were in our way. There proved to be a good passage of 8 & 9 fms..
It was not untill near sun set that the haze was sufficiently off the horizon to see the distant lands –to the northward of Isld. Q it only extended two points of the compass, but some of us thought they saw a great deal more, if so it may be the main of New Guinea. – The Island R was a very high Island with rather a peaked Mountain - Q was high with an even surface rising to the Center, & S was also a lofty lump of land. – My situation by My Map was at this time 9° 43’ S 142° 40’ E by a mean of my T.TK’s.
In the Morning the Brig & Boats leading, I followed making a course to the northward of West between the Brothers & sandy Key & our soundings shoaling to 6 fms. we were again obliged to come to an [sketch of an anchor] by signal from the Boats, they being in 3 fms. – We saw a range of banks from the south to west, & we were not above 2 or 3 Miles from them. – I immediately called the Boats on board & prepared them to set off with the Master & 3d. Lieut., to examine what pass was to the northward of this Shoal or sholes, between it & an Isld. (that is rather low like the woody Keys) called T . – Part of these shoals were dry at low water. – thus we dared not proceed, for as I had gradually lessened the soundings I had much to apprehend, and the approach of the shifting of the Monsoons kept my mind in a constant state of anxiety for the Plants.
We were like being in an open sea except the few scattered Islands that were in sight – The one called R I considered to be abt. 15 leags. to the ENE of the northermost of those I saw in the Bounty’s Launch. – the situation by my Map of this [sketch of an anchor] Place 9° 41’S 142° 28’E
Saw many flocks of Birds both land & sea, among which were some yellow feather’d with two pretty feathers in the Tail & a hook Bill. like a Humming Bird. – Many fine iews Curlews – Turtle and Fish. –
The Brothers is a miserable mass of Rocks & stones wth. a few Trees on the south & lee part of it – We saw a few inhabitants – Lat. 9° 45’ S 142° 37’S. – The Cap and Turtleback Islands lie SE from it – they are of a tolerable height but all equally barren - I have no favourable opinion of the Channels between them – I suspect they are bad. – The Cap is Rocky, but on the lee side it has a low point wch. is woody & we saw Cocoa Nut Trees on it. – Turtle backed Isld. is more Woody than the Brothers, but in other respects the same. –

[Page 100]
Thursdy. 13 September 1792 On the Coast of New Guinea
1 Mod. And fair Wr. – Sent Lieut. Tobin & Mr. Nichols to examine the sholes and passage to the WNW.
4 Fresh Gales. Struck T.G. Masts
7 The Boats returned, & reported they had found 5 & 6 fms. water over a coarse bottom, but I found they had not been round the shoal to the northd. Their information was only therefore East & North of the shole & not in the Channel. –
9 The bad bottom, induced me to try the south Passage if any, & ordered Lieut. Guthrie with two Boats to be ready at 4 in the Morning to go away with the Ebb Tide to help them to windward. –
12 Strong Gales & Cloudy.
4 Out Boats & sent them to search for a Passage south of the shoal. –
5 At ½ past 10 Lieut. Guthrie returned, and the report to me was, that they had found fine [sketch of an anchor] ground & depth 5 & 6 fms. – In consequence I determined to work to Windward with the next Ebb, if the Wind & Weather moderated & was fit, which is now become very unsettled & squally. –
10 Washed & Cleaned Ship – Saw iews Curlews & other Birds – Yellow snakes – Bonetos.
12 Very squally Wr. and extremely Hazy. –
Situation of this [sketch of an anchor] Place by my Map wch. differs with [indecipherable symbol] Time Keepers 3 Miles –
Latitude 9° 41’ S.
Longd. – 142° 27 E

[Page 101]
A little after Noon I sent the Boats away to examine the Passage to the WNW, but instead of keeping round the Bank in that direction, they fell to the northd. & East of it, so that after an absence from the ship of 7 Hours, (and my mind being in constant anxiety about their getting back) to the Ship, they at last arrived without any information that could lead me to take the Passage. – Their soundings was were generally 5 fms & sometimes 6, - bottom coarse. – They had 4 fms. near to the shoal wch. bore NNW from the ship, and rather a low Isld. lying to the WNW (,T,) made me I was determined to try round the south end of the Bank, the higher Islands lying in the SW – To accomplish this I sent off Lieut. Guthrie with 2 Boats at 4 O’Clock in the morning with the weather tide, which could only enable him to accomplish my design. – at ½ past 10 he returned, & reported to me that 5 & 6 fms with a good bottom was were his general soundings, & that he had 4 fms. near the east end of the shole, from where it appeared to trend to the SW – In consequence of this I determined to go that Channel, & to enable me to do th it, I was to get to Windward if possible with the next Ebb. – at Noon the Wr became very squally & blew strong.
It is remarkable The shoaling of the soundings as I have proceeded Westward, is very remarkable but I hope it will not continue to decrease. I know it was the case wth. C. Cook in passing to the southd. of Prince of Wales Islds. I therefore trust I shall find nothing worse here, - In my present situation, without any Shelter, & subject to much sea, with a ship drawing 16 Feet & half Water, 4 fms. is not a pleasant depth – Hitherto the weather has been sufficiently clear to show us our dangers, but now the Haze is like a fog, & it is but seldom we can see the High Island. – The Month of October is advancing fast upon us, and every thing urges me to get on.
When the Boats were away towards the Reefs Mr. Pollock informed me that he had seen some annimels in the Water full 20 feet long, but he could not say what they were like – should we be near the Main of New Guinea it is not improbable they were Alligators. –

[Page 102]
Rems Friday 14th. Sept. 1792 – Coast of New Guinea.
1 Very squally Wr. with a few light showers
4 Weighed under close reefs & T.G.Mts. struck with a Weather Tide. The Brig and Boats leading soundings 5 & 6 fms. some holes of 7 & 8 fms. – coral sand, in some places a mixture of Clay
7 At ½ past 5 very squally & bad weather . Made the sigl to [sketch of an anchor] & came to in 6 ½ fms with the B. Br. the sml. [indecipherable word] being too much worn. – The Brothers S61° E to S69° E 7 Miles The Cap S60° E 4 leags.
10 In Boats.
11 Struck lower Yds & veered to a whole Cable it blowing very hard and much sea. –
4 Hove in a half Cable the Tide making to Windward
8 Do Wr. Veered to the Lee Tide, and obliged to lie fast. –
9 Employed getting the two best parts of the old small & best Br. Cables spliced together for a Working Cable. –
11 Hot Breakfast, Portable Soup, sour Krout & Bore Cole served as usual. –
12 Fresh gales & thick hazy Wr. –
So much Wind & sea that we have been able to remark very little about Tides. –

{Page 103]
Very strong winds with squalls & some Rain came on this afternoon – I thought it prudent to weigh with the weather Tide not only to get farther from the Bank which lay under our lee but to see if my Cable was hurt. – I gave Lieut. Portlock directions to that intent, and after a few Boards, the Evening looking wild and stormy, we anchored again about 2 or 3 Miles to Windward of our first station. – We found some good patches of soft ground but it was very uneven, the soundings. running 5, 7, 5 ½, 8, 5, 6 all in holes. –
The Gale increased & the ship pitched very much – we had now to ride out or be driven upon the Banks of Coral sand – I therefore struck the lower Yds. – The Day having brought us very little neither much abatement of the Wind or nor more favorable Wr, we were obliged to lie fast – nothing could be done but to look to the domestick part of the management of the ship, & refitt my ground tackling. I had now come to with a new Cable for our security, & made a good cable out of two that had been much worn. – For fear of bad ground we always got the ½ Cable in at slack, tide and the ship rode with less motion on the Weather than the lee Tide. –
I sent for Lieut. Portlock to know how he rode out the Night, as the little Vessel pitched tremendously – no accident had happened, & it gave me pleasure to hear that the three men who were had been wounded with Arrows were doing well. –
To Noon it continued hazy. like a Fog but the Wind some-what abated altho blowing strong. –
Happily my sick list has only five Men it, two wth. rheumatic Gout – one with a cold, & 2 came from Boils. – 3 Venereals doing duty. –
Our distilling apparatus became of no use, the inner Tube being unsoldered, I hope however our Armourer will be able to put it in good order at least make it serviceable. – I have known this happen before, & it appears to me to be owing to great neglect & carelessness in the Workman. These things are seldom wanted in the service and are negligently examined when recd into store.

[Page 104]
Rems Saturday 15 Sept. 1792 Coast of New Guinea
1 Fresh Gales and thick hazy Wr. – Employed refitting Ground Tackling.
4 The Tide [indecipherable word] setting to Windward hove into a half Cable – Found abt. 20 fms. much rubbed. Got the lower yds up, and got under way & shifted our berth more to the northd. – [sketch of an anchor] at ½ past 6 in 6 ¼ fms. (soft ground) wth. the B. B. – The Brothers S64° E to S65° E – Isld. Q N3° E dist. From The Brothers 6 or 7 Miles – Veered a whole Cable
12 Fresh gales & Cloudy Wr.
3 Hove in to a half Cable
4 Sent orders to Lieut. Portlock the Assistant to get under way & explore to the southward. – At 6 he got his anchor & was under sail, with his usual alacrity & attention to his Duty. -
8 Do. & extremely hazy – a shower of Rain. – Struck the lower yds & the ship rode much easier. Got down Studding Sls. Booms & all top Hamper. – Roundd. the sml. Br. Cable at 50 fms. –
11 At ½ past 11 the Assistant brought up about 3 Miles to leeward of us bearing West. –
12 Fresh gales & extremely Hazy. Like a Fog
The Wind has been too strong to say any thing exact about the shifting of the Tides. –

   [Page 105]
Nothing but Hail & Snow was wanting to make this a hard gale of Wind – We lay pitching & working in avery distressing way manner without any means to [indecipherable word] help ourselves. – We observe the Weather Tides to set very strong, & therefore we always heave in when the ship thwarts to the Wind. In doing it this afternoon, to my great concern I found the New Cable had d lain over a bank which had rubbed it a great deal abt. 10 or 20 fms. from the half Cable service. – I had no remedy but to shift our Birth, & therefore got under Way & came to an anchor again further to the northward in a better situation. –
In the few Boards we made, we found the ground full of Holes, the soundings running 5, 8, 6, 5, 7, 5 ½ & 6 fms. – Where I anchored however it was more even, & the Assistant was likewise tolerably well situated. –
It continued to blow strong all Night, moderating a little towards the Morning – I therefore sent Mr. Tobin with orders for Lieut. Portlock to get under way and explore the sea to the southd, & to know what prospects we had; for it now blew too hard for the Boats. –
At 6 with his usual alacrity he was under sail, and at 11 O’Clock we saw him return & [sketch of an anchor] abt. 3 Miles to the West of us, for the tide was against him. – By signal he reported to me all was well. –


[Page 106]
Rems Sunday 16 Sept. 1792 Coast of New. Guinea
1 Fresh Gales & squally with much haze. – People employed mending & washing their clothes. –
5 At ½ past 5 the Assistant worked up & [sketch of an anchor] near me – Lieut. Portlock reported to me he had not found less than 5 fms & [indecipherable word] that to 6 & 7. – He fetched in with the SE part of the Reef from whence it appeared to trend to the SW. – Towards the High Island called R it was clear of shoals as far as he could see – I determined to weigh with the Wr. tide & proceed in the morning. –
11 Saw annimals abt. 15 or 20 feet long something like Seals –
3 Swayed the lower Yds up & sent away the Whale Boat on board the Assistant to attend her
6 Weighed & Sailed under treble Reefs – Assistant leading. – Too much sea for the Boats. -
8 The Brothers S77° E 2 or 3 leags. – Wind lessened & we continued to increase our sail to enable us to clear the Reef to leeward. – Happily we did it & carried soundings of good bottom & even in a direct course for Isld. R, some other Isld. to the Westd. & others to the SE appearing
12 Fresh Gales & Hazy High Mountain of R & a small Isld. under it on at S2° W dist. from [indecipherable] sml. Isle 3 ms. From the Mountain 11 Miles Islds. from N64° W 4 leags round by the West to S60° E 7 or 8 leags. a sandy Key EbS 5 Miles

[Page 107]
That I might continue to preserve the health of my People, my domestick oconomy became as necessary as the more arduous part parts of my duty, I therefore directed every person to be employed as usual on Saturday to wash & mend their clothes. –
At ½ past 3 the Assistant got under way, and at ½ past 5 anchored near us. Lieut. Portlock reported to me he had not been able to weather the Reef, but had seen the east part, from whence it trended to the SW – The least Water he met with was 5 fms. and in crossing it back to his anchorage, he had seen some of these animals I have mentioned on the 14th. –
To explore any further with the Brig or Boats was to send them out of my sight – I could not in that case have it in my power to help them with my advice whatever might happen to them, and I began to doubt of there being water sufficient in the Channel to the WNW to the south of the Island T, for the land was low. – A large space was open in the SW towards the High Island R, which with the height of the land made me determine to weigh with both Vessels & explore that way as soon as the weather Tide would enable me to work round the East part of the Reef. –
Having explained myself fully to Lieut. Portlock I gave him directions to be ready to get under way in the Morning. – We were under sail at sun rise with such a fresh gale as rendered our Boats useless, for we were obliged to carry to it a great deal to clear the Reef which we now found to be of considerable extent. – Nothing could exceed the regularity of the soundings – anchorage however could have been a misfortune to us, as much sea came from the SE on account of the Barrier of reefs being farther from us than we have experienced before. – The Tide running to the Westwd. our course was to the SW in sight of the Breakers, which we thought to were connected with Isld. U - I therefore determined to stand in for anchorage towards some small Isles that lay north of Island R & made the signals to that effect to the Assistant.
At Noon we found the Isld. R to be of more extent than any we have yet seen –its high Mountain lies lies on the NE part of it. – To the Westwd., & south of the Isld. U lay an Isl called V of nearly equal extent wth. R & between it and U appeared an open passage – In the SE lay three lofty Islands one of them called S was seen from our anchoring ground to the Easd. of the Brothers at 10 leags. distance, - The southermost I knew to be the Island I have called the Peaked Hill in my last Voyage, and now confirmed to me I was satisfied, that Island R is the Mountainous Island I have spoken of with a very high round Hill. – All the Islands are lofty & different from the sandy Keys we have passed to the Eastward being much burnt up without Verdure, altho not destitute of Wood. -

[Page 108]
Rems Monday 17th. Sept 1792 – Coast of New Guinea
1 Fresh Gales and very hazy Wr. – At 25 Mins [sketch of an anchor] wth. the sml. Br. In 7 ½ fms. coarse ground. An Isld. called Passage Isld. N50° W 6 or 7 Miles. Isld. U N52° W to N62 W abt. 3 leags. then Islds. from West to S58° W on wth the West Part of R dist from the latter 6 Miles – E point of R S18 E 7 Ms High mountain on it S8° E 9 Miles – Possession Islds. S28° E 1 ½ M to S40° E 4 Ms. – Three other Islds. S43° E 4 or 5 leags. S59° E 3 leags. & S65°E 3 leags. – A sandy Key EbN 6 Miles – A black Rock WbS 5 Ms. At ½ past 2 sent two Boats under the Command of Lieut. Guthrie to land in search of Water – found none – Hoisted the Colours & took possession of the lands. –
10 At leetide veered away a whole Cable and on Wr. tide hove into a half Cable
12 At ½ past 6 Weighed under close reef Top sails & bore away for the Islds. in the West – the Assistant & Boats leading – Found one of the Arms of the Anchor broke – it was originally bad. –
3 At 8 O’Clock Passage Isld. N25 W 5 Ms. Isld. U N32 W 2 leags. to N55 W 2 or 3 leags. – Islds a head N82° W abt. 3 leags. round by the south to Possession Island S67° E 6 or 7 Miles – Black Rock S47° W 1 mile its Isld. S8° E 2 ½ miles – Extrs. of R S21° W 6 Miles to S40° E 8 Ms. High Mountain S30°. E
8 At ¼ past 9 Assistant made the signal for danger saw it in detached Reefs abt. the Islds. – Hauled the Wind occasionally & at last the lee tide runng. obliged to bear away after the [Assistant?] & [sketch of an anchor] wth. the Bt. Br. In 10 ¼ fms. through necessity in bad bottom – Anchor came – veered away & brought up with the Sheet – Buoy went adrift – Sent boats to examine the Passage. - Bent the sml. Br. Cable to the spare anchor. – Saw 4 Cannoes. – Passage I expect to go through bore Wbs amidst a number of Rocks Islds. & Keys – Black Rock S85° E 4 Miles – Isld. U & its Keys N54° E 4 Ms. to N3° E 4 Miles – Keys & Isld. in the south from WbS to 68° E 1, 2 & 3 Miles. High Mountain of R on at S43 E nearly – Possession Isld. S80° E & Black Rock Isld. S78° E abt. 4 Ms. Two other Islds. near Possession Isld. just open. -

[Page 109]
At ½ past Noon I made the signal to the Assistant and came to in coarse ground about 1 ½ miles from the northermost of three small Isles and about 5 or 6 from the NE part of Island R. – Since we left Dungyness no Cannoes were have been seen, and only a few natives on the Brothers – The small Isles next to us h were without inhabitants, I therefore sent Lieut. Guthrie with two Boats armed to land on the northermost Island, to hoist our Colours, and take possession. I also sent the Botanists Gardeners to see what they could pick up.
I now found the High Mountain on Island R to lie in latitude 10° 12’S Longitude 142° 14’E – Deducing its longitude from Cape York it lies in 141° 32’ East being 4 Miles West of it by my Map which places it in 10° 15’S°. – I have no doubt now of it being the Mountainous Island I have described with a very high round Hill, the difference in my own latitude of 3 Miles, and 42 Miles in its position of longitude between Captain Cook and me, is admissible. I think I may presume to say my position is the most exact as I possess many advantages both in Instruments & observations. In their case the North part of New Holland is placed 42 Miles too far to the West. –
To the northward of Island R in the account of my last Voyage I allowed a Navigator to hope for a clear Passage – Hitherto I have found a very intricate one, and I had now no better prospect, isles and shoals being scattered in every direction that I must proceed in. The most l eligible seemed to be to the West between the Islands V & U. – The Island V is the next in size to R, if not equally large, - the extent of coast of each of them may be about 6 or 7 leagues. R is more woody & appeared to have tolerable Bays on its north side that may shelter ships from the SE Wind. – Between it & V I believe is such shoal water that no ship can pass between them. – Island U is not one third so large as V, - about it s lie several lofty small Isles, the largest lying to the ESE of it, I called Passage Island, for with a remarkable black Rock (that lies south of it near an Island like possession Island) is formed the Passage I was to go through. – The sandy Key to the ENE of Possession Island indicated shoals all the way to Long Island. – I called it Possession


[Page 110]
Island from the circumstance of taking possession – it is an in considerable lump of Rocks & stones like two others which lie to the SE of it, bearing a few shrubs and small trees. – To these Islands the Indians come for Turtle – our Party saw a number of shells lying on the beach, on a sandy point where they landed. Near this were 20 or 30 small Cocoa Nutt Trees bearing Fruit – They gathered a few & found them very delicious. – Trees of the same Fruit as the Natives brought to us at Isld. H which the Malays call Sow were here but had no fruit on them. The Botanists Gardeners saw many curious and new Plants, and collected about a score of good specimens. They found the Pee,ah and Nonah of Otaheite. – No marks of any quadruped was observed - a beautifull little Lizard was seen among some loose stones, & the Webbed spider nests of Ants, the same as I have described to be on the Coast of New Holland – A few oysters that adhere to the Rocks, small Clams and a kind of Wilks, were likewise seen, but not a drop of Water – in all other respects it appeared to me like the Isld. of Restoration which lies in 12° 30’S. –
Doves and some pretty Birds were about the Island but so remarkably shy that they did not to come within shot –
We lay all night with much motion, for altho we had the Isles in the SE, yet a considerable sea run into the Road.
At dawn of day having fully informed Lieut. Portlock how to proceed, I sent two Boats on board of him with orders to weigh, and lead out between the Islands V & U. – Unfortunately in weighing our anchor it came up with only one arm – it appeared to have had an old flaw in it – this was a serious loss to me - I ordered the Cable to be bent to the spare Anchor, and a Buoy lashed on the broken arm of the other. –
To render the Boats of use to us we were obliged to sail under close Reef Top Sails, for it blew so fresh they could not keep a head of us otherwise. As we advanced to the Westward passing between Black Rock & Passage Island, we saw several lofty Islands to the southward of the opening between V & R. – Soon after we discovered reefs one over – lapping another – a range of Rocky Keys to the westd. & about the north

[Page 111]

The north side of Island V, with shoal water from the northermost Key round to Island U and Passage Island. – To the North of Island U I have before remarked the probability of there being no Passage, I had therefore no great prospect but to creep through the way I was going. The Assistant being advanced farther on was obliged to come to an Anchor, and the flood tide was running so strong, that I could not beat out of the labyrinth I was in, to wait untill I could explore farther for with my Boats, which were now making the signals of danger in every direction. – Lieut. Portlock was so situated that he feared to make the sigl for me to follow him, but as my anchoring ground was bad, & he made the sigl. for good bottom where he was, and I thought the place more sheltered; I bore up conning the Ship from the Masthead between the Reefs. – When I came near the Assistant, I found the Tide running at a fearfull rate, I therefore furled all sails before we came to, and anchored – The rapidity wth. wch. the Cable run out can only be conceived by those who have seen ships brought up in a strong Tide, - but to my horror, when the half Cable came to [indecipherable word] out, it had the Dog stopper on, wth & altho I had it cut it immediately, the ship brought up so violently that the anchor came home, and by letting go a second anchor I had it but just in my power to save the ship from the Rocks. – The Watches (who were Quarter Masters) that who had done this act, were no more faulty than their officer who was in the Tier to command them – I therefore did not punish them as I could not with propriety flog him – The Master declared he had never given the order for the stopper to be put on, and it appeared it was done to prevent too much Cable going out, that they might not have the trouble to get it in again. –
Untill slack tide nothing could be done but to except eis has a barrier of rocky Keys & had reefs around it, forming narrow guts of passages wth. shoals all the way to Island U – The pass I thought the most l eligible for us bore WbS between some rocky Keys not a 1/6 part of a mile across & about 1 Mile dist. from us, to examine which I ordered away two Boats with a Lieutenant Guthrie & Tobin – I directed them to land on one of the Isles from whence they might be able to see the shoals, & after examining the anchorage to report to me by signal, if it was good & the passage practicable.
The Island V appeared a miserable burnt up country - it had nevertheless wood in some places – The Rocky Keys that were about it resembled those off the Coast of Norway – between the northermost of those Keys & Isld. U is space of about 3 Miles that promised a safe passage, but from our Mast Heads it appeared so shut up with shoals that I did not attempt to explore it minutely. – We saw 4 Cannoes lurking along shore towards the Assistant. –

[Page 112]
Rems Tuesdy. 18th, Sept. 1792 – Coast. Of New Guinea
1 Fresh Gales & Unsettled Wr. – Ship lying with two anchors down in avery narrow & dangerous situation. [Note in column – Saw the Cannoes going after our Boats wch induced me to fire two shot ahead of them & they took to the shore.]
3 At 5h:20’ Weighed both anchors, but unhappily the arm of the Bt. Br. was broke off & both cables much rubbed. – The Assistant weighed without accident & we stood down to the Boats who had made the signal for good anchorage. [Note in column – (a) I had now two anchor disabled -]
7 At 6h:30’ in the midst of dangerous rocks & shoals we were obliged to anchor in 8 fms. bad ground not a cables length of clear water. – The Tide run 5 Knots & were obliged to steer the ship with the Wind right aft against the Tide. – I now gave a half allowance of grog to the People in addition to their allowance. On the lee tide we rode with great hazard at a whole Cable, steering the ship with the utmost caution, & hands constantly by the 2d. anchor, expecting every minute to be on shore. – Passage Keys S81° W 3 miles – Keys abt. ¾ Mile off on wth. westly part of U N11° E – Es end of U N35° E Passage Isl N56° E. Black Rock Island S85° E. High Mn.S45° E –
4 Dismal Wr. every person in a state of uneasy – ness. _
5 Began to heave up, to proceed to the Westward at all events to save the ships. – The Weather very bad & threatening to be worse.
7 At 6h:50’ got our anchor, found the Cable Rubbed & this was our sheet – Assistant & Boats ahead
8 At 8h passing between two Rocky Keys or Isles on the starboard hand & one on the larboard, ½ or ¾ Mile a part North & South & about 2 Miles from the [sketch of an anchor] place soundings 7 fms. – The Islds. on the north inclined to the NbE & on the south to the SbW open sea to the Westward.
11 At 9 O’Clock fell into shoal Water, the Cutter in 3 fms.Tkd. & having deepened [sketch of an anchor] in 6 fms. coral sand & some place soft ground kind of clay. – The Isld. U bore N30° E to N50 E 4 or 5 leags. – The Passage Keys from N43° E to N76 E 2 Miles & the whole extreme of the Islds. in sight was from N36 E abt. 6 leags. to S10 E 6 or 7 leagues. – struck T.G. Masts. –
Employed getting our only two anchors to the Bows for the Bower Cables – lashing a Buoy on one of the Broken Bowers to insure its canting for a sheat anchor. – Rounding reservicing the Cables & doing all in our power for our Safety. –
Sent the Boats to sound round the Ships. –
Repaired the apparatus for distilling water.

[Page 113]
The strength of Wind & Tide with our anchors among Rocks made me anxiously look for slack Water and the report from the Boats. About 3 o’Clock the Boats made the signal for good anchorage. At 4 o’Clock the Tide began to slack, and by 5h:20’ I had both my anchors, with the loss of one of the (a) Arms of the Bt. Br. and both Cables much rubbed – The Assistant weighed without accident, & I made the signal to lead. Lieut. Portlock had his orders from me to anchor in the first good ground he should meet with.
Lieut. Guthrie met me as I was passing the 1st narrows abt. 1 mile from our last anchorage, & I now found they had neither met wth. good anchorage or nor a convenient channel for the ships to pass through, on the contrary we were in a worse situation than before Rocks wth. bad bottom all around us & a l dreadful Tide running – In the midst of all these dangers night obliged me to anchor with little certainty of keeping from the Rocks untill the Morning. – on the return of Lieuts. Guthrie & Tobin they pleaded alledged as an excuse for their making the signal, that they did not think I would have weighed, but their inexperience at Sea only pleaded with me as an the only excuse for them, for they had express signals wth. them, which they should and could have made for the Ships to lie fast where they were. –
After a miserable night day light threatened us with a storm, but sun rise brought more favourable Wr., and having given Lieut. Portlock his orders to lead through such pass as might appear but with the Wind he had, and sent the Boats to lead ahead of him; I made the signal to Weigh at slack Tide. – We were under sail with a weather Tide, and ranging along the Keys off the NW part of Isld. V, and reefs on the north, in a channel abt. ¾ cables length wide, and that winding; I passed (into an open sea) between two Keys on the starboard hand & one on the larb, no land to be seen
 from the south round by the West to north. – There appeared foul ground on the West side of V for we saw two large detached Rocks, one of wch. was about 3 miles from the shore.
At 9 o’Clock an hour after we were clear of the Rocks, we again fell into shoal Water, I therefore stood back from it, and came to an Anchor in good ground. I had now to determine whether I had banks to encounter with instead of Rocks before I could proceed. The Boats as far as I could permit them to go reported favourably, and I intend sending sending them with the Assistant to examine at a greater distance. –
Where The Boats had 3 fms, was towards the Westermost Rock, which, wth. their soundings since I came to an anchor, induces me to believe there is a flat of regular soundings on the West side of V off the westermost Rock. –
There were abt. 27 Men in the Cannoes who had their Bows with them These were all we saw & I imagine the country is thinly inhabited. It was very much burnt up & a great part rocks & stones. -

[Page 114]
Rems. Wednesdy. 19 Septemb. 1792 – Coast of New Guinea
1 Strong gales and very squally Wr. with small Rain. –
2 Employed about our ground tackling – Got our Boats in – struck lower yds for it blew a very hard gale of Wind and a dark night. –
4 I ordered Lieut. Portlock if it moderated in the morning to get under way & try the soundings in the WSW, the stream of the Tide.
5 The Boats gave us acct. of 6 & 7 fms in the West about 3 Miles dist.
7 The Ship’s draught of Water as near as we could take it was now
                                Ft. in
                                14. 6 Forwd
                                16. 3 Aft
                                    . 9
12 The squalls began to intermit which is always a good sign of a gale going off – I hoped this was rather an equinoctial puff than a changing of the Monsoon
4 Wr. Moderate got up the Lower Yds & T. Gall Masts – sent the Whale Boat to the Assistant & he sailed at day break. –
6 At 7h:20’ Lieut. Portlock made the sigl. for me to follow without danger, and we were under sail at 7h:45’
8 Mod. & Cloudy Wr. with small Rain wch. did our Plants good. Boats ahead & our soundings even, sometimes soft e bluish mud & at others gravel and shells all the way to Noon. –
11 Fair Wr.
12 Do. Wr. with haze could not see the land we left & all appeared an open sea. – Assistant and Boats ahead. I made the signal to steer West.
Saw some forked tail Gulls – Dull yellow colour water snakes – Brown Boobies & a Hawk –
This was the happiest Noon we have seen these three weeks past. –

[Page 115]
The Gale increased to a storm towards night & obliged us to strike lower yards, but it moderated after Midnight and the latter part of the day turned out favourable.
I ordered Lieut. Portlock to get under way if it was at all moderate in the morning, and try the soundings in the W & WSW with the Boats a head, & to report to me if it was a safe passage with even 4 fms. of Water altho I drew 16’:3in abaft. I should now follow him – He did so, & at 20 min past 7 he made the sigl. for me to follow without danger, which we did carrying very even soundings & every part fit anchorage. –
It was now absolutely necessary for y me to push on at all Events – The time of stormy Weather was at hand – I had no Port to go to, or place of shelter to anchor in – My water was getting short, so that I am obliged to stint my People – My ground tackling cripled – only two anchors that are were fit to anchor with, and my cables much rubbed. –
The sea appeared open in the west & by Noon we happily found our water deepen, and had run a greater distance without alarm than upon any day since I have been within the Reefs. –
Our last anchoring ground is well sheltered and secure with Winds from the North round by the East to the SSE. The situation by my Map & Time agree Keepers agree and place it in 141°56’E., the latd. 10°05’S. – It is 60 leagues to the Westward of the reefs I first met with. –
The open space to the Westd., and the late views I have had of the High Mountain on Isld R, with the general direction of the Islands, now convince me it is the same I saw in the Bounty’s Launch – If it is so, Captn. Cook is 40 miles wrong in its s position with respect to the Time Keepers, whatever their error may be besides, & I apprehend the coast of New Holland will partake of the same Error. –
It could have been an agreeable circumstance if I could have spared time to have explored round to the northward of Island U for a better outlet than the Narrows by which I have come. I do not however think there is any fair channel. - All but this, I should consider no difficulty in bringing a ship through at any future period.

[Page 116]
Rems Thursday 20th. Sept. 1792 Coast of New Guinea
1 Fresh Breezes and fair Wr. with much haze. –
2 Many Boobies & kind of gulls –
4 Hailed Lieut. Portlock to come on board – Hove to – Gave him directions to keep on a Wind the Whole Night, wearing every hour as soon as the signal was made by me. – He returned on board, & I had the Boats hoisted in & depended on our own led, for we were in too much sea to come to an anchor. – Sandy soundings –
8 Wore ship – Lightning to the Westd. –
9 Do.
10 Do.
11 Do.
12 Do. Fresh Breezes & Cloudy.
5 Hove too & out Boats – Sent them on board the Assistant to lead a head. – at sun rise we could see land of a moderate height 8 leags in any direction, the lowest 4 or 5 & mountainous 14 or 15 leags. –
8 Fine Wr. – Much Scum on the Water – Some Gulls about us – Saw a Heron & some Gannet Boobies. –
11 Passing a shoal seen from the Mast head WNW to North 4 Miles dist. –
12 Cloudy Wr. with bright intervals – Smooth Water. – Assistant & Boats leading – See nothing of the land I therefore conclude the coast & Isles of New Holland are placed a degree too far East & that I am 1°24’ West of my Mountainous Isld. with a high Round Hill.

[Page 117]
I had determined to anchor this Evening but the Wind and sea made it totally improper: I therefore desired Lieut Portlock ordered the Assistant to stretch to the northward, & by making a little circuit, we acquired some knowledge of the space we wanted to occupy during the Night. – We were not yet clear of shoals, I therefore determined to ware ship every hour. – The Night passed without accident or trouble, & at Day break I sent the Boats away to lead ahead of the Assistant. –
We had a fine clear sun rising, but and could not discover either land or sholes shoals – This gave me very flattering hopes that we should clear the straits – Land of a moderate height might have been seen 8 leags. distant – Mountainous – land, full 14 leags., and any low land four leagues.
As we passed the appearance of shole a shoal at 11 o’Clock in the NW, and the depth of Water ing lessened, I concluded it should be attended to – it was seen this part may be really dangerous. We saw it from the Mast head only, and I imagine we passed it about 4 Miles distant. –
We had frequent riplings of the Tide, and the sea was very much covered with the spawn of Fish, a scum of a brown colour, which gives very much the appearance of shallow water when first observed. –
At Noon we were 4 leags. to the northd. of the Wester. Shoal that near which Capt. Cook [sketch of an anchor] near ( to the NW of Booby Key) & I suppose as far to the Westward of it. –

[Page 118]
Rems. Friday Sept. 21st. 1792 Towards Timor
1 Fair Wr. and cloudy with bright intervals and little wind –
2 Saw Birds of the Gull kind & Boobies & Tropic Birds – Bonetos. –
6 Made the sigl. for the Boats to return on board, & spoke the Assistant to lead to the NW untill after sunset, & then to haul the Wind for the night wareing Pr. signal every two hours. – In 2d. Reefs & Boats. –
4 Out Boats & sent them to lead ahead of the Assistant. Bore away at day dawn
8 Fresh Breezes & Fair Wr. Porpoises & Flying Fish seen. – Served hot Breakfast of Portable soup gruel, for breakfast & Portable soup & Sour Krout in the Pease for Dinner.
12 Fair Wr. & Hazy under whole TS & fore & fore top Mt. studding sails & Top G Sls. – Brig & Boats leading. –
Soundings a fine bottom of grey sand & kind of Mud. –

[Page 119]
My soundings fully confirm to me that we are passing in a fair way through the straits, and Captain Cook’s Track where he stood to the northward towards the Isld. St. Bartholemew. –
Towards sun set I made the signal for the Boats to return on Board, & having hoisted them in, I hailed Lieut. Portlock the Assistant to lead to the NW untill dusk, & to keep on a Wind during the Night, waring ship as I made the signal to him. – By this means we kept in known ground untill day light, when I sent the Boats a head, (for I apprehended we might fall on some Banks too suddenly,) to prevent accident, as I now considered they the Banks could most likely consist of sand, & not Coral Rocks which are more easily discerned. –
Great caution is necessary in having carefull & proper People on the look-out from aloft – I had never less than 4 Men & sometimes more, one of these was generally the Master – Yet an extraordinary proof of the character of seamen happened to in two instances whilst we were running between the shoals – one day a Man who was on the lookout in the Fore yard was caught making a Chip Hat, and another day, the fellow who had the lookout on the Main T.G.Yard was observed reading a play. At each of those times we were in dangerous situations. –

[Page 120]
Rems Saturday Sept. 22d. 1792 Towards Timor
1 Fair Wr. and hazy – Set M.T.Mast and Top Gall Steering Sails – Brig took the Boats in tow. – [Note in margin] Could not get any Lunar Observ.
2 Rock Weed, and very extensive patches of scum or Fish spawn on the Water
6 Spoke the Assistant – one of the Men who were wounded with an arrow, still unwell
7 In 2d. Reefs & hauled the Wind for the Night tacking every two Hours. – I desired Lieut. Portlock to lead in the Morning wth. out Boats a head. –
5 At 5h. ¾ Bore away – out Reefs & set steering sails. –
6 Served Portable soup gruel for Breakfast. –
7 Washed & Cleaned Ship fore and aft. Caught a Porpoise.
11 Made the signal to the Assistant to steer WNW –
12 Fine Wr. and very hazy – T.G. Studding Sls. & all sails set. – Assistant ahead – No Birds about – Caught a Porpoise
The soundings in general a fine grey sand and blueish kind of mud.

[Page 121]
I considered it proper to spend the Night under small sail and short Boards, & directed Lieut. Portlock the Assistant to lead and ware pr. Signal every two hours. – I desired them to make all possible sail at dawn of day, & lead without the Boats, as they I consider them to detain us. – At ½ past 10 I made the signal to steer WNW the Water had en shoaled, and I determined to get into the latd. Of 9°: 00’ S°. to steer clear of Wessels Isles which in Robertson’s late Publication are laid down from 9° 18’S to 9° 39’S Longitude 135° 15’E 26 leags. to the southward of the Arrow Isles. –

[Page 122]
Rems Sunday 23d. Sept. 1792 Towards Timor
1 Fresh Breezes and fair Wr. but very hazy. Served slops to the People. –Employed mending and washing Cloaths. –
5 Let fresh Water into the ship & worked the Pumps as usual. –
7 In studding sails and 2 Reefs of the TS. Spoke the Assistant to keep the Wind for the Night wareing ship every two hours. –
4 At 5h: 25’ Bore away – Made all Possible sail – Saw Tropic Birds – Species of Gulls – large Brown Bird like a Hawk, but a heavy flying Bird – Porpoises – Water Snakes & large patches of brown scum on the Water in the course of this morning. –
8 Served Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast & Krout in the Pease for Dinner. –
10 Mustered & saw the People all clean and performed Divine Service. –
12 Fresh Gale & Fair Wr. with much haze. Shortd. Sail, hove too & sounded 30 fms. a fine greenish sand & Mud. – Assistant a head & out sails us. -

[Page 123]
The Fair Wr. enabled me to get some observations of the Sun & Moon, which [indecipherable word] prove my Time Keepers to give a good longitude, and that no material error can be in the mean of the three. –
In the Morning I had great pleasure in mustering my Ships Company, & seeing them in good health, and as usual they spent the day without work, and were happy to a great degree that they had passed the reefs of New Guinea. –
To enable me to be more exact in finding the Longitude of Coupang the longitude by Time Keepers in the table for the 23d. – 24th 26th & 30th. of this month are found by the new Rate as there established, and the difference of longitude between them & what the mean of the Time Keepers gave on the 6th. Of October, is applied to each observation to reduce them to Coupang. –

[Page 124]
Rems. Monday 24 Sept. 1792 Towards Timor
1 Fresh Breezes and fair Wr. with Haze
2 Saw many schools of Fish and various Birds in pursuit of them.
4 Let fresh Water into the Hold & ventilated the ship as usual with the Pumps
7 Spoke the Assistant and directed Lieut Portlock to lead steering W ½ N. – He informed that Wm. Terry one of his Quarters Masters who was wounded with an arrow in the Hip, or near it towards the groin, died the night before last, & was buried yesterday morning. The other two Men were happily doing well. – In 2d. Reefs. –
12 Dew falling
5 Out Reefs & set all possible sail –
6 Schools of Fish like Herrings & many Birds. –
8 The Assistant made the signal for Danger Hauled the Wind to the northward The shoal bearing West of us 2 or 3 Miles – It had broken Water but no dry parts. – Its extent from No. to So abt. 3 Miles abt. 1 Mile East to Dest. – Bore away & set Studding Sails
11 As usual served Thick portable soup gruel for Breakfast – Portable Soup Oatmeal & Bore Coal for Dinner – served also Vinegar as usual on this day.
12 Fresh Breezes & fair Wr – All Sails set

[Page 125]
The Weather being very favourable, I determined to run all night, and gave Lieut. Portlock the Assistant orders to steer W ½ N supposing myself in the latd. Of 9° 00’S. – In the morning we fell in with a bank on which we saw no dry ground, either of Rocks or Sand, but the Sea was much agitated on it, & its form was very Vissible from the le shoalness of the Water – The Assistant was close to it when she made the signal, I therefore expect Lieut. Portlock can say more of it than is within our knowledge for we were two Miles apart. –
It gave me much concern to hear of the death of the poor man who was wounded with an arrow on board the Assistant – the day before his death he was thought to be recovering – a vast effusion of blood from his mouth e preceded a convulsion which carried him off – There was very little inflammation about the Wound, & it was remarkable that the arrow went so small a distance way in, that its point presented itself outwards at 1 ½ inch from the place where it entered. – Such an unprovoked assault as the Wretches Natives of New Guinea made on these poor our men, merited a much severer return than I gave them – tho’ I hope it that will have a good effect. –

[Page 126]
Rems Tuesday Sept. 25th. 1792 Towards Timor
1 Fresh Breezes and fair Wr. with haze
2 Flying Fish – Gannet Boobies – Tropic Birds – Passed through several patches of scum on the water
5 Worked the Pumps as usual
6 No ground at 89 fms. of Line. –
7 Hailed the Assistant to keep on WbS ½ S all night – In Studding Sails and 2d. Reefs. –
8 Caught a Booby.
5 Out all reefs and made all the Sail possible. –
6 Served Hot Breakfast as usual. –
7 Employed bending the Sheet Cable for an outer small Br., - & the outer sml. Br. put to the Crippled Anchor for a Sheat, if drove to necessity. – Wormed the Cable with the M. TS lifts where it was rubbed – [Reeved?] new Fore & M. TS lifts. –
10 Porpoises, Flying Fish & Boobies seen –
12 Fresh Breezes – light coloured haze Clouds in the south, & rather of a Windy aspect. Assistant in Company – Carrying all sail.

[Page 127]
At 7 o’Clock this evening we shortned sail. Lieut Portlock informed me that close in upon what he supposed the shoal, he had 44 fms water and rather apprehends he was alarmed without any other cause than light coloured water from reflected clouds and a quantity of scum or spawn of Fish. –I hope it really is the case, but as we saw it, the appearance was very suspicious. – At 6 o’Clock he had 85 fms. soundings but at 7 when I shortned sail we could not get ground at 90 fms. of Line out of which there was not above a fm. Slack. –
I now find we have a current setting to the northward and the Wind unexpectedly backing to the southward. – I trust it will not come more unfavorable – My plants are in charming very good condition – God grant I may have no difficulty to prevent in providing for their doing well, about which I suffer a most uneasy mind –
In the beginning of this Month 1770, Captain Cook found a current setting to the southward
Up to this day our loss of Bread fruit of Plants have been 126 large Pots & 94 of small Pots – of Avees 1 small Pot – of plantains 3 large Pots

 [Page 128]
Rems Wednesdy. 26th. Sept. 1792 Towards Timor
1 Fresh Breezes and fair. Wr. Empld about the Cables.
3 Dolphins, Flying Fish – Porpoises Boobies & Man of War Birds – Some Boobies caught. – The Porpoises were pyebald. –
7 In Studding Sails & Dble Reefs.
2 Light Winds
5 Fair Wr. Made all the sail possible
6 Saw some Land birds – Some of the Plover kind – Gannet Boobies & Tropic Birds. –
8 Employed worming rubbed places of the B.B. Cable and filling some salt water. –
10 Sent the Whale Boat on board the Assistant for Lieut. Portlock to know the state of the Vessel. –
12 Mod breezes & fine Wr. – Assistant a head & sails better than us in these Mod. Winds. –

[Page 129]
As the approach of the Westly monsoon was now to be expected, or its effects by bringing or Variable Winds and Weather; which are their effects I determined [indecipherable words], unless causes hereafter made it necessary to alter my plan, & go on the south side of Timor. I conceive by this means, I may carry a truer Wind than is likely to be met with if I go on the north side among the neighbourhoods of such great lands, and by this means I hope to expedite my Passage. –
I sent for Lieut. Portlock to give him an idea of my intention, and of the situation of Coupang. It gave me great pleasure to hear from him that all his People were in perfect health – water is now our only want – His people are at a quart a day, & ours nearly the same, & have been so since we left the streights, but there, when at work, our consumption was double. –
If I except a Wretch, who has had the Venereal the whole voyage, I have not a sick Man in the Ship.

[Page 130]
Rems Thursday 27th. Septr. 1792 Towards Timor
1 Mod. Breezes and fine Wr. – Employed in the Hold and about the Cables. –
2 Saw several Gannet Boobies. –
7 Light coloured sand & shells – I consider this sounding to be from the coast of New Holland – Steered West. – In Studding Sails & single Reefs. –
10 Strong riplings of Tide. – Caught a Booby.
12 Fms. soundings as before. –
5 Out Reefs & set all Studding Sails. – Saw a Bird like a Snipe and a Tropic Bird. – Some Bonetos – Flying Fish. –
8 Served Breakfast as usual. –
9 Employed filling salt Water & worming some rubbed parts of the B.B. Cable. – Cooper repairing casks
12 Fresh Breezes & fair Wr. with haze. I could not think of heaving to, to sound time is so precious with us. – The Sea now appears like the Ocean & we have an eastern swell running after us. –
Assistant ahead & out Sails us. –

[Page 131]
In 1789 when I quitted the Coast of New Holland in the Bounty’s Launch, The Mountainous Isld. with a high round hill, as particularized in my Map, I then laid down in 10° 15’S 143° 45’E. – on my arrival at Coupang I found it to lie in 10° 12’S 127° 42’E – These situations of longitude according to my usual practice, & what from which I never go from vary, were found from a fair account of the Ships Run, without that unpardonnable presumption of allowing for currents. Hence I know my difference of longitude made at that time between the two places was – 16° 15’ West
I made the longitude of the same Mountain by my account this time, 145° 41’E – as my account is therefore carried on with the same fairness, I think it probable the longitude made from it will agree nearly as can reasonably be expected – at any rate it is the best way of coming at the truth & making any Value of the Reckoning. – By this way my [sketch similar to )( ] Longd from Coupang to day is - 4° 31’E (See the 2d. August).

   [Page 132]
Rems. Friday Sept. 28th. 1792 Towards Timor
1 Fresh Breezes and fair Wr. with haze
4 Saw Boobies & Flying-fish.
5 Worked the Pumps as usual.
7 In Studding Sails & 1st Reefs – Sounded 40 fms. light coloured sand – Hailed Lieut. Portlock to steer NW to clear this Bank which must lie off the coast of New Holland
10 Soundings as before. – Lead constantly going with 25 fms. & 30 up & down & no bottom –
12 Hove to again & found 54 fms. bottom as before. –
4 Hove to & sounded bottom as before
5 Saw many Sea Fowl & Flying-fish –
6 Hove to but could get no bottom at 107 fms. of line. – Steered more off. –
8 Washed & Cleaned Ship – Employed working up Junk – Carpenters repairing the large Cutter. –
10 Served Portable soup in the Pease for Dinner – Hot breakfast as usual. –
12 Mod. & fair Wr. but very Hazy – Hove to but could get no ground at 107 fms. line Made sail – Assistant in compy. –
Gannet Boobies – Tropic Birds - & Flying Fish.

  [Page 133]
I was exceedingly surprised to find soundings at 40 fms. at 8 o’Clock in the Evening, for from appearances and my latitude, I thought no bottom would be found. – It appears likely, that since Midnight of the 27th. when we had 71 fms. we have continued to en shoal, and that this bank lies off the North part of New Holland, the situation of it being farther North & West than any of our information has hitherto led us to believe.
  I steered NW to deepen the Water, which took place as I expected, and an hour & half after we had had 64 fms. no bottom could be found at 107 fms. – The Bank must be very steep. – I now steered more away & at Noon being not able to find bottom, I steered WSW for the south side of Timor & to make the land below the latitude of 10° Degrees south


[Page 134]
Rems. Saturday 29th. Sept. 1792 Towards Timor
1 Mod Breezes & fair Wr. with Haze all sails set –
5 Several Boobies seen. –
7 In Studding Sails & 2d. Reef TS. – Swell from the ESE. – Hailed Lieut. Portlock & advised him to keep SWbW for the night –
6 Out Reefs & set studding sails. – Many Flying Fish – Tropic Birds –
7 Served Portable Soup gruel for breakfast as usual. –
8 Cleaned & Shifted the Peoples Hammocks, & aired their bedding. – Cooper repairing casks. –
12 Fresh breezes & fair Wr. but very hazy – Hauled up to endeavour to make the land – Saw three Curlieus. –
Assistant in Company. –

[Page 135]
Rems. –
I did not think it probable we should make the land this day, but as I was not certain as to it situation, and now determined to go on the south side; I altered the Course at Night to what I knew was the direction of the Coast, and steered direct for the land again at day light, so that we lost no time, or run any risk; frequently sounding with 100 fms of Line without finding any bottom. – At Noon the Curliews we saw indicated land being near to us, and by my estimation I was confident we could have seen Timor if it had not been for a prodigious thick haze, for the Coast in this latd. is being mountainous.

[Page 136]
Rems. Sunday 30th. Sept. 1792 off the Isld. Timor
1 Fresh Breezes and fair Wr. but very Hazy.
2 People employed mending & washing their cloathes. –
4 Men of War Birds & Gulls – Many Fish –
7 Spoke the Assistant & directed them to lead steering SWbW untill I made the sigl. to haul the Wind. – In 2d. Reefs. –
1 Made the signal & hauled the Wind – No Ground at 80, 60, 50 & 53 fms. of Line. –
4 Wore
6 Saw Timor in the NWbN. Made the sigl. to the Assistant – No ground at 60 fms. of line. –
8 Extremely Hazy. Timor NNE ½ E to WbN 4 leags. At 10h:30’ saw Isld. Rottie WSW abt. 9 leags.
9 Mustered in Divisions & saw all hands clean – Performed Divine Service. –
12 Fair Wr. & Hazy. Rottie High Hill S74° W abt. 7 leags. The extrs. of Rottie S70° W to N72° W 7 leagues Timor N32° W 6 leags. to N50° E 6 leags. off shore 4 or 5 leagues. –

[Page 137]
I expected to have made Timor this Evening, but the Haze prevented it. – At 8 O’Clock I desired Lieut. Portlock ordered the Assistant to lead steering SWbW as I did last night for this I knew to be along shore course, and at one O’Clock being in the latd. of the south end I made the sigl to haul the Wind. –
At Day break we saw the land, & were abreast of a lofty land Coast with an apparent bold shore, where in several places white patches of bare Rock looked like Vessels under sail – To the WNW the land was much lower, but to the eastward double land formed. – The Country was woody, yet I can scarcely say any thing of it such a prodigious haze preventing our seeing. –
Towards Noon we could see the low land which terminates the west part of Timor towards Pulo Samow, and the Island Rottie to the southward – The southern part of Rottie has a regular high Hill on it, higher than any other part of the land, & the northern part of the Islands form with have several risings which from aloft appear connected or closely shut in by lower grounds – This is all I could observe – I supposed myself full 5 leagues to the eastward of the entrance to Coupang, & were 10 Miles to the southward of it – The Wind light, and I was l fearful of its leaving us towards night, & did not ing know what we might expect to meet with, - I considered it most adviseable to keep on a Wind & wait untill morning, than enter Samow Straits towards night, where I was not sure of finding anchorage, but a very rapid Tide. –

[Page 138]
Rems Monday 1st. October 1792 Timor
1 Fair Wr. and hazy – in 1st Reefs & hauled the Wind, as I had no prospect to get safe into Anchorage if I bore away for Samow Entrance. –
3 At 3 I came on a very fresh gale – In 3 Reefs & down T.G. Yds. –
5 At 3 Timor bore when I tacked N57° W to N58° E offshore 4 or 5 Miles. A high hill on Rottie S57° W 6 or 7 leags – a Vally NbE ½ E –
6 Mod. Breezes Tkd. High Hill of Rottie WbS & the Valley on Timor NbE ½ E abt. 4 leags. off. –
11 Tkd. The Vally NNE 2 leags. offshore – Out 3d. Reefs. – up T.G. Yards.
12 Tkd.
2 Tkd.
4 Hoisted the Cutter & Whale Boat out & sent them to the Assistant to lead. –
6 Bore away. The Extrs. of Timor N60°W to N56° E the Valley NNE ½ E 2 leags. offshore – Rottie Isles S56°W to S88°W as far as the haze could permit us to see. –
8 At 10h:20 NE part of Rottie or north part & So. Or W ps. Of Timor N3W & S3°E – soon after hauled up through the Passage between Timor & Samow got soundings 22 to 10 fms. bad bottom on Timor side – Dist. across 3 or 4 Miles. – In other parts of our track we could get no bottom from 20 to 36 fms. of line – Boats got 17 & 20 close to the shore, bad bottom –
12 Very strong Winds Under 3 Reefs. Extremes of the south entrance SWbS to So. – North entrance N50°E to N31°E 3 miles dist. – No ground 34 fms

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I had but just hauled on a Wind when it began to blow fresh, and by 3 O’Clock it increased to a smart gale. – As the sun went down it moderated and we had a fine Night, our tacking was governed by our distance from the shore which we could see tolerably well. The Valley was a trifling break in the Hills, behind which was a high Mountainous ridge. It was the only part we could keep ourselves acquainted with to know how we kept our station.
At day light I sent the Boats to lead ahead of the Assistant, and bore away along a low shore towards the SW point of Timor wch. lies N3°W from the NE part of Rottie about 3 leagues distant. – Samow Strait now shows itself distinctly, and is a fair Entrance, the passage through North and NNE. It cannot be mistaken as the Islands of Rottie lie to the south of it. Except the High Mountain on the southn. part of Rottie, it is land of a Moderate height – its north shore appeared to trend nearly E & W. – The western part a low sandy Point. – Samow is also land of a moderate height and Woody, between it and the low point of Timor, the south e entrance of the Strait is about 3 or 4 Miles apart, and nearly WbS & EbN of each other, but the south point of Samow lies out as far as S67°W. –
I kept nearest Timor side with the Boats within us. Off the SW point they got moderate depth of Water, but the bottom rocky – 1 ½ Mile from the pt. we had 22 fms bearing North. –
The shores formed some sandy Bays, but they were all shut up with Rocks & bad bottom. On Samow side is a lofty Island called Pulo Kambing, it lies in the entrance of a sound that is also shut up by Coral Rocks and shoal Water. From the north point of this sound to Timor shore is abt. 3 Miles across, on Timor side is some indifferent anchorage to [indecipherable] southd. of a low point from whence the shore inclines to the NEs. – In mid Channel we had no ground from 20 to 36 fms. & the Wind was to strong for me & my health too bad to ascertain at greater depths.
The Heat was now very oppressive, so that I kept the Deck with a distracted head ach, that almost deprived me of the power of doing my Duty.


[Page 140]
Rems Tuesdy. 2nd. Octr. 1792 at Timor
1 Fresh Breezes & squally Wr. which suddenly terminated with light Northly. airs & Calms. A strong Tide setting to the Southd. – Found an Eddy under the NE. Part of Samow, where after making a few tacks, I [sketch of an anchor] in 22 fms loose sandy bottom.
[In Column] Tacking & trying sounding under the NE part Pulo Samow.
5 The SW part of Coupang Road N65°E 2 Miles or 3 – The NE part of Pulo Samow N15°E ¾ Mile –Extrs. of Pulo Karee N31°E to N29°E 4 or 6 Ms. – Pulo Cambing S51°W to S61°W 4 Miles – South entrance from S22°W 2 ½ Miles to S35°W abt. 10 Miles.
[Note in Column] I sent Mr. Guthrie 2d. Lieut. to Coupang
9 No ground at 40 fms. of line ¾ of a Mile from the shore untill about the NE pt. Samow where is a small bank & reef abt. ½ Mile from the Point. –
12 Country Woody but much scorched up. – No part Mountainous but the No. or NE part of Coupang Bay. –
[Note in Margin] Lieut. Guthrie returnd wth. a Captain Lybrand Jacobus Bouberg of the Company’s Snow De Verwagting. He came to Pilot us up to Coupang. –
2 Shores rocky in general & were Sandy Bays are they are shut up with Coral Rocks. –
3 Water may be got by digging on the Samow side in a Bay abreast of us. –
4 Heard of the Pandora being lost in Endeavour Strights most of the People saved . – arrived at this Place. –
7 Dropt a Kedge & hove the Bower up & at 9h:40’ towed & sailed with a tide to the northd. –
9 Passing the NE part of Samow ¼ & ½ Mile dist. 22-24-26-29- Coarse ground.
10 As we stood to the Eastd. got ground, & at ½ past 11 anchored wth. B.B. in 16 ½ fms. Moored with a half cable to the SE & whole Cable to the NW sm. Br. in 9 fms. –
12 The Fort saluted with 15 guns & I returned the same number. – The Vergwagting lying near us – Assistant anchored same time. –
My Reckoning gives 16°10’ W. of Id. R High Mountain – In the Bountys Launch I made 16°’ 13’W – True )( Long is 18° 43’W by T.Keepers. – {Currt. Equal to 13 Miles West pr. Day
[Note in Margin]
Bearings at [sketch of an anchor] The No. part of Pulo Samow N70°W abt. 7 Ms. The NE pt. we anchd. under S70°W 5 Ms. – Extrs. of the south shore of the Road N71E 3 leags. to S66W 3 Miles The Flagstaff SEbS ½ Mile. Pulo Karee N14W 3 or 4 Miles – A small Isld. on the north shore N21°E 6 Miles & the North part of the road & of Timor insight N13°E 5 leags.

[Page 141]
At one O’Clock we were nearly through the Straits when the SE Wind left us. A small breeze from the NW kept us working with uncertainty, a s lee Tide running & no bottom at 40 fms untill (4 O’Clock) under the NE point of Samow, where I anchored in 22 fms. a loose sandy bottom. – Under the shelter of this point which has a small Reef lying off it, I felt no effect of the lee Tide running, but on the contrary set to the northward. It is not an l eligible situation when the strong SE Winds blow, but at this season of the Year it is the best anchoring ground in the straits, & the Dutch ships in the West Monsoon sometimes moor to secure themselves untill they can get to Coupang. – This bank extends but a Mile or two about the NE point; in other places are 20 fms. within 20 yds of the Rocks. – We lay off a sandy Bay where water may be got by digging a Well – Wood is in abundance.
When we stood in under the Point we saw a Snow in Coupang Road, but at [sketch of an anchor] she was shut in. – We fired several guns, but no notice was taken of them, but except by some Malay Prows who came no nearer than to see what we were. –
As soon as my People were a little refreshed, I sent Lieut. Guthrie to Coupang to acquaint the Governor of my arrival, & that I wanted refreshments, particularly Water, which I requested his assistance in expeditiously supplying me with by shore craft, & every means in his Power. – I also desired a Pilot if any person was sufficiently acquainted skilful.
At 10 at Night Lieut. Guthrie returned – He had had met with a friendly reception from Mr. Wanjon, who was now Governor, & I was to have every assistance I required – The Captain of the Snow Verwagting came to show us the Way into the Road – He was called Lybrand Jacobus Bouberg, & having known me before, when I arrived in the Bounty’s Launch, was very kindly sollicitous to give us every assistance.
With light favourable Winds in the Morning, & the tide setting to the northward, in a couple of hours we got into Coupang Road, and the Fort saluted us with 15 Guns.
The Country was scorched up and the air so heated that I unhappily felt the effect of it with by a most distracted [indecipherable word] Ach, which obliged me to keep out off the Deck.

[Page 142]
Rems. in Coupang Road Island Timor.
1792 October Thursdy. 3
Light Winds NW.ly from Noon to 4pm, and from 8am to Noon – The rest of the 24 Hours SE. E, with Calms about sun rise. –
The Therm. varied from 78 to 82 Degrees, but, as it always has been & is kept in the coolest part of the ship near to a scuttle in in the Cabbin. – The air however felt very much heated, & the breezes that came from the land, from the scorched up state of the Country were like coming from an oven. –
As I was determined to make my stay here as short as possible, I directed every empty water cask to be sent on shore wth. the utmost dispatch, and that the duty might be the more expeditiously executed, as we could only water but at Tide time, or get a sufficiency of Wood but at another island; I requested the Governor to assist us by sending Vessels away for Wood, & others to bring the Water on board. –
In the Morning I got both Ships supplied with fresh Beef. –
Employed stacking Water and cleaning Casks. –
It was a pleasant circumstance to me to find the Person, who had assisted me so kindly when I was here in the Bounty’s Launch, to be now Governor, Mr. Timotheus Wanjon. – out of the little society that were then living four were now dead, among whom was the Surgeon Mr. Max who in a most friendly manner attended our sick & dressed our sores.
Thursdy. 4
Fresh Breezes & fair Wr. Wind NNW untill midnight, the remaining part light Breezes at E – NE & ESE squally & freshening towards Noon. Thermr. 75 to 83 ½ Degrees –
Employed busily in the Holds – sending Water Casks on shore – Cooper repairing Casks – Filling Water on shore & loading Country Sloops. – Sent Pots on shore for Plants – Recd. Fresh Beef & Greens for both Ships. – Sent a party to cut Wood on shore, & hired Malays to bring it down to the Water side, as no European could bear the fatigue.
Friday 5
First & latter part fresh breezes & fair Wr. The Middle light airs – Wind in the Eastern quarter
The Thermr. 76° to 86 Degrees – Heat very oppressive. – Employed watering, and got off my two Country Sloops loaded with Water besides our own Launch. – Kept the Party cutting wood, assisted by Malays to carry it, but as it was very scarce & a poor kind, they cut but little, & our principal dependence was on a Country Schooner & a Sloop which sailed yesterday for Pulo Samow, - Served Fresh Beef & Greens as before. Sailed the Dutch Snow for Batavia

[Page 143]
Rems in Coupang Road Island Timor
1792 October Saturdy 6th
Fresh Breezes and fair Wr. The Wind in the Eastern Quarter.
Thermr. from 78 to 84 ½ Degrees-
Received on board Water by two Country Sloops & some Wood by our small Boats – Launch also employed as we can spare hands having a great deal to do. –
Towards the Evening the Snow got clear of the Bay.
Served Fresh Beef & Greens to both ships as before.
Sundy. 7
Mod. Breezes & fair Wr. Wind at ESE untill midnight then calm – at sun rise light Winds at ENE which by 10 O’Clock ended with a fresh gale at NW. – Thermr. 80 to 84 ½ Dgs –
Employed stowing away water with the utmost dispatch, brought on board by The Country Sloops. – Hands about the Rigging & Cooper about the Casks. – Received Arrack & Rice – also fresh Beef & Greens as before. –
Lat. obs. On Board 10° 9’ 18" S Mer. Altd. [indecipherable symbol/word] Center 85° 22’ 50"
Mondy. 8
Fair Wr. Wind Variable with Calms. – Thermr. 81 to 83 Degrees. Country Boats & Launch employed bringing on board Water –Employed in the Holds. – Found the Gammoning of the Bowsprit nearly cut through by the edges of the score in the Head. not being rounded off – Began to prepare rope for new gammoning it – Set the M&M. Top Mt. rigging up. – The Wooders on shore found such difficulty in procuring Wood, that I ordered them on board, being arr. loaded the Sloop & Schooner which sailed on the 4th having from Pulo Samow. –
Received Fresh Beef & Greens as before & supplied the Assistant – Rec. the last of our arrack & Rice. –
Tuesdy. 9
 Mod. & Fair Wr. – to 4 O’Clock in the afternoon & after 8 in the Morning we had the Wind NW, the rest of the 24 Hours it was ESE. E&NE – Thermr. 80 to 82 Degrees –
Employed receiving Water by the Country Sloops & Launch. – Gammoned the Bowsprit – Received 92 Pots of Plants. –Supplied the Assistant with 32 Galls of Arrack – Served Fresh Beef & Greens to the Ships Companies. Stayed the Fore Mast & set the Rigging up. –
At 4 am unmoored ship & steadied with a Kedge Anchor. – 101 Tons of Water on Board. –
                                                Ft. in.
Ship draught of Water forward 15: 4
                        Aft 16: 3
                                                        11 by the Stern
Having closed my Accounts & finished my letters to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty I took leave of the Governor at 6 am & embarked. –
Merid. Altd. [indecipherable symbol] Center 86° 8’ 55" Latd. 10° 9’ 07" S

[Page 144]
Provisions Received at Timor
                                                                [Rix Doles?] [Indecipherable]

40 Picols of Rice at 5 Rix Doles. Picol of 125 lbs 220 -
2400 lbs of Fresh Beef at 6 [indecipherable words ] per lb while here
 and for sea store 300 -
To Greens supplied while here @ 2 Rix Doles. pr. Day 12 -
To 300 Galls. Of Arrack @ 10 skills pr. Gall 375 -
To Charges for Men & Craft to fetch fire Wood from Pulo
Samow 150 6
To 34 Tons of Water & Craft to bring it off at 2 Rix
Dolls. Pr. Ton 68 -
To 10 Pr. Cent on Bills in payment of the above 112 24
                                        Rix Doles - 1237 30
To Pilotage 15 -

[Page 145]
October 6th. was the first day any observations could be made to establish the
 Errors & Rates of my Time Keepers. According to their Errors & Rates brought on from Otaheite they gave the longitude of Coupang as follows. –
                                By X T.K- 124° 16’ 40.5 East
                                No. 2 - 123° 59’ 52.5
                                N 160 - 122° 17’ 57
Mean Longd. of Coupang by T. Keepers = 123° 31’ 30 E
True Longd. of Do. by observations O& D = 123° 40’ 54 E.c
Error since the 14th. July 1792 = 84 Days = 9’ 24"

[Tables of Observations follow]

[Page 146]
The approach of the Westerly Monsoon, and the already present unsteadyness of the Wind required the most strenuous measures endeavours to execute the duties necessary to be done at this place that I might get out of its influence. – We had various things to do besides wooding and filling up our water. I was obliged to send a sloop and a schooner to Pulo Samow for Wood, and as the Water could only be got at tide time out of the River, I likewise hired two Sloops to assist in bringing it on board, as we had about 60 Tons to take in. –
I found supplies in large quantities were not to be got – of Arrack & Rice we could not get a sufficiency – fresh Beef we had as much as we wanted, and it was very palatable and good, dressed any way but roasted. The Karrabow & a small kind of Bullock (like a Guernsey Cow without horns) were the Animals that afforded this refreshment kind of Food. – Vegetables were very scarce, consisting of Kape Greens and onions, for they had no other, we bought in their miserable market a few heads at a time as we could pick them up, a sufficiency were was nevertheless daily collected to make the broth palatable and wholesome. – Mangos, a few Pomegranates, and some Indian Corn with poor half grown Fowls were to be got, but the Corn & Fowls at an extravagant price. Hogs, Sheep & Goats were about the neighbourhood, but from some cause I cannot account for, I could not get any – to procure a Milch Goat I was obliged to give three that did not give Milk in return. – No Naval stores were to be had, I was therefore through necessity obliged to sail without an Anchor & Cable which we were much in need of, having only two Anchors that would ride the ship, and but two good Cables. –
I found our Friend Mr. Wanjon very glad to see us, and I made him some trifling presents to show I had not forgot him. He was now Governor, & had it in is power to oblige me by e expediting our busyness. – Whether his promotion was owing to my representation of his conduct to us in the Bounty’s Launch I cannot say – if it was, he did not appear sensible of it.
The Snow we found lying in the Road, belonged to the Company, her Cargo Wax & Sandle Wood – The Captain who had been so attentive to me as to P pilot us into the Road, was extremely anxious about his sailing as his passage to Batavia could at best, be only accomplished by Variable Winds & a current setting to the Westward. No Easterly wind from the East was now to be expected more than from any other quarter, & for that reason his arrival at Batavia could not well be expected before the first week in November. I however wrote by him to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty an account of my arrival & proceedings. – The Price of Sandle Wood

[Page 147]
was 6 – 12 & 20 Spanish Dollars Pr. Picol of 125 lbs and the same is sold from 70 to 80 Spanish Dollars in China – It is supposed the Company lose by keeping up this settlement, individuals are nevertheless said to benefit considerably. – Every thing remains in the same state as when I was here 3 Years ago. –
The first News I heard was, that Captain Edwards had lost the Pandora between New Holland & New Guinea on the 20th. August 1791 – that the Crew except 30 Men who were lost in the Ship (four of whom were the Bounty’s People) took to the Boats. – Captn. Edwards with the two first Boats arrived the 17th. Septr. And the day following the other two Boats arrived – 99 Men altogether. Before the ship was lost they had parted company with their Shallop, and never heard of her, untill in their way to Batavia, they found her taken possession of at Sourabyah, & the Men confined in Prison. – On the 5th. October they all sailed in a Company’s Ship from Coupang, & on the 7th. November arrived at Batavia, from whence the Crew was taken to Europe in different Vessels that sailed towards the latter end of the same month.
Captain Edwards gave some short account of the loss of the Ship to the Governor, which was taken so little care of as not to that it could not be found. A letter I wrote to Mr. Wanjon by the Pandora was delivered, & was an introduction a independent of the ir misfortune of the Crew – they had assured Mr. Wanjon I was to follow them, and yet as they had left Otaheite; so they quitted Timor without giving me one word of information.
The next interesting piece of News was the arrival of a six oar’d Cutter from Port Jackson with 8 Men, one Woman, and two Children – They had deserted from the settlement the 20th. March 1791 and arrived the 5th. June at Timor – The Principal, represented himself as Mate of a Whale Fisher that was lost, and in which all but themselves perished, and had written a very u ingenious account of their misfortunes that gained them protection, untill one of the party informed, through peek at not being taken so much notice of as the rest. – They were all sent to Batavia in the same ship with Capt. Edwards –
The day before I sailed, after being disappointed at having no written account to judge of Capt. Edwards Misfortune, & teazing the Governor to find that which was left, he presented me with a correct journal kept in the Convict Boat, but declared he had no other. –
This Journal was very distinctly kept and titled Rems on a Voyage from Sydney Cove New South Wales to Timor. – It gave a

[Page 148]
an account of every thing as it really happened, and from this the fictitious one was formed.
It appears these Wretches had taken away a fishing Boat that with which Governor Phillips had intrusted them with - They had provided themselves with the articles immediately necessary articles both of Food and for the safety of the Boat, and they had a Seine which they frequently hauled with success. Two Musquets were all the Arms they had, and with these they kept the Natives in awe as they coasted along shore from Port Jackson round the northern part of New Holland. – Fish and Cabbages are the general supplies spoken of – I suppose they mean Mountain Cabbage – They had Flour & Pork in the Boat, but the quantity not mentioned – besides a Grapnel & Nails, Bees Wax and Rosin was were not forget, and mention is made of repairing the Boat and paying her bottom. –
To the southward they found the Natives armed only with Spears and Shields, but to the northward among the Islands in Endeavor Straits (as I apprehend) they had Bows and Arrows. –
In the latd. 32 Dgs. South about 2 leags. from the shore these unhappy People speak of having discovered a shole with only 5 & 6 feet water on it. –
On the 28th. March at 11 pm the Journalist says they sailed from Sydney Cove and stood to the NNE – on March the 30th. after variable Winds & Weather they bore away for a small Creek having the Wind contrary – Here they caught Mullet and repaired the Boat – "Walking along shore towards the entrance of the Creek we found several large pieces of Coal – seeing so many pieces we thought it was not unlikely to find a Mine, and searching about a little, we found a place where we picked up with an ax as good as good Coals as any in England – took some to the fire and they burned exceedingly well" –
On the 31st. March at 6 am they left this place & on the 1st. of April, s say they were in the latd. Of 33° 20’S. – on the afternoon of the 2nd. they saw a fine Harbour which they entered & describes to be superior to "Sydney" – Hence they ranged along the Coast frequently getting supplies of Fish undergoing many difficulties untill they arrived at Timor – The Woman & Children bore the fatigue wonderfully well & not one person died. –

[Page 149]
The latitude and distances run is are not regularly kept up so as to assertain the different places the stopt at, but the Journel in other respects is clear and distinct, and shows the writer must have been a determined and enterprising Man. –
I was too ill and the time was too short for me to copy the Journal, I however employed a person about it, but he did not get a fourth part through it. – The Circumstance of the Coals being found may make the account valuable, but I am sorry I could not assertain its the exact situation of the Place – Captain Edwards who had sufficient time and leisure I hope has done all this. – The Journalist remarks that it was with difficulty he got the Boat into the creek, there being shoal Water across it, but he backed the Boat in without receiving any damage. –
During my stay here I had not a moments intermition from a violent head ach and at times slight touches of the Fever – about mid day my brains felt like being as if in a state of boiling. – From 8 in the Morning to 5 in the afternoon I dared not expose myself to the Sun, & in that interval I suffered a great deal from the extreme heat of the land, which caused the Wind to be so heated, and to parch every thing it blew upon. The Houses too, from the red tyling that forms the Roof, were heated like ovens, so that Morning & Evening were they only parts of the day at all bearable. – For 7 Months not a drop of Rain had fallen, & perhaps not untill the middle of November will the season set in. – The last year from a l dreadful th drought they had almost a famine for want of in Indian Corn and Rice, so that these articles became scarce and double the price at this time. –
October November and December I think are unhealthy months – When the Rains have been set in about a Month and the land is sufficiently filled and cooled, the air must become better, and in all these countries, wth. respect to the air of the climate, it must be at its worst at the latter part of the dry season and beginning of the Wet. – The Wet seasons in most countries are only unhealthy as they produce Colds, or in confined situations bad air – the latter may be obviated by fire, and by due precaution a great deal may be prevented of the former. –
Our Otaheite Friends who had hitherto seen nothing to make up to them for leaving their own country, were exceedingly delighted with the Houses and sight of Europeans, as it conveyed to them some Idea of what they were to see in England. They disliked the Malay People

[Page 150]
because they had dirty mouths and black teeth – seeing a few of them in Chains created some surprise, but as soon as they knew the cause they were satisfied it was just and proper. – There is however great severity in this Country to preserve power – The Brother of a King who considered it his right to Reign after his the King’s death, altho the King had left a son (who was approved of & appointed by the Dutch to succeed his Father,) made some opposition which caused him to be declared a Rebel – In hopes of forgiveness he gave surrendered himself up, but contrary to his expectation he was sent away in the Snow for Batavia from whence he will to be banished for life.
He bore his fate and embarked with great fortitude, but it was an affecting picture of fallen royalty to see the distress of many of his adherents and Friends who attended him to the Water side. –
I can assign no cause for it but our loss of Breadfruit Plants at this time amounted to 224 Pots. If care and attention could have kept them alive, it was they were not wanting – better fortune I hope will attend us in the remaining part of our Voyage. The Botanists Gardeners have been dilligently employed to make up with what could be got here, & with Natives I procured to assist them, they have collected 92 Pots of the best Fruit Plants and others this place produceth. – I used every effort with the Governor to procure me some Mountain Rice – he had it only in his power to get 8 Gallons which was brought from the Country the Night before I sailed. – The Plants taken up at this place are 6 Pots of Mangos – 7 of Jambolang – 20 Pots of Jambos – 4 of Balimbing or Blimbing – 6 Chermailah – 2 Karambola 6 Lemon Monesang or Lemon China – 4 Cosambee – 3 Cattahpas – 4 Bread Fruit, or Sucoom Beejee, - 6 Seereeboah – 5 Seeree down – 4 Peenang or Beetle Nutt. Shrubs – 3 Bintaloo – 4 Dangreedah. – Fine Trees wch. they perfume wth – 5 Bughnah Kanangah – 2 Jatte – Grass the root a perfume – 1 Seereebandang.
The Nanka or Jack they could get no plants of, or of the Boabidarah & Namnam but of the seeds we got a few.
The astronomical observations made at this place are but few, [series of indecipherable words] 9 sets taken on shore [series of indecipherable words] wch. wth. my observs. at sea reduced up to Coupang, being nearly an equal number each side of the Moon I have no doubt give the longitude very exact. – It is High Water at 11 or ¼ past 11 O’Clock am & at the Springs the Tide rises 9Ft. 6in – Common Tide 8 Ft. 8 in. -

[Page 151]
The Time Keepers differ as they have generally done differ from one another, nevertheless I believe the mean of the three has always been within a quarter of a degree of the truth, if not exact.
The Dutch consider the longitude of Coupang 138° 20’E from the Peak of Teneriffe which is 121°51’E. of Greenwich and the latitude 10°11’S – By me it is 123°40’:54"Es. And in 10°10’S – The Variation of the Compass 1°01’West. –
I had promised myself to have done a great deal at this Place, but ill health has prevented me – bad as I have been, (at a great risk, I have endeavored to make every thing clear to any person who may follow me, so that this place may now be visited without difficulty or hazard. –
My Sketch of Samow Straits is not so complete as I could wish it, except in its principal boundaries. In coming from the East. it is known by the Isles of Rottie, from the NE part of which the south part of the Straits (or West part of Timor) bears North dist. 8 Miles – The south point of Timor lies abt. 2 or 3 Miles to the (a) (for such is the form of the Island) lies about 2 or 3 Miles only to the Eastward of the of the West point, or south point of the Straits. – The south entrance of the straits is 3 Miles across, & the north entrance about 2 Miles – the whole length may be called 5 leags NEbN & SWbS. – On Pulo Samow side side lies a lofty Isld. called Pulo Cambing in a Bay full of shoals. – A Shoal of Rocks lie off the West end of Timor abt. ½ Mile, in all other places we found the shores rocky & steep to without Anchorage, except to the southward of the 2nd Point, and about the east part of Samow; In those places you lie near the shore on a loose sandy bottom. – In many places we had 20 fms. within 20 Yards of the shore. – The Flood Tide comes from the southward.
Coupang lies 6 Miles from the east end of Samow – As a ship advances towards the Town, good anchorage is to be got within a half Mile of the shore – The bottom is extremely good, but the Bank narrow and between it, and Pulo Karee & Samow, no bottom but at very great depths. – (D) From Dampiers authority we know there is good anchorage on the north side of the Bay, & along shore from Coupang to the eastward – our Pilot confirmed it – for this reason when the Winds are variable, as at this time, it is better to go out to the eastward of Pulo Karee, than between it & Samow where with Calms a ship is hussled driven about with great uncertainty. –
Pulo Karee is a small low Island 5 Miles N14°W from the Town surrounded by a Reef which must be carefully attended to. – It may be seen in favorable weather from aloft. –
The NE part of Coupang Bay is very Mountainous land
Dampier is erroneous in his distances from place to place – See his account. -

[Page 152]
the shores are in general low.
Fresh Water is got from a fine Rivers that runs through the Town, but it is brackish if taken up with a flowing tide unless the Casks are rolled a considerable distance up above where it may be had conveniently at low Water. –
More particular remarks of this Country are in the Account of my first Voyage to this Place. –
I have determined the latitude of a few places in this Neighbourhood as follows. –
A High Mountain on the SE part of Rottie 10°40’S
The North part of Rottie 10°27
The south point of Timor 10:23
The south point of Pulo Samow 10:6 ½
The North part of do do 10:20 ½
Concordia Castle Coupang 10:10 = 123°41’E

[Page 153]
Rems Wednesdy. Oct. 10th. 1792 Leavg. Timor
1 Fresh Breezes and fine Wr. but Heat oppressive. – Ready for Sea – Took on board a Pilot, & as the Wind kept us in in filled, filled up our Water & brought two Buffalos on board. –
4 Ships draught of Water forward 15:4
                        Aft 16:3
                        By the stern :11
9 Light airs
4 Hove short & weighed the Kedge & at 5 ½ h got under way with the Boats towing – Saluted wth. 13 guns wch. was retd. wth. same numr.
6 Pulo Karee N22°E 1 ½ or 2 Miles we had no ground at 30 fms. - & the same from the [sketch of an anchor] Place. –
8 Pulo Karee S84°E 5 Ms. Coupang SE 6 Miles Pulo Samow SbE ½ E to S55°W 6 Miles – NW part of Timor insight N34E 6 leags – Pulo Karee was on wth. it, at N13°E. –
10 Hove to & recd. my People lent to the Assistant Supplied the Assist. with fresh Beef & sent the Pilot away payg him 15 Rix Dolls. –
12 Mod. & fair Wr. – Served Freshed Beef. –Pulo Samow S6°E 4 or 5 leags. to S85°E 3 leagues. – No ground at 30 & 40 fms. All the Morng

[Page 154]
A Person offering to Pilot us out to Sea, I agreed with him in hopes of getting some information, I was however disappointed, as there appeared that want of nautical knowledge about him which prevented my relying on what he said – Upon the whole there is some reason to believe there are several good Reef Harbours about Timor – Dailey, the name of the Place where the Portugese settlement is, he says is one where the Providence might anchor conveniently & safely during the East Monsoon, & declared there was that more supplies are to be got there than at Coupang, & much cheaper – Cloaths he said were preferred to Money. – The Governor & two others were all the Europeans there, the rest of the People were bastard Portugese who were under a Military Government. – A Ship Annually calls there from ow Macao in China, & the Governor is generally relieved every three Years. –
A Fine little breeze in the Morning carried us clear out of the Road without any trouble, and having parted with the Pilot, we made sail, and at Noon were one or two Miles to the Westd. of the Meridian of the West part of Pulo Samow. –
Our Anchor was scarce to scarcely at the Bows when we found we had no ground at 30 fms. of line, and Lieut. Portlock informed me that he could get no bottom at 94 fms. towards Pulo Karee. –
It appears to me I have got away from this place in time – Two men were now ill of a Diarrhoea, and four with Colds. –

[Page 155]
Rems. Thursday Oct. 11th. 1792. Island Savu.
1 Light Breezes and fine Wr. – At ½ past Noon a small low Isld. off the SW part of Samow S3°Et. abt 4 leags.
3 At ½ past 1 saw the high land of Rottie bearg. South. –
4 Calm & fair Wr. Extremes of Pulo Samow S50°E 4 leags. to EbN 5 or 6 leags. – Isld. off its SW part S44E 3 or 4 leags. – Isld Rottie S ½ E abt. 9 or 10 legs.
6 At sun set Samow EbS 6 or 7 leags. Worked the Pumps as usual.
7 In 1st Reefs
11 Lightning in the SW & a fresh Breeze
5 Saw the Isld. Savu SWbW at day dawn & at 5h. 45’the extrs. from S30°W to S61°W 3 or 4 leags. offshore. – Made all sail –
8 Fair Wr. Extrs. of Savu S11°E to S45°W off shore 3 leags. –
9 Up all Chests & Bags – Washed the Ship thoroughly below & kept good Fires in all day. –
11 At 10h ½ saw an Isld. to the Westd of the So pt of Savu (called Benjoar) SWbS.
12 Fine Wr. Extrs. of Savu S2°E to S67°E 6 or 7 Miles off shore. Benjoar S14°W to S23°W 3 or 4 leags. –
Assistant in Company. – Served fresh Beef to the Ships Companies. –

[Page 156]
Soon after Noon we saw a small low Island which lies off the SW Part of Samow – It bore S3°E 4 leags. I therefore determine the Western part of Samow without any material error to lie in longitude 123° 23’El. and the small Island a Mile from the shore or perhaps two.
I steered to go to the northward of Savu and at day light saw it. – It is an Island of a Moderate height a little larger than Pulo Samow, but not so Woody. I find the longitude of the West part of Savu to be 121° 48’East – about 5 Miles to the WSW of the West part of Savu we saw n a smaller Island called Benjoar (in Robertson’s late publication) – to the southward of this, the Dutch informed me lies a smaller Isle – Benjoar is nearly as lofty as Savu.
A Current setting to the Westward has been considerable since we came out of Coupang round the north part of Samow. –
Our sick list to day was increased to nine with Colds, one wth. a Dysentry, & two with Diarrhoas. A few days however I hope will remove all the causes of disease. – Our chief employment is giving a free access of Air to all confined places below – washing and cleaning every hole & corner, and drying well with Fires: This will remove most diseases on board of a Ship, at least prevent their coming to any height. – I attribute the Colds to the People coming up hot from below & exposing themselves to the Night air, altho I have given the strictest orders to prevent it. The Flux I attribute to the use of Arrack, which in ght spite of every thing I could do they got of the Chinese. -

[Page 157]
Rems. Friday October 12th. 1792 Observations
1 Light Breezes and fair Wr. – Swell from the SW
4 Extremes of Isld. Savu S40°E to S25°E. East. part abt. 6 or 7 leags & southd. 4 or 5 leags. – The Isld. to the Westd. of it called Benjoar S6°E to S29°E 3 or 4 leags.
6 At Sun Set Savu EbS ½ S 8 or 9 leags. Benjoar S50°E to S62°E abt. 6 leags. –
8 In 1st. Reefs and steered to the southward to [clear?] New Island discovered by C. Cook. –
11 Heavy Dew, & fine Night – Gunners in the Magazine filling powder. –
5 Out Reefs & set all sails
8 Light airs inclineable to Calm – Cleaned Ship & aired with Fires – Saw the Branch of a Tree, a Boobie, some flying Fish. –
10 Served Fresh Beef to both Ships –Punished G.Thompson wth. 12 lashes for insolence & neglect of Duty. – Read the Arts. Of War.
12 Do. Wr. Assistant in Company – Swell from the SW. –

[Page 158]
Rems Saturdy. October 13. 1792 Observations
1 Light Breezes and fair Wr. – Sent the Whale Boat for Lieut. Portlock. – Tropic Birds & fish seen. – Men of War Bird. –
3 Fitted the Driver & Spritsail TS. –
8 Dew falling
7 Washed the Ship and aired well wth. Fires – a stove in the Fore & one in the after Cockpit kept up with good fire from nine in the Morning to 4 in the afternoon
9 Sailmakers empld. repairing the Awnings & making Hoses for the Pumps. –
11 Served Fresh Beef
12 Do. Wr. wth. a continuance of the swell from the SW. – Assistant in Compy. –

[Page 159]
Rems Sunday Oct. 14th. 1792 Observations
1 Light Breezes & fair Wr. – People empld. mending their Clothes – Sailmakers the Awnings. –
3 Skipjacks, Flying Fish and a Shark seen. –
5 In starbd. Steering Sails – Worked the Pumps as usual. –
7 Breezes freshening & a fine Night.
10 In Royals & T.G. Studding Sails
4 Light Winds. set T.G. Studding Sails & Royals
8 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast. – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner and a half pint of Sour Krout pr. Man. –
10 Mustered the Ships Company and performed Divine service. –
12 Light airs & fine Wr. inclineable to Calm but the sun oppressive when exposed to it. A swell from the SW & WSW. –
Assistant in Company. –

[Page 160]
Rems Monday Oct. 15th. 1792 - Observations
1 Light airs and fine Wr. inclineable to Calms
3 Saw Boobies & a Shark.
6 Mod. Breezes & fine Wr. – Let Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps as usual.
8 In Royals. T.G. Studding Sails and Spit sl. TS. –
4 Set Royals & all sails –
6 Saw a Booby & some Fish.
8 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for breakfast – Bore Cole & Portable Soup with oatmeal for Dinner. –
10 Saw a flock of Birds after Fish – Caught a sand Lark – Some Flying Fish –
11 Cleaned Ship & aired with Fires. –
12 Light Winds & fine Wr. – Swell from the SW. Served a half pint of Vinegar pr Man
Assistant in Company

[Page 161]
Rems Tuesday 16th. October 1792 Observations
1 Light Breezes and fine Wr. – Saw many Porpoises. –
2 Sailmakers repairing the lower Studding Sail.
3 Served Tobacco to the Ship’s Company. –
5 Let fresh Water into the Ship & worked the Pumps as usual. –
6 Saw a brown Booby. –
8 In Royals & T.G. Studding Sails – Wind fresher. –
12 Cloudy
5 Cloudy Wr. and a light Breezes – a heavy Swell from the SW – and the Horizon for the first time since we left Timor became very hazy – Made all sail. –
7 Saw two Gannets – some brown sheerwater and Flying Fish. –
8 Served thick Portable Soup Gruel for breakfast.
9 Up all Chests & Bags – Washed Ship and aired with fires. – Washed also with boiling Water to kill the Cockroaches. –
12 Light Breezes & Hazy Wr. – A great swell from the SW. –
Assistant in Company –

[Page 162]
Rems. Wednesday 17th. October 1792 Observations
1 Mod. Breezes and fair Wr. with some Haze –
2 Saw Porpoises & Brown Sheerwaters
5 Worked the Pumps as usual.
8 Fresh Breezes and a fine Night – In Royals & T.G. Studding Sails. –
10 Squally in 1st. Reefs.
12 Fair Wr. with flying Clouds, which collecting near the Zenith produced some strong puffs of Wind came from them
4 Less Wind
5 Our Reefs & set Royals & Studding Sails – A cross sea as if affected by a tide or current. but the swell from the SW & SSW predominant. –
8 Served Hot breakfast as usual – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner. – Cleaned below and aired with Fires. –
12 Mod. Breezes & fair Wr. with a slight haze swell from SSW. -
Assistant in Company.

[Page 163]
Rems. Thursdy. Oct. 18th. 1792 Observations
1 Fresh Breezes and fair Wr. with a slight Haze.
2 Saw a Man of War Bird
4 In M.T. Mt. & M.T. Gall Studding Sails
7 In 1st. Reef of the Top Sails and set Fore Top Mast Studding Sail. –
12 Cloudy with sudden gusts of Wind as the clouds passed the Zenith – Shortned sail occasionally
4 Sea from the WSW & continued for 3 hours the Ship pitching very much – It is remble. that for these 5 or 6 days past we have regularly met with this Sea – The first time abt. one O’Clock & later every day since that, as we have advanced to the Westward.
8 Fresh Breezes with a swell from the SW & SSW – Ship little motion. – out Reefs & made Sl.
9 Served Hot breakfast & portable soup in [indecipherable] Pease for Dinner
10 Saw Rock Weed – Porpoises – Employed enlarging the Green House on the Quarter Deck & working up Junk -
12 Fresh Breezes & Fair Wr. with haze – Swell from the SW. – Under all Sail –
Assistant in Company. –

[Page 164]
Rems Friday October 19th. 1792 Observations
1 Fresh Breezes & fair Wr. with haze.
5 Worked the Pumps as usual.
6 Fresh Gales – In studding sails and first Reefs –
12 Do. & Cloudy.
5 Set Lower & Fore Top M. Studding Sail.
8 Fair Wr. & Cloudy wth. Haze. – Hot Breakfast as usual & Portable Soup. –
9 Cleaned below & aired with Fires. – Saw Tropic Birds – two Men of War Birds – Flying Fish – Porpoises & Brown Sheerwaters. –
11 Bent the Old Top Sails. – Hands making Netting for the Plants. –
12 Strong Trade & Fair Wr. with haze & Cloudy.
Assistant in Company.

[Page 165]
Rems Saturday Oct. 20th. 1792 Observations
1 Very strong Trade and Hazy Wr.
2 Men of War Birds & Sheerwaters
3 A few Flying Fish – Porpoises & a Shark –
5 Let fresh Water into the Ship and Worked the Pumps as usual. –
7 Dark Cloudy Wr. In studding sails & 1st Reefs
8 Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr.
5 Set Fore Top Mast & lower Studding Sail.
7 Served Hot breakfast as usual
8 Saw three Gannet Boobies, a Bird of the Gull Species & several brown Sheerwaters – a few Flying Fish & Albecores –
10 Got all things up from below & Washed thoroughly – Aired & dried with Fires. –
11 Too much sail for the Assistant – in 2d. Reefs –
12 Very fresh gale & Sea from the SE.

[Page 166]
Rems. Sunday Oct. 21st. 1792 – Observations
1 Fresh Gales and open Cloudy Wr. with Haze -
2 Out 2d. Reefs & set Studding Sails. –
3 Broached a Cask of Pork No. 6 Conts. 110 Dble pieces – People Empld. Washing & mending their Clothes. – Sheerwaters & Flying Fish
6 Cloudy Wr.
7 In Studding Sails
5 Very Cloudy & a thick hazy Horizon like a Mist. – Set Fore Top Mast Studding Sail and lower Studding Sl. –
7 Squally – Served a Hot Breakfast as usual & Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner. –
8 Cleaned & aired below with Fires. – Mustered the Ship’s Company & performed Divine Service. –
10 Saw Boobies – Men of War Birds & Flying Fish –
12 Fresh Gales & Cloudy with bright intervels & a thick Hazy horizon – Sea from the SE –
Assistant in Company –

[Page 167]
Rems. Monday October 22nd. 1792 – Observations
1 Very fresh gale and thick Cloudy Wr. Threatening Wind & Rain – Employed the sailmakers about the best M. TS
4 Saw Men of War Birds. –
5 Let fresh Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps as usual.
6 In Studding Sails & two Reefs of the TS.
8 Spiting Rain. In 3d. Reefs – Much sea from the SE.
5 Do. Wr. – Out 2 & 3d. Reefs and set Fore Top Mast Studding sail.
6 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast – Bore Cole Soup Thickned with oatmeal for Dinner. –
8 Passed a spar covered with Barnacles – Brown & Gannet Boobies seen – Man of War Birds – a small kind of White Gull – Flying Fish & Sheerwaters. –
11 Unbent the Cables – Served Vinegar as usual on this day. –
12 Carpenters caulking the Main Deck –
Dark gloomy Wr – No observations
Assistant in Company

[Page 168]
Rems. Tuesday Oct. 23d. 1792 Observations
1 Fresh Gale and dark gloomy Wr. wth. an appearance of much Dirt. – Sailmakers employed about the 2d, best Fore TS. –
4 In Studding Sails & 2 Reef of the TS.
5 Let fresh Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps as usual. –
2 Heavy squalls with showers of small Rain
5 In 3d. Reef of the TS.
8 Strong gales & thick Cloudy Wr – Hot Breakfast as usual. – out 3d. Reefs
9 Cleaned below & Aired with Fires. – Unbent the M.T. Mt. Stay sl. to repair
12 Do. Wr. with spitting Rain – Much Sea from the SE & SSE. –
Assistant in Company

[Page 169]
Rems Wednesday October 24th. 1792. Observations
1 Strong Gales with thick Cloudy Wr. and Spitting Rain – Much Sea from the SE.
4 In 3d. Reefs & Down T.G. Yards
6 The appearance of bad Wr. – Close Reefed the Fore TS – Struck T.G. Masts & reefed the Fore Sl.
7 Worked the Pumps as usual. –
5 Weather better – swayed up T.G. Masts & out all but 1st. Reefs
7 Served thick portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast. – Krout & Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner –
10 Set Fore T.Mt. Studding Sail – Cleaned below and aired with Fires. –
12 Thick Gale & Cloudy – Sun out at times. – Much Sea – Great care required in attending the Plants to give them air & to prevent the Spray of the Sea hurting them –
Assistant in Company –

[Page 170]
Rems. Thursday October 25th. 1792 Observations
1 Fresh Gales and dark Cloudy Wr.
5 Let fresh Water into the Ship and Worked the Pumps as usual.
10 Got up Top Gall Yards & set the Sails
3 Squally with a few showers.
6 More settled Wr. Set lower Studding Sails
7 Served Hot breakfast as usual.
8 Open Cloudy Wr. – Men of War Birds Tropic Birds & Flying Fish. –
9 Cleaned Ship & aired with Fires. –
10 Carpenters caulking Waterway seams –
12 Fresh Gales & open Cloudy Wr. with some spitting Rain. –
Assistant in Company. –

[Page 171]
Rems. Friday October 26th. 1792 Observations
1 Fresh Gales and cloudy Wr. with spitting Rain
3 Several Tropic Birds. –
4 Bent the Old Jibb -
6 Fresh Breezes & Fair Wr. In lower Studding Sail
7 Let fresh Water into the Ship & Worked the Pumps -
9 Squally inclineable to Rain.
12 Fresh gale and fine Wr.
6 Down T. Gall Yds. & Bent the Old T.G. Sails Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel as usual for Breakfast – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner & Sour Krout. –
8 Up T.G. Yards – Bent the old Fore Sail – Washed Ship and aired with Fires. –
10 Broached a Punch. of Spruce Beer for the People. –
12 Fresh Gale & Fair Wr. – Assistant in Compy. but not able to keep way with us for the first time since we left Timor. –
Tropic Birds seen –

[Page 172]
Rems Saturday October 27th 1792 Observations
1 Fresh Gales and fair Wr. – Sailmakers employed the 2d. best Fore Sail. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship & Worked the Pumps.
8 In T.G Sls. And Fore Top Mast Studding Sail.
5 Set lower & Fore Top Mast Studding Sails.
6 Tropic Birds & Sheerwaters – Mother Careys Chicken & Flying Fish. –
8 Served hot Breakfast as yesterday – Krout as usual. –
9 Cleaned & aired with Fires – People empld. washg. & mendg. Clothes. –
12 Fresh Gales & Hazy – Assistant in Compy. but we are obliged to spare her Sail –

[Page 173]
Rems Sunday Oct. 28th. 1792 – Observations
1 Fresh Gales and Cloudy Wr. with Haze.
2. People employed mending and washing their Clothes –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship & worked the Pumps as usual –
12 Squally wth. light sprinkling of Rain
2 Strong Breezes & Fair Wr.
5 Set lower Studding Sail
6 Served Thick portable soup Gruel for Breakfast – Sour Krout & Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner. –
9 Cleaned below & aired wth. Fires – Mustered in Divisions & saw every person clean dressed – Performed Divine Service. –
12 Flying Fish seen. –
Fresh Gale & Fine Wr.
Assistant in Company – Keeps good way with us –

[Page 174]
Rems Monday October 29th. 1792 Observations
1 Fresh Gale and fine Wr.
3 Sheerwaters & Flying Fish –
4 Cloudy Wr.
6 Worked the Pumps –
8 Cloudy. In lower Studding Sail. –
5 Set lower [Steering?] & out 1st. Reefs –
8 Set T.G. Studding Sails. – Served Hot Breakfast as usual – Bore Cole with Portable Soup thickened with oatmeal for Dinner – served Vinegars –
11 Washed below & dried with Fires
12 Fresh Gale & Fair Wrs. –
Assistant in Company. –

[Page 175]
Rems. Tuesday October 30th. 1792 – Observations
1 Strong Breezes and fair Wr. Empld making Points – Sailmakers mending the best T.G. Sails
5 Let fresh Water into the Ship & worked the Pumps as usual – In 1st. Reefs - & set the Studding Sails again. –
8 Mod. Breezes and fine Night
10 Moon Full
4 Cloudy
5 Out 1st Reefs. & set T.G. Studding Sails
6 Saw Tropic Bird.
7 Cleaned below & aired with Fires
8 Exercised – Great Guns. – Served Hot breakfast as usual – Broached a Puncheon of Spruce Beer for the Ship’s Company –
12 Fresh Breezes & fine Wr. Assistant in Company –

[Page 176]
Rems. Wednesday Oct. 31st. 1791 Observations
1 Fresh Breezes and fair Wrs. – Shortned Sail & sent the Boat for Lieut. Portlock
5 Worked the Pumps as usual
6 Shortned Sail – Lieut. Portlock returned
7 In 1st Reefs & set Fore & Top Mast Studding Sail.
12 A Dew – Caught a Flying Fish that flew in upon the Decks. –
5 Out all reefs & set Studding Sails both sides –
8 Served Hot Breakfast & Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner. –
10 Washed below & Dried with Fires – Saw a Tropic Bird. – Sailmakers putting a reef to best . –Miz. Top Sail. -
12 Do. Wr.
My Plants look charmingly extremely well & I hope very few more will die. This last week not above two have gone off this last week –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 177]
Rems Thursday November 1st. 1792 Towards Observations
1 Mod. Breezes and Cloudy Wr. – opened a Cask of Pork No 1 Conts. 128 Dble pieces –
2 Sailmakers empld. repairing the Miz-Top Sail.
4 Confused Swell & Squalls of Rain about the Horizon. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and Worked the Pumps – Saw a Tropic Bird.
8 Fair Wr. In 1st. Reefs & set lower & fore Top Mt. Studding Sails –
2 Squally - some light Rain
4 Dark Cloudy Wr. out Reefs
5 Set T.G. Studding Sails – Scrubbed Hammocks
6 Saw Many Flying Fish
8 Fair Wr. Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner. –
10 Cleaned & Aired with Fires – Exercised Great Guns & small arms. Served slops and Tobacco – Read the Articles of War &c.
12 Mod Breezes & fair Wr. Swell regular from the Eastward. – Broached a Puncheon of Spruce Beer –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 178]
Rems. Friday Novembr. 2nd. 1792 Cape Good Hope –
1 Mod. Breezes and cloudy – Sailmakers employed about the Miz. TS.
4 Fair Wr. with heavy dark clouds in the SW Saw a Tropic Bird diving for Fish like a Gannet –
6 Worked the Pumps –
7 In 1st. Reefs & set Fore & Fore top Mt. Studding Sail
8 Very confused swell.
10 Cloudy Wr.
4 Dark squally Wr. to the Eastd.
5 Out Reefs set all Steering Sails. –
8 Fair Wr. Served Portable Soup as Yesterday and Mustard to the Ships Company –
9 Cleaned below & aired with Fires – Shifted Hammocks. Aired all Bedding. –
11 Carpenters caulking the Main Deck abt. the Windlass –
12 Fair Wr – Squally about the Horizon wth. showers, but none wth. us – A Confused Swell – Saw Tropic Birds. –
Assistant in Company –

[Page 179]
Rems. Saturday Novembr. 3d. 1792 Towards –
1 Light Breezes & fair Wr – Squally around the Horizon.
2 Carpenters caulking the Main Deck – 3 Took the sails out of the Sail Rooms and aired them –
4 Wind & weather unsettled.
7 In 1st. Reefs
2 Small spitting Rain
4 Cloudy
5 Out Reefs – Saw a Sanderling – Tropic Birds and Dolphin. – Past a log of Wood and saw many Squids or Scuttle Fish. –
8 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakft. Washed and cleaned below and dried with Fires. – Afterwards employed mending Clothes and Washing. –
12 Light Winds & Fair Wr., with squalls all around the Horizon, and some Rain. –
Broached a Puncheon of Spruce Beer. –
Assistant in Company

[Page 180]
Rems. Sunday November 4th. 1792 Cape Good Hope
1 Moderate Breezes and cloudy Wr.
2 Employed Washing & mending Clothes as customary on Saturdays –
4 Saw many Dolphin, Albecores & Shools of small Flying Fish – Many Sea Birds some of them the species of Gulls as seen near Timor & New Holland – Tropic Birds & one Albetross – The latter wth. a great swell from the southward indicates a strong wind from thence. –
9 At Dark in 1st. Reefs. –
10 Squally in 2 Reefs –
12 Fresh Gale & great sea from the WSW which obliged us to take in 3d. Reefs, & get down Fore T.G. Yard, the Ship falling so heavy into it. –
4 Strong gales and dark Cloudy Wr.
6 Saw two Cape Hens – Tropic Birds. Albecores and other Fish. – Down M.T.G.Y.
8 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner –
9 Cleaned & aired below with fires – Mustered the people as usual in Divisions and Performed Divine Service. –
12 Strong Gale & open cloudy Wr. – A considerable Head Sea –
Island Rodrigues lies in 19° 41’S 63° 10’E
Assistant in Company.

[Page 181]
Rems. Monday November 5th. 1792 Towards –
1 Strong Gales & Cloudy Wr. – Head Sea. –
2 Tropic Birds & Sheerwaters – Saw some Rock weed.
5 More Moderate out 3d. Reef M.TS. –
12 Out 3d. Reef of the Fore Top Sail
4 Fresh Breezes and fine Wr. out 2nd. Reefs & up T.G. Yards
6 Out all Reefs & set Studding Sails
8 Served Hot breakfast as usual – Bore Cole & Portable Soup for Dinner and a half pint of Vinegar Pr. Man as customary on this day. –
10 Tropic Birds & a species of Gulls –
12 Fresh Gale & open Cloudy Wr. – Served a Puncheon of Spruce Beer for the use of the day. – Confused Sea –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 182]
Rems. Tuesday November 6th. 1792 – Cape Good Hope
1 Fresh Gale & fair Wr. – Greased the Masts and Topsail Sheets. – Saw an Albetross
3 At ½ past 4 Died Thomas Licksman of the Marines. – This poor Man by catching Cold & an improper use of Arrack wch. he procured at Timor, was seized with a Diarrhoa seized him - It was the 21st. Oct. before he complained since which time the Flux has continued to his death. – He was a Poor worn out creature from hard drinking before he embarked, & being employed in the Ward Room untill lately, his access to liquor made him much worse. – The Colds caught in the Climate of Timor have been very troublesome, so that a few of my People are not yet quite recovered. – Sick List to day consists of 10 Convalescents.
12 Cloudy Wr.
4 Out Reefs & set all Studding Sails
5 Saw Mother Careys Chicken – Tropic Birds, an Albetross & Sheerwaters – Some Fish. –
8 Served Hot breakfast as Usual – Sour Krout wth. Beef & Pudding for Dinner.
9 Buried Thos. Lickman. – Washed below and aired all parts with Fires – Got the Pumps up & Cleaned the Well, found it perfectly sweet. –
12 Exercised i Great Guns & Small Arms
Fair Wr. Cloudy. – Assistant in Compy –

[Page 183]
Rems Wednesday November 7th. 1792 Towards
1 Modr. Breezes and Fair Wr. – Sold the Effects of Thos. Lickman Marine. –
3 Tropic Birds & Sheerwaters. –
4 Sailmakers repairing Old Jibb & Carpenters Caulking. –
6 Cloudy Wr. inclineable to Rain. Worked the Pumps as usual. –
8 Mod. And Cloudy. In 1st Reefs & set Fore T. Mast Studding Sail –
12 Star light & fine Night –
4 Cloudy Wr. – Set T.G. T.Mast & lower Studding Sails. – Scrubbed Hammocks. –
8 Mod & Fair Wr. – Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast. – Portable soup in the Pease for Dinner. –
10 Cleaned & aired with Fires – Cleaned the Boatswain’s Store Room & aired it wth. Fire.
11 Exercised Great Guns & small arms –
12 Fresh Breezes & Fair Wr. – Broached a Punch. Spruce Beer for the People –
Assistant in Company & out sails us. – Mauritius lies in 20° 10’S. 57° 29’E.

That I might be able to discover, if after my passing the Tropic I lost more Breadfruit Plants than in a hotter climate, I had an account taken of them yesterday which was as follows –
725 Pots & Tubs containing fine healthy Plants
  10 Do & Do containing Sickly Plants
735 Total stands – These, not not including the 10 Sickly plants, hold 936 –
Most of the Extra Plants taken up at Otaheite are doing equally well. – There remains in a most perfect state. - 24 Pots of Rattahs
                34 do – of Ayyahs
                23 do – of Avees
                6 do – of Ettow
                6 do – of Mattee
                7 do – of Orraiahs
                2 do – of Vai,eehs
                7 do – of Peeahs
                109 Total
On leaving Otaheite our Vessels containing Bread Fruit Plants were 1151 so that 416 have totaly lost the Plants.
We have lost also 1 Pot of Rattahs
                        3 do of Ayyahs
                        2 do of Avees
                        3 do of Oraiahs
There was a mistake in estimating the number of Plants on leaving Otaheite, for according to our account at this time in the proportion of 946 remaining, there could not have been more than 1650 plants in the 1151 stands. –
From Otaheite to Timor our loss has been 224 Pots of Breadfruit
From Timor to this day 192 do do

[Page 185]
Rems. Thursday November 8th. 1792 Towards
1 Fresh Breezes and Fair Wr. – Tropic Birds & some Flying Fish –
3 Sailmakers employed repairing the Jib – Carpenters about the Small Cutter
6 Let fresh Water into the Pumps and Ventilated as usual. –
8 In 1st. Reefs and Set Fore Top Mast Steering Sails. -
12 Much Dew.
4 Out Reefs – Scrubbed Hammocks. –
6 Tropic Birds & Sheerwaters
9 Fine Wr. & hazy round the Horizon – Hot Breakfast as usual & Krout in the Pease for Dinner –
11 Got the Starboard Cables up and cleaned thoroughly. – Aired with Fires. –
12 Do. Wr. Smooth Water. –
Assistant in Company. –
NB The Air on Deck is a half Degree warmer than in the Cabbin where the Therm. is hung up –

[Page 186]
Rems. Friday Nov. 9th. 1792. Cape of Good Hope
1 Moderate Breezes and fine Wr. with Haze.
2 Tropic Birds – Carpenters Painting the small Cutters – Sailmakers repairing the Jibbs
6 Worked the Pumps as usual.
7 In 1st. Reefs.
8 Inclineable to Calm – Heavy Dew.
12 Fine Night
4 Coudy Wr.
6 Sheerwaters & Tropic Birds. –
8 Mod. & Fair Wr. & smooth Water – Hot Breakfast as usual & Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner. –
10 Carpenters Employed Caulking round the Quick Work of the Fore Castle. – Roused the Larboard Cables up & cleaned thoroughly – Aired with Fires. – Opend. Cask Pork No 9 Conts. 113 Dble Pieces. –
12 Light Winds & Fair Wr. but just at Noon it came Cloudy & lost the observation.
Smooth Water – Latd. Pr. Col. Is from Dble. Altds. –
Assistant in Company
An Altd. At Noon by T.K. 80° 15 [indecipherable] Latd. 26° 40S

[Page 187]
Rems. Saturday Nov. 10th 1792 Towards
1 Light Winds & Fair Wr. with Haze.
4 Much swell from the WSW. –Saw Dolphins and two Dragon Flies. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship & Ventilated with the Pumps as usual. –
9 Heavy Dew & swell from the WSW
3 Light Winds & Fair Wr. – Set all sail
5 Saw Dolphins – An Albetross – a Mother Careys Chicken & Sheerwaters –
7 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast – Sour Krout as usual. –
9 Washed & Cleaned below – Dried & aired with Fires. –
10 People mending & Cleaning Clothes
12 Light Winds inclineable to Calm – Swell from the WSW - - My Plants are doing remarkably well. –
NB Assistant in Company –
Column of L & DR is found from a mean of [indecipherable symbol] observations – see Page following. –

[Page 188]
I informed the Botanists Gardeners to day that I now had it in my power to put into St. Augustin Bay if they thought it would be any way advantageous to our Plants. –I had plenty of Water on board & more than they could use before we arrived at St Hellena – They might consider the loss of time in going into St. Augustine equal to 14 Days at least, & that my arrival at St. Hellena would be in six or Seven Weeks if we proceeded on. – I ordered them to report to me in writing, in consequence of which I received the following letter.
                                                                        Nov. 10th. 1792
As the success of the Voyage principally depends on the expedition of it, the Reason for not touching at. Madagascar are many and weighty, nothing but a want of water could countenance this step, and that you have represented to us, is happily by no means the case. – The Plants at this time are in a very vigorous, healthy state, and have been hardened so gradually by proceeding with such caution to the Southward, that we have great reason to expect they will scarcely experience any Inconvenience by the Climate of the Cape of Good Hope: whereas, were we to put into. Madagascar, the Weather would most probably be extremely hot, perhaps to make the difference of ten Degrees in the Thermometer; this would cause the Plants to become very tender and make long weak shoots; in this state they would be very unfit to endure a cold climate, and proceeding with them immediately round [indecipherable words] the Cape, which you would be obliged to do, would undoubtedly destroy great Numbers of them and materially injure the whole Collection. – While the Plants are on board, they will profit nothing from the land air received when at Anchor, and not enough to be perceived, by a few washings of fresh water, except we had been in absolute want of it. - - It is well known & we have experienced that Sea air is very destructive to Vegetable Bodies, of course the more dispatch used to release them from such a dangerous situation, the greater will be the success; but allowing the Plants would be in some measure invigorated by the use of immediate fresh water, & that they would suffer nothing by being suddenly transported from a cold to a hot and again from a hot to a cold climate, (which they certainly would do) even all this would not be sufficient to counter balance the Injury the Collection would sustain [indecipherable words] by the delay of time only. - - It is impossible to procure to procure better Water for the plants at Madagascar or elsewhere than that

[Page 189]
on board, and when it had been six days in Casks, would, in respect to freshness be no means superior to that of Timor. – Upon the whole, the plants have been habituated by almost insensible degrees to endure the Climate of the Cape, and they appear so strong and healthy that we have little to fear on that head: therefore, the touching at Madagascar in the present circumstances, would not only be unnecessary delay, but in our opinions, running a very dangerous risk. – We are Sir your
                                        Hble Servts. - &c. James Wiles
                                                                Christian Smith. –
As I perfectly agree with the Botanist Gardeners in opinion about the Plants, I do not intend to touch at Madagascar, but proceed round the Cape for St Hellena. – At this time of the Year the NW Winds begin to blow, & send in a heavy sea to St Augustine Bay, so that at any rate touching at that place is not proper as my ground tackling not being sufficient. –
From a Mean of the Lunar Observations for the last six days they give 11’:09" to the eastward of the Mean of the Time Keepers – the True Longitude, (therefore) yesterday at Noon, I consider to be 51°26’E according to the observations, but as they were all on one side of the [indecipherable symbol] perhaps the T.Keepers are not so much wrong. –

[Page 190]
Rems Sunday 11th. November 1792 Observat.
1 Light Airs & fair – Saw a Albetross & some Bonetas. – Opened a Cask of Beef No 1605 Conts. 66 Dble Pieces –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and Worked the Pumps. –
8 A very large body of dark clouds passed over head from whence issued a small Meteor – An extraordinary wisling and ripling in the Water about 5 Yds. Dia. Passed along side of us without our feeling any effect from it – a light coloured spot the size of a Hat was in the Center of it, the other part appeared as like a smart shower of Rain falling on it – a few drops were bearly discernable to fall on the Ship – Its motion was with the Wind wch. was a light Air Easterly. –
5 Fair Wr. set all Sail. –
7 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner – Krout as usual. –
9 Saw an American Ship in the SW Hull down – She steered to the ESE. –
10 Mustered the Ship’s Company and performed Divine Service. –
12 Fresh Breezes & Fair Wr. – Bonetos and Flying Fish. – Broached a Puncheon of Spruce Beer. –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 191]
Rems. Monday 12th. November 1792 Towards
1 Fresh Gale and fair Wr. – In T.Gallt Studding Sails –
2 Many Squids & Bonetas – Albecores & a Species of Whale.
4 Very thick Haze about the Horizon.
6 Ventilated with the Pumps as usual In Studding Sails and shortned sail for the Assistant. –
8 In 1st. Reefs
10 In 2d. Reefs – Heavy Dew falling
5 Very hazy Wr. and Moist Air – Passed through some Scum – Saw some Albetrosses
7 Served thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast – Bore Cole & Portable Soup thickened with Oatmeal for Dinner – Vinegar as usual on this day. –
10 Cleaned below & aired well with Fires. –
11 Hands Picking Oakum.
12 Fresh Gales & very Hazy Wr. & Moist Air – Under Dble Reefs the Assistant being not able to keep up with more sail. –

[Page 192]
Rems. Tuesday 13th. November 1792 Cape of G Hope
1 Fresh gale & squally.
4 Fresh Breezes & Cloudy threatening Rain out 2d. Reefs –
6 Worked the Pumps as usual – Saw a Curlew
8 In 2d. Reefs.
10 Light Winds backing to the SW – Made the Signal & wore Ship. –
1 Very Squally & thick Wr. spitting Rain – Close Reefed the Top Sails & down T.G. Yards – Great head Sea –
4 Moderate with very heavy Clouds. –
5 Out 3rd. Reefs.
6 Saw an Albetross & Whale
8 Fresh Breezes and fair Wr. – Hot breakfast as usual, and Krout every day –
9 Cleaned below & aired with Fires – Exercised Great Guns. – Sailmakers repair. T.G. Sails. – Hands picking Oakum –
11 Surveyed old Rope. –
12 Mod. & Fair Wr – Assistant in Company Broached a Puncheon of Spruce Beer – Much Sea from the Westd.

[Page 193]
Rems Wednesday 14th. November 1792. Towards
1 Mod. And fair Wr. out 2d. Reefs. –
2 Saw an Albetross. –
5 Up Main T.G. Yard. Too much sea from the Westward to do more.
12 Light Winds
4 Up Fore T.G. Yard. – out Reefs –
5 Saw a Pintada Bird.
7 Inclineable to Calm
8 Served Hot Breakfast as usual – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner – Krout as before. –
10 Washed & dried below with fires – Carpents. caulking Quick Work – Hands Picking Oakum Sailmakers repairing Jib. – Exercised small arms. –
12 Saw Albecores
Calm & fair Wr. – Great swell from the West. Ship rolling at times very deep –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 194]
Rems. Thursdy. 15th. Novemr. 1792 – Cape of Good Hope
1 Fair Wr. – A great swell from the WSW. Some Albetrosses & Sheerwaters. –
4 Light Winds – Fish.
6 Let fresh Water into the Ships & worked the Pumps as usual.
8 In 1st Reefs & set Fore & Fore Top Mt. Studding Sail. –
4 Fine Wr. out 1st. Reefs. & made all sail –
6 Albetrosses - Sheerwaters & some Albecores. –
8 Served Hot Breakfast as usual – Portable soup in the Pease & Krout for Dinner as customary. –
10 Washed the After Cockpit & Cabbins out with boiling Water – Dried with Fires. –
11 Carpenters Caulking the Quick work Marines Exercising at Small Arms. –
12 Fine Wr. Still considerable swell from the WSW. – Broachd. Pun Spruce Beer. –
The Thermr. to day was 1 Deg. higher on Deck than in its place. –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 195]
Rems. Friday November 16th. 1792 Towards The
1 Light airs & Calms. – Albecores & othe Fish – Albetrosses & Mother Careys Chicken. –
3 Carpenters Employed Caulking the Quick Work – Hands picking Oakum. –
5 Let fresh Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps
9 Lightning in the NW.
12 Light airs
5 Squally in 2d. Reefs. Wind backed – Wore Ship. –
6 Served thick portable SoupGruel for Breakfast – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner. –
9 Cleaned below & aired with Fires. – Caught an Albecore. –
12 Fresh Gale & fair Wr. Assistant in Company. - Head Sea. –
Rems. Saturday November 17th. 1792.
1 Fresh Gale and Fair Wr.
6 Worked the Pumps as usual
4 Out 2d. Reefs. & made all Sail – Served Hot Breakfast &c, as usual. –
6 Washed Ship and the Fore Cock pit wth. boiling Water. Dried with Fires. –
9 Albetrosses – Sheerwaters and Fish seen. –
12 Light Winds & fine Wr. Broached a Puncheon of Spruce Beer for the People. – A head Sea. –
Assistant in Company

[Page 196]
Rems. Sunday 18th. November 1792 Cape of Good Hope
1 Light Winds and fine Wr. – Employed Mending & Washing Clothes. –
3 Albetrosses & a Pintada Bird seen. –
6 Worked the Pumps as usual
8 Mod. and fine Night carrying all sails.
12 Sea from the westward gone down. –
6 Served Hot breakfast as usual – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner – Krout as customary. –
8 Mustered the Ships Company & saw every Person clean dressed. – They were remarkably well looking. – aired below with Fires – Performed Divine Service. –
12 Fresh Gale & Hazy Wr. T.G. Studding Sls. & all sail set.
My Plants doing charmingly. –
Assistant in Company –

 Rems. Monday 19th. November 1792
1 Fresh gale & very cloudy wth. Haze – Pintada Birds. –
4 Some Flocks of Oceanic Birds and Fish about. – Shortned sail for the Assistant. –
6 Worked the Pumps as usual.
8 Very dark Sky in the West. In 1st. Reefs & set Fore & Fore T.Mt. Studding Sails. –
4 Mod. & Cloudy out all Reefs & set T.G. Studding Sl. & Royals.
6 Served Hot breakfast &c. &c. as usual on this Day. – Opened Cask Pork No 15 Conts. 130 Dble Pices – Saw two Spermaceti Whales & a School of Finners – Aired below wth. Fires – Broached a Punch. Spruce Beer –
12 Mod. Breezes & hazy Wr. like a Mist, and a very moist air. –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 197]
Rems Tuesday November the 20th 1792 Towards The
1 Mod. Breezes and cloudy Wr. – Hazy like a a Mist.
3 Fish & Sea Birds about – Saw a Swallow.
4 In Studding Sails & trimmed to the Wind.
6 Worked the Pumps & let fresh Water into the Ship
7 In 1st Reefs & Tkd. –
10 Fine Night with Lightning in the East. –
12 Lightning all round. – A fresh breeze sprung up –
6 Served thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast. – sour Krout as usual every day. –
9 Washed & Cleaned Ship – Dried thoroughly with Fires. –
11 Tkd.
12 Mod. & Fair Wr. Albetrosses & sea Birds abt.
Assistant in Company. – Hazy Horizon. –

Rems. Wednesday November 21st. 1792 Towards The
1 Mod. & fair Wr. with Haze. –
3 Saw a Whale – Albetrosses & Sheerwaters – A Sea rising fast from the Westward. –
6 Pumped Ship as usual – A Great Head Sea. – In 2d. Reef TS. – Down fore T.G. Yard. –
4 Up Fore T.G. Yard & out 2d. Reefs.
7 Set Studding Sails
8 Served Hot breakfast as usual & Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner Broached a Punchn. of Spruce Beer . – Cleaned below –
12 Fair Wr. & Cloudy. – My plants doing very well. – Assistant in Company. –

[Page 198]
Rems. Thursdy. Novemb 22d. 1792 Cape Good Hope
1 Mod. Breezes & Cloudy Wr. – It prevents me from getting any Lunar observations. –
6 Worked the Pumps as usual. – Saw a Cape Hen. –
4 Squally in Studding sails
6 Fresh Breezes Set all Studding Sails & F.T.G. Royal.
7 Served Hot breakfast as usual. – Portable Soup in the Pease for dinner. – Krout as before. –
9 Cleaned Ship & aired with Fires. – Hands employed about the Rigging. –
12 Strong Breezes & Fair Wr. but too Cloudy for to get Lunar observations. – Albetrosses and Sheerwaters. –
Assistant in Company

Rems. Friday November 23d. 1792 Cape Good Hope
1 Fair Wr. & Cloudy.
3 Pintaoa Bird, a few Albetrosses, & some Sheerwaters. –
6 Worked the Pumps as usual. –
8 Fresh Gale & Cloudy Wr. In Studding & first Reefs
12 Squally with a little Rain
4 Tkd.
5 Served Hot breakfast as usual – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner – Krout a half pint Pr. Man.
7 Unbent the Fore TS to repair – Cleaned below – Hands abt. the Rigging. –
10 Broached a Punch. Of Spruce Beer
12 Mod. And fair Wr. – smooth Water –
Assistant in Company. –

[Page 199]
Rems. Saturdy. November 24th. 1792 Towards the
1 Mod and fair Wr. – at times a little Squally –
3 Sailmakers repairing the Fore Top Sail –
4 Fine Wr. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and Worked the Pumps – Saw Albetrosses and Sheerwaters. –

1 Squally. & much Head Sea –
6 Fair Wr. – Albetrosses & Sheerwaters. –
7 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast Sour Krout with their Beef & Pudding for Dinner.
9 Empld. getting every thing up from below
10 Washing & cleaning Ship – Dried with Fires.
12 Fine Wr. – Assistant in Company. –
Column of [indecipherable word] and DR is found the mean of the observs. yesterday & to day. –

Rems. Sunday November 25. 1792 Observations
1 Light Winds & Fine Wr. – People Empld. Mending Cleaning Clothes.
4 Set Studding Sails. Saw a Shark.
4 Saw a Whale – Cloudy Wr. – Head Sea.
6 Served Hot Breakfast &c. as usual.
7 Cleaned below – Mustered the Ships Compy. and performed Divine Service. –
12 Cloudy Wr. with bright intervals – Wind shifted suddenly. – Broached Pun. Spruce Beer
Assistant in Company.

[Page 200]
Rems. Monday November 26th. 1792 Cape Good Hope
1 Light Breezes and cloudy Wr. – Swell from the SW. –
4 A school of Whales seen & some Albetrosses. –
8 In 1st. Reefs. – Fine Wr.
6 Served Hot breakfast as usual – Bore Cole & Portable Soup for Dinner – Vinegar & Sour Krout. –
9 Employed mending sails, Picking Oakum Cleaning Ship & about the Rigging. –
11 Saw two Whales & a Portugese Man of War. –
12 Fine Wr. & Calm – Assistant in Company.
Swell from the SW –

Rems. Tuesday November 27. 1792 – Observations
1 Fine Wr. & Calm – Sounded wth. 248 fms of line but found no ground –
4 Saw a School of Spermaceti Whales – A Shark – Pilot Fish – A few pieces of Rock Weed called Trumpet Weed & abounds about the Cape Shore. – Some Pintada Birds, Albetrosses & Sheerwaters.
9 Light Winds and fair Wr. Lightning in the NW from whence the Wind freshened up and by 3 O’Clock brought us under close reefed Top Sls.
1 Much Lightning in the SSE. –
4 Strong Gales & Squally & some Rain wch. by 8 O’Clock obliged us to furl all sails & strike T.G. Masts. –
8 Very Hard Gale but not so violent as before We set the Courses two Reefs in the Fore Sail & one in the Main Sail. –
12 Strong Gales & Squally. – Hot Breakfast &c. &c. served as usual. – Few Oceanic Birds –
Assistant in Company. -

[Page 201]
Rems Wednesday November 28. 1792 Towards The
1 Strong Gales and squally with some showers of Rain. – Few Albetrosses, Sheerwaters & Mother Careys Chicken. –
4 Gale increasing - Handed Main Sail – In Spritsail TS Yard. – Got all all small Sails and Top hamper down below.
6 Made the Signal to the Assistant and Wore Ship for I expected the advantage of a Current setting to the WSW & SW. – Laid to under close Reef Fore Sail & Miz Stay Sail
12 Violent Winds with squalls of Rain & Lightning – A High Sea. –
4 Very hard Gale & Clear Wr.
8 More Modt. – Hot breakfast as usual & other extra Provisions. – Cleaned & aired below wth. Fires. –
10 Set Main Top Sail
12 Strong Gales & Fair Wr. – Set Fore & Mizen Top Sails & out 2d. of the Fore Sail. – Assistant in Company. –
My plants have been shut up close these few days past, they are nevertheless doing well, but these adverse Winds are much against them. –

[Page 202]
Rems. Thursdy. November 29th. 1792 C. Good Hope
1 Strong Gales and fair Wr. – out Reefs of the Courses.
2 Unbent the Fore Sail and Main Top Sail and bent the best. – Sailmakers Employed repairing Top Gallt. Sails. –
4 Saw a Few Pintada Birds, Albetrosses and Sheerwaters. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship & ventilated with the Pumps. –
8 Expecting the Wind to come from the SW, I took this favorable chance of standing to the southward to enable me to lie well up for the Cape on the next tack. –
7 Served thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast & Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner. –
9 Washed & Cleaned Ship and dried well with Fires. –
12 Fair Wr. with strong Squalls – Under Dble Reef Main TS, 3 Reefs in the Fore and 2 in the Miz. Topsl. – Broach. Puns. S. Beer –
Assistant in Company

[Page 203]
Rems Friday Nov. 30th. 1792. Towards The Cape
1 Strong Gale and Squally. In 3d. Reef Main TS. –
3 Foremast Main futtock Shroud and Topsl. Sheet Block Strop gave way – fitted new ones. –
8 Down Top Gallt. Masts.
4 Wore Ship.
5 Gale moderating – Up Top Gallt. Masts and out Reefs as it became less Wind.
7 Served Hot Breakfast as usual.
8 Fresh Gales & fine Wr. a few Pintada Birds & Albetrosses. – Cleaned below & aired wth. Fires – Opened a Cask of Pork No 12 conts. 128 Dble Pieces –
11 Sour Krout & Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner. –
Sailmakers repairing T.G. Sails –
12 Fresh Gale & Fine Wr. – Under Single Reefs. –
Assistant in Company

[Page 204]
Rems. Saturday Decr. 1st. 1792. Good Hope
1 Fresh Gales & fine Wr. Up Top Gallt. Yards – Out 2d. Reefs. – Head Sea –
3 Saw a Cape Hen – some Albetrosses, Pintade Birds & Sheerwaters.
5 Worked the Pumps as usual
6 Felt Had a strong smell of Rock Weed our People who have been on the Whale Fishing said it was from some Whales near us. –
12 Calm & Fair Wr.
4 A Dew.
6 Saw a Shark – Some Guard Fish & many Blubbers. –
8 Fine Wr. – Hot breakfast as usual & extra allowances. –
9 Employed filling Salt Water & Mending T.G. Sails. – Carpenters painting. – Sounded wth. 248 fms of line but got no bottom –
12 Fine Wr. & a Breeze Springing Up. –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 205]
Rems. Sunday Decemb. 2nd. 1792 Towards The Cape
1 Mod. Breezes & fine Wr. with smooth Water. – Sent the Boat for Lieut. Portlock. – He reported his little Vessel to be in a good state & People healthy, altho some of them had suffered by a flux they had caught from the improper use of Arack at Timor –
6 Served Tobacco & Slops. –
Let fresh Water into the Ship and ventilated with the Pumps as usual.
10 In Studding Sails, & first Reefs, the Wind heading. –
2 Passed through strong riplings
6 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast. – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner – Krout as usual.
8 Mustered the Ship’s Company clean dressed and performed Divine Service –
10 Read the Articles of War.
11 Albetrosses, Pintada Birds – Carys Chickens & some Whales. –
12 Fresh Gales & Cloudy – Head Sea – In 2d. Reefs & Down T.G. Yards. –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 206]
Rems. Monday Decr. 3d. 1792 Of Good Hope
1 Fresh Gales & Cloudy. In 3rd. Reefs & Struck Fore T.G. Mast.
3 Hard Squalls and Rainy Wr. – Close Reefed Fore & Miz. TS.
4 Wore Ship. – Fresh Gale & Cloudy – out 3d. Reef Main Top Sail – Unbent the old Fore T. Mt. Stay Sl. to repair & bent the best. –
6 Fresh Gales & Fair Wr. – Birds as yesterdy. and sea from Westward. –
3 Fresh Breezed & Cloudy – Up Fore Top Gallt Mast and out Reefs, but the [1st?]. –
5 Saw Whales – Albetrosses – Pintada Birds & two small species of Gulls, called Gannups in the north Sea. –
8 Mod. & Fair Wr. – Served Hot breakfast as usual – Bore Cole & Portable Soup for Dinner – Vinegar as usual on this day.
10 Cleaned & Washed below & Dried with Fires – Sailmakers repairing Sails – Carpenters Caulking & Painting. –
12 Fair Wr. & Cloudy – Much swell from the WSW & inclineable to Calm –
Assistant in Company

[Page 207]
Rems. Tuesday Decr. 4th. 1792 Off the Cape Of
1 Calm & Fair Wr. much swell from the WSW
2 Employed repairing sails. –
4 Mod breezes & fair Wr.
6 Let fresh Water into the Pumps & ventilated as usual. –
8 Tkd.
3 In 2d. Reef Fore TS and 2d. of the Miz TS.
4 Fresh Breezes & Cloudy
5 In 2d. Reef Main Top Sail. – A great head Sea.
7 Down T.G. Yards & fore T.G. Mast – In 3rd. Reefs. –
8 Served Hot Breakfast as usual – Krout wth. their Beef for Dinner. –
9 Cleaned & aired below with Fires. – Sailmakers repairing sails. – Hands drawing yarns. – Opened a Cask of Bf Conts. 66 Dble ps. No. 1568. –
12 Strong Gales & Thick Misty Wr. – Wore Ship – Under Close Reefed TS and Courses. – A few Albetrosses, Pintada Birds & Mother Careys Chicken
Got a sight of the Sun at Noon by T.Keepers. – Broached a Pun. of Spruce Beer –
Assistant in Company

[Page 208]
Rems. Wednesday 5 Decr. 1792 Good Hope
1 Gale Moderating. – Birds & Whales – Much Head Sea –
4 Out 3d. Reefs. – Let fresh Water into the Ship & Ventilated with the Pumps –
6 Out 2d. Reefs of the Main & Miz. TS. Up Top Gallt. Yards
8 Fresh Gale & Cloudy Wr.
4 Mod. & Fair – Out Reefs & set Studding Sails
6 Saw Whales – Albetrosses – Pintada & Small Blue Petrels erals -
7 Served Hot Breakfast as usual & Sour Krout – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner. –
9 Sailmakers repairing Sails – Caprs. Caulking & painting – Cleaned Ship & aired with Fires. – Punishd. Jn. Divers wth 7 lashes for neglect of duty – Served Slops
12 Fair Wr. & Cloudy. – The Plants to my infinite satisfaction are doing very well. –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 209]
Rems Thursday Decr. 6th. 1792 Round The
1 Mod. Breezes & Fair Wr. & Cloudy –
2 Saw Porpoises – Whales – Albetrosses Pintada Birds, Sheerwaters and Mother Carys Chicken. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and Worked the Pumps. –
8 All sails Set.
12 Hove to and sounded with 248 fms. of Line – No Ground. –
4 Fresh Breezes & Cloudy
7 Whales & Porpoises seen as in the Evening – Passed a quantity of brown Scum on the Water –
9 Served Hot Breakfast – Krout & Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner
10 Carpenters caulking & Painting Sailmakers repairing Sails – Washed Ship & dried with Fires. –
12 Do. Wr. – All sail set – Broached a Puns. Of Spruce Beer. –
Assistant in Company
Cape Good Hope S79°E dis. 94 leags.
St Helena N44°W dis 490 leags.

[Page 210]
Rems. Friday Decr. 7th. 1792 Cape Good Hope
1 Fair Wr and cloudy with a fresh Breeze.
2 Porpoises & Oceanic Birds. –
6 Worked the Pumps as usual
11 Obliged to shorten sail at times for the Assistant to keep up with us. –
1 Porpoises –
6 Served Hot breakfast as usual – Cloudy Wr. but got a set of Lunar obs.
7 Employed as yesterday.
10 Served Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner –
12 Fresh Gales & Hazy – Obliged to shorten sail for the Assistant. –

[Page 211]
Rems. Saturday Decr. 8th. 1792 Towards
1 Fresh Gale & Fair Wr. with Haze.
2 Some Albetrosses, Pintade Birds, Mother Careys Chicken & the common Sheerwater. – Porpoises, and the species of Nautiluses, called Portugese Men of War. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Pumps Ship & ventilated with the Pumps
9 A heavy Dew.
12 Clear Wr.
6 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast – Krout as customary. –
8 Very Hazy Wr. Water smoother which enables the Assistant to keep way with us –
10 Employed cleaning Ship & airing with Fires – Painting – Sailmakers repairing Sails –
12 Fair pleasant Gale. – Assistant in Company. – All sails Set. –
Broached a Punch. Spruce Beer.

[Page 212]
Rems. Sunday Decr. 9th. 1792 St. Helena
1 Fair & pleasant Gale. – People empld. mendg and washing their Clothes
4 Saw a Whale – Some Oceanic Birds
5 Let fresh Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps –
8 Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Wr. – Burnt False Fires occasionally to show our station to the Assistant & to observe hers.
12 Fair Wr.
5 Cloudy Wr.
6 Served Hot Breakfast as usual & Krout with their Pease for Dinner –
8 Cleaned & aired with Fires – Saw the all hands clean dressed – Some thefts having been committed, searched for the articles stolen but could not discover the offenders – ordered all accts. of the Voyage to be given in untill my Lords Commissioners of the Admirly. should signify their pleasure what was to be done wth. them. –
Mod. & Cloudy with smooth Water – The Assistant now outsails us. –

[Page 213]
Rems Monday 10th. Decembr. 1792 Towards
1 Mod. and fair Wr.
4 Saw an Albetross & some Nautiluses
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship & worked the Pumps. –
12 Fresh Gale & Cloudy.
6 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast. – Bore Cole thickned with Portable Soup & Oatmeal for Dinner – Vinegar as usual on this Day – Broached a Puns. of Spruce Beer. –
9 Employed Washing & airing Ship with Fires – Sailmakers mending Sails – Carpenters Painting – Hands about the Rigging. –
12 Fair Wr. and pleasant air. –
Assistant in Company & outsails us. –

[Page 214]
Rems Tuesday 11th. Decemr. 1792 St. Helena.
1 Mod. Breezes and fair Wr.
3 Employed as yesterday. –
4 A few oceanic Birds seen & a few Flying Fish. –
7 As I had now again crossed the Tropic, I had my Plants counted in order to determine what I have lost in this My Middle Passage.
The Numbers now stand
651 Pots & Tubs of fine healthy Breadft. Plants
    4 Sickly
655 Total Vessels containing
830 Plants –
From Otaheite to Timor lost 224 Pots
From Timor to 7th. Novr 192 do.
From 7th. Novr. Round the Cape to this day 80 do.
Total = 496
Besides the above, We have } 1 Pot
of Ayyah’s lost
of Avees 5 Pots
of Oraiahs 1 Pot
        of Timor Plants Lost
Mango 1 Pot
Jambo 2 do
Breadfruit 1 do
12 Fine Wr. Assistant in Company.
N.B – Taking in the Lunr. – Obs. to day, the [prove?] the T.Ks to give 21’38" too far to the West – see the 8th. – Hence the Column of Lr. & DR is found to day. –

[Page 215]
Rems Wednesday 12. Decr. 1792 Towards
1 Mod. Breezes and fine Wr. – Opened a Cask of Pork No 11 conts. 129 Dble pieces
3 Punished Jn. Curry Seaman with 18 lashes for Thieving.
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps. – Saw an Albetross. –
6 Served Thick portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast – Krout in the Pease for Dinner. –
8 Employed repairing the Rigging – Mending Sails & Painting The Quick Work – Saw a Tropic Bird. –
10 Served Fishing Lines & Hooks to each Mess. –
12 Fine Wr. and pleasant air – Served a Puns. of Spruce Beer – Many Portugese Men of War (Nautilus) upon the Water. –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 216]
Rems. Thursday 13 Decr. 1792 St. Helena
1 Fine pleasant Wr. passed of Rockweed the stem of it large & long like that about the Cape. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship & worked the Pumps. –
8 Cloudy Wr.
5 Passed Rock Weed as in the Afternoon
8 Very Cloudy. Hot Breakfast &c. as usual.
9 Employed painting and mending Sails as yesterday. –
12 Cloudy Wr. with bright intervals. Assistant in Company. –

[Page 217]
Rems. Friday 14th. December 1792 Towards
1 Fair pleasant Wr. Carrying All Sail. –
3 Employed Repairing Sails, & painting –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps as usual.
12 Cloudy and very Dark.
6 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast. –
8 Cleaned & aired Ship with Fires. –
9 Employed painting the Lower Masts & repairing Sails & Rigging. – Greased the Top Mast & TS Sheets. –
12 Mod & Cloudy and a pleasant cool air – Broached a Puncheon of Spruce Beer for the Ships Company. –
Royals and all sail set –
Assistant in Company

[Page 218]
Rems. Saturday 15th. Decr. 1792 St. Helena
1 Mod and Cloudy Wr. & pleasant Air
2 Mustered the People & examined all their Clothes & took an account of them. –
4 Dark Cloudy Wr
6 I now considered myself in the Latd of St. Helena. –
7 Served Hot Breakfast as usual
8 Bent the Cables – Washed all Clothes Bags – Washed below & aired with Fires –
12 Very Cloudy Wr. and pleasant air – A bright interval gave us a good observ. as it did some observ. for the longd. in the Morning. –
Assistant in Company

 [Page 219]
Rems. Sunday December 16th. 1792 Towards
1 Mod. And Cloudy Wr. with some intervals of sunshine. –
3 Employed Washing and mending Cloathes
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps as usual –
8 Cloudy Wr. – Many Porpoises about the Ship. –
7 Very Cloudy Wr but a clear Horizon Shifted the Ship’s Company Hammocks
9 Hot Breakfast as usual –
10 Cleaned below – Mustered the People and performed Divine Service. –
12 Very Cloudy Wr. – Could only get some faint sights of the Sun for Dble Altds.
Assistant in Company

[Page 220]
Rems. Monday Decr. 17th. 1792 St. Helena
1 Light Breezes and Cloudy Wr.
5 At ¾ past 5 Saw St. Helena W ½ S dist. 9 leagues. – Made [indecipherable] Sigl. to the Assistant. –
6 Light airs & Cloudy Wr.
4 At day light St. Helena West 3 leags. Hoisted out Launch & All Boats & sent the 2d. Lieut on shore to wait on the Governor.
8 The Extremes of the Isld. S24° W to West offshore abt. 4 Miles. – At 9h.30’ abreast of the 1st. Battery when we were saluted from Ladder Hill with 15 Guns - returned an equal number.
10 At 10h:30’ Anchored in 13 fms. Water – James’s Church Tower & Flag staf in one S6°W ½ Mile from the shore. Sugar loaf Point N69°E – NW point S64°W. – Found lying here an English Whaler called the British Tar & a French Merchant-Man. –
Assistant in Company. –
N.B. The Columns give the longitude of the [sketch of an anchor] Place to which apply 23" – gives the longd. of James’s Church as on the day following. –

[Page 221]
Rems. At St. Helena. –
1792 Decembr.
Tuesday – 18
Mod. Winds and fine Wr. – Abt. 1 O’Clock PM sailed the French Ship. –
Warped ¾ of a Cables length farther in shore and came to in 13 fms with the Small Br. Mud & sandy bottom – Moored with a half Cable on the Bt. Br. in 19 fms, the Anchors lying in the line of the shore and an open Hawse to the Gusts of Wind which came down the Valley. – When Moored James’s Church Steeple S12° E, Dis. abt. ¾ Mile & ½ Mile from the Shore – The Flag Staff S16°E – Sugarloaf Point N66°E and the NW point S60°W. -
Unbent the Old Miz TS & sent it on shore for a Tent Unbent the best Main Topsl. & bent the old one – Sent Casks on shore & Cooper to repair them with a Party to clean wash them & fill Water. –
I ordered a Party to be on shore every morning at dawn of day to gather Water cresses and Wild Celery, & one Man of each Mess to be permitted to attend to fishing as they were supplied by me just before we arrived wth. Hooks & Lines for that purpose. – I also directed that the water made use of for the Plants, was to should be brought at the time it was wanted from the shore, and not to what remained longer in the Cask on board to be started. –
At Noon after I anchored an Officer was sent from the Governor to welcome us to the Island. – I landed at One O’Clock – was received by the Governor, & saluted with 13 Guns.

[Page 222]
Rems at St. Helena
Wednesdy. 19th Decr. 1792
First and middle part Mod. Breezes and hazy Wr. latter fresh Gales. –
Employed sending empty Water Casks on shore and in the Holds – Sent hands to gather Water Cresses – Caught some Spanish Mackrel – Received fresh Beef & Greens – Two Turn of Water – Soft Bread –
Thursdy. 20 Decr. 1792
Fresh Breezes and Squally. Employed sending on shore empty Casks & Watering. – Received fresh Beef & Greens besides Water Cresses. – Soft Bread –
[AM] Lieut. Col. Brooke Governor came on board – saluted him with 13 Guns. – Broached a Puns. of Spruce Beer.
Sailed the British Tar. –

Friday 21 Decr. 1792
Fresh Breezes & squally Wr. - Employed Watering – Recd. Fresh Beef & Greens besides Water Cresses. – Caught Fish alongside, Spanish Mackrel. – Soft Bread

Saturdy. Decr. 22 1792
Fresh Breezes & squally. Employed Watering and about the Rigging. PM arrived a Dutch Sloop of War (The Cornet) & saluted with 11 Guns – it was immediately ansd. by the Battery, & for that reason the Commandg Officer Lieut. Bond did not consider the salute to us. I was informed of it afterwards, & directed the salute to be returned the next morning with the same Number of Guns. –
At 9 am arrived the Prudenta a ship under Genoesa Colours, & at Noon His Majesty’s Sloop Atalanta Capt. Jn. Elphinstone and the Ganges East India Man from India, but last from the [indecipherable word] Cape of Good Hope. –
Washed & Cleaned below, & aired with Fires. – Broachd a Puns. Spruce Beer. – Recd. Fresh Beef & Greens & Soft Bread.

Sunday 23 Decr. 1792
Mod. & Cloudy Wr. Employed Watering, - Recd. Fresh Beef & Greens &c as before – Caught Fish alongside. – Sent the Plants on shore. – PM sailed the Cornet, Dutch Brig of War. – AM passed an American Ship. –

Monday 24 Decr. 1792
Mod. And fair Wr. Employed Watering & other necessary Duties. – Blacked the Bends. – Opened a Cask of Beef Conts. 66 Dble Pieces. – Washed & Cleaned Ship and dried with Fires. – Served Fresh Beef & Greens &c – Also Water - Cresses. – Ships draught of Water

                                                                        forward 15 ft 3"
                                                                        abaft 15ft 8"

[Page 223]
Rems. At St. Helena. –
1792 December Tuesday 25th.
Mod. Breezes & Cloudy Wr. – Employed receiving the last of our Water and in the Holds. – Washed between Decks and dried with Fires. – Served Fresh Beef, Greens &c. and Water Cresses and caught a few Fish. –
Wednesdy. 26
Mod. Breezes and fair Wr. – Washed & Cleaned Ship in all Parts and dried with Fires. – Served Fresh Beef &c – Received Water for present use – Employed getting ready for Sea – Broached a Puncheon of Spruce Beer –
On my first interview with the Governor, Lieut. Col. Brooke, I informed him of my orders to give into his care ten Breadfruit Plants and one of every other kind of which I had five. I requested of him that such places might be prepared to receive them as would secure to the Island a lasting supply of the invaluable Fruit which our most Gracious King for the welfare of his subjects had ordered to be planted on St. Helena. – Colonel Brooke expressed the greatest gratitude at His Majesty’s benign Wishes, and had from the first intimation he received of the Plants to be left with him, prepared ground for that purpose. – The situation he left to our opinion, and it was determined that the principal Plants being taken to a Valley near his Country Residence called the Plantation House, the rest should be planted in James’s Valley: accordingly every thing was prepared to receive and shade them and on the 23rd. I saw the whole landed from the Ship and Planted. small as this part was of the completion of our Voyage, there resulted from it a peculiar joy & satisfaction that repaid me for all my anxious cares for its success. – The Breadfruit Plant was given to the Major Robson the Lieut. Governor, and one to Mr. Rangham the first in Council. – I left also 1 Quart of Mountain Rice seed which requires no other moisture than Common Rains. –
The Peeah was the only article that required a particular description of its use, I therefore took our Otaheite Friends to the Governors House where they made a Pudding of the prepared parts of the Root I had brought from Otaheite, - It likewise can be used like powdered Sago, and may be called the sago root of Otaheite. -

[Page 224]
List of Plants left at St. Helena
                                                                                No. Plants

Fine healthy Breadfruit Plants one of which is 6 feet high 10
Sickly Plants and others apparently dead, two out of the }
whole likely to live } 13
Avee, or Apple of Otaheite, 2 Pots 2
Rattah, or Chesnut of Do. 1 Pot 4
Ayyah, or Jambo Iremavah of Java, 2 Pots 5
Mattee 1 Pot} 1
Ettow 1 Pot} Fine scarlet die of Otaheite{ 4
Peeah 2 Pots 2
                Timor Plants
Nanka or Jack – 1 Pot 4
Lemon China – 1 Do. 1
Jambo Mare – 1 Do. 2
Jambo Iremavah 1 Do. 4
Mango – 1 Do. 2
Peenang – Beetle Nutt – 1 Do. 2
Seeree boah – Long Pepper used with the Beetle Nutt 1 Pot 2
Seeree down – Black Pepper, the leaf used with the Beetle Nutt 1 Do. 2
Bunghn,ah Kanangah – A Perfume 1
                                                Total = 61____
The Plants received on Board from the Island
Were - Pots or Vessels of Plantains 3 Number of Plants 3
Pots of Green Tea 1 Do. Do. 1
Do. of Coffee 4 Do. Do. 17
Do. of China Orange 1 Do. Do. 1
Do. of Dwarf Peach 1 Do. Do. 1
Do. of Curiosity Plants 17 Do. Do. 17
Do. Of Ferntree 6 Do. Do. 6
                                                                Total = 46

From the Humble Mr. Cochrane out of the Ganges
Poor Worthless Plants{ Vessels of Mangos – 1 5
                        & of Indian Creepers & Guavas – 1 6
                                                                Total = 11
Provisions Received on Board here
Bread 1140 lbs
Rum 239 galls
Fresh Beef 1390 lbs
Four life Bullocks 3402 lbs
Hay 5
Note: Bills bore 10 pr. Ct. but the Company received them on account of the Service without any advance. -

[Page 225]
The Seasons have been so unfavourable to at St. Helena as to occasion a great loss of Cattle, and but little food for those which survived a great drougth ht – A vast swarm of insects have destroyed many of the Fruit Trees, but when we sailed there was an there was an appearance of favourable Rains, that which no doubt will restore every thing to its usual perfection. –
Few places in the World bear stronger marks of an unhealthy Climate than St. Helena when sailing we sail along its burnt up Clifts, huge masses of Rock fit only to resist the sea – yet few are superior to it for a fine free air and healthy situation. – In an extant of eight leagues in circuit, a mass of Vulcanick production, but little produce from agriculture can be expected, - yet its Valleys, and Hills in the Center of the Island, admit of cultivation, and would produce more, it is confidently asserted, if more industry was applied by the present possessors. –
The Inhabitants of this wonderful l little spot are not like all other Europeans who live in the Torrid Zone, but are healthy with good constitutions – The Women are fair & pretty. – I experienced no heat while here, nor felt any inconvenience from the Noon Day Sun – The Air in the whole was more refreshing & cool than any place I was ever at between the Latitudes of 28 Degrees North & South. – The Capital which is James Town lies in a deep and narrow Valley on the NW part of the Island – it is little other than one long street of Houses. Above the Town the Soldiers are lodged in Barracks, amounting at this time to nearly 550 Men. – The Houses are built after our English fashion, and are sufficiently cool, - most of them have thatched roofs – Houses roofed with Slates or Tileing in hot Countries have the most pernicious tendency, and I pronounce it as a certainty that when the People of James Town take adopt that modern improvement, they will feel the bad effects of it. –
Most of the principal people have Country Houses and small Farms where they generally reside when the India Ships are absent, for they care very little about any others, so that lodgings are scarce to people in transient Ships. – I was however fortunate in living with a Captain Statham, a well regulated House at the common Rate of 12 Shillings pr. day. – Our Otaheite Friends were highly delighted with what they saw here, - Col Brooke had them at his House & gave each of them a suit of Red Cloaths, - We are very much obliged to this Gentleman for his polite & kind attention. – St. Helena has derived great benefit under his Government – his improvements are remarkable, but not yet completed – they show strongly his skill as a Soldier in his System of Defence, as well as general advantage to the Community at large. –

[Page 226]
Among the St. Helena People in general there was not that satisfaction expressed at receiving the Plants I expected, - They did not consider that our vessel visit to them was to would render an essential good to the Island and was solely the cause which brought us there & that it was made for that purpose. – During any stay we had a sufficiency of Water Cresses and Garden Greens, and the Governor was kindly very bountiful l in his Supply of Fresh Beef. – Great caution is necessary in the expenditure of live Cattle, ships are therefore limited to a certain proportion the Island can afford according to circumstances; but other articles are disposable at the Will of the Proprietor, - here we laboured under disadvantages, - The India Ships make it of consequence to the seller to exchange his goods for Rice & other commodities which he had not, my People therefore, altho they had all a little money to dispose of, could not get a Gallon of Potatoes for Sea Store when the India Seamen had it in their power to supply themselves; - This was hard upon them after a Voyage of 5 Months wch. they had been from Otaheite. A Mr. Nipe refused to supply me us with Potatoes because I we had no Rice to give him in return, & a Mr. Mason refused me Hay because the quantity I applied for was not sufficient to make it worth his while to deliver it – What rendered this act of incivility odious worse was, those were the only People who had these articles ready to sell for sale – An Officer of the Garrison called Leister heard this circumstance by accident, & without my knowledge supplied me out of his private stock – The Governor also heard of it & supplied me very politely with both articles. –
If shipping had no other advantage in coming to at St. Helena than a supply of Fish, Water, & Water Cresses it is well worth their while to stop there. The Road is perfectly safe with good anchoring ground and a bold shore. It is only necessary to have a convenient sail set in coming in if the Weather is squally, as the flows of Wind come heavy off the land – Give a moderate birth to the shore untill the Town opens and Anchor off it where you please. When I came to, the Flag Staff & Tower were in one & I think we were in the most convenient part of the Bay. – The outer part of the Bank is steep. – Water is got conveniently from a Pier at the landing place where from a Recevoir the Casks are filled with the greatest expedition – A Surf sometimes detains you. – It is necessary to have a small Anchor & Hawser for the Boats to ride by. -

[Page 227]
Rems Thursday December 27th 1792 Towards
1 Modt. Breezes and Fair Wr. Received 4 Live Bullocks & a quantity of Hay.
3 Discharged Jn. Burden Seaman unserviceable into H.M. Ship Atalanta to be taken home. –
5 Unmoored Ship and hove into 1/3 of a Cable. – Sailed the Genoese
8 Rain in the Mountains.
11 Weighed under Single Reefs. – The Fort Battery on Ladder Hill saluted us with 13 Guns – Returned the same Number. – Bore away – James’s Valley SSE 2 Miles – Set all Sails.

2 Found Thomas Mathers had run from the Ship. He was Gunners Mate, a stout able Man, & is supposed to have been enticed away by the Town’s People. –
5 The extremes of St. Helena SbE to SE ½ S 9 leagues.
7 Saw Many Flying Fish & a St. Helena Pidgeon.
8 Light flying showers & Cloudy Wr. –
9 Unbent the Cables – Cleaned Ship & aired with Fires – Killed a Bullock & sent Fresh Meat to the Assistant. – Punished Jn. Letby & Jn. Curry with 8 lashes each for insolence & disobeying orders. –
12 Cloudy Wr. with bright intervals – All Studding Sails set. –
Assistant in Company

[Page 229]
Rems. on the Time Keepers

[Page 230]
Rems. Friday December 28th. 1792 St. Vincents
1 Mod & very cloudy with light showers of Rain. –
5 Let fresh Water into the Ship & worked the Pumps as usual.
8 Fresh Breezes & very Cloudy Wr.
9 Saw a Noddy
5 Very Cloudy Wr. and pleasant Breeze.
7 Served Hot breakfast of Portable Soup Gruel as customary. – Fresh Beef for Dinner.
9 People employed in washing their Clothes – Exercising at Great Guns – Sailmakers repairing the old Fore Sail. – Carpenters about the Boats. –
12 Do Wr. – The Sun only to be seen at times Broached a Puns. of Spruce Beer – All sails set
Assistant in Company.

[Page 231]
Rems. Saturday Decr. 29th. 1792 Towards
1 Fresh Breezes and very Cloudy Wr. – All Sails Set. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and Worked the Pumps –
2 Gunners employed in the Magazine
4 Scrubbed Hammocks. – Saw a Man of War Bird.
7 Light flying showers of Rain.
8 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast & Fresh Beef for Dinner. –
9 Washed the Ship in every part and dried thoroughly with Fires. –
10 Sailmakers repairing the Old Fore Sail –
12 Mod. & very Cloudy Wr. – The Sun to be seen at times. – Royals & all Sails set –
Assistant in Company

[Page 232]
Rems Sunday Decr 30th. 1792 St. Vincents
1 Mod. Breezes & Very Cloudy Wr. The Sun to be seen at times. –
3 People employed mending & washing Cloathes. –
5 Flying Fish seen –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship & ventilated with the Pumps as usual. –
5 Mod and fair Wr. – Saw Flying Fish and Tropic Birds. –
6 Served a Hot breakfast of Portable Soup Gruel – Krout with their Pork & Pease for Dinner. –
8 Mustered the Ship’s Company and saw them all clean – Performed Divine Service. –
12 Fair & pleasant Wr. – Assistant in company. – Broached a Punch: of Spruce Beer. –

[Page 233]
Rems Monday 31. December 1792
1 Fair & Pleasant Wr.
2 Many Flying Fish
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and Ventilated with the Pumps.
8 This Morng. I took an account of my Breadfruit Plants – I found remaining in fine order 603 Vessels & these contained 778 Plants. – The other Plants remain as at last counting. – Hitherto I trusted the counting to the Botanist Gardeners who have not been exact, as I am certain not a Plant has died since the 11 Decr. last. when there were Vessels contg.
                                                Br F. Plants – 655 830
                                                At Present - 603 778
                                                Loss = 52 52
6 Served Portable Soup Gruel for breakfast. – Bore Cole & Portable Soup thickened with Oatmeal for Dinner.
9 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms. –
10 Cleaned Ship. – Served every Man a half Pint of Vinegar as usual on this day. –Sailmakers repairing the Old Fore Sail.
12 Fine Wr. – Assistant in Company. –
Ascension N60°W dist. 80 Miles. -

[Page 234]
Rems Tuesday 1st. January 1792 Ascension
1 Fine Wr.
4 Unbent the 2d. best & bent the old Fore Sail. – Saw Tropic Birds & Men of War Birds. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and Worked the Pumps as usual. –
8 Note – From the distance deduced at Noon by the [sketch of )(] latd. and bearings, the longd. of Ascension is 14° 28’W.
Long of TK at St. Helena 5: 47
Difference Longd 8: 41
Long. St. Helena by Req. Tables 5: 49
True Longd. of Ascension 14: 30 W
Longd. by Requisite Tables 14: 21 W
Lat by do. 7: 56 ½ S
3 Altered the Course being to the northward of Ascension
5 Saw the Island Asscension bearing SWbS
6 The Etrs. S9°W to S25°W off shore 5 leags – Saw Gannet Boobies, Men of War & Tropic Birds & Mother Careys Chicken. –
8 Etrs. Of the Isld. S8°E to S3°W about 8 leagues Served a Hot Breakfast as usual. – Krout a half pint pr. Man their daily allowance. –
10 Washed below & dried with Fires. – Sailmakers repairing the Fore Top Mast stay sail. –
12 Fine Wr. Asscension S22°E dis. about 12 leagues. Broached a Puns. Spruce Beer by the Diff. Lat. & Bearings. The dist. is 15 legs. From the Center of the Island. –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 235]
Rems Wednesday 2d. January 1793 Towards
1 Fine pleasant Wr. – Sent for Lieut. Portlock.
2 Asscension SSE ½ E – 14 or 16 leags. Saw many Gannet Boobies. – 17 leags. by the [sketch of )(] Lat. and bearings of the Center of the Island –
6 Lieut. Portlock returned on board. – Let fresh Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps to Ventilate the Ship. –
5 Saw some Gannet Boobies and Flying Fish. –
7 Served thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner – Krout as usual. –
9 Mustered the Ships Company at their Quarters & Exercised Great Guns, & Small Arms. – Read the Articles of War – Served Slops – Cleaned below. –
12 Fine pleasant Wr. –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 236]
Rems Thursday 3d. January 1793 St. Vincents
1 Fine Pleasant Wr.
2 Saw a Gannet Booby – Bent the Old Fore Top Man Stay Sail. –
6 Worked the Pumps.
8 Cloudy Wr. threatening Rain.
12 Some Showers
3 Smart Showers of Rain
5 Fair Wr. & Cloudy – Saw Flying Fish –
8 Hot breakfast as usual. – Cleaned below & dried with fires. –
9 Exercised Great Guns & small Arms.
10 Sailmakers repairing old Miz. TS – Carps. Repairing Swivel Stocks. –
12 Do Wr. – Broached a Punch. Of Spruce Beer. –
Assistant in Compy.

[Page 237]
Rems Friday 4th. January 1793 Towards
1 Fair Wr. & Cloudy
2 Saw some Flying Fish
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps as usual. –
8 Fair Wr.
5 Served Thick portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast. – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner. – Krout as usual. –
8 Fine Wr. Cleaned below & aired with Fires – Sailmakers employed repairing the old Miz. Top Sail. – People mending Washing their Clothes. – Exercised Great Guns –
12 Fresh Trade & fine Wr.
Assistant in Compy.

[Page 238]
Rems. Saturday 5th. January 1793
1 Fresh Trade and fine Wr. – Saw Flying Fish – Mother Careys Chicken. –
4 Showers. –
6 Let fresh Water into the ship and worked the Pumps.
8 Cloudy with showers & Lightning
12 Showers
7 Fine Wr. Many Flying Fish –
8 Served Hot Breakfast &c. as yesterday – Opened a Cask of Pork No 3 Conts 132 Ps.
9 Washed below & dried with Fires – Exercised small arms & fired – Sailmakers repg. Old Miz. Top Sail. –
12 Fine Wr. All sails set. – Broached a Puncheon of Spruce Beer.
Assistant in Company

[Page 239]
Rems. Sunday January 6th. 1793 Observations
1 Fresh Breezes and fine Wr. – People employed mending Clothes. –
4 Bent the Old Mizen Top Sail. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps as usual. –
5 Saw many Flying Fish. –
7 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast. – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner. – Krout as usual. a half pint Pr. Man. –
10 Mustered the Ships Company & saw them clean dressed. –
Performed Divine service.
12 Do Wr. – Royals & all Studding Sails set
Assistant in Company. –

[Page 240]
Rems. Monday Jany. 7th. 1793 Observations
1 Fresh Breezes and fine Wr. – Saw a brown Sheerwater & Mother Careys Chicken. –
5 Let fresh Water into the Ship & Worked the Pumps
12 Porpoises about the Ship.
6 Served thick Portable Soup Gruel as usual for Breakfast. – Bore Cole & Portable Soup thickened wth. Oatmeal for Dinner. – Served Vinegar a half pint Pr. Man. – Krout as customary. –
8 Exercised Great Guns & small Arms The Marines fired. – This day I always see every Man & Officer mustered at his Quarters
10 At ½ past 10 died Thos. Galloway after a long illness in a Dysentery. –
11 Fair & pleasant Wr. – Broached a Punchn. of Spruce Beer. – The Poor Man who died this Morning caught his disease at Timor. – at St Helena he recovered so rapidly that the surgeon had no doubt of his doing well, but this dreadful l disease returned on him again in three days after we sailed. He has been nursed wth. the greatest care. –
Assistant in Company

[Page 241]
Rems Tuesday Jany. 8th. 1793 Towards
1 Fresh Breezes and fair Wr. – Saw some blubbers & Portugese Men of War as the sailors call them. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps as usual. –
7 Committed the body of the deceased to the Deep. –
5 Saw Flying Fish & Mother Careys Chicken
6 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast &c. as usual. –
8 Up all Chests & Bags & washed below Dried well with Fires –
10 Exercised Great Guns. –
Sailmakers repairing the Mizen
12 Moderate & Cloudy Wr. threatening Rain.
Assistant in Company.

[Page 242]
Rems. Wednesday Jany. 9th. 1793 St. Vincent
1 Moderate Breezes and cloudy Wr. wth. light squalls of Rain. –
3 Saw Bonetos & Albecores – Some Oceanic Birds. -
6 Worked the Pumps as usual.
1 Dark squally Wr. with heavy Rain In all small sails
3 Light Breezes & Cloudy
4 Heavy Rain
5 Fequent Squalls of Rain & thick Wr. Set Fore T.M. & T.G. Studding Sails. –
7 Served Hot breakfast &c. as usual. –
8 Do Wr. – Made good fires between Decks and in both Cockpits. – Kept all Wet things from below –
10 Heavy Squalls – Shortned & made Sail occasionally –
12 Do Wr. Employed shifting the Plants to receive the benefit of the Rain. – Broached a Punc. Spruce Beer. –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 243]
Rems. Thursday Jany. 10th. 1793 Towards
1 Squally Wr. with frequent hard Rain
2 Employed attending the Plants. Drying & airing Ship with Fires. –
6 Worked the Pumps
8 This Morning I took an account of our Plants & found as follow
Vessels containing Breadfruit 577 & 731 Plants
on the 31st Decr. last 603 & 778 Plants
                                        Loss = 26 & 47
Other Plants as before.
6 Saw some Dolphins.
8 Fair intervals – Served Hot breakfast &c. as usual. – Cleaned Ship and aired with Fires. –
9 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms The Marines fired. – Dried all wet Cloaths –
12 Cloudy Wr. with squalls & some Rain In 1st Reefs. – No Observation – Set Fore T.M. & lower Studding Sail. –
Assistant in Company

[Page 244]
Rems. Friday Jany. 11th. 1793 St. Vincents
1 Mod.breezes and cloudy Wr.
4 Light Winds
6 Worked the Pumps as usual – Saw some Porpoises. –
10 Lightning in the NE.
12 Mod. & Fair Wr.
5 Saw some Dolphin & Flying Fish
6 Served a Hot breakfast & portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner. –
8 Cleaned & aired below with Fires – Exercised Great Guns & small Arms –
9 Spoke the Assistant & sent Lt. Portlock some fresh pork. –
12 Light Winds & Fair Wr. – Broached a Puns. of Spruce Beer. –

[Page 245]
Rems. Saturday Jany. 12th. 1793 Towards
1 Light Winds and fair Wr. – My Course was is NWbN but as I only meant to make that course eight points from the Wind the yards were trimmed accordingly & is the cause of the variation in the Course –
5 Very Squally Wr with Rain. – In 1st Reefs. – Worked the Pumps. –
8 Mod & Cloudy Wr. Set Fore Top Mast Studding Sail. –
4 Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr.
6 Served Thick portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast – Krout as customary. –
7 Washed & cleaned below – Aired with Fires – Employed Mending Sails & Clothes. –
11 Very Hard Squalls & thick Wr. – Shortned Sail to Dble Reefs –
12 More Moderate – Made more Sail
Assistant in Company, but cannot keep way with us when it blows strong.

[Page 246]
Rems Sunday Jany. 13th. 1793 St. Vincents
1 Fresh Trade & thick Hazy Wr. – Out reef and set lower and Fore T. Ms Studding Sails –
3 Employed chiefly in mending Cloathes. – My alteration of the Course is on account of the Wind – NW ½ N is the course I meant to steer.
6 Worked the Pumps as usual. – In 1st. Reefs.
10 Squally with Rain
11 In 2d. Reefs
5 Served thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner. – Krout as customary. –
7 Mustered the Ship’s Company – Cleaned below & aired with Fires. –
8 Performed Divine Service. –
9 Saw Flying – These have not so brilliant a colour as those seen in the South Sea. –
12 Fresh Gales & thick hazy Wr – Under Dble Reefs. –
Assistant in Company. –

[Page 247]
Rems. Monday Jany. 14th. 1793 Towards
1 Fresh Gales & thick Hazy Wr.
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and Worked the Pumps. –
5 Saw some Flying Fish. – Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast – Bore Cole Soup thickned wth. Oatmeal for Dinner. – Vinegar ½ Pint Pr. Man – Krout as usual.
8 Unbent the old T.G. Sails to repair & bent the best – Repaired & set again the Main Top Sail. –
10 Exercised at Small Arms & Fired – Cleaned below & aired with Fires – Sold the Effects of Thoms. Galloway. –
12 Do Wr. Under F. & F.T. Mt. Studding Sail Single Reefed Fore & Miz TS and Dble Reefed Main TS & T.G. Sails. –
Assistant in Company

[Page 248]
Rems. Tuesday Jany. 15th. 1793 St. Vincents
1 Very fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr. with a very thick Haze. – Observed very strong riplings of Currents. –
5 Spoke the Assistant – all Well. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship & Worked the Pumps as usual. – Dble Reefed the Fore TS & in Studding Sails. –
12 Fair Star light Night
5 Fair Wr. and extremely Hazy. –
6 Served a hot Breakfast & [indecipherable word] as usual. –
7 Cleaned & Washed fore & aft – dried with Fires. – out 2d Reefs & set Fore T.Mt. Studding Sail. – Sailmakers repairing Sails. – Broached a Puncheon of Spruce Beer. –
12 Strong Trade fine Wr. with Haze. – Obliged to proportion our sail to the Assistant, as we out carry her in these strong Winds.

[Page 249]
Rems. Wednesdy Jany 16th. 1793 Towards
1 Strong Trade and fine Wr. with haze. –
2 Flying Fish seen. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps. –
5 Cloudy wth. much haze. –
6 Served thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner & Sour Krout as usual. –
8 Cleaned below & aired with Fires –
9 Sailmakers repairing Sails & Hands making Matts & about the Rigging. –
10 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms & fired. –
12 Fine Wr. & Hazy. – Assistant in Compy.

[Page 250]
Rems. Thursday January 17 1793 St. Vincents
1 Moderate Breezes & fair Wr. but very hazy –
2 Opened a Cask of Beef N1458 Conts. 66 Dbl Pieces. –
6 Worked the Pumps as usual. –
4 Squally Wr. –
6 Fair Wr. wth. much Haze –
7 Served Hot breakfast as usual –
8 Cleaned below & aired with Fires – Sailmakers repairing Sails – Hailed the Assistant & sent them some fresh Meat – The Wind being so much a beam makes them very Wet. –
12 Fine Wr. & Hazy – Broched a Puns. of Spruce Beer –

[Page 251]
Rems. Friday January. 18th. 1793 Towards
1 Fine Wr. and extremely Hazy
2 Squally – split the Fore TS unbent it to Repair & bent the 2d. best sail. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and Worked the Pumps. –
8 Fair Wr. and squally. –
4 Squally wth. some showers. –
6 Served Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner – Killed a Hog & served fresh Pork to the Non Commissioned Officers .
8 Cleaned Ship – Sailmakers repg. Sails – People Washing their dirty Clothes.
10 Flying Fish seen. – No Birds –
12 Squally Wr. with some bright intervals All sails set –
Assistant in Company –

[Page 252]
Rems. Saturday Jany. 19th 1793 St. Vincents
1 Fair Wr. & Squally
2 Bent the Old Fore Top Sail – Could not get any Lunar Observs –
6 Worked the Pumps as usual
6 Served Breakfast as usual –
7 Employed Mending Cloaths – Sailmakers repairing Sails. – Washed Ship in every part below & aired well with Fires. –
12 Fair Wr. & Squally – All Sails set & occasionally taken in – Broached a Punch. Spruce Beer –
Assistant in Company

[Page 253]
Rems. Sunday Jany. 20th. 1792 Towards
1 Fair Wr. and Squally. – Shifted the Ship’s Companys Hammocks – Empl mending their Cloathes
5 Saw a sail ahead – Proved to be a Sloop on a Wind – She showed no colours I bore down with a wish to speak her but when I found we could not have day light to accomplish it, & that running after her in the Night was a tedious piece of busyness, I hauled to my Course. – She had a standing Bowsprit, & appeared to be a stout Sloop. I apprehend bound to the southward by her keeping the Wind – A Fore Sail, set out on her Bowsprit, & Main Sail was all the sail she had set. –
1 Carried away the Pole of the M.T. Gallt. Mast
6 Fine Wr. & Squally. – Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast. – Cleaned below. –
8 Mustered as usual & saw every Person clean dressed – Never were a more healthy set of Men seen. –
9 Performed Divine Service. –
12 Fine Wr. & Moderate Winds variable as to strength. – All Sails set
Assistant in Company

[Page 254]
Rems. Monday Jany. 21st. 1793 St. Vincents
Fine Wr. & moderate Winds All Sails Set.
4 Saw a Man of War Bird. –
6 Worked the Pumps as usual
5 Saw some forked tailed Birds, like a Species of Gull called Gannups.
6 Served Breakfast as usual – Bore Cole Soup thickned with oatmeal & enriched with Portable Soup for dinner – Vinegar a half pint Pr. Man, and Krout.
9 Cleaned below & aired with Fires – Sailmakers repairing Sails – Carpenters making a new Main T.G. Mast. – Took an account of the Peoples Clothes – Exercised Great Guns & small Arms –
12 D Wr. – Broached a Punch Spruce Beer. – Column of L & DK is corrected from a Mean of the Observations. –
Assistant in Company. Sent her ahead to make Barbadoes, as she now sails better than us we. –

[Page 255]
Rems. Tuesday Jany. 22nd. 1793 Towards
1 Moderate Breezes and fine Wr. – Bent the Cables. –
3 At 3h ½ Assistant ahead, made the Sigl. for seeing land – The Isld. Barbadoes WbN from the Mast Head. – Got up a New Main T. Gallt. Mast.
6 Barbadoes WNW
7 Hove to & sent for Lieut. Portlock to give him some information respecting the getting into the Isld. St. Vincents. –
9 At 8h Barbadoes NWbW dist 4 legues –
10 At 11 the East End bore true North offshore 3 or 4 leags.
12 Fine Night Barbadoes NNW to NNE
1 At ½ past 12the West part of the Isld bore true North. –
6 Barbadoes NE to ENE 8 or 9 leags. Saw St. Vincent from the Mast head WNW
8 Extrs. of St. Vincent N75W to N65°W abt. 12 leags. –
9 Washed & Cleaned Ship & aired with fires. Spoke a Granada Sloop bound to Surinam with Slaves. –
12 Very fine W. St. Vincents N58W to N81W 6 leags. St. Lucia N22W to N27°W – Granadines S79W to S89°W

[Page 256]
From the means I had this afternoon I consider my Time Keepers to give the longitude of Bridge Town in Barbadoes the same as it is laid down in the New Requisite Tables. 59°41’:15"W its latitude 13°05 North – By my observs. brought forward on the 21st. the longitude is 59°16:8" West. –
I had this day an exact account of All my Plants taken as follows
Vessels Plants
551 Breadfruit 678
  20 Rattah 54
  32 Ayyah 83
  15 Avvees 22
    5 Ellows 20
    5 Mattee 7
   6 Oraiah 7
   1 Vaihee 2
 15 Peeah 15
9 Cocoanutt 9
659 897
6 Sickly B.Fruit 6

7 Curiosity 21
2 Possession Isld 3
2 Saow – N. Guin Id. H 5
3 Van D. Land 4
14 33

From Humble Mr. Cochrane
2 Mango. - 2
2 Creepers - 2
1 Guavah - 1
5 5

Vessels Plants
3 Breadfruit 4
4 Do. bears Seed 4
5 Mango 7
7 Jamblang 16
6 Jambo iremavah 11
8 Jambo maree 23
4 Blimbing 5
7 Chermailah 8
1 Karambolah 1
5 Lemon China or Nonesang 7
4 Cosambee 6
2 Gattapahs 2
4 Seeree-boah 4
4 Seeree down 4
8 Peenang 12
72 114

Timor raised at Sea
57 Nanka 93
17 Mango 20
4 Jamblang 10
1 Namnam 1
2 Pomegranates 6
81 130

Timor Curiosity
3 Bintaloo 4
4 Dangreedah 4
4 Birghn,ah,kanangar 8
1 Seereebandang 1
2 Jattee or Tick 2
14 19

St. Helena
Vessels Plants
3 Plantain 3
1 China Orange 1
1 Dwf Peach 1
5 Almonds (seedlings) 7
1 Green Tea 1
4 Coffee 17
13 Curiosity 14
28 44

In All
Vessels Plants
838 Usefull - 1185
  41 Curiosity - 63
879 1248

[Page 257]
Rems. Wednesday 23d. Jany. 1793 At St Vincents
1 Moderate & fine Wr.
3 The Center of St. Lucia true North. –
4 The Island St. Vincents S64W to N36°W offshore 6 or 7 Miles. St Lucia North. The Granadines S22°W to s40°W. – Brought a Sloop to & took a Pilot on board to show me the bay lest I might mistake it in the Night. –
7 At 7h:30’ Sounded 27 fms. fine dark Sand Sr. Wm Youngs Isld. off Calliagua NbW 1 Mile
8 At 8 St. Vincents from NWbW to EbS. Offshore 1 ½ Miles – No ground wth. 40 fms. Line. –
10 At ½ past 9 the south point of Kingstown Bay NEbN ¼ Mile – No ground at 30 fms. – After a few Tacks with the assistance of the Boats anchored in 25 fms. & Steady the Ship with a Kedge Anchor. –
1 Sent Lieut. Guthrie to Wait on the Governor
3 Light Breeze with Showers.
5 Hoisted out the Launch Warped the Ship further in shore & Anchored with the small Br. in 15 fms. black sand & kind of mud – Steadied with the Stream Anchor & Cable to leeward. – The Berkshire Hill point N81°W 1 ½ Mile The South pt. or old Womans Point S5°E abt. 2 Miles – Dorsetshire Hill N61°E
9 Found Riding here 22 Sail of Square Rigged Vessels besides small craft. –
12 Fresh Breezes & Squally with Rain.
Assistant in Company.
The Columns are reduced up to the Town – The Observs. by the T. Keepers were taken on the 26th. following. –


[Page 258]
As 20 Years had elapsed since I was at this Island, and I was not certain of knowing Kingston w Bay in the Night, I was induced to bring to a French Sloop for a Pilot. I got a Negroe who was perfectly acquainted with the Coast and I got anchored at ½ past 10 without accident. When I entered the Bay we had but light Winds, the Merchants Ships however soon knew who we were & sent us assistance to tow the Ships in. –
I sent Lieut. Guthrie to inform the Governor of my arrival, and to request every thing might be forwarded to receive the Plants I had to leave on the Island. – In the morning Dr. Anderson the Superintendent came on board, with him I afterwards waited on Gov. Seton, and it was agreed to have that all the Plants should be brought up to the Garden by Negroes. –
With Governor Seton I found the Govr. & Comm.in Chief of Martinique – he had been obliged to fly from the Democratic party to save his life. –
The Troops here are the 48 Regt. and some Artillery.

[Page 259]
Rems. In Kingstown Bay. Island St. Vincents
Thursday 24
Squally Wr. with Rain and fair intervals. – Employed Watering and landing Plants – Hauled the Seine but had no success. – Unbent the Old Fair Sail to Repair.
Friday 25
Do. Wr. – Employed Watering – landing of Plants and receiving others for his Majesty’s Garden at Kew – Received Fresh Beef 248 lbs – Supplied the Assistant with 50 lbs – Broached a Punch. Spruce Beer.
Saturday 26
Do. Wr. but the Rain not so heavy in the squalls. – Employed Watering – Sending Plants on shore and receiving others on board for Kew Garden. – Loosed Sails to dry – Washed the Ship & dried with Fires – Served Fresh Beef & Greens Sailmakers repairing the old Fore Sail. PM longd. by T. Ks 61°: 30: 51" 5 West.
Sunday 27
Moderate and fair Wr. – Employed Watering – Washing & mending Cloaths – Sailed the Apollo of Bristol for Norfolk in Virginia – Rec 249 lbs Fresh Beef – Supplied the Assistant with 50 lbs. – Broached a Punch. of Spruce Beer. – At 1 am fell over board & was drowned Henry Smith Armourer Sailmakers empld. mending Sails. –
Mondy. 28
Do. Wr. – Completed Watering – Washed below and dried with Fires. – Sailmakers repairing Sails – Aired Sails – Served fresh Beef & Greens to the Ships Company.
Tuesday 29
Squally with Rain and fair intervals. – Bent the old Fore Sail s PM sailed the Ann of Liverpool for Liverpool – Received 215 lbs fresh Beef – Supplied the Assistant with 46 lbs. – Found John Thompson Seaman absent without leave (one of the Matilda’s Men) Received the last of the Plants for his Majesty’s Garden at Kew – Broached a Puncheon of Spruce Beer. – Weighed the Stream Anchor & hove into ½ Cable on the Br. – Hoisted in the Launch. – Ships draught of Water fwd. 15ft: 03
        aft 15 ft: 06
The above is log acct. of Time
Latitude of the Ship obsd. by the Master Mr. Flinders & two other officers 13° 10’


[Page 260]
On the 24th. In the morning we began to land the Plants – A number of Negroes were employed on this service, and they carried the Pots on their heads to the Botanick Garden distant abt. 2 Miles from the beach – by this means the Plants were not injured, which they might have been by a Cart or any other mode of conveyance might have effected. In returning the of the People they brought back in the same manner, all the Plants Dr. Anderson had ready for His Majesty’s Garden at Kew. –
A Deputation from the Hnble Council & Assembly waited on me the day after my arrival and presented to me a resolution & a request to accept a piece of Plate value 100 Guineas as a mark of their approbation & esteem. – They likewise did me the honor to give a publick Dinner to all my Officers, and during our stay they were unremitting in their attention and kindness. – Two Bullocks were given to us in behalf of the Ships Companies, so that everyone benefitted by their hospitality. –
The Plants I left at this place for which I received a certificate from the Governor & Superintendant of the Botanick Garden were as follow.
Breadfruit, two of which are from Timor } 3 333
Rattah 25
Ayyah 38
Av,vee 9
Oraiah 3
Pee,ah 7
Cocoa Nutt 4
Mango of Timor 15
Jamblang do 10
Jambo Iremavah do 5
Jambo Maree do 9
Blimbing do 2
Chermailah do 3
Karambolah do 1
Lemon Chinah or Nonesang do 3
Cosambee do 2
Seeree-boah do 2
Seeree-down do 2
Pee,nang do 4
Nanka do 40
Dangreedah do 1
Bughn,ah-kanangah do 1
Guavah of S. Helena 1
Coffee of do 5
Almonds of do 2
Plantains of do 3
Ettow } 7
Mattee } Otaheite 3
Sow or Sao New Guinea 2
                        Total 544
Signed Jas. Seton
                Alexander Anderson

I received for His Majesty’s Garden at Kew 465 Pots & two Tubs containing botanick Plants. –

[Page 261]
Rems. on the Time Keepers Observations

[Page 262]
Kingstown Bay is very convenient & safe for Shipping – From point to point in the direction of SE ½ S & NW ½ N it is between 2 & 3 Miles across. The Shores are bold to steep, with deep Water untill near the Town, where you may Anchor from 15 to 10 fms very commodiously. – The best watering place is towards the East part of the Town – The Water is very good, but it is necessary to prevent the Negroes from Washing in the Stream where the Casks are filled, otherwise they will sometimes render it offensive. –
A Stranger in coming round the South part of the Isld., to know the Bay is has only to attend to the bearings of the largest of the Grandine Islands called Bequia, a great part of it is shut on with the south point of the Bay when at Anchor. Besides this, it is the first fair open Bay that presents itself. –
There is a well constructed battery on the North point on a commanding ground called Berkshire Hill, with good Barracks & Cisterns for holding Water; and on the East side on a more elevated situation, called Dorsetshire Hill, there are likewise Barracks & a fine healthy situation. – on the whole it is a very fine Island. –

[Page 263]
Rems Wednesdy Jany. 30th. 1793 Towards -
1 Moderate & fair Wr. with showers of Rain
2 All the Plants for his Majesty’s Garden at Kew being now on board, I took leave of Governor Seton & Embarked. –
7 Weighed & Sailed under Single Reefs. The Town EbN 1 ½ Mile –
11 Fresh Breezes & Cloudy Wr.
4 Squally with some Rain.
6 Made all Sail – Served Thick portable Soup Gruel for breakfast. – Washed and Cleaned thoroughly below. – Aired Ship wth. Fires. – Supplied the Assistant with fresh Beef, & served the same to the Ship’s Company. –
Flying Fish and Porpoises seen
12 Fresh Breezes & fair. Wr – Assistant in Company. – Very Hazy

[Page 264]
Rems. Thursday Jany. 31. 1793 – Jamaica
1 Fresh Breezes and fair Wr. – Much Haze
3 Sea Weed and dark speckled Porpoises seen –
8 Fresh Gales in T.G. Steering Sails. –
11 Squally – shortned Sail occasionally
5 Set all Studding Sails. –
7 Breakfast & fresh Beef as yesterday
8 Sailmakers fixing a New Awning – Cleaned below. –
10 Squally with Showers. – Served fresh Meat to the Ship’s Company
12 Do Wr. Assistant in Company. Served a Punch. Of Spruce Beer to the Ship’s Company – Much Haze –

[Page 265]
Rems. Friday 1st. February 1793 Towards
1 Strong Trade and fair Wr. with much Haze Saw Flying Fish & seaweed. –
3 Sold the Effects of Henry Smith & Jn. Thompson. –
5 Let fresh Water into the Pumps & ventilated as usual. –
6 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel as usual for breakfast. – Portable Soup & Sour Krout in the Pease for Dinner – Ceaned below & aired with fires – Served Slops & Tobacco – People employed washing their Cloaths. –
9 Saw Flying Fish – Sea Weed – Tropic & a flock of other Sea Birds. –
12 Strong Trade & Fine Wr. with Haze. –
Assistant in Company

[Page 266]
Rems. Saturday 2 February 1793 Jamaica
1 Fresh Gale and fine Wr. with haze. –
2 Employed mending Cloaths – Sailmakers making an Awning for the Quarter Deck
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship & worked the Pumps as usual. –
10 Very squally Wr. & some Rain – The Assistant spreading too much from I made the signal to keep a head & sound – I altered my Course to make the Island of Altavala. – In Dble Reefs. –
2 In 3d. Reefs
5 Out 3d. Reefs. – Saw a Man of War Bird & Sea Fowl – Flying fish – Grampuses & Porpoises. – Served Hot breakfast as usual & Sour Krout. –
8 Saw Hispaniola in the NNW. – Very Hazy Washed below & Aired with Fires – Sailmakers employed about the Awnings
12 Fine Wr. & Hazy with a strong Trade. The Isld. Altavella N67°W dist. 5 leags. – Island Beata N34°W to N43°W 4 leags. & the South part of Hispaniola N19°W abt. 4 leagues other Parts indistinct. –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 267]
Rems. Sunday Feby. 3d. 1793 Hispaniola
1 Strong Trade & fine Wr. – Several large flocks of Birds Gull Specie – Black backs White bellies, & forked Tails & sharp pointed Wings & are the same as seen in the South Sea & particularly about the Neighbourhood of the Island Timor. –
5 At 1 the south part of Isld. Beata bore true North abt. 7 Miles. –
7 At 2h:14’ Altevella true North, abt. 6 Miles Altivella came on with Isld. Beata at N40°E
8 At Sun set Altevella EbN ½ N 6 or 7 leags. extrems. of Hyspaniola in sight NW ½ W to NEbE
12 Fresh Breezes & Fair Wr.
5 Hyspaniola NW ½ W to NEbE – Two Sloops insight
8 Squally wth. Rain Cape Tiberoon NWbW Isle de Vach N16°W abt. 6 leags.
10 Mustered the Ships Company & performed Divine Service.
11 At ¾ past 10 Pt. Abacon true North abt. 5 or 6 leagues –
12 Mod. and Fair Wr. Cape Tiberoon N41°W Pt. Abacon N32°E abt. 6 or 7 leags.
Assistant in Company

[Page 268]
Rems. Monday Feby. 4th. 1793 – Jamaica
1 Mod. And fair Wr.
4 Extremes of Hispaniola from N23°W to N65E off shore 8 or 9 leags.
6 At sun set the Westermost part of Hispaniola N17°W & Southermt. Land insight NEbE dis. off shore 10 or 11 leags. –
8 Light Winds & fine Wr.
5 At day break saw Hispaniola ENE. – A Man of War Brig to Wind. of us & a Mercht. Brig in the SW. –
8 Fresh Trade & Hazy Wr. – Served Hot Breakf. as usual & Bore Cole Soup for Dinner –
9 Washed below & dried with Fires. –
11 Saw Jamaica – West
12 Very Hazy Wr. Jamaica, West – can see no part distinct. –
Assistant in Company.

[Page 269]
Rems. Tuesday Feby. 5th. 1793 At Jamaica
1 Very hazy Wr. & fresh Breeze
4 Point Morant N39° W. & southermost land in sight S80°W, offshore 5 Miles. –
5 At 4h:24’ Point Morant true North 5 Miles.
6 Hove to for a Pilot.
9 Spoke His Majesty’s Ship Prosperine & Hound Sloop. – Hove to, the Yellows point NW.
12 Wore & hove to – Yellows NNW ½ W. –
5 Bore away. The White Horses NbE 3 leags.
8 Light Winds & Calms – out Boats. Rock Fort N4°E 5 Miles – Fort Royal N85°W 3 leags. – Sent the Boats to tow. –
10 Smith & [Gem?] Key NNE & SSW ¼ Mile apart 15 fms. Soundings. – Saluted Commodore Ford with 13 Guns whch. was returned. –
12 At 11h. [sketch of an anchor] at Port Royal & moored in 9 fms. Port Royal point S2°E ¾ Mile s Fort Small S45°W Twelve Apostles WbS ½ S – Fort Augusta NbW ½ W –
Kingstown Church N52°E 4 Miles & Gallows Pt. N45°E 1 Mile. – His M.S. Europa with the Broad pennant & Penelope Frigate lying here.

[Page 270]
Rems on the TKeepers

[Page 271]
Rems. at Port Royal in Jamaica. –

1793 Feby. Wednesdy 6th
Fair Wr. & Moderate Winds. PM moored Ship with the Stream Anchor to the WNW. – AM washed the Ship fore & aft & dried with fires. – Employed fitting new Awnings & making buckets. – Anchored His Majesty’s Ship Hound. – our sick list contained 12 Names two of which only had a disease, the Diarrhoa besides our two Otaheite Men who were recovering from the smallpox, The others had sores from accident, & trifling complaints.
I waited on Commodore Ford – He had no orders respecting me & therefore gave me orders to put myself under his command –
Thursdy. 7.
Fair Wr. and Moderate Winds. – Sent 3 Convalensents to the Hospital – one of them from the Wound of an Arrow, one from an old complaint of the stone & the other an abscess in the scrotum – Recd. 120 lbs fresh Beef –
 This Morning Commodore came on board & visited the ship, saluted received him with a Guard – Many Gentlemen from the shore also came to see the Plants which were in the highest perfection. –
I sent Lieut. Guthrie to wait on the Governor, General Adam Williamson – I wrote to him to request, the Plants might be taken out of the Ship as soon as possible.
Friday 8
Calms & Fair Wr. with Moderate Breezes – Some showers. – Washed, & Aired Ship with Fires & employed the People washing & mending their Cloaths.
Recd. 110 lbs fresh Beef. – PM I attended a Committee about the Plants but they came to no final determination about them. –
Saturdy 9
Light Airs & fair Wr. these 24 Hours. Recd. 110 lbs fresh Beef – Loosed Sails to dry.
AM came on board General Williamson, saluted him with 19 Guns & with the same number at his going away. – He expressed great pleasure at seeing so many fine plants – Many Strangers on board from Morning untill Evening & the Ship exceedingly crowded. – I attended a Committee about the Plants. –

[Page 272]
Rems at Port Royal Jamaica
1793 Feby Sunday 10
Fair Wr. – Unbent Sails & sent them on shore to be repaired Recd. a [Turn?] of Water. – Recd. 110 lbs Fresh Beef –
The Committee during the afternoon determined on dividing the Plants among the Counties, & to have two general deposits t, one at East Garden, & the other at Bath. They agreed with Mr. Jas. Wiles one of our Gardeners to pay him 200 pounds sterling a year to remain at Bath, and promised to give such things as were necessary to his Board & Dwelling. – Bobbo our Otaheite Friend had no fixed sum allowed him, he was however to live with Mr. Wiles & to be found in every thing untill further provision could be made. – They sollicited me to carry the Plants that were to be allotted to Bath, round in the Ship to Port Morant as soon as I had delivered those intended for the neighbourhood of this place, & requested I would order the Assistant to take the Cornwall Plants round to Savanna la Mar. - I desired the Chairman to write to the Commodore for me to have orders to that effect
Monday 11
Light Breezes, Calms & Fair Wr. – Recd. 110 lbs fresh Beef. – Aired the Ships Company’s bedding & issued clean Hammocks – Sailmakers fitting new Awnings. –
Received an order from the Chairman of the Committee to land at Port Henderson 84 Bread fruit – 5 Rattahs – 6 Ayyah – 4 Mango – 1 Coffee - & 10 Nanka – it was complied with. – Total 110. – The Ship crowded with company every day.
Tuesdy. 12
Do Wr. – Washed Ship fore & aft & aired with Fires.
Received an order from the Chairman of the Committee to land at Greenwich 75 Breadfruit Plants – 9 Rattah 18 Ayyah, - 3 Avvee – 2 Cocoa Nutt – 4 Mangos – 2 Coffee 14 Nanka’s - [indecipherable words] - 7 Jamblang – 2 Pomegranates – Total 136. - Recd also an order to send Sent to Savanna la Mar by the Assistant. 83 Breadfruit Plants 5 Rattah – 7 Ayyah – 4 Timor Mangos – 10 Nanka Total 109, - The whole I complied with & prepared to go to Port Morant with the remainder of the Plants for Bath and the parts there. – Recd. Fresh Beef 165 lbs

[Page 273]
Rems at Port Royal Jamaica –
1793 Feby Wednesdy 13
Fair Wr. with some showers. – Sent all the Curiosity Plants on shore to remain untill we sail for England & the Assistant received all her Plants for Savanna la Mar. – Came on board a Pilot to take us to Port Morant. – Weighed the sml. Br. & hove short on the Stream. – Received Fresh Beef –
I find that no Plants were as yet collected for His Majesty’s Garden at Kew. –

 [Page 274]
Rems. Thursdy. Feby. 14th. 1793 Towardes Port Morant
1 Light breezes and fine Wr. weighed the Stream & laid in the fair Way. Port Royal point SbE ¾ Mile – 9 fm. Water. –
3 Recd. 25 lbs fresh Beef. –
4 Ships Draught of Water forw. 15ft. 3"
                                        Aft 15ft. 3"
5 Weighed & steered through the South Channel – Assistant sailed for Savanna la Mar. –
8 Port Royal N15°W 9 or 10 Miles & the Yellows Point N81°E. –
9 Served fresh Beef. –
12 Fair Wr. Port Royal N55°W 4 leags. Rock Fort N5°W. Portland SWbW & Yellows N82°E

[Page 275]
Rems Fridy 15. Feby. 1793 Towards Port Morant.
1 Fair Wr. – Working to Windward for Port Morant.
4 Westernmost White Horse N26°W 3 Miles
8 The High land of Yellows NbE ½ E 4 or 5 Miles offshore. –
6 Yellows point NWbW & Easternmost White Horse N10°W 5 or 6 Miles
9 Washed Ship & aired with Fires
Served Fresh Beef to the Ship’s Compy.
12 Fair Wr. & hazy – Easternmost White Horse NWbW & Extrs. of the land WbN to NE ½ E offshore 5 or 6 Miles.

[Page 276]
Rems. Saturdy. 16 Feby. 1793 Towards Port Morant
1 Fair Wr. – Working to Windward for Port Morant –
4 Bowden Hill N3°W lying on the East side of Port Morant Harbour – East End of Jamaica N47°E offshore 4 or 5 Miles.
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and Ventilated with the Pumps as usual –
7 At Sun Set Yellows bore W ¾ S and Bowden Hill N3°W – 1 Mile from the Harbour –
12 Spent the Night under sail
8 Extrs. of the land W ½ S to NE ½ N – Rocky pt. NbW ab. 2 Miles – Wind too scant to lie in to the Harbour. –
10 At 10 stood in & hauled round the East pt. Harbour tkd. House & Clift in one. –
11 At 11 Anchored in 7 fms. – Hoisted out the Boats & warped farther into the Harbour
12 Fine Wr. Pinnocks House NEbE ½ E ¾ Mile
A Ship should lie up NbW at least to lead into the Harbour. –

[Page 274]
Rems in Port Morant – Log Account
1793 Feby. Sundy. 17
Fair Wr. with some squalls in the middle part. – Employed warping further into the Harbour all the afternoon. At ½ past 6 dropt the B.Br. in 7 fms. muddy bottom – Veered to a half Cable and moored ship with the stream Anchor to the NW, in 4 fms. – The West point of the Harbour (called Fisherman’s point) SSW about 1 Mile – Wilsons Key or East point of the Harbour S18°E about 1 Mile. – Pinnocks House S45°E – The point of the lee Reef SbW dis. ¾ Mile – Port Morant Wharf N68°W 1 ½ Mile or two. – Sent the Launch at the head of the Harbour for Water. – Washed the Ship fore & aft & dried wth. Fires. – I was received here by a Mr. John McLean one of the Committee at his House called Bowden on a hill on the Eastside of the Harbour who made preparations for receiving the Plants
[Note in Margin – Opened Hhd Beef N1477 Conts. 66 dble pieces. -]
Mondy. 18
Mod. Weather with showers. – Hauled the Seine without any success. – Served Bore Cole & Portable Soup thickened with oatmeal for dinner & hot Breakfast of thick gruel every day for breakfast.
I set off for Bath to meet Mr. Shirley the Chairman of the Committee with Mr. Mc.Lean – A Spot near the Botanic Garden was agreed on to be the place for the Plants. – The Botanic Garden had no rare things in it except the Sago plant. The Camphor & Cinnamon – The Mango grew luxuriantly & these are plentifull all over the Island. – Lodgings & Board were procured for Mr. Wiles the Gardener who is to reside here. – I rode to the Hot spring & drank the Water – it gushes abundantly from a Rock into a River & is so hot as to prevent one from drinking more than a mouthfull at a time – it is about two & half Miles from the Town into the Mountains in a narrow Gully with lofty & romantick Mountains on each side. – Hot & Cold Baths are conveniently contrived & here is also an Hospital for diseased wandering people attended by Doctor Danser, supported by the society at large. –
Tuesday 19
Do Wr. – Dried sails occasionally. –
Matters being fixed respecting how we were to proceed with the Plants, I returned to the Ship. – I found our two Otaheite Friends dangerously Ill with a fever & a heavy defluxion on their lungs with a dreadfull cough, wch I attributed to the effects of the small Pox. – Mr. Mc.Lean in a very kind manner took them to his House, where I resided to recover my health. –
Began to land part of the Plants to be carried to Bath on Negroes heads. I had my Officers stationed to see them safe & I attended myself wth. Mr. Mc.Lean

[Page 278]
Rems. In Port Morant
1793 Feby. Wednesdy. 20th.
Mod. Breezes and fine Wr. – Aired Sails – Washed Hammocks got up every thing from below & washed Ship – Sailmakers repairing sails. – Got Water on board – Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast – no fresh Meat to be got here. –
This day, the Plants landed yesterday were got safe to Bath – They were placed under a shade in the Botanic Garden untill ground could be prepared for them.
Thursdy. 21
Do Wr. – Unbent the Main Sail & Jibb – Sailmakers repairing Sails & Boatswain about the Rigging.
Landed the remainder of the Plants the whole amounting
to 105 Breadfruit.
2 Vay,hee
23 Nanka
14 Rattah
8 Jamblang
4 Jambo Iremavah
13 Jambo Ma,ree
5 Mango
5 Namnam
2 Blimbing
3 Chermailah
3 Lemon China
1 Breadfruit bears seed from Timor
10 Plants from seed of Namnam Nanka, Sow & others.
7 Peeah
5 Peenang }
2 Seereeboah } Beetle luxuries of the Malays
2 Seereedown }

2 Bughn,ah Kanangah }
2 Cosambee } Perfumes used by the Malays. -
2 Bintaloo }
1 Poorah,ow A Tree, the bark makes cloth of Otaheite
3 Almonds
3 Oraiah
10 Ayyah
3 Saow
7 Avvee
2 Coffee
1 Dwf Peach
3 Mattee }
12 Ettow } Produce the fine red dye of Otaheite
2 Tick – The hard Timber
1 Nutmeg
268 Total landed here in the finest order.
623 Total landed at Jamaica for which the Chairman, Mr Shirley gave a receipt. – Among these fine Plants landed at Port Morant, I took care to have placed in the General Depot, My six large Breadfruit Trees which were seven feet high. – The General depot at Bath was to have 66 Breadfruit Plants & all the others marked off. and At the Genl. Depot at East’s Garden 30 Breadfruit Plants – Also a proportion of every other sort
Seeds left w. Mr Wiles
Mountain Rice of Two Sorts
Saow or Sow
Ahootoo or Hootoo

[Page 279]
See Excel spreadsheet showing
"Here follows an account of the result of My Voyage showing an exact Statement where every Plant was landed"

[Page 280]
Rems in Port Morant
1793 Feby. Fridy. 22
Fair Wr. – People employed washing their Cloathes – Sailmakers repairing sails – Opened a Cask of Pork N15 Conts. 125 Dble pieces. –
This was the quietest and happiest day I had seen during the Voyage – The most arduous part was full completed and I had [indecipherable word] only now to reestablish my health which was very much impaired. –
Saturdy 23
Do Wr. – Employed about the Rigging – Sails and Wooding We had permition to send a party on shore to cutt off the logwood stumps (out of a Gentlemans Plantation) which made excellent fire Wood. –
Our Otaheite Friends remain exceedingly Ill
Sundy. 24
Fair Wr. wth. some Rain & Squalls – Anchored here a Brig from America – Hauled the Seine but caught only a few Fish. – Empld. Wooding & other duties. – A Party on shore on leave. –
Mondy. 25
Do Wr. – Employed Wooding & Variously. –
I was so ill to day as to be confined to the House & our Otaheite Friends were dangerously so. –
Tuesdy. 26
Do Wr. – Employed Wooding & Watering. – Washed Ship & dried with Fires. –
Wednesdy 27
Do Wr. Employed as yesterday. – My health being bad I sat off to Bath to drink the Water at the Hot Spring. – In the Town of Bath the Thermr. at 8 am was 70° & at Noon 82 Degrees
Thursdy. 28
Fine Wr. – Employed in the Holds stowing away Wood. – Sailmakers repairing Sails. –
This day I began to drink the Waters. – At day rode to the Spring & drank a full pint – It has a mineral taste but not disagreeable. -
March Fridy. 1 29
Fair Wr. Empld. as yesterday. – Caught a few Fish with the Seine. – Arrived a Ship from Newcastle & another from St. Kitts. - -
Continued the use of the Waters & found myself much better –

[Page 278]
Rems. in Port Morant
March Saturdy 2
Fair Wr. with Showers – Caught a few Fish with the Seine. – Got all Chests up from below & washed Ship. – I ordered the Ship to be got ready for Sea. –
I drank the Waters this Morning & prepared to leave Bath-
Sunday 3
Fair Wr. – Being returned from Bath, and the residence of the Gardener James Wiles & the Otaheitean, Bobbo, fixed on, I had to borrow a Kitterreen to carry the latter to Bath, for both him he & his companion, poor fellows, were but barely fit to remove out of the House. He was a little low spirited when he took his leave of me & cried look " I am sorry to part from you, he said, but as I agreed, I will remain here with Wild to take care of the Plants." With his Countryman he felt no pain at parting, the farewell was like that for an hour. – Bobbo is a very chearful l Man, & I am confident will be happy & well taken care of. I really think he will be the means of the Breadfruit being brought early into use, & on that account his life invaluable to Jamaica. – Mydiddee was sent on board extremely ill, and I likewise embarked in a bad state of health. –
On Mustering the People, we found Torial Joss (Quarter Master & my Coxswain,) absent. It was supposed he had deserted to a Merchant Ship that gave 20 Guineas for the Run home, but joined to this he had been committing some thefts. – Three Men whom I took on board at Otaheite belonging to the Matilda also deserted – There is no accounting for the conduct of Sailors these Wretches. –
Our Sick List consisted of two Men in slight Fever. – two with Diarrhoas – one with rupture & two with sores. – Ships draught of Water forward 15: 6
                                        Aft 15: 3
Unmoored Ship. –
Monday 4th.
Fresh Breezes & Fair Wr. – At 6 am Weighed and Sailed At 9 Red the Articles of War & punished Richd. Franklin & Richd. Upsdale with 6 lashes for Theft. – Thos. Austin wth. 12 lashes for insolence to his Superior Officer. –
At Noon Yellows Point N10°E 3 Miles – Cow Bay Point N45°W – Latd. obsd. 17°49’ North. –

 [Page 282]
Table of Observations

[Page 283]
Table of Observations

[Page 284]
Rems. At Port Royal Jamaica. –
1793 March Tuesdy. 5
Fair Wr. with Calms. –
At ¾ past 3 Anchored – Best Br. in 8 ½ fms. Veered to a half Cable and moored with the Stream Anchor & Cable. Fort Augusta s N19°W. Gallows Point N38°E ¾ Mile – Port Royal point S10°W – off the Yard about 2 Cables length. – Found here His Majesty’s Ship Europa, Penelope, Proserpine & Hyona, Fly, Assistant, & Advice Cutter. – Retd. a broken Br. Anchor
Unbent small sails & got Caulkers on board from the yard. – Received 215 lbs fresh Beef. –
In order to Guard against any surprise, Commodore Ford gave orders for every Ship to bend Sails. –
Wednesdy 6
Mod. & fine Wr. – Employed restowing of the Main Hold – Caulkers from the yard – Errected a Tent for the Gunner to dry Powder – Sent Sails on shore to repair – Our own Carpenters Employed Caulking the Sides. – Sent our Otaheite Friend to the Hospital at Port Royal. – Recd. Fresh Beef –
Thursdy 7th.
Fair Wr. Employed in the Main Hold – Artificers as Yesterday. – Recd. Fresh Beef – Sent some Powder on shore to dry. – Recd. Water. –
Commodore gave orders to day for the Ships to moor in a line of Defence. –

Fridy 8
Some Showers of Rain – Caulkers as before – Recd. a Br. Anchor from Greenwich pr. Launch. – Sent Powder on shore to dry. – Served fresh Beef – New Moored. –
Saturdy. 9
Rather Squally. – Finished remooring Ship in a line of Defence. Port Augusta NbW Gallows Point N65°E ¾ Mile. – Loosed Sails to Air – Recd. Fresh Beef – Empld. in the Hold & got on board some Ballast.
to Monday 11th
Fair Wr. – Employed about the necessary duties of the Ship & examining into the People apparel. Recd. on board some Powder from the Tent. – Recd. every day Fresh Beef. – Caulkers employed – Caulking am Monday Sailed the Prince William Henry Packet for England. – Sent Sails to the Loft. Heard of the Murder of the French King. Troops sent to Port Royal

[Page 285]
Rems. at Port Royal Jamaica
1793 March From Mondy 11 to Sundy 17th
Fair Wr. Employed overhauling the Rigging & fitting the Ship to be readiness to proceed home – Armourers Carpenters, Caulkers & Sailmakers Employed in the Yard respectively. – Some hands restowing the Hold. Recd. Provisions as necessary & Fresh Beef every Day. – Got our Powder on board as fast as we could prepare it. –
 Untill the 14th. May the Therm. neglected to be Marked. –
Mondy. 18 to Sundy. 24
Fair Wr. Generally with some showers – Land & Sea Breezes –
Employed In the Holds & about the Rigging – Recd. Fresh Beef daily – Some Ballast. – Carpenters & Sailmakers Employed on board & at the Yard – Painting Ship – The 19th Sailed HMS Fly on a Cruize – The 20th Condemned pr. Survey our old Fore Sail, Main & Fore Top Sail –
Washed & Cleaned Ship & on Sunday as usual Mustered the Ship’s Company clean dressed. –
Mondy 25 to Friday 29
Fair Wr. & Hazy with Land & Sea Breezes & some Calms.
Employed Painting the Ship & Blacking the Bends Sending Powder on shore to air –
26th. Sent two Men to the Hospital – 27th. Got my Observy. up on Fort Charles – Arrived the HMS Serpent from New Providence. – 29th. Condemned pr. Survey 1270 lbs of Bread. – Recd. Fresh Beef daily. –
Saturdy 30 to Sundy. 31
Squally with Rain. –
Empld. getting ready for Sea –Recd. part of Our Plants for H. Maj. Garden at Kew – Recd. 18 Bags of Bread & Rum 30th Cumberland Packet Arrived – Recd. orders not to sail or prepare further dated 29th. – Recd. orders to seize all French Ships – Do. to assist the Dutch. - Additional Troops sent to Port Royal. - Took 4 Sloops & 4 Schooners at Kingston, nothing in them – Recd. Fresh Beef daily –

[Page 286]
Rems. at Port Royal.
1793 April Mondy 1 to Sunday 7
Fair Wr. with land & Sea Breezes & Calms –
1st. Sailed His. M. Ships Penelope, Hyana, Proserpine. recd. on board 12 French Prisoners from the Europa.
2d. PM sailed H.M. Brig Assistant after a suspicious Brig. – Unmoored & moored nearer the shore –
Sailed His Majesty’s Ship Europa – Recd. an order dated 31st. last Month to bear the Commodore’s [retimes?] & hoist his Broad Pennant which I did this Eveng. & fired the Evening Gun – The Europa in the morng. saluted the Pennant wth. 13 Guns which we returned & she sailed on a Cruize. – Arrived the Fly Sloop – Recd. 10 Men left behind from the Assistant. – One Man left behind from the Europa. –
3rd. Arrived the Assistant with the Brig Rachel under Danish colours – her Papers forged – Detained her & took on board three of her Men – Sent the Brig’s People on board again –
4th. Sailed His M.S. Serpent – Recd. a Man belonging to the Proserpine. –
5 Sailed H.M. Ship Fly.
6th Entered 5 Supernumaries pr. General order.
Employed this Week about the necessary duties of the Ship & fitting Water from Rock fort – Sail-Makers & Carpenters employed in the Yard. – [indecipherable] to wear [indecipherable] for the King of France untill [indecipherable]
Monday 8th to Thursdy 11th.
Squally with much Rain.
8th Arrived a French Sloop prize to the Hyana. – I now saw no prospect of my sailing & therefore sent the Plants on shore again.
9th Arrived a Sloop prize to the Penelope – Discharged four [indecipherable word] Men pr. order unserviceable –
10th. Arrd. a Schooner Prize to the Hyana. – Sailed the Advice Cutter on a Cruize – Carried french Prisoner to the Prison Ship. –
11th. Entered 4 Men – Seized a small Schooner without Mast. –
Recd. Fresh Beef every day – Carpenters & Sailmakers Employed in the Yard – Empld. as necessary –

[Page 287]
Rems at Port Royal Jamaica –
1793 April Friday 12
Sundy 14
Fair Wr. with land & Sea Breezes – Some heavy showers of Rain –
12th. A Schooner called The Spitfire Commissioned under the Command of Lieut. Perkins – Discharged pr. order 4 Men into her. – She sailed on a Cruize. – Sailed also the Tyger Privateer. –
13th. Arrived a Schooner Prize to the Proserpine – Entered three Men. –
14th. Anchored the Duke of Cumberland Packet homeward bound. –
Carpenters Sailmakers & Armourer Employed at the Yard. Employed Airing & Drying Sails – Washing Hammocks & necessary duties of the Ship. – Recd. Fresh Beef every Day. –
Mondy. 15
Friday 26
Fair Wr. with land & Sea Breezes – Some days showers of Rain & Cloudy Wr.
15th. Arrived a Brig & Schooner Prizes to the Hyana – anchd. H.M. Ship Prosperine wth. a Ship & Schooner Prizes to them & Penelope – Sailed the Packet for England – Sent Monthly Books home – Sent a Man on board the Proserpine who was left behind. –
17 Sailed H.M.S. Proserpine. –
18 Arrived two French Schooners Prize to the Penelope – Sent three Men to the Hospital. – Arrived H.M.S. Penelope with a French Brig of War & two french Merch soops her prizes. – Arrived a Schooner prize to the Spitfire –
19 Arrived a Sloop, prize to HM. Schooner Spitfire – Arrived a French Sloop prize to the Proserpine – Sent 5 Men Volunteers to the Penelope. – Entered one Man-Guns. Employed about the Guns –
21 Arrived the Tankerville Packet. –
Employed as usual in the necessary duties of the Ship. – Recd. fresh Beef every day –
22 AM sailed His Majesty’s Ship Penelope. –
23 – Seized a French Schooner under Dutch Colours with 5 Men on board from Jaquemel – L’Esperenza –
24 Arrived H.M. Cutter advice with a French Schooner, a prize. – Entered 10 Men. –
25 Arrived a Prize Schooner to the Spitfire

[Page 288]
Rems. at Port Royal Jamaica –
1793 April
Saturdy. 27
Sundy. 5th
Fair Wr. with showers & Fresh Gales at times & Some Calms – Some Lightning. –
28 Entered eight Men. –
29th. Arrived a French Brig Prize to the Europa, Proserpine & Fly
30th. PM arrived H.M.S. Europa. - Also H.M. Schooner Spitfire & saluted with 13 Guns – returned 11 Guns – She brought in two Schooner & two Sloops, prizes. –
1st. Arrived H.M. Sloop Fly
2. Entered 1 Man – Sent 4 Prisoners to the Prison Ship. –
3d. Entered one Man & discharged 15 Men into H.M. Ship Europa. - Arrived a Sloop & a Schooner Prizes to the Hyana. –
4 Sent one Man to the Hospital. Punished Jn. Curry Ab with 18 lashes for Drunkeness & Neglect of Duty. –
5th. Sailed H.M. Sloop Fly & Spitfire –
Employed Exercising at Great Guns & Small Arms – Cleaning & other necessary duties of the Ship – Fresh Beef every day. –
Mondy. 6
Sundy. 12
Fair Wr – Some hard Rain Thunder & Lightning & Calms. – other times Land & Sea Breezes –
6th. Arrd. a Schooner Prize to the Hyana – Arrd. the Hyana with an English Guinea Man 275 Slaves on board wch. she retook – Also the Privateer Schooner of 4 Guns which had taken the Guineaman. – Also a French Sloop a Prize Recd. two Men belg. to the Penelope – Europa sailed. –
8th. Arrived a Schooner Packet from Barbadoes –
9th. Arrived H.M.S. Proserpine with a Schooner, Prize.
10th. Sailed H.M.S. Hyana.
11 Entered Six Man –
12 Anchd. The Tankerville Packet bound home.
Employed Exercising at Great Guns & Small Arms – Cleaning Ship & other necessary duties –
Recd. every day fresh Beef –

[Page 289]
Rems. in Port Royal Jamaica
Monday 13
 Sundy. 19th.
Weather very unsettled with a great deal of Rain. –
Fires kept constantly in the Cockpits & & tween Decks
Recd. Fresh Beef every Day. –
16th Arrived the St. Joseph a Spanish Cutter of War from Carthagene.
17 – Sent Mr Hind Mid. To the Hospital – Sailed HMS. Proserpine on a Cruize & the Schooner Packet for Barbadoes
18 Died at 7 this Evening Mr. Hind Mid. – A Putrid Fever carried off – He was a very well disposed Young Man, but not at all calculated for his Profession. In the Morning he was buried with every mark of attention that could be shown to him – Rec a Deserter from the Proserpine –
19th. Arrived a Prize to the H.M.S. Spitfire –
Mondy 20
Sunday 25
Do Wr. with fair intervals & Land Sea Breezes – Fires kept up constantly to Air the Ship –
Fresh Beef every day while here but the Ships of the Squadron have it only twice a Week –
20 Anchored H.M.S. Penelope - Carpenters & Sail-makers empld. daily at the Yard –
21 Arrived HM. Packet Antelope – Wash & Cleaned Ship –
22 Recd. 4 four Pounders Complete which made us up 16 Guns. –
23 Sailed H.M.S. Penelope. Recd. an order to return all such Stores as I did not want for my Passage home – Complied with it –
Arrived a Sloop Prize to the Hyana.
24 Recd. 4 Men from the Hospital. Employed getting ready for Sea –
25th Recd. Shingle Ballast – Opened a Cask of Beef No. 1390 Conts. 66 Dble pieces. –
Carpenters Sailmakers & Armourers Empld. at the Yard

[Page 290]
Rems. in Port Royal Jamaica
Monday 26
Sunday 2
Very unsettled with much Rain the first part of this week & Thunder & Lightning. – The latter part Fair Wr. – Fresh Beef as usual – Artificers Empld in the Yard – Empld. Watering & preparing for Sea –
26 Arrvd. A Sloop Prize to H.M.S. Spitfire. – Punishd. Richd. Upsdale wth. 12 lashes for neglect of Duty. – Performed Divine Service –
27th. Sailed HM. Schooner Advice – Aired daily with Fires –
28 Arrived HMS Proserpine. Recd. 195 Pots & 2 Tubs of Plants from Kingston –
29th. Recd. 138 Pots of Plants – Recd. 379 Boxes and Tubs of Plants. –
30th. At 1 pm fired 19 Guns Pr. order – The Restoration of King Charles – Recd. 48 Packages of Plants The Total being 762 Vessels. – Recd. orders from Commodore Ford to get ready, & proceed to Bluefields. – Arrived HM. Ships Europa & Fly. –
31 – Recd. 107 Bags of Bread 908 Galls. Of Rum for Sea Store. – Sailed H.M. Brig Assistant for the North side to convoy round to Bluefields such Ships as are ready – The Convoy is intended to Sail on the 12th. June. –
Ships draught of Water aft 16 ft
                                        Forward 14:9
                                                        1:3 By the Stern
1st. Recd. five Men from the Hospital – At 9 pm fired the Evening Gun & struck the Broad Pennant Delivered it up to the Europa with all the Signals. –
am unmoored – Struck my Observatory –
2 Discharged 2 Men into H.M. Brig Goelan.
All ready for Sea –

[Page 291]
Rates of My Time Keepers determined by equal Altitudes on Fort Charles at Port Royal

[Page 292]
Lunar Observations made on Fort Charles

[Page 293]
Variation of the Compass found on Fort Charles

[Page 294]
An Account of Plants for His Majestys Garden at Kew. –
Plants collected here by Dr Danser amounting to 107 Vessels containing. - 134
Dr Broughton & a Mr. Thame 56 Vessels 75
Mr Smith Dr Wallen, Mr Smith & a Mr. Perrin 237 Vessels 667
Total of Jamaica Plants 876
From Dr Anderson at St. Vincent 338 Vessels contg. 338
From St. Helena 7 Vessels containing 7
From Timor 25 Vessels 27
From Possession Isld. New Guinea 1 Vessel 1
From Otaheite 24 Vessels 32
From Van Dieman’s Land 1 Vessel 2
Total Vessels 796 Containing 1283

Among the above Plants were Fruits from Otaheite
Breadfruit Plants Plants 5 in number
 Rattah or Chesnut 2
Ayyah or Jambo 2
Avvee Apple 1
Peeah Sago flour 2
Oraiah Plantain 1
Cocoa Nutt 2
Nono Singular 3
Hoohee Yam 2

From Timor
Breadfruit Plants – Sucoom by the Malays 2
Chermailah 1
Lemon China ` 1
Cosambee 1
Nanka 4
Jambo 2
                                                Carried over 31

[Page 295]
Plants Continued
                                                        Brought Over 31
Mango Plants in Number 2
Boabidarah raised from seed at Sea 2

From St. Helena
China Orange 1

From Jamaica
Custard Apple 3
Allicador Pear 2
Cabbage Tree 5
Ackee 5
Wild Mangostan 2
Naisberry 2
Total of Fruits 55

[Page 296]
Rems Mondy. June 3d. 1793 Towards Bluefields
1 Fresh Breezes and dark Cloudy Wr. – Got the Ship out into the Fair Way. –
2 Anchor in 8 fms. Port Royal Point EbS ¾ S ½ Mile & Fort Augusta N ½ W.
4 Hoisted in the Launch & Bent all the Steering Sails. –
12 Fair Wr.
7 Weighed & Sailed with a Pilot. –
9 Discharged the Pilot. – Cleaned Ship & Aired with Fires. –
12 Fresh Gales & Fair Wr. Portland point NbW off shore 3 or 4 leagues. – A Sail in the NW. All sails Set –

[Page 297]
Rems. Tuesdy. June 4th. 1793 Towards Bluefields
1 Fresh Gales & Hazy. –
5 Pedro Bluff North 4 or 5 Ms. – In Steering Sls.
7 Hauled on a Wind for the Night – Soundings 20 fms.
9 Fair Wr. with Lightning in the NW –
12 Heavy Squalls with light Showers of Rain. – In 3d. Reefs –
6 Bore away Black River NEbN offshore 9 Miles & Bluefields N ½ E –
8 Blue Fields N ½ E offshore 3 or 4 Miles
10 At 10 ½ h Anchored in 5 ¼ fms. The Tavern NEbE dist. 2 Miles. – Hoisted out the Boats & sent them to examine the Bottom
12 Fair Wr. & Hazy. -

[Page 298]
Rems. at Bluefields
1793 June
Mondy 5th
Fair Wr. and Hazy with much Lightning.
PM at one O’Clock fired 21 Guns in Honor of His Majesty’s Birth day –
Warped nearer to the shore & came to in with the Small Br. in 5 fms. Moored SE & NW ½ Cable each way The Tavern EbN ab. 2 Miles – Savannah la Mar WNW outer part of the land W ¾ N – the East point of the Bay & outermost land SEbS. – Dolphin Head N33 ½ °W
AM sent the Launch with Hands to Water the Ship. – Haul the Seine & caught a few Fish.
Washed the Ship fore & Aft and dried with Fires
Thursdy 6
Do Wr. – Sent Hands on shore to gather Water Cresses got abundance for the Ship’s Company. –
Employed Watering & other necessary duties of the Ship. –
Friday 7
Do Wr. with Calms.
Employed Watering - & gathering Water Cresses
Hauling the Seine – Airing Sails – Mending some Small Sails – Exercising Great Guns & Small Arms –
Anchored two Ships from Savanna la Mar to join Convoy. – Sent the Cutter to Black River. –
Saturday 8
Fair Wr. & Hazy. Recd. 285 lbs Fresh Beef – Employed Watering – Washing & Cleaning Ship – Exercising Great Guns. – Hands gathering Water Cresses – others gathering Limes. – Empld. Mendg. Cloaths. –

Sunday 9
Fresh Gales in the day Calms & Land Winds at Night. – Employed Watering. – AM Mustered the Ships Company & saw them all Clean –
Anchored a Ship from Savanna la Mar to join Convoy -

[Page 299]
Rems. at Bluefields –
1793 June
Monday 10th
Fair Wr. with Land & Sea Breezes. –
PM arrived His Majesty’s Ship Proserpine & by her I received orders from Commodore Ford to sail for Cape Antonio with the Assistant – there is to take such Ships of the Honduras Fleet as might be assembled & proceed with them Home – The [indecipherable word] Assistant not being arrived from the North side I conceived it proper to wait a day or two for Her –
Recd. Fresh Beef – 234 lbs. – Aired Sails – received Water & gathered Water Cresses for the Ships Company. –
Gunners Employed making wads –
Tuesdy. 11
Strong Sea Breezes with Land Winds & Calms –
Employed as yesterday - Washed fore & aft and dried with Fires. –
At 9 am arrived The Antelope Packet to accompany us home. – Also two Light Guinea Man. –
Wednesdy 12
Do Wr. at 4 pm unmoored Ship – Recd. 287 lbs Beef
Fired a Gun & made the Signal for sailing. –
The Large Cutter in coming from Black River in the Night run a ground on a River & upset – The People narrowly escaped with their lives – Lost some Arms & accoutrements besides her Grapnel & most of her Furniture – Also an Azimuth Compass – AM Sent the Pinnace & with great difficulty got her off her bottom all stove to Pieces. –

Thursdy. 13
First part fresh Gales latter part Calms. – Could not get to Sea – Cleaned below – Made the Signal for Sailing. –
Friday 14
Such constant Calms & Light Variv. Airs could not get to. Attempted to tow out as I determined to wait no longer for the Assistant. – Anchored again in 4 ½ fms. The Tavern & Overseers House in one N50°E 4 Miles & the Extrs. of the land from S85°E by the North to N85°W – Read the Articles of War & Punished George Thompson with 12 lashes for contempt & disobeydience of orders. –

[Page 300]
Observations in this Place

[Page 301]
Rems. Saturdy. June 15th. 1793 Towards England –
1 Calm and dark cloudy Wr.
2 Light Breeze – Weighed – The Antelope Packet and two light Guinea Men sailed with us
4 South Negril N64°W – Johns Point N56W & the Ships in Savanna la Mar NbE 5 or 6 Ms. The Dolphin head No. –
6 Mustered the Ship’s Company at their Quarters. –
7 South Negril N5°W 6 or 7 Miles – Bluefield Mountains EbN
1 Varia. Winds & Wr. with Lightening in the NW
4 At day light North Negril No. & South Negril East about 3 leagues, & The extrs. of Jamaica from N65E to S80°E
7 Tkd. to speak a strange sail – Found her to be the Rose Captain Black from Lucia bound to Bluefields – informed me the Assistant was with a dismasted Ship the Rockhampton & gave me a letter from Lieut. Portlock. –
10 Washed and dried Ship with Fires.
12 Light Winds and Cloudy. The Extrs. of Jamaica E ½ N to E ¾ S off the West End about 7 or 8 leagues. – The Packet & two Guinea Men in Company. – One is called the Thomas of Bristol & the other the Clementson of Liverpool.

[Page 302]
The letter from Lieutenant Portlock informed me that on the 12th. he had met with the Rockhampton (Peter Aitkin) dismasted and in great distress off the West End of Jamaica – He had endeavored to get her into Negril Bay, but from a strong lee Current he found it impracticable, as it was for him & even for himself to join me at Bluefields. – Under these circumstances and the Master applying to him to stay by them, he had come to a resolution to bear bare away for the Grand Caymana on the 14th. – From Captain Black’s account their situation was very deplorable e, & determined to fall in with them if possible to insure to them anchorage off the West end of the Grand Caymanes.
[Page 303]
Rems. Sundy. June 16th. 1793 Towards England
1 Light Airs and Squally with Rain. In 1st. Reefs.
4 Mod. breezes with heavy Rain. Extremes of the Western part of Jamaica EbN to EbS ½ S ab. 10 leagues. – Set Studding Sails.
6 Saw a sail in the NNE
8 Cloudy with Lightning in the SW – In Steering Sails. –
10 Fresh Gales. In 2d. Reefs.
4 At day light Caymanbrack WNW as seen from the Mast head ab. [indecipherable word] 5 – Out 2d. Reefs
5 Cloudy Wr.
8 At 7h:53 the East End of Caymanbrack N6°W 4 or 5 Miles & at 8h. the extremes of the Island was from N80°W to N56 off the east extr. 3 or 4 Ms.
10 At 9h:25’ Saw little Camana from N89W. ab 9 Ms to N64W 5 Miles. Set Studding Sails & out all Reefs.
11 Mustered the Ship’s Company and Exercised Great Guns. – Cleaned below. –
12 Fresh breezes & Cloudy Wr. The Western part of the Little Caymana North 5 leags. could see no other part distinctly.
The Antelope Packet & the two Guinea-Men in Company. –

[Page 304
I steered a course for the Night which I had hope would take me in sight of the disabled Ship, and after running to the Westward, by which I became sure they had not overun their latitude; I steered again obliquely to intersect their track about the distance from Jamaica that I calculated from C. Black’s last sight of them. –
It is advantageous to Navigation that I have had the means I have had to determine the exact situation of Caymanbrac with respect to longitude from the West End of Jamaica – The latitude I cannot say is to a Mile because it depends on the calculation from the log from 7h:53’ to Noon. –
The East end of Caymanbrack forms a very distinct perpendicular foreland – comparatively speaking it is a was man height above the Horizon – It is very low and no other way remarkable.
Little Caymana is larger & rather lower – The whole was covered with wood and numerous Silver Thatch Trees – The leaves of these Trees have a very brilliant sattin appearance when blown up by the Wind. –
The appearance of the East end of Caymanbrac distinguishes it more particularly from the Grand Caymanes at first sight (should a Ship fall in with it,) than any thing else – The East End of the Grand Caymanes tho about the same height has no particular appearance. –

[Page 305]
Rems. Mondy. June 17th. 1793 Towards England.
1 Fresh Breezes and Cloudy Wr. – Saw the Assistant and the Rockhampton a dismasted Ship. – Made the signal to come within hail – Rainy & unsettled Wr –
4 At 3 Lieut. Portlock came on board. – I ordered him to keep by the disabled Ship & to give her in tow to one of the Guinea Man in the Morning to follow me to the West End of the Grand Caymana.
6 Very heavy Rain. Dble Reefed the TS. & kept them in the Cap. –
11 TS on the Cap, & so braced as to give us 1 Mile of distance Pr. hour for the Night, to enable me to keep our latitude for the South side of the Island. –
4 Very Squally with thick Rain. At day light bore away. – The Thomas took the Rockhampton in Tow. –
6 At ½ past 9 saw the Grand Caymanes from W ½ S to NWbW offshore abt. 7 Miles.
8 At 10h:45’ the East End bore true North dist. 2 or 3 Ms. – I made sail to get a Pilot & proceeded to lead the Ships. Some Cannoes off with the Turtle – Saw a Sail in the SE: – Opened a Cask of Beef N1392 cont. 66 double pieces. –
11 Dryed all Wet cloathes. –
12 Mod. & Cloudy Wr. The G. Caymanes south. point S81 to Bowden Town N75°W 2 Miles & SE pt. N64°E. –
Assistant & Ships in Company as before. –

[Page 306]
About one O’Clock we saw the Assistant & her charge as I expected – They had got some small spars & Sails as Jury Masts & were under less apprehension about the leakyness of the Ship. The weather was very unfavorable we however made the Caymana in the Morning, & as I had ordered the Thomas to take the Rochampton in tow we got on expeditiously

[Page 307]
Rems. Tuesday June the 18th. 1793 Towards England
1 Mod. & Cloudy Wr. Hove too & got on board a Mr. Boden who knew the Anchoring ground off the West End. – Bore away. –
3 At 3h:45’ I anchored off George Town wth. the Small Br. in 8 fms. – The rest of the Ships did the same & the Rochampton in perfect safety. So. point of the Road S9°W 1 ¼ Mile The North point North 1 Mile & a sandy bay near the Middle of the Town E ½ S ¼ Mile. The West part of the Island bore NWbN 5 or 6 Miles.
7 At 6 Weighed as did the other Ships & at 7 George Town bore EbN dist. 2 or 3 Miles.
8 During my stay I supplied the Rochampton with Spare Masts Yds. Blocks Cordage & every thing I could spare – The Principal People came off & promised they could do every thing in their power to supply them with what else they wanted.
12 Fresh Breezes & Cloudy.

4 Out all Reefs & made all Sail.
8 Cloudy – Served hot breakfast of Portable Soup Gruel as usual. –
9 Cleaned & Washed below & Eercised at Great Guns & Small Arms. Carpenters Employed repairing the large Cutter –
12 Very Cloudy but got a tolerable Observ. A Ship & a Brig in Company who joined us last Night. – Assistant &c. as before.

[Page 308]
I Anchored off the West End of the Grand Caymanes in 8 fms. and without difficulty or trouble The Rochampton by that means came to an Anchor in perfect safety – The Assistant, Packet, and other Ships did the same.
Having sent for Captain Aitkin and got informed of the state of his Ship, I supplied him with a rough spar to make jury Main Mast, and others for Yards and Top Masts – Also some Blocks & Rope, and every thing I could spare. Some of the Principal People came on board, from whom I understood, that altho they had not many articles necessary for the Ship, yet upon the whole it appeared she might in a short time be got ready to proceed home. I did all I could to insure it, & sailed after an Anchorage of two hours & a quarter with the Ships in company as before.
This Road lies on the West side of the Island opposite a small Village which they now call George Town (formerly the Hogsties) its latitude 19°20’N, and tho’ its longitude may not be what the T. Keepers give it [indecipherable word] to a few Miles; yet its situation with respect to the West End of Jamaica is certainly 2°56’W. – The bottom appeared in some parts rocky from discolour’d Water, but from aloft the clear ground is very conspicuous & the place to anchor is abreast of the Town. It is a pleasant road & I am told Watering is convenient. – Turtling is the principal employment of the Inhabitants, besides which, Shipping in some seasons are plentifully supplied with Yams & Plantains. – The Island could no doubt produce any thing grown within the Tropics – I was solicited l most earnestly by a Mr. Boden for a Breadfruit plant, and from the probability of doing a good act & giving conferring a lasting advantage to upon futurity, (sensible that the situation would answer;) I consented, & to with the Breadfruit Plant I gave him an Ayyah & a Nanka as beautiful l Plants as ever were seen. – I gave him every necessary direction about them and I trust they will succeed.
There are about 10 Schooners belonging to the Island built to 9 feet draught Water, that they may benefit from a fine Harbour on the North side of the Island. –
It is extraordinary that in such Maps as Mr. Gauls produced to the Public the latd. of the SW pt. of Camanes is 19°11’N. – I can only account for this by his not publishing the Maps himself –

[Page 309]
Rems. Wednesdy. June 19th. 1793 Off Cape Corientes
1 Mod. Breezes and cloudy Wr. – Served Slops & Tobacco to the Ships Company.
6 Thick Rainy Wr. & Thunder
8 Cloudy Wr.
11 Fresh Breezes.
2 Lightning
5 Sent the Assistant in chase of a Schooner – fired two Guns to bring her too. – Found her to be an American Vessel – last from the Havanna without any papers – Guns in her hold & every Piratical appearance, for which I detained her & shifted the Master & two Men. –
8 Cleaned below, & Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms. – The Jupiter of Kingston joined us bound to Baltimore. –
10 Saw the land WbN ½ N to NbW ½ W
12 Cloudy Wr. but got a tolerable observation 8 Sail in company including ourselves. The land near Cape Corientes WbN ½ N about 3 leags. & the Eastermt. Land NbE ½ E. – No appearance of the Honduras Ships. – A Ship in compy. called the Jupiter, informed me the sailing of the Jamaica Fleet Convoy was put off untill more strength arrived to convoy them home –

[Page 310]
At day light we observed a Schooner standing across us towards the land. After a few shot, & the Assistant’s in chasing e of her, she hoisted American provincial colours, - A Spread Eagle, blue, in the field white stuck with Stars, in the Breast of the Eagle thirteen stripes, & the whole within a narrow red border. – Lieut. Portlock brought the Master on board of me, who acknowledged he had no papers to show to prevent his Vessel being taken, & alledged as an excuse that he was going on the forced Trade, the Vessel being purchased from an American in the Havannah he could not apply for a Register. - But The suspicious part was, is having 6 Guns in the Hold & [indecipherable word] that he was going to the Isle of Pines to take in some super cargoes, from whence he said he was to go to Jamaica. It appeared to me to be a fabricated account, & that the principal object of the cruize, as soon as they could get in a few Renegades at the Isle of Pines; was to look after some of our West India Men & make prizes of them: I therefore determined to detain [indecipherable symbol] Schooner, as much was to be apprehended from such a Vessel let loose about this Sea, at a time our Ships are making runs home. – Her Name was the Hannah & Sally, burthen abt. 40 Tons – They had a single Certificate to show the Vessel had come from the Havanna, but that document certified that Mr. Montgomery was Master. – The Crew consisted of six Men & the Master, so that as yet I hope no mischief has been done by them – The present Masters Name was Jn. Stuart.
The Land about Cape Corientes is low like the Caymanes and no way remarkable – The same may be said of Cape Antonio and the coast is free of danger. – A few Miserable Turtle Catchers live about the latter, & bring them off the Turtles for sale to Shipping. – Formerly, large or small they were to be bought for 3 Spanish Dollars each, but at this time they asked ten. –
I understand By my orders, the Honduras Fleet were was to have been off C. Antonio by the time The Jamaica Convoy could be there – They express "I am to proceed with such of them as may be assembled" – it is doubtfull to me [indecipherable word] whether we meet with any of them – Their sailing is very uncertain – They should have been [indecipherable word] cruizing off here by the 15th at farthest to have received the benefit of the Convoy. – I conceive the spirit of my orders to be ; I am not to wait for them – delay would be the means of my losing all the Plants I have – at present they are in fine order. –

[Page 311]
Rems Thursday June 20th. 1793 – Off Cape Antonio
1 Fresh Breezes and cloudy Wr. with hard Squalls of Rain – Shortened Rain occasionally.
4 The Extremes of the land from NWbW ½ W near Cape Antonio, to NNE ½ E off shore 7 or 8 Miles. –
5 Saw a Strange Sail standing to the Westward, supposed a Brig.
7 At 7 False Cape EbN & Cape Antonio NWbW.
8 Stood off & under Dble Reefs TS Setting the Fore Sail to tack Ship & then hauling it up. –
12 Tkd.
3 Tkd.
5 Hazy Wr. ½ past 6 bore away Cape Antonio NWbW ½ W False Cape NE ½ E ofshore 2 Miles
7 Hove too
8 Made Sail. Bearings nearly the Same.
9 Employed Exercising Great Guns & Small Arms. – Sailmakers repairing the Jibb. –
11 Made Sail. Spoke the Jane from Kingston bound to Philidelphia, a letter of Mark of 12 Guns. –
12 Fair Wr. Cape Antonio SE ½ E 5 or 6 Miles Mangrove point ENE off shore 3 Miles –
Eight Sail in Company including ourselves.
No appearance of the Honduras Fleet. – I suspect they are past. –

[Page 312]
Rems. Friday June 21st. 1793 Off Cape Antonio
1 Fair Wr. Sent the Surgeon by request on board the Brig Mary to see some sick Men –
2 Made Sail Cape Antonio SE ¼ S 4 or 5 Miles
3 Sent the Assistant in Chase of a Brig wch. proved to be a Spanish Vessel of War mounting 16 Guns – She would not heave to – Was known by the People on board belonging to the Schooner – They also give me reason to suppose the Honduras Ships are gone on. – I determine to proceed – Six days past their time of being here at least. –
12 In 2d. Reefs – Suppose myself past the Coleradoes. –
6 Two strange Sails in the NNW, the one a Spanish Polacka
8 Fine Wr. Hot breakfast daily as usual to the Ship’s Company. –
9 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms - Empld. afterwards, washing Cloaths. – Carpenters repairing the Cutter. – Sailmakers the Jibb.
12 Fine Wr. Assistant & Schooner in Company, the other Ships much separated.

[Page 313]
Rems. Saturday June 22d. 1793 Towards England
1 Fine Wr.
2 Sent a Boat for Lieut. Portlock [series of indecipherable words] to dine with me –
4 At 2h Very black Sky in the South & several Water Spouts, some of them very grand & awful l. –
6 At 5h. Exercised Great Guns and Small Arms. – Lieut. Portlock returned on board. Our surgeon went to see his sick People. –
7 They were on the recovery.
8 Fine Night
5 Five Sail in sight
7 Hot Breakfast as usual.
8 Fine Wr. & Hazy. – Washed Ship fore & aft. – Exercised at Great Guns & Small Arms. –
12 Fair Wr. & Cloudy. Assistant & Prize Schooner in Company. – Five sail in sight.

[Page 314]
Rems. Sunday June 23d. 1793 Towards England
1 Fresh Breezes and suddenly dark cloudy Wr. threatning much Wind. –
2 Heavy Squalls & Rain – In all Sails.
3 Set close Reefed TS.
4 Out all but 1st. Reefs.
6 Fair Wr. Exercised Great Guns. – Worked the Pumps as usual. – Six Sail in sight.

2 Tkd. Sounded with 106 fms. Line no grd.
5 Tkd. Four Sail in sight
7 Breakfast as usual.
8 Fair Wr. – Cleaned below – Mustered in Divisions & saw every person clean dressed. Exercised at Great Guns –
10 Three Sail to leward hoisted English Colours. –
12 Fair Wr. Assistant & Prize in Compy – Allowing the Havanna in 82°:18’W as pr. Requisite Tables, we are 27 Miles to the East of it; but taking my [sketch of an anchor] Longd. from C. Antonio which is pr. Sayers Map 3°:5’, we are 0°:9’ to the West of it. –

[Page 315]
Rems Monday June 24th. 1793 Off the Matanza
1 Mod. And fair Wr. with much haze.
5 At ½ past 5 Saw the land in the SbW
6 At ½ past 6 a high round Hill (afterwards known to be the Pass of Matanza) SbW ½ W off shore 4 or 5 leags. –
8 At 7 hauled the Wind offshore under Dble Reefed Top Sails.
9 The Packet – Thomas, & Clementson joined us.
4 Bent a New Miz. TS.
8 Puncta de Yeacos S70°E – Pass of Matanza S42°W. – W. point of the Bay of Matanzes SSW dist. 3 or 4 leags. – Sound. No ground at 120 fms. line. Camerreogua Hills S36°E. –
Employed Exercising
12 Fair Wr. & hazy. The Pass of Matanzes S30°W – land near Puncta de Yeacos SE ¾ E – W. point of the Bay of Matanzes S19°W 3 leags. nearly
Assistant & prize Schooner in Company The Packet & two other Ships. –

[Page 316]
Contrary to my expectation when we made the land, we were to the Eastward of the Havanna, and abreast of the Matanzes. The land was so exceedingly hazed that no part could be seen distinctly. The Pan was tolerably conspicuous, & another hill to the Eastward of it, but they appeared so different to my Idea of the Pan, & the Master & Pilot of the Schooner confirming to me it was land to the Westward of the Havanna, that it was not untill the Morning that I was sensible of my mistake. -
I had intended to have gone into the Havanna to enable the Assistant to complete her Water, but it was now too late, I could not think of returning against a Current which was now so favorable to my getting through the Gulf ph.
From several private letters which we found on board the Schooner, it now appeared clear to me that I had judged too unfavorably of the intention of the Master. – The Vessel was intended for no other purpose, but to go to Jamaica to purchase dry goods & smuggle them into Cuba. – Under these considerations I liberated the Vessel after throwing her Guns overboard; [indecipherable word] I gave the Master his choice to return to the Havanna, or go to Providence, he chose the latter, for he declared if he returned, he should would be made a prisoner of for being in the illicit Trade. The Vessel was too small & worthless for me to bring her any farther with my own People – The Master requested to accompany us through the Gulf. –
The Camerreogua Hills is the high land to the Eastward of the Bay of Matanzes from whence the Coast becomes low towards Puncta de Yeacos. –
I presume the Time Keepers agree nearly with the longd. of the Havanna laid down by requiste Tables 82°18’W., but as I was not sure that could be the case, I governed myself by the [sketch of an anchor] of longitude between C. Antonio & the Havanna according to Sayers Map. –

[Page 317]
Rems. Tuesday June 25th. 1793 In The Gulf
1 Fresh Breezes & Fair Wr. with haze.
4 Squally. In 2d. Reefs Main & Miz. & 3d. Reef Fore Top Sail. –
6 Heavy Squall & sudden shift of Wind. – In all sails. – Camerreogua Hills SbW – Pan of Matanzes SWbS, 10 leags. from the Bay. –
8 Mod & Fair Wr. – Under single Reefs.
9 The Pan at this distance appeared as a round lump of an Isld. a handspike length above the Horizon. –
12 Much lightning around the Horizon. –Sounded every ¼ of an hour untill day light wth. 70 to 80 fms. of line but had no ground. – This is a necessary precaution when taking the Gulf as we are. –
6 Fired 4 Guns to Bring a Schooner too - Sent the Assistant to chase – Found her to be an American from Philedelphia loaded with Flour, bound to New Orleans. –
8 Cleaned below & Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms. – Hot Breakfast every day, & Sour Krout served as formerly.
12 Fresh Breezes & Squally Wr. – Assistant & Schooner in Company Packet &c. as Yestdy. & 2 Prizes. –

[Page 318]
As I had it not in my power to ascertain how far in land the Pan of Matanzes lay, I prefered fixing the situation of the West point of the Bay of Matanzes, and from this I reckoned my longitude by T. Keepers East or West of it, to ascertain my position s in the Gulf ph. – The exactness of the latd. of the Point depends on the supposed distance. I believe it not two Miles Wrong – that error in the longitude is admissible altho & I do not think it to be more. –

[Page 319]
Rems Wednedy. June 26th. 1793 In The Gulf
1 Fresh Breezes & Squally Wr. Caught a Dolphin. – out 2d. Reef Fore & M. TS. –
2 A strange Schooner insight towards the other Ships. – Exercised Great Guns. –
4 Worked the Pumps as customary. – Gave leave to our Prize Schooner to depart for Providence
7 In 2d. Reefs – Very Cloudy with Thunder and Lightning. –
10 Very Unsettled & at Calms. – A Very rapid Current running. –
1 Light Breezes & Fair Wr.
4 At 4h:50’ Saw the Coast of Florida near Grenville Inlet to the southward, from SW ½ S to NW ½ W offshore 2 leags. nearly. – Could see it no further from the Mast head than from the Deck –
8 Fair Wr. The land from SW ¼ S to NWbW off shore 2 or 3 leags. –
9 Washed & Cleaned Ship and Exercised at Great Guns & Small Arms. – Sailmakers repairing Sails – Carpenters Boats. – Some Fish seen. –
12 Fine Wr. – Assistant in Company – The Packet & two Guinea Men – 2 Brigs &c Schooner. – A Ship in the North. – No land to be seen. –

[Page 320]
From the best Maps of the Gulf ph and taking my departure from the Bay of Matanzes, (by the valuable help of my Time Keepers,) I supposed myself on the Bahama side . It is evident however I was on the Florida shore – This circumstance has enabled me to determine a very essential point. Indubitably the Coast of Florida in the latd. of 26°36’ lies 1°29’23" Eastly. of the Bay of Matazes – (The Time Keepers are not to be doubted) – whereas the Map of Sayer & Bennet has it only 35 Miles, a difference of 0°54’23" too far to the West. This very serious error is the Cause of the loss of many Ships, as they consider the Gulph more open when they take their departure from the Pan of Mantanzes than it really is to them. The old Rule is to have the Pan to bear SSW & steer NNE which is NNE ¾ E. – Unless they have a current setting to the Eastward they never can get this length with the common Easterly Wind; & I therefore infer when they take the departure just recited, that the certainty (I may say) is, the current sets to the NE, & of course it must increase their Easting as well as northing – Notwithstanding this, the Ships commonly fall in with the Time Keepers; that the Coast of Florida is laid much too far to the West in its relative position s to the Bay of Matanzes. – By a fair & unbiassed reckoning wch. I ever keep, (without allowing for Currents or adopting any such abominable & vague systems, more than may be necessary but as far as imaginary ideas of them to counteract danger;) I find I make 59 Ms. from the Bay of Matanzes n to the land in, 26°36’N. – If to this we allow only the current of yesterday it gives 1:19 [sketch of an anchor] Longitude between the two places, which is nearly 10 Miles less than the difference of Longitude before stated. –

[Page 321]
Rems Thursday June 27th. 1793 Towards England
1 Mod. & fine Wr.
4 Showers of Rain & Light Winds. –
5 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms. – Worked the Pumps to Ventilate the Ship
8 Mod. & Cloudy Wr. In 1st Reefs. –
11 Passed through several strong Riplings Lead going every quarter of an hour no ground from 50 to 60 fms. –
4 Cloudy Wr. and light Winds
6 Rainy Wr.
8 Unsettled Wr. - Served a Hot Breakfast as usual – Cleaned below – Exercised at Great Guns. – Up all Wet things to dry –
10 Out 1st. Reefs. – Caught a Shark. –
12 Unsettled & Rainy Wr. – Assistant, the Packet & two Guineamen in Compy. The other Vessels steered to the NNE for America. Set Steering Sails.

[Page 322]
Rems. Friday June 28th. 1793 Towards England
1 Unsettled Wr. & heavy showers of Rain.
3 In steering Sails – Saw a Mother Careys Chicken. – Many Dolphins about –
4 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms. –
7 In 1st. Reefs
8 Light Winds & Fair Wr.

5 Squally Wr. with Rain.
8 Fair Wr. Employed Exercising and other duties as yesterday. –
12 Fine Wr. Assistant & Ships in Compy as Yesterday – Two sail in the NNW
Served a Puncheon of Spruce Beer to the Ships Company. –

[Page 323]
Rems. Saturday June 29th. 1793 Towards England
1 Fine Wr. – Every day Gulph Weed seen
3 Squally with Rain.
4 Fine Wr. out [indecipherable word] Reefs. – Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms. – Let fresh Water into the Ship & Ventilated with the Pumps.
7 In 1st. Reefs. –
10 Squally with some Rain
12 Fair Wr.
7 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel as formerly. – Saw a Tropic Bird. –
8 Washed Ship below & Aired wth. Fires –
9 Exercised at Great Guns & Small Arms – Carpenters about the Boats & Sailmakers sails. –
12 Fine Wr. – Dolphins & other Fish abt. some Birds wth. Black backs & White bellies a species of Gulls Same as seen about Timor & other places in the South Sea –
Assistant & Ships as yesterday. –

[Page 324]
Rems. Sunday June 30th. 1793 Towards England
1 Fine Wr. – People employed mending their Cloaths. – Sold the Waring apparel of & every thing but the Books & Instruments of Mr. Hinde
5 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms. –
6 Shortened Sail for the Assistant – In 1st. Reefs and kept the [sketch of an anchor] on the Cap. –
10 Made sail & bore down for the Assistant

4 Out 1st. Reefs & Set Royals – Caught two Dolphin – The front of the Male formed a perpendicular line from the mouth – The Female arched equally from the Mouth towards the back & towards the belly. – We discovered the sex by the Roe. –
8 Saw much Gulph Weed – Exercised Great Guns – Cleaned below – Mustered & saw every person clean-dressed & performed Divine Service. –
12 Fine Wr. – Assistant – The Packet & two Guinea men in company –

[Page 325]
Rems. Monday July 1st. 1793 Towards England
1 Light Breezes & fine Wr. – Lieut. Portlock came to dine with me –
5 Exercised Great Guns – Let Water into the Ship & Worked the Pumps.
7 In 1st. Reefs. – Advancing now to the Northward, I gave orders for no person to come on Deck after Dark without a flannel Jacket on. –
5 Flying fish – Albecores – Dolphins – Tropic birds & Gulph Weed seen.
8 Fine Wr. Served thick Portable Soup Gruel for breakfast. –
9 Cleaned Ship – Aired the Ship’s Company’s Bedding & issued Clean Hammocks. – Served Sour Krout – Opened a Cask of Pork No. 1025 contents 120 dble pieces
12 Fine Wr. – Assistant – Packet & two Guineamen in Company. – Broached a Puns. of Spruce Beer for the People. –
Royals & Studding Sails set. –

[Page 326]
Rems. Tuesday July 2d. 1793 Towards England
1 Light Winds & fine Wr. – Saw a Tropic Bird. –
2 Exercised Great Guns. –
6 Unbent the Miz. & bent the Driver. Worked the Pumps as usual
4 Scrubbed Hammocks. Saw a Sloop in the ENE –
8 Washed Ship & aired with Fires. –
9 Saw a Brig steering to the NbW an Amer.
10 Sailmakers repairing Sails.
12 Fine Wr. Assistant &c as yesterday in Compy.
Royals & Steering Sails Set –

[Page 327]
Rems Wednesday July 3rd. 1793 Towards England
1 Fresh Breezes and fine Wr. – Unbent the Cables & Stowed the Anchors
3 At 4 this afternoon died Thos. Hart, Cooper of the Ship – a Worthy honest Man. – From a Cold wch. he caught at Bluefields, he was seized with a Fever on the 22 of June.
7 In Royals & T.G. Steering Sails. – We out sail the Packet & Ships in compy.

4 Set Royals & T.G. Steering Sails. –
7 Saw a Sloop standg to the NNW
8 Hot Breakfast as usual. –
Cleaned below – Committed the Body of the deceased to the Deep. –
9 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms –
10 Sailmakers employed Mending Sails
12 Fine Wr. & hazy – Assistant, Packet & two Guinea Men in Company. –
Broached a Puns. of Spruce Beer for the Ships Company. –
[Page 328]

[Page 329]
Rems. Thursdy. July 4th. 1793 Towards England
1 Fine Wr. – Saw a Brig in the SW Steering to the NNW – Saw Flying Fish. –
3 Saw a Schooner in the East standg. to the Southd. – Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms at Quarters & fired. –
5 Saw a Schooner in the ENE – Made the Assistant’s Signal to Chase – Spoke her she came from Baltimore loaded with Flour & Soap bound to S. Cruz. – Said the Ambuscade 32 Gun French Frigate was at New York – Had heard of no Ships of War off the Coast, he left, but two Privateers one English & one French off Bermudas. –
12 Trifling Squalls of Rain
4 Fine Wr. Royals & all Sails set. –
7 Hot Breakfast as usual. – Dolphins, Flying Fish & Gulph Weed seen every day. –
8 Cleaned below – Exercised Great Guns. Exercised Small Arms & fired. – Sailmakers repairing Sails & Carpenters about the Boats. –
12 Fine Wr. Assistant, Packet & two Guineamen in Company. –
Gulph Weed seen every day, & all day many pieces seen

[Page 330]
Rems. Friday July 5th 1793 Towards England
1 Mod. Breezes and Fine Wr.
3 Exercised Great Guns. –
5 Let fresh water into the Ship & worked the Pumps as usual –
8 Exercised Great Guns & the rem. of the day employed washing & mending Cloaths
12 Fine Wr. – Assistant & Ships as yesterdy.
Braoched a Puns. of Spruce Beer to the People –

[Page 331]
Rems Satdy July 6th. 1793 Towards England
1 Fine Wr. –
2 Sent the Cutter for Lieut. Portlock.
3 People employed in mending & washing their Cloaths –
5 Exercised Great Guns. –
7 Lieut. Portlock returned on board.
10 A Little Squally
12 Fine Night
5 Bent the old Top Gall. Sails. Saw Flying Fish & Gulph Weed –
6 Served thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast as usual – Krout for Dinner. –
8 Washed Ship & aired with Fires Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms.
12 Fair & pleasant, & for the first day since we left The Gulph, hazy.
Royals & all sails Set
Assistant & Ships in Compy. as yesterday –

[Page 332]
Rems. Sunday July 7th. 1793 Towards England
1 Fair Wr. & hazy with a swell from the NW. – Hitherto we have had the sea remarkably smooth –
4 Worked the Pumps as usual & Exercised Great Guns.
7 Served Thick Portable soup Gruel for breakfast. –
8 Mustered the Ship’s Company. Saw them all clean & performed divine Service. –
12 Do Wr. Ships in company as before. Broached a Puns. of Spruce Beer

[Page 333]
Rems Monday July 8th. 1793 Towards England
1 Mod. & Fine Wr. with Haze. – Saw Flying Fish and some small pieces of Gulph Weed
4 Made the Assistant to Chase & speak a Schooner in the NE – She proved to be an American loaded with Lumber & Saltfish from Boston bound to St. Lucia – 10 Days out. Examined & dismissed her –
7 Exercised Great Guns, and Worked the Pumps as usual –
11 Lightning in the NW
4 Showers of Rain.
6 Fair Wr.
7 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for breakfast as usual – Served Sour Krout & Vinegar for their common use –
9 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms. Those quatered to Small Arms, fired.
10 Sailmakers repairing Sails –
12 Mod. & fine Wr. Assistant & Ships in Compy as before – Royals & Steering Sails Set.

[Page 334]
Rems. Tuesday July 9th. 1793 Towards England
1 Mod. & Fine Wr.
2 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms, The Marines. –
4 Cloudy
6 Worked the Pumps as usual –
10 Lightning in the NE
1 Squally with Lightning & hard Rain. In Steering Sails
6 Mod. & fair Wr. – Set Steering Sails
8 Squally with Rain – Shortened & made Sail occasionally. –
9 Dried Wet Cloaths – Cleaned Ship & aired with Fires. – Some Flying fish & Gulph Weed seen –
12 Unsettled Wr. – Swell from the Westd – Assistant & Ships as before. –

[Page 335]
Rems Wednesdy. July 10th. 1793 Towards England
1 Mod. & Cloudy Wr.
5 Exercised Great Guns. – Let fresh Water into the Pumps and worked The Pumps
8 Fine Night
12 Lightning. In Royals. –
5 Much head Sea –
7 Thick portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast.
8 Squally & Rain. – Exercised Great Guns –
10 Fair Washed below & aired with Fires. Saw Flying Fish & Albecores. –
12 Mod. & hazy Wr. – Portable Soup in the pease. – Some Sheerwaters. –
Assistant – Antelope & two Guinea Men in Company –
Royals & all Sails Set –

[Page 336]
Rems. Thursdy. July 11. 1793 Towards England
1 Fair Wr. and hazy. –
3 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms.
6 Worked the Pumps as usual. – In 3 Reefs For TS – Set all sail upon The M.T.M The Wind being right aft –
11 Lightning. In Royals. – out reefs F.TS.
4 Fair Wr. Set Royals
6 Saw Mother Careys Chicken & Sheerwaters
8 Fair Wr. – Breakfast as usual. – Served Krout for Dinner. –
9 Employed filling Salt Water. –
10 Exercised the Top Men at Small Arms & fired.
12 Fair Wr. & Hazy. – Packet & other Ships in Company. – Broached a Puns. of Spruce Beer

[Page 337]
Rems. Friday July 12th. 1793 Towards England
1 Fair Wr. & Hazy. – Much Swell from the NW. – Employed filling Salt Water. –
6 Worked the Pumps as usual.
7 Departed this Life Joseph Adamson an Invalid from the 13th. Reg. – He died of the Dropsy.
11 In Larbd. Steering Sails – A prodigious heavy Dew falling. –
5 Saw Sheerwaters & Gulph Weed. –
6 Set the Larbd. Steering Sails. –
8 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel as usual for Breakfast. – Portable Soup in the Pease for Dinner. –
10 Committed the Deceased to the Deep.
11 Employed in Washing & mending Cloaths. – Opened a Cask of Beef Pork N 1014 Conts – 120 ps. Dble. –
12 Light Winds – Confused Swell and a Foggy horizon. –
Assistant – Antelope & two Guinea-Men in Company. -

[Page 338]
Rems. Saturday July 13th. 1793 Towards England
1 Light Breezes & fine Wr. with Haze. – Opened a Cask of Beef No. 1572 Contents 66 dble pieces.
5 Exercised Great Guns & fired.
7 Worked the Pumps. – Sent some Muttn to Lieut. Portlock by a Float & Line.
12 Heavy Dew.

6 In lee Steering Sails.
8 Foggy Horizon in the North. – Exercised Great Guns & fired. – Got up all Chests & Bags – Washed & aired with Fires. –
12 Fine Wr. Swell from WNW. – Assistant – Packet and Ships as yesterday. –
Royals & all sails Set. – Served a Puncheon of Spruce Beer to the People
Albecores & some Gulph Weed seen.

[Page 339]
Rems. Sunday July 14th. 1793 Towards England
1 Fine Wr. – People employed mending their Cloaths –
3 Exercised Great Guns –
5 Strong riplings. – Sold part of Mr. Hinds Books & some trifling things. –
10 Heavy Dew falling.
12 Lightning in the NW – Porpoises about. –
6 Cloudy Wr. wth. bright intervals
7 Served thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast
9 Mustered every person clean dressed & performed Divine Service.
10 Saw a Sail in the NE. – Strong Riplings. –
12 Very Cloudy wth. The Sun out only at times.
Wind & Wr. unsettled –
Assistant – Antelope & two Guinea Men in Company. –
All Sail out. –
Gulph Weed seen –

[Page 340]
Rems. Monday July 15th. 1793 Towards England
1 Light Breezes & Cloudy Wr.
5 Steered to near the Sail in the NE
6 She hoisted American Colours. – Saw Many Porpoises.
8 Summer Showers
12 Much Dew.
4 Fine Clear Wr. All Sail Set – The Strange Brig Standg. to the Eastward. –
7 Served Breakfast as Usual. –
8 Fine Wr. Employed Cleaning below & Exercising at Great Guns, Small Arms & Making Wads –
10 Bent the Old Mizen TS. & New Miz. T. Mt. Stay Sail. – Sailmakers Employed Mendg. Steering Sails –
12 Fine Wr. & Smooth Water. The Assistant Packet & Ships in yesterday. –
Royals & All Sails Set –
Broached a Puns. of Spruce Beer

[Page 341]
Rems. Tuesday July n 16th. 1793 Towards England
1 Fresh Breezes and [symbol of wings] Flying Fish seen & some Fine Wr –
3 Gulph Weed – Unbent the Old Top Gallt. Stay Sail & bent a new one. – Sail-Makers repairing the lower Steering Sails. –
5 Exercised Greaqt Guns & small Arms. –
7 Let fresh Water into the Well & Ventilated wth the Pumps. – In Studding Sails & 1st. Reefs –
8 In 2d. Reef M. TS & 3rd. Reef of the Fore TS. –
12 Much Dew, & Strong Breezes – Much head Sea –
4 Out 3d. Reef of the Fore Top Sail –
7 Served thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast.
8 Fresh Gales & Fair Wr. – Unbent the Old T.G. Sail to repair & bent the New one – Saw a Sail in SE standing to the NW. –
10 Washed below & aired with Fires – Exercised Great Guns. – Converted the M.T.G. Stay Sl. to a M.T.G. Steering Sail. –
12 Fresh Gales & heavy head Sea at times – Assist. Packet, Thomas, & Clementson in Company. –

[Page 342]
Rems. Wednesday July n 17th. 1793 Towards England
1 Fresh Gales and Cloudy Wr. – Saw Flying Fish and some Sea Weed –
3 Sailmakers Employed as Yesterday –
4 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms. –
6 Worked the Pumps as usual. –
4 Less Sea out 2d. Reefs. –
6 Fair
7 Served Breakfast as usual. – Portable Soup & Krout in the Pease for Dinner. –
8 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms –
9 Saw Flying Fish. –
12 Fresh Gale & Fine Wr. – Under single Reefs.
The Assistant & Ships as Yesterday not able to keep up with us. –
Broached a Puncheon of Spruce Beer –

[Page 343]
Rems. Thursday July 18th. 1793 Towards England
1 Fresh Gale & fine Wr. –
5 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms –
7 Let fresh Water into the Ship & Worked the Pumps –
9 Heavy Dew & fine Night
12 The Assistant being up with us set Studding Sls & out Reefs. –
7 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel as usual. –
8 Very fine Wr. – Roused the larboard Cables up & Cleaned under them – Sailmakers Empld. mending Sails. –
10 Saw a Turtle. – Read The Articles of War & punished George Thompson (a supernumy.) wth. 2 dozen lashes for disobeydiance of orders & insolence. – Committed him to Irons for further punishment for striking Mr. Impey Mate of the Ship. –
12 Very fine Wr. – Assistant in Company, the other Ships 2 & 3 Miles a stern. –

[Page 344]
Rems. Friday July 19th. 1793 Towards England
1 Mod. Breezes and fine Wr.
3 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms –
6 Worked the Pumps as usual –
12 Cloudy Wr.
1 Some Rain
4 Mod. & Hazy Wr. – Scrubbed Hammocks & Bags –
7 Hot Breakfast as Usual
8 Fine Wr.
9 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms & the remainder of the Day People empld. washing their Clothes – Made the Assis. Sigl to come within hail & sent them some Mutton –
12 Fair Wr. Assistant & Thomas in Company
The Packet & Clementson 4 Miles astern –
Broached a Puns. of Spruce Beer

[Page 345]
Rems. Saturday July 20th. 1793 Towards England
1 Modt. Breezes & fine Weather – People Empld. washing their Clothes –
3 Saw a Sail in the North
4 Chased – Proved to be a Brig from North Caroline bound to Oporto with Pipe staves. – Had not aword of information. – Was out 16 days from Pasquintan & was in longd. 29°30’W. –
8 Very heavy Dew. –
12 Fresh Gale & fine Wr.
3 Squally in T.G. Steering Sails & Royals –
5 Fresh Breezes Set – Do Do –
8 Served Hot breakfast of Thick portable Soup Gruel. –
9 Exercised Great Guns. –
10 Very Squally & thick Wr. – In Royals
12 Fair Intervals – Set Royals. – Assistant - Packet & Thomas in Company – Clementson Astern

[Page 346]
Meteorological Observations

[Page 347]
Rems. Sunday July 21st. 1793 Towards England
1 Fresh Gales & fair Wr. with rather a foggy horizon. – People Employed mending their Clothes. –
5 Handed the Main Sail – Cloudy Wr. –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship & worked the Pumps. –
8 Squally – In Royals – Dble reefed the Fore TS. –
12 Dark Cloudy Wr.
7 Served Thick portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast –
8 Fresh Gale & fair Wr. Hazy Horizon – Set M.T.G. Royal . – Cleaned below – Mustered the Ship’s Company in Divisions. – Saw Porpoises. –
10 Performed Divine Service –
12 Fresh Gales & Cloudy with bright intervals & a very hazy Horizon – Assistant – Packet & Guinea Men in Company. –
M.T.Mt. – T.G. Steering Sails – Royal & lower Steering Sails set – Broached Puns of Spruce Beer

[Page 348]
Rems. Monday July 22d. 1793 Towards England
1 Fresh Gales & Cloudy with intervals of Sun shine but a hazy Horizon –
5 Worked the Pumps as usual & Eercised Great Guns –
8 In steering Sails on account of the Assistant. – In 1st. Reefs
2 Set Fore Top Mast & lower Steering Sail –
7 Served Hot Breakfast as usual. Bent the best Fore T.G. Sail – Served Bore – Cole thickned with Portable Soup & Oatmeal for Dinner –
10 Washed & Cleaned Ship – Aired with Fires –
12 Strong Gales & Fair Wr. – Thick Haze – Ships as Yesterday. – Sent some Fresh Pork to the Assistant by a Line & float. –

[Page 349]
Rems Tuesday July 23d. 1793 Towards England
1 Fresh Gales & thick Haze. – Bent the best Main Sail –
5 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms –
6 Let fresh Water into the Ship and worked the Pumps –
8 Wetting Mist
2 Set Royals
6 In Royals
8 Thick Misty Wr. with intervals of Sun-shine – Hot breakfast of thick Portable Soup Gruel. –
10 Aired wth. Fires – Exercised Great Guns.
12 Do Wr. & very Moist Airs Broached a punch. Spruce Beer. – Served Vinegar. –
Assistant & Ships in Company as before. All sails Set. –

[Page 350]
Rems. Wednesdy. July 24th. 1793 Towards England
1 Strong Gales & thick Wetting Mist. –
4 Saw some Grampuses. – Some Sheerwaters. –
8 Fresh Gale & very Wet Mist.
10 Mod. Breezes Set T.G. Steering Sails & Royals.
12 In Royals & Steering Sails
2 Set Steering Sails the larbd side.
4 Mod. And Cloudy. –
7 Very Cloudy Wr.
8 Served Hot Breakfast as usual. – Saw a Whale some Sheerwaters & Fish. –
9 Cleaned below & aired with fires –
10 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms & fired 10 rounds – a full cartridge divided into 10 pts.
12 Light Breezes & fair Wr. – Some Sheerwaters & Fish. –
Assistant & Ships in Company as yesterday –
Portable Soup & Krout in the Pease for Dinner –

[Page 351]
Rems. Thursday 25th. July 1793 Towards England
1 Light Breezes and fair Wr. – Bent the Best TS and Fore Sail – Sent the Cutter for Lieut. Portlock to dine with me –
4 Saw Some Fish –
5 Exercised Great Guns – Let fresh Water into the Ship & worked the Pumps as usual –
12 Gunners Employed in the Magazine
4 Fine Wr.
6 Hot Breakfast if thick Portable Soup Gruel as usual –
8 Washed & Cleaned Ship & aired with Fires – Empld. painting the Pinnace & Cutter – Broached a Puns. of Spruce Beer –
12 Very Fine Wr. – Assistant, Packet & in Company. – Obliged to wait for the Packet. –

[Page 352]
Rems. Friday 26 July 1793 Towards England
1 Light Breezes & fine Wr. Informed the Antelope I should go off Cape Clear – Capt. Kempthorne requested to keep still under our protection –
4 Exercised Great Guns & Small Arms –
6 Cloudy Wr.
8 Drizling Rain.
7 Served Hot Breakfast as usual – Ceaned & air very thoroughly with Fires.
9 Served Portable Soup & Krout in the Pease for Dinner. – Opened a Cask Beef No. 1411 Conts. 66 Dble ps. & a Cask of Pork No. 1001 Conts. 120 Dble ps.
12 Very thick & Rainy Wr. – Hauled the Wind – Sent some Fresh Mutton to the Assitant by Line & Float – Ships in Company as Yesterday –

[Page 353]
Rems. Saturday July 27th. 1793 Towards England
1 Fresh Gale and very thick Rainy Wr.
3 Bent New Fore Top Mt. Stay Sail. –
6 In 2d. Reefs.
7 Hove too & Sounded with 160 fms. of Line a Very good cast but got no Ground.
10 Very thick Rainy Wr. – Fires all Night to air the Ship & Dry Cloaths –
1 Burnt False Fires to show our possition –
4 Fired a Swivel to the Packet. –
5 Wr. Cleared saw all the Ships well situated. –
6 Wet Fog & at times Rain. –
8 Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast –
9 Cleaned below & kept up good Fires. –
10 Served Sour Krout & Spruce Beer –
12 Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr. – The Sun just appeared & gave us a good observ. – Assistant, Packet & Guineamen in Compy.

[Page 354]
Rems. Sunday July 28th. 1793 Towards England
1 Fresh Gales and Cloudy Wr. People Empld. mending their Clothes. –
3 Foggy Wr.
4 Thick wetting Mist. – Saw a Mur & many Sheerwaters after Fish – Made the Assistant’s Signal to Carry alight as soon as it became dark –
7 Sounded with 160 fms. Line No Bottom.
9 Mod. & Cloudy out 2d. Reefs & Set T.G. Sails. –
12 Light Breezes & Cloudy Wr.
5 Sounded 105 fms a very (light straw colour) fine sandy bottom. Saw a Gannet & a Murr. – Set Steering Sails & Royals –
7 Served Hot breakfast as usual – Saw a Sail from the Mast head in the South –
9 Cleaned Ship & Mustered the Ships Compy saw them all with proper apparel and Performed Divine Service
12 Fine Wr. – Sounded 93 fms. bottom exactly as before – Assistant & Ships as yesterday.
Saw 2 Gannets & a Curleiu – Saw a Bird like a Brown Booby –

[Page 355]
Rems Monday July 29th. 1793 In Soundings
1 Light airs & Cloudy Wr. –
4 Blacked the Bends.
6 Mod & Cloudy.
7 The Sail we saw this Morning appeared very suspicious. As I did not like to lie by for the Night we lay all Night at our Quarters. –
10 Many luminous spots on the Water.
4 No sight of the Ship we saw over night Saw a sail in the NE – One in the SW. –
7 Drizling Rain. – Served Hot breakfast as usual –
9 Sounded 60 fms. fine Reddish Sand & black Specks. - A few Minutes after Sounded 65 fms. fine Grey Sand Oaze scarce any could come up wth. the lead
10 Saw a Brig in the SE made the Signl. to Chase.
12 Fine Wr. – Assistant & Ships in Company as before. – Broached a Puns. of Spruce Beer –
Sounded 65 fms. light coloured Sand wth. black Specks & a Second Cast Grey Sand & ouze scarce any would come up with the lead. –

[Page 356]
Rems. Tuesdy. July 30th. 1793 Scilly & Lizard
1 Fine Wr. Spoke the Agreeable a Privateer Guinea Man bound to Coast of Africa. –
2 Sounded 65 fms. fine Sand wth. black specks. –
3 At 2 Saw a Fleet from the Mast Head from SSW to WSW. –
5 At 5 An advanced Ship drawing upon us I made the Assistant’s Signal to Chase her –
6 The Assistant made the Sigl. for the Chase being a Friend – A Convoy from the Windward Islds. – His M. Ship’s Charon having a Broad Pennant, & the Centurion & Scorpion in Company. –
9 They sailed from Tortola with 142 sail, nearly, on the 15 June – Yesterday H.M.S. Winchelsea was sent off wth. 60 sail for Liverpool & Bristol. –
12 At 8h. Soundd. 60 fms. Gravel. – I went on board the Commodore – I had permition to proceed on – Comm. Dodd. –
2 At 52 Mins. after these obser. were taken Scilly was discovered bearing NbE ¼ E 5 or 6 leagues St. Agnus Light House. –
6 At 6 ½ Saw Scilly NEbE
8 Squally Wr. Scilly NbE to NNW 5 leags.
10 The Lands End NEbE – At 11 it bore NNE H.M. Packet Left us –
12 Fresh Gales & Fair Lands End North & the Lizard Light Houses NEbE ½ E 6 leagues.
Fleet in sight WNW – Saw a Danish Man of War 28 Guns & Several other Ships bound up Channel –

[Page 357]
Rems. Wednesday July 31. 1793 St. Albans
1 Fresh Gale & Cloudy Wr. – Made the Assist. Signal to make more sail.
2 At ½ past one the Lizard Lights bore True North abt. 5 leagues. – Passed a Danish Frigate –
6 Worked the Pumps as usual –
7 Squally with Rain. In 1st. Reefs. –
9 Thick Misty Wr.
12 Foggy with Rain
4 Constant Rain & very thick Wr.
7 Wr. Cleared – Portland NWbN. High land of St. Albans North – Hot breakfast as usual –
8 Sounded 30 fms. Gravel The Bill NWbN The Extrs. of the Highland of St. Albans NbW to NNE off shore 5 or 6 leags. –
10 Fine Wr. Exercised Great Guns & dried all Wet things. – Passed on a Wind an English Frigate. –
12 Very fine Wr. Needle Point NNE ¾ E St. Catherines EbN ½ N off shore 6 leags. – Sounded 27 fms. coarse Sand & Stones, some of them Flint. –

[Page 358]
Rems. Thursday August 1st. 1793 Beachy Head
1 Mod Breezes & fine Wr. – At 1 The Needles bore true North –
4 Dunnose NbE dist. 5 leagues. Exercised Great Guns. –
6 St Catherines NW ½ W. Benbridge Point NNW ½ W abt. 6 leagues – Worked the Pumps
7 At ½ past 7 Beachy head from the Mast Hd. EbN – Dunnose N47°W. – Rocky Soundings. –
11 Stoney Soundings
4 Beachy head NbE offshore 4 leags.
8 Light Winds & fine Wr. Beachy Hd. NW Point of Fareleigh N31°E about 5 leags. offshore. – Soundings Sand & Shells. – Hot breakfast as usual –
10 Washed & Cleaned below & aired wth. Fires. –
12 Do Wr. Soundings Sand & small ps. of shells. Beachy Head N59°W 5 leags. – outermost land insight EbN ½ N – High land of Farleigh North. –
Assistant in Company. – Few Vessels seen –

[Page 359]
Remarks Friday, August 2d. 1793
1 Moderate Breezes & fair Weather –
4 Dungeness N30E, High Land of Fairleigh N45W off shore 2 Leagues –
5 At 4h 45m Dungeness Light NNE 5 or 6 Miles
6 Exercised Great Guns & small Arms –
8 Dungeness W5N dist: 9 or 10 Miles –
9 Dover Castle N64E. South Foreland N67°E off shore 4 or 5 Miles. Calais Cliffs S67E
10 Sounded in 17 ½ fms. fine sand & Stones –
12 Brought up with the small Bower in 13 fms Water, Clay bottom Dungeness Light WbS South Foreland NEbE & Folkstone North 2 furled Sails. –
3 Light Airs.
5 The Pilot came on board & took charge of the Ship, weigh’d & made Sail.
6 6h 45m. Kd. Dover Castle NEbE. Foreland EbN, ½ N
7 7h 15m Kd. Dover Castle ENE S: Foreland EbN
8 Dover Castle, North, off shore 2’ Folkstone N83W
S: Foreland N54E. Light Airs & fair Wr.
10 At 10h 30m Saw two Line of Battle Ships in the Down,
11 Saluted the Flag with 15 Guns. return’d by three Cheers .. at 11h. 30m brought up in the Down, with the Best Bower in 8 ¼ fms, furled sails, found lying here HM Ss: Alfred, Adml Peyton & the Invincible .. Out Pinnace & Cutter, I waited on the Admiral - the Captain went on Shore
12 [sketch of an anchor] Bearings Deal Castle S80°W dist. 2’ South Foreland S42W North Foreland N24E. South Brake Buoy N36E. Sandown Castle N56W.

[Page 360]
Remarks Saturday August 3d. 1793 –
1 Moderate Breezes & fine Weather.
2 Anchor’d here HM Ship Russell.
3 Sail’d the Invincible & Convoy for the Westward.
4 Discharged Twenty two Supernumaries into the Alfred [indecipherable symbol] Order of Admiral Peyton. –
6 Weigh’d & worked through the Gull stream
7 from 7 to 11 fms. Water.
11 Came too with Small Bower in 9 fms, water Sandy bottom, The No. Foreland Light bearing South dist: 4 or 5 Miles
4 At Day light The Buoy of Margate Sand SWbS 1’ dist: Weigh’d & made all sail. –
6 At 6h 30m Abreast of the Pan Sand Beacon –
8 Reculiers SbE, Sheepey Isle from S60W to WNW – Sail’d through the Channel between the Ooze & Red Sands 9, 10, & 11 fms Water –
10 At 9h 30m Passed the Nore light, Cheer’d the Sandwich Adml: Dalrymple. found lying here, A Forty four, two Twenty four Gun Ships three Frigates & a Brig-sloop of War –
12 At Noon Brought up with the Best Bower in the middle of Tilbury Reach, in 5 fms. Water, muddy bottom, - furled Sails. –
Assistant in Company – Fresh Breezes & fair

[Page 361]
Remarks Sunday, August 4th. 1793
1 Fresh Breezes & fair Weather.
2 Ships draught of Water F: In:
                                Forwd: 14. 10
                                Ab aft: 15. 10
                                                        1 .. by the Stern
6 Weigh’d & made Sail.
9 At 9h: 30m: Got aground in Tripcocks Reach
11 Squally with Thunder Lightning & heavy rain At 11h: 30m the Wind flew suddenly round to the Westward, furled Sails & brought up in Galleons Reach in 5 fms Water. Steadied Ship with the Kedge. –
3 Cloudy.
6 Found lying here Sixteen Sail of Merchant Ships which are Employ’d in the Transport Service.
9 Up all Chests & Bags, Wash’d the Gun or top & Cockpit Decks.
12 Fresh Gales & Cloudy Weather.

[Page 362]
Remarks Monday August 5. 1793
1 Moderate Breezes & Cloudy Weather
2 Moor’d Ship East & West ½ a Cable each way Best Bower to the Westward 3 fms. Water low water Neap Tides. –
5 Mended Sails
8 Do: Wr:
12 Do: Wr:
4 Do: Wr:
5 Came a longside 2 Lighters & took in Twenty two Whole Barrels & Thirteen half Barrels of Powder. Six Kegs of Ball Cartridges – a parcel of loose Cartridges. 7 Empty Powder Barrels & seventeen Empty half Barrels – Gunners Stores &c – Served Bore Cole & portable Soup thickned with Oatmeal for Dinner.
12 Moderate & Cloudy Wr.

[Page 363]
Remarks Tuesday, August 6: 1793
1 Light Breezes & fair Weather, Loosed sails to dry.
4 Furled Sails
7 Rain
8 Cloudy.
10 Fresh Breezes with frequent Squalls and Cloudy Weather. –
4 The Pilot came on board & took charge of the Ship. Unmoor’d Ship & hove short on the Small Bower. Up T.Gt. Yards. –
8 Light Breezes. Wash’d the Gun or top and Cockpit Decks –
10 Moderate Breezes, Weigh’d & got foul of a Transport carried away our Jib boom and Spritsail yard
12 A breast of Woolwich –

[Page 364]
Remarks Wednesday August 7: 1793
1 Moderate Breezes & fine Weather.
2 At: 2h: 10m Took in the Moorings at Deptford.
5 Light Airs. Furled Sails &c.
12 A Heavy Dew falling.
4 Thick Foggy Wr:
5 Served Thick Portable Soup Gruel for Breakfast
6 Hoisted out the Launch, Clear’d Decks &c –
8 Light Breezes & fine Wr: Up all Chests & Bags wash’d the Gun or top & Cockpit Decks. –
11 Muster’d [by?] Clerk of the Cheque.
12 Fresh Breezes & fair Weather. Arrived the Windward Island Fleet.

[Page 365]
Remarks &c at Deptford
August 1793
Thursday 8
First & Middle parts Fresh Gales & Squally with heavy Showers of Rain Thunder & Lightning. Latter part Fresh Gales & Cloudy with a few drops of Rain.
AM People Employ’d shifting their Hammocks. Rec’d 183 lbs of Fresh Beef. Served it to the Ships Company.
Employ’d unreeving the Spare Rigging &c, Loosed part of the Sails to dry, for unbending, Sent four Men to the Hospital. –

Friday 9
First part Moderate Breezes & Cloudy Wr: - Middle part Fresh Breezes & Clear Wr. Latter part Fresh Breezes and Dark Cloudy Wr: - at Intervals Squally. PM Unbent the Jib Stay Sails & Main Sail. Carpenters employ'd returning the Spare Spars. AM People employ’d unreeving the rigging. Sent on Shore 686 Pots & Tubs with Plants to a Lighter. Unbent the Top Sails & Fore Sail. Receiv’d 171 lbs of Fresh Beef. Washed & Clean’d Ship – Came alongside a Lighter for Empty Casks – Employ’s unreeving the Rigging &c. –
Saturday 10
First & Middle parts Fresh Gales & squally with Rain at times. Latter part Fresh Breezes & Cloudy. PM Employ’d delivering empty Casks. AM Up all Chests and Bags. Wash’d the Gun or top & Cockpit Decks. Rec’d 1 Firkin of Butter & 1 Barrel of Cheese Muster’d [by?] Clerk of the Cheque.
Sunday 11
Moderate Breezes & fair Weather these 24 Hours – AM Rec’d 161 lbs of Fresh Beef, served it to the Ships Company Clean’d Ship &c –
Monday 12
Light Breezes & fair all these 24 Hours – AM Rec’d: one Firkin of Butter, one Barrel of Cheese & 189 lbs of Fresh Beef
Up all Chests & Bags. Wash’d the [Gurvor?] top & Cockpit Decks, Carpenters &c employ’d taking up the Stands &c of the Green-house –Rec’d four half Hhds of Beer for the use of the Ships Company. –

Tuesday 13
Moderate Breezes & fair Weather these 24 Hours. PM Return’d Empty Casks. Viz 52 Puns: 13 Hhds: 42 Barrels & 13 Half Hhds – AM Clean’d Ship – People employ’d in the After Hold - & return’d 214 Hhd Staves – 174 Barl: 60 Half Hhd - & 72 pieces of Heading. Loose Hoops 337
Served Fresh Beef –
Wednesday 14
Light Airs, Calms, & fair Wr: these 24 Hours – AM up All Chests & Bags – wash’d the Gun or top & Cockpit Decks
Rec’d 202 lbs of Fresh Beef & 8 Hhds of Beer.
Thursday 15
First & Middle parts Fresh Breezes & fair Wr: - Latter part Fresh Gales & Showery Wr. – AM Clean’d Ship – Served Fresh Beef to the Ships Company. –
Friday 16
First & Middle parts Strong Gales & heavy Squalls – Latter part Fresh Gales & fair Wr: PM Struck T.Gt: Masts – AM – Clean’d below – Sway’d up T.Gt: Masts –
Saturday 17
First part fresh Breezes & fair Wr: - Middle part Strong Gales & Rain. Latter part fresh Gales & fair Wr: -
AM Cleaned Below. Rec’d: 163 lbs of Fresh Beef
Muster’d [by?] Clerk of the Cheque.

[Page 366]
Remarks &c. at Deptford

August 1793
Sunday 18
First & Middle parts – Strong Gales & Rain, Latter part Fresh Gales & dark cloudy Wr: inclinable to rain. AM Up all Chests & Bags. Wash’d the Gun or top & Cockpit Decks – Recd: - 152 lbs of Fresh Beef – Served it as usual –
Monday 19
First & Middle parts. Light Airs, Calms & Cloudy, Wr: Latter part Light Breezes & fair Wr: - PM Part of the Ship, Compy: on shore with leave. AM Came alongside a Lighter for the Boatswains Stores. Employ’d returning Carpenters Stores to the yard & delivering Boatswains Stores into the Lighter – Rec’d 199 lbs of Fresh beef – served it as usual – Discharged Mr. White the Surgeons Mate on preferment.
Tuesday 20
Light Airs, Calms & fair Wr. these 24 Hours. PM Deliver’d into the Lighter Swan. Viz: 2 Barrels of Beef. 2 Do. Pork. 22 do. Flour. 3 Puncs: Pease. 3 Barls: Barley. 11 Half Hhds Malt 10 Barls. Wheat – 3 do. Oatmeal. – 4 do. Krout. 4 Half Hhd Hops
AM Deliver’d Boatswains Stores to the yard. Viz All the Sails & running Rigging, four Bower Cables, & part of two Cables as a sheet Cable. Employ’d hoisting up water & stowing it.
Deliver’d into the Swan Lighter. 4 Barls: Beef – 1 do. Pork 2 Puncs: Pease – 9 Barls: Flour. – 3 Barls: Wheat. 2 do. Oatmeal 2 Puns: Ullages of Salt one Bay & one White – 200 New Iron Hoops . 23 Kegs of Essence of Malt. 1 Keg of Coopers Rivets Empty Casks. 16 Punchs: 10 Hhds. and Staves 20 Half Hhds & 8 pieces Heading. Hhd Staves 60 & 26 pieces Heading – Employ’d hoisting up Water. A Party at the Yard returning Boatswain Stores. – Discharged the Lighter Swan –
Wednesdy 21
Do. Wr: these 24 Hours. At 1 PM Came alongside the Christopher Lighter. Employ’d delivering Provisions – Viz: 12 Barl: Beef. 4 do: Pork – 7 do. Flour – 1 do. Wheat & Empty Casks – viz: 25 Puncs: 12 Hhds. 17 Barls: - 23 Half Hhds. AM People employ’d hoisting up Water & starting it – Struck T: Gt: Masts, Lower yards & Fore & Main Top Masts. Deliver’d empty Casks into the Christopher Lighter. Viz: 2 Butts 55 Punchs: 23 Hhds & discharged her – Carpenter employ’d collecting his Stores for a Survey & Boatswain returning Stores to the Yard. –
Thursday 22
First & Latter part Fresh Breezes & Fair Wr. – Middle part Light Airs – Calms & fair Wr: - Recd: 153 lbs of Fresh Beef PM Employ’d Surveying the Carpenters Stores & stowing away again what were serviceable – Came alongside the William Lighter. Employ’d delivering empty Casks – AM Carpenters employ’d returning unserviceable store to the Yard Employ’d hoisting up Water & starting it – Discharged the Lighter William with 33 Butts 10 Punchs: & 10 Hhds. Boatswain employ’d collecting his Stores for Surveying. -
Friday 23
First & Middle parts Light Airs & fair Wr: Latter part Mod: Breezes & Dark Wr: with a few drops of Rain. PM came along-side the Lighter William for Empty Casks &c. AM Washed & clean’d Ship. Discharged the Lighter William with 15 Butts 5 Punchs: 1 Barl: 2 Hh’ds & 2 Half Hhds. and 4 Hhds Beef 1 Hhds Ships Vinegar, 1 Half Hh’d Malt – 1 Half Hhd with Coopers Tools. 43 Truss Hoops – 48 Loose Iron Hoops. – Recd: 150 lbs of Fresh Beef. Boatswain employ’d returning Stores to the Yard. –

[Page 367]
Remarks &c at Deptford –
August 1793
Saturday 24
First & Latter parts Moderate Breezes & Dark Cloudy Wr: Middle part Light Airs & Calms – AM up all Chests & Bags – Washd the Gun or top & Cockpit Decks – Rec’d 115 lbs of Fresh Beef and served it as usual – Air’d Ship with Fires. Muster’d [by?] Clerk of the Cheque –
Sunday 25
Moderate Breezes & fair Wr: these 24 Hours. AM Clean’d Ship. Part of the Ships Company on shore with leave. Served fresh Beef as usual & Greens –
Monday 26
First & latter parts Moderate Breezes & fair Wr: - Middle part Calm, with thick Fog. AM Came alongside the Swan Lighter for Provisions &c People Employ’d in the After Hold - & the Boatswain collecting his Stores for surveying. Recd: 221 lbs of fresh Beef & served it as usual. Recd: 2 Hhds of Beer for Ships use –
Tuesday 27
Moderate Breezes & fair Wr: - these 24 Hours – PM Employd delivering provisions &c – AM Discharged the Swan Lighter with 12 Barls: Pork. 19 Barls: Beef. 3 Punchs Pease 7 Barls: Flour. 1 Barl: Oatmeal. 6 Barls: Wheat. 1 Keg & 6 Barls: Barley. 1 Barl: Krout – 1 Half Hhd Malt. 1 Keg an Ullage Essence of Malt. – Empty Casks 9 Punchs: 5 Hhds & 1 Barl: and Deliver’d a Puncheon with Otaheite Earth for Kew Gardens – Deliver’d one ½ Pipe of Teneriff Wine marked T.P. for Captn: Thos: Parsley
Wednesday 28
Moderate Breezes & fair Wr: these 24 Hours – AM Recd: 155 lbs of Fresh Beef – Return’d the Observatory to the yard. Served Greens to the Ships Company.
Thursday 29
The first part light Airs with a few drops of Rain, Middle & Latter parts Moderate Breezes & fair Wr: - PM Sent to the Victualling Office [indecipherable] Cutter Empty Casks viz – 8 Half Hhds & 20 Kegs – AM rec’d: 2 Hhds of Beer for Ships use & 171 lbs of fresh Beef – Sent on Shore to the Surgeon of the yard 8 full Boxes of Portable Soup: Containing 50 lbs each. 31 Empty Cannisters & 12 Boxes –

Friday 30
First & latter parts Fresh Breezes & fair Wr: Middle part light Airs & Cloudy. – AM – Clean’d Ship and Bent the Stream Cable to the Small Bower Anchor Served fresh Beef as usual – Confin’d Francis Barber Boatswain’s Mate for disobediance of Orders –
Saturday 31
First part Moderate Breezes & Dark Cloudy Wr: Middle & Latter parts Fresh Breezes & Showery Wr: AM Deliverd 2 hhds of Teneriff Wine marked TB No 1 = 63 Galls: No 2 – 63 Gall for Sir Josh: Banks – Recd: 195 lbs of Fresh Beef & four Half Hh’d of Beer from the Victualling Office – People employ’d cleaning the Fore & Main Holds – washing & cleaning the Orlop Decks. Muster’d [for?] Clerk of yd: Cheque

Sunday 1
First part Moderate Breezes & dark Cloudy Wr: - Middle & Latter parts Strong Gales & Constant Rain AM: Clean’d Ship & Air’d with Fires -

[Page 368]
Remarks &c. at Deptford
September 1793
Monday 2
First part Fresh Gales and Showery Wr: Middle part Moderate Breezes & Cloudy. Latter part Fresh Gales and Showery Wr: - AM Rec’d 150 lbs of Fresh Beef. served it as usual. At 8 AM Came on board the Pilot to take charge of the Ship, to carry her down to Woolwich. – At 10 past Greennich. An account of Wine deliver’d WB 3 Hhds Teneriff, - WB No. 14. 31 Galls: Cape of Good Hope. – DC 2 Hhds Teneriff – IP 1 Half Pipe Teneriff. AS 1 Half pipe Teneriff AS 1 Half pipe Teneriff CB &
                                                                M GH
No 8. 1 Hhd Cape of Good Hope Wine & No 21 CB & 1 Hhd Cape of Good Hope Wine -
IG No 13. 1 2r. Cask Cape of Good Hope Wine. At Noon made fast alongside the Sheer Hulk at Woolwich. Clear’d the Decks &c –

Tuesday 3
First & Middle parts Strong Gales & Dark Cloudy Wr. Latter part fresh Gales & fair Wr: AM Rec’d 174 lbs of Fresh Beef & served it as usual. Up all Chests & Bags – Washed the Gun or top Deck & Cockpit & Air’d with fires Carpenter & Boatswain return’d the Launch to the yard.
Wednesdy 4
Moderate Breezes & fair Wr: these 24 Hours. AM Clean’d Ship, Served Fresh Beef & Greens to the Ships Company as usual –
Thursday 5 First part Moderate Breezes & dark Cloudy Wr: with light Showers of Rain. Middle & Latter parts Mod: Breezes & fair Wr: - AM Clean’d below. Muster’d [for?] Clerk of the Cheque. Confined Richard Upsdale & Thos: Galloway for being on Shore without leave.

Friday 6
Fresh Breezes & Cloudy Wr: these 24 Hour. AM Recd: 151 lbs of Fresh Beef. served it as usual. At 11 the Commissioners came to the Dock yard & paid the Ship off

[Transcribed by Gary Cook for the State Library of New South Wales]